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Ahmadiyya


Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
Prophecies · Claims · Writings

Views & Belief
Five Pillars of Islam  · Qur'an  · Sunnah  · Hadith  · Jesus  · Prophethood  · Jihad

Branches
Ahmadiyya Muslim Community · Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement

Literature
Barahin-e-Ahmadiyya  · The Philosophy of the Teachings of Islam  · Jesus in India  · Noor-ul-Haq  · Victory of Islam  · Commentary on Surah Al-Fateha  · Malfoozat  · Tafseer-e-Kabeer  ·

Buildings and Structures
White Minaret · Mubarak Mosque

Ahmadiyya (Urdu: احمدِیہ) is a religious movement founded towards the end of the 19th century and originating with the life and teachings of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1835–1908). Ghulam Ahmad was an important religious figure who claimed to have fulfilled the prophecies about the world reformer of the end times, who was to herald the Eschaton as predicted in the traditions of various world religions and bring about the final triumph of Islam as per Islamic prophecy. He claimed that he was the Mujaddid (divine reformer) of the 14th Islamic century, the promised Messiah (“Second Coming of Christ”) and Mahdi awaited by Muslims.[1][2][3][4][5] Ahmadi emphasis lay in the belief that Islam is the final law for humanity as revealed to Muhammad and the necessity of restoring to it its true essence and pristine form, which had been lost through the centuries. Thus, Ahmadis view themselves as leading the revival and peaceful propagation of Islam.[6] The Ahmadis were among the earliest Muslim communities to arrive in Britain and other Western countries.[6]

Mirza Ghulam Ahmad founded the movement on 23 March 1889 and termed it the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at (community), envisioning it to be a revitalisation of Islam. Ahmadis consider themselves Muslims and claim to practice Islam in its pristine form; however, Ahmadiyya views on certain beliefs in Islam have been controversial to mainstream Muslims since the movement’s birth. Many mainstream Muslims do not consider Ahmadis to be Muslims, citing in particular the Ahmadiyya viewpoint on the death and return of Jesus (see Jesus in Islam), the Ahmadiyya concept of Jihad and the community’s view of the finality of prophethood with particular reference to the interpretation of Qur'an 33:40. In many Islamic countries today Ahmadis have been marginalised by the majority religious community; severe persecution and often systematic oppression have led many Ahmadis to emigrate and settle elsewhere.[7]

Contents

History

Baitul Futuh Mosque of the “Ahmadiyya Community”, London

Ahmadiyya emerged in India as a movement within Islam, in response to the Christian and Arya Samaj missionary activity that was widespread in the 19th century.

At the end of the 19th century, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian proclaimed himself to be the “Reformer of the age” (Mujaddid), Promised Messiah and the Mahdi awaited by the Muslims and obtained a considerable number of followers especially within the United Provinces, the Punjab and Sind.[8] He and his followers claim that his advent was foretold by Muhammad, the Prophet of Islam, and also by many other religious scriptures of the world. In 1889, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad laid down the foundation of his community, which was later given the name of “Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama'at”.

The operational headquarters of Ahmadiyya community are located in London, UK.

Soon after the death of the first successor of Ghulam Ahmad, the movement split into two groups over the nature of Ghulam Ahmad’s prophethood and his succession. The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community believed that Mirza Ghulam Ahmad had indeed been a “non-law-bearing” prophet and that mainstream Muslims who rejected his message were guilty of disbelief. The Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement, however, affirmed the traditional Islamic interpretation that there could be no prophet after Muhammad and viewed itself as a reform movement within the broader Ummah.[9] The question of succession was also an issue in the split of the Ahmadiyya movement. The Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement believed that an Anjuman (body of selected people) should be in charge of the community. The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, however, maintained that Caliphs (successors of Ghulam Ahmad) should continue to take charge of the community and should be left with the overall authority.

Some of the first people to convert to the Ahmadiyya movement were highly educated people from secular and religious circles. These included doctors like Syed Muhammad Hussain, civil servants like Sir Muhammad Zafrulla Khan, and members of the military, such as Ali Gouhar of the British-Indian Army.[10] The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community has established centers in 195 countries and claims to have a population exceeding tens of millions,[11] while the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement is established in 17 countries of the world.[12]

Overseas Ahmadiyya missionary activities started at an organised level as early as 1920s. For many modern nations of the world, the Ahmadiyya movement was their first contact with the proclaimants from the Muslim world.[13] The Ahmadiyya movement is considered by some historians[14] as one of the precursors to the African-American Civil Rights Movement in America. According to some experts,[15] Ahmadiyya were “arguably the most influential community in African-American Islam” until the 1950s.

The Ahmadiyya faith claims to represent the latter-day revival of the religion of Islam. Today, the Ahmadiyya community has a presence in 195 countries [16], and in every country but Pakistan, they are legally identified as Muslims. In Pakistan they are prohibited by law from self-identifying as Muslims.[17]

Why the name Ahmadiyya was given

Mahmood Mosque, Zürich

The Ahmadiyya movement was founded in 1889, but the name Ahmadiyya was not adopted until about a decade later. In a manifesto dated November 4, 1900, Ghulam Ahmad explained that the name did not refer to himself but to Ahmad, the alternative name of the prophet Muhammad. According to him, ‘Muhammad’, which means ‘the most praised one’, refers to the glorious destiny, majesty and power of the prophet who adopted the name from about the time of the Hegira; but ‘Ahmad’, which means ‘highly praised’ and also ‘comforter’, stands for the beauty of his sermons, for the qualities of tenderness, gentleness, humility, love and mercy displayed by Muhammad, and for the peace that he was destined to establish in the world through his teachings. According to Ghulam Ahmad, these names thus refer to two aspects or phases of Islam and in later times it was the latter aspect that commanded greater attention.[18]

Accordingly, in Ghulam Ahmad's view, this was the reason that the Old Testament prophesied a Messenger ‘like unto Moses’ named Mohammad, while according to the Qur'an, Jesus foretold of a messenger named Ahmad.[Qur'an 61:7]

In keeping with this, he believed, his object was to defend and propagate Islam globally through peaceful means, to revive the forgotten Islamic values of peace, forgiveness and sympathy for all mankind and to establish peace in the world through the spiritual teachings of Islam. He believed that his message had special relevance for the Western world, which, he believed, had descended into materialism.

Beliefs

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Overview

Ahmadiyya shares beliefs with Islam in general, including belief in the prophethood of Muhammad, reverence for historical prophets, belief in a single creator God (strong monotheism). They accept the Qur'an as their holy text, face the Kaaba during prayer, accept the authority of Hadiths (reported sayings of and stories about Muhammad) and practice the Sunnah.

Central to the Ahmadiyya is the belief in Mirza Ghulam Ahmad as the Promised Messiah and Mahdi. Ahmadis emphasize the implementation of the Kalima (the fundamental creed of Islam) as essentially linked with the Islamic principles of the rights of God (Arabic: Haqooqul-Lah‎) and the rights of His creation (mankind) (Arabic: Haqooqul-Ibād).[19]

Ahmadis believe that Ghulam Ahmad was divinely commissioned to establish the unity of God, remind mankind of their duties towards God and God's creation, to emphasize both aspects of religion which Ahmadis believe is the need of the present age. As such Ahmadis hold that Ghulam Ahmad was the representative and spiritual readvent of all previous prophets. From the Ahmadiyya perspective, the Christians have erred with regards to the rights of God in that they have attributed divine status to a mortal human, and it is on this account that in Islamic eschatology the promised reformer has been named the Mahdi (the "Guided One" — a title meaning one who is naturally guided and is an heir to all truths and in whom the attribute of "guide" of the Almighty is fully represented). Ahmadis also hold that the Muslims have erred with regards to the rights of creation for they, unjustly raising the sword and calling it Jihad, have misunderstood the concept and purpose of Jihad in Islam; it is on this account that he has been called the Isa Messih ("Jesus the Messiah") — a term which relates to his function in re-establishing the rights of people by reforming their distorted, violent notion of "Jihad" just as Jesus Christ came principally to reform the hearts and attitudes of the Jewish nation.[20]

Giving precedence to faith over worldly pursuits is also a fundamental principle in Ahmadiyya teachings with emphasised relevance to the present age of materialistic prevalence.[21]

Distinct Ahmadiyya beliefs

Although the central values of Islam (prayer, charity, fasting, etc.) and the six articles of belief are shared by Muslims and Ahmadis[22], distinct Ahmadiyya beliefs include the following:

  • That the prophecies concerning the second coming of Jesus were metaphorical in nature and not literal, and that Mirza Ghulam Ahmad fulfilled in his person these prophecies and the second advent of Jesus, that he was the promised Mahdi and Messiah.[23]
  • The continuation of divine revelation. Although the Qur'an is the final message of God for mankind, He continues to communicate with his chosen individuals in the same way he is believed to have done in the past. All of God's attributes are eternal.
  • That Jesus, contrary to mainstream Islamic belief, was crucified and survived the four hours on the cross. He was later revived from a swoon in the tomb.[24] Ahmadis believe that Jesus died in Kashmir of old age whilst seeking the Lost Tribes of Israel.[25] Jesus’ remains are believed to be entombed in Kashmir under the name Yuz Asaf. Ahmadis believe that Jesus foretold the coming of Muhammad after him, which Christians have misinterpreted.[26]
  • That Jesus Christ did not bring a new religion or law, i.e., that he was not a law-bearing prophet, but was last in the line of Israelite prophets who appeared within the dispensation of Moses akin to that of David, Solomon, Jeremiah, Isaiah, etc.
  • That the “Messiah” and the “Imam Mahdi” are the same person, and that it is through his teachings, influence, his prayers and those of his followers that Islam will defeat the Anti-Christ or Dajjal in a period similar to the period of time it took for nascent Christianity to rise (See also: Ahmadiyya relationship with Christianity) and that the Dajjal's power will slowly melt away like the melting of snow, heralding the final victory of Islam and the age of peace.
  • That the history of religion is cyclic and is renewed every seven millennia. The present cycle from the time of the Biblical Adam is split into seven epochs or ages, parallel to the seven days of the week, with periods for light and darkness. That Mirza Ghulam Ahmad appeared as the Promised Messiah at the sixth epoch heralding the seventh and final age of mankind,[27] as a day in the estimation of God is like a thousand years of man's reckoning.[Qur'an 22:47][28] According to Ghulam Ahmad, just as the sixth day of the week is reserved for Jumu'ah (congregational prayers), likewise his age is destined for a global assembling of mankind in which the world is to unite under one universal religion: Islam.
  • The two Ahmadiyya groups have varying beliefs regarding the finality of the Prophethood of Muhammad. The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community believes that Muhammad brought prophethood to perfection and was the last law-bearing prophet and the apex of man’s spiritual evolution. New prophets can come but they must be subordinate to Muhammad and cannot exceed him in excellence nor alter his teaching or bring any new law or religion.[29] The Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement believes that Muhammad is the last of the prophets and no prophet, new or old, can come after him.[30]

Comparison

Article of faith Mainstream Islam Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement Ahmadiyya Muslim Community
Return of Jesus Differs,[31][32] but most believe that at the “end of days” Jesus himself will descend from heaven in the flesh.[33] References to the second coming of Jesus among the Muslims are allegorical in that one was to be born and rise as a prophet within the dispensation of Muhammad who by virtue of his similarity, and affinity with Jesus and the similarity between the Jews of Jesus’ time and the Muslims of the time of the promised one (The Mahdi) is called by the same name. The prophecy of the second coming was fulfilled in the person of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad.[34] References to the second coming of Jesus among the Muslims are allegorical in that one was to be born and rise as a prophet within the dispensation of Muhammad who by virtue of his similarity, and affinity with Jesus and the similarity between the Jews of Jesus' time and the Muslims of the time of the promised one (The Mahdi) is called by the same name. The physical coming of Jesus (an old Israelite prophet) would disqualify Muhammad as the final prophet. The prophecy of the second coming was fulfilled in the person of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad.[35]
Status of
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad
Mainstream Muslims considers him an apostate and believe that Mirza Ghulam Ahmad was one of the 30 false claimants to prophethood[36] about whom the prophet Muhammad warned Muslims 1400 years ago. Mujaddid (Islamic Reformer) of the 14th Islamic century. The promised Mahdi and the second coming of Jesus. Referred to as a prophet in the metaphorical sense only (as other recognized Islamic saints and sufis are similarly referred to). Not a prophet in the technical meaning of the word.[37] A prophet (with all the qualities of a prophet like Jesus) but subordinate and deputy to the Prophet Muhammad. The Messiah, Imam Mehdi and Mujaddid of the 14th Islamic century, and the second coming of Jesus.[38]
Who is a Muslim? Professing the Kalima is required to become a Muslim. In Pakistan,[39][40] professing Kalima is required to be a Muslim. Anyone professing the Kalima is a Muslim and cannot be declared a non-Muslim by anyone else.[41] Anyone professing the Kalima is a Muslim and cannot be declared a disbeliever of Islam by anyone else. However, a distinction is made if someone explicitly claims to be against Ahmadiyyat. Yet this distinction does not put anybody outside the fold of Islam.[42] However, a person who knowingly rejects Mirza Ghulam Ahmad's claim is a kafir (infidel) in the sense of forming a rebellion against God's revelation.[43]
Finality of the Prophethood of Muhammad The meaning of “Seal of the prophets” is that Muhammad is the last of the prophets.[44] The meaning of “Seal of the prophets” is that Muhammad is the last of the prophets. No prophet, either new or old can come after him.[30] Mirza Ghulam Ahmad was the Mujaddid (reformer) of the 14th century Hijra and not a true prophet.[45] Muhammad brought prophethood to perfection, he sealed prophethood and religious law, thus being the last law-bearing prophet, new prophets can come but they must be subordinate to Muhammad and cannot exceed him in excellence nor alter his teaching or bring any new law or religion.[29]
Jesus, Son of Mary Born of a miraculous birth[46] from the virgin, Mary. Did not die on the cross but was transported to heaven,[47] where he lives to return in the flesh to this world shortly before Doomsday.[48] Since Jesus (considered a prophet) came before Muhammad, his return to Earth would not disqualify Muhammad as the “last” prophet. Jesus will come to earth not as a prophet but as a follower of Muhammad and preach the teachings of Muhammad.[citation needed] Similar to the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community belief except that the question of Jesus's virgin birth is not an essential requirement of faith and is left to the individual's personal conviction.[49] Jesus was born to the Virgin Mary. He survived the crucifixion and did not die an accursed death.[50] Instead he travelled east to India in search of the Lost Tribes of Israel.[51] Jesus lived a full life and died on earth, specifically Jesus's tomb lies in Kashmir under the name Yuz Asaf.
Armed jihad Jihad literally means "to strive or exert to the fullest". However, in all 4 schools of Sunni Islamic jurisprudence, and the equivalent in Shi'ite law, jihad has a legal meaning which supersedes any purely linguistic meaning. This legal definition is to wage war on unbelievers—through the sword, pen or tongue—until Islam dominates. Orthodox Islam defines "offensive jihad"—the struggle to spread Islam and overcome the obstacles to it—as a legal obligation on the entire Muslim community, such that if some undertake it then others are relieved. This legal conception is based on the Qur'an (verses 9:5, 9:29, and many others), on the "authentic" hadiths of Bukhari and Muslim, and on the Sira, written by Ibn Ishaq and al-Tabari. Only the caliph can command offensive jihad. "Defensive" jihad is when Islam is attacked. This obligates all Muslims to join. This depends on the concept of "being attacked" of course, since in Islamic law the rejection of the invitation to Islam is considered an attack. A weak hadith claims that there are two different types of Jihad: Jihad Al-Akbar (considered the greater Jihad) is the personal struggle with one's own soul and Jihad Al-Asghar (considered the lesser Jihad) is the external, physical effort, often implying fighting or war. However, this distinction does not appear in any of the sahih hadiths and appeared quite late in the development of jihad doctrine. Throughout Islamic history the lesser jihad has always been primary and was never at odds with the greater jihad, since there have been many Muslim ascetics who advocated both the spiritual and military versions.[52] Jihad primarily means "to strive or exert to the fullest". On an ongoing basis this refers to striving against the devil, one's low desires (self) and the peaceful propagation of Islam with special emphasis on spreading the true message of Islam by the pen. In special circumstances jihad could be an armed struggle, but only as a defensive war against extreme persecution.[53] The word jihad is interchanged with the meaning of 'Ijtihad' and primarily means to strive or exert to the fullest. On an ongoing basis this refers to striving against the evil of one's low desires (self) and the peaceful propagation of Islam with special emphasis on spreading the true message of Islam by the pen. As per prophecy, the Messiah rendered the concept of violent jihad unnecessary in modern times. They believe that the answer of hate should be given by love. Their khalifas said that 'if anyone attacks us we must not attack him and should treat them with love and kindness'; this is called “Jihaad-e-Akbar” (The Greater Jihad).

Current status

India

India has a significant Ahmadiyya population.[54] Most of them live in Rajastan, Orissa, Haryana, Bihar, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, and a few in Punjab in the area of Qadian. In India, Ahmadis are considered to be Muslims. This belief is supported by a court verdict (Shihabuddin Koya vs. Ahammed Koya, A.I.R. 1971 Ker 206).[55] There is no legislation that declares Ahmadis non-Muslims or limits their activities,[55] but they are not allowed to sit on the All India Muslim Personal Law Board, a body of religious leaders India's government recognises as representative of Indian Muslims.[56]

Pakistan

Pakistan has 4 million Ahmadis[57] and is the only state to have officially declared the Ahmadis to be non-Muslims;[55] here their freedom of religion has been curtailed by a series of ordinances, acts and constitutional amendments. In 1974 Pakistan's parliament adopted a law declaring Ahmadis to be non-Muslims;[58] the country's constitution was amended to define a Muslim “as a person who believes in the finality of the Prophet Muhammad”.[39] In 1984 General Zia-ul-Haq, the then military ruler of Pakistan, issued Ordinance XX.[59] The ordinance, which was supposed to prevent "anti-Islamic activities," forbids Ahmadis to call themselves Muslim or to "pose as Muslims." This means that they are not allowed to profess the Islamic creed publicly or call their places of worship mosques.[60] Ahmadis in Pakistan are also barred by law from worshipping in non-Ahmadi mosques or public prayer rooms, performing the Muslim call to prayer, using the traditional Islamic greeting in public, publicly quoting from the Quran, preaching in public, seeking converts, or producing, publishing, and disseminating their religious materials. These acts are punishable by imprisonment of up to three years.[17] Ordinance XX and the 1974 amendment to the constitution effectively gave the state of Pakistan the exclusive right to determine the meaning of the term "Muslim".

As a result of the cultural implications of the laws and constitutional amendments regarding Ahmadis in Pakistan, persecution and hate-related incidents are constantly reported from different parts of the country. Ahmadis have been the target of many attacks led by various religious groups.[61] All religious seminaries and madrasahs in Pakistan, belonging to different sects of Islam, have prescribed essential reading materials specifically targeted at refuting Ahmadiyya beliefs.[62]

In a recent survey in Pakistan, pupils in private schools of Pakistan expressed their opinions on religious tolerance in the country. The figures assembled in the study reflect that even in the educated classes of Pakistan, Ahmadis are considered to be the least deserving minority in terms of equal opportunities and civil rights. In the same study, the teachers in these elite schools showed an even lower amount of tolerance towards Ahmadis than their pupils.[63]

Bangladesh

In Bangladesh, fundamentalist Islamic groups have demanded that Ahmadiyyas be “officially” declared to be kafirs (infidels). Ahmadiyyas have become a persecuted group, targeted via protests and acts of violence.[64] According to Amnesty International, followers have been subject to “house arrest”, and several have been killed. In late 2003, several large violent marches, led by Moulana Moahmud Hossain Mumtazi, were directed to occupy an Ahmadiyya mosque. In 2004, all Ahmadiyya publications were banned.[65]

Indonesia

In 2008, many Muslims in Indonesia protested against the Ahmadiyya movement. With violence and large demonstrations, these religious conservatives put pressure on the government to monitor, and harass the Ahmadiyya community in Indonesia.[66] Public opinion in Indonesia is split in three ways on how Ahmadiyya should be treated: (a) some hold it should be banned outright on the basis that it is a heretical and deviant sect that is not listed as an officially recognised religion in Indonesia; (b) others hold that it should not be banned because of the freedom of religion article in the Constitution, but also should not be allowed to proselytise under the banner of "Islam" on the basis that this is misleading; (c) still others hold that it should be free to do and say as it pleases based on the Constitutional right to freedom of religion.[67] In June 2008, a law was passed to curtail “proselytizing” by Ahmadiyya members.[68] An Ahmadiyya mosque was burned.[69] Human rights groups objected to the restrictions on religious freedom.[70]

Views of mainstream Muslims

Orthodox Muslims consider both Ahmadi movements to be heretics and non-Muslims for a number of reasons, chief among them being the question of finality of prophethood,[71] since they believe members of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community do not regard the Islamic prophet Muhammad as the last prophet.[72] The Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement does not subscribe to this belief; its members, in fact, deny the prophethood of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad.[73] Ahmadis claim that this is a result of misinterpreting Mirza Ghulam Ahmad's statements referring to his coming “in the spirit of Muhammed”,[73][74] (similar to John the Baptist coming in the spirit and power of Elijah).[75] Ahmadi Muslims believe Ghulam Ahmad to be the Mahdi and promised Messiah.[76]

Mainstream Muslims do not accept this claim, and do not believe Ghulam Ahmad to have fulfilled the prophecies about the Promised Messiah and Mahdi. According to mainstream Muslims, Ghulam Ahmad's failure to establish a perfect worldwide Muslim government invalidates his claim to be the promised Mahdi and Messiah and hence he is seen as a false prophet. A 1974 declaration by the World Muslim League[77] declared the Ahmadiyya movement to be outside the fold of Islam. The World Muslim League held its annual conference at Makkah Al-Mukaramma Saudi Arabia from 14th to 18th of Rabiul Awwal 1394 H (April 1974) in which 140 delegations of Muslim countries and organizations from all over the world participated.

Both Ahmadi movements are considered non-Muslims by the Pakistan government, and have this fact recorded on their travel documents. By contrast, Ahmadi citizens from Western countries and other moderate Muslim nations perform Hajj and Umra, as the Saudi government is not made aware that they are Ahmadis when they apply for a visa. A court decision has upheld the right of Ahmadiyyas to identify themselves as Muslims in India.[78]

As the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement’s view regarding Mirza Ghulam Ahmad’s status as a Prophet is closer to traditional Islamic thought, the Literature published by the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement has found greater acceptance among the Muslim Intelligentsia.[79][80]

Some mainstream Muslims group both Ahmadi movements together and refer to them as “Qadianis”, and their beliefs as “Qadianism”[81] (after the small town of Qadian in the Gurdaspur District of Punjab in India, where the movement's founder was born). However most, if not all, Ahmadis of both sects dislike this term as it has acquired derogatory connotations over the years and furthermore they prefer to differentiate their two separate movements. Most mainstream Muslims will not use the term “Muslim” when referring to Ahmadis, even though both sects refer to themselves as such, citing the fatwas given by the Islamic scholars. However, as members of Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement deny the prophethood of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, some orthodox Islamic Scholars consider the Lahore Ahmadiyya to be Muslims.[82] In earlier times in Pakistan and India, there was widespread persecution of Ahmadis by certain Muslim groups. Sporadic violence as well as persecution of a more subtle nature against Ahmadis continues even today.[83]

Relationship with Christians

Mirza Ghulam Ahmad was actively engaged in debates, prayer duels and written arguments with the Christian missionaries. The Ahmadiyya view of Jesus' survival from the crucifixion, his subsequent travels to the east in search of the 'Lost Sheep of Israel' and his natural death, as propounded by Ghulam Ahmad, have been a source of ongoing friction with the Christian church. Western historians have acknowledged this fact as one of the features of Ghulam Ahmad's legacy.[84] Francis Robinson states:

At their most extreme religious strategies for dealing with the Christian presence might involve attacking Christian revelation at its heart, as did the Punjabi Muslim, Ghulam Ahmad (d. 1908), who founded the Ahmadiyya missionary sect.

The Ahmadiyya teachings also interpret the prophecies regarding the appearance of the Dajjal (Anti-Christ) and Gog and Magog in Islamic eschatology as foretelling the emergence of two branches or aspects of the same turmoil and trial that was to be faced by Islam in the latter days and that both emerged from Christianity or Christian nations. Its Dajjal aspect relates to deception and perversion of religious belief while its aspect to do with disturbance in the realm of politics and the shattering of world peace has been called Gog and Magog.[85] Thus Ahmadis consider the widespread Christian missionary activity that was 'aggressively' active in the 18th and 19th centuries as being part of the prophesied Dajjal (Antichrist) and Gog and Magog emerging in modern times. The emergence of the Soviet Union and the USA as superpowers and the conflict between the two nations (i.e., the rivalry between communism and capitalism) is seen as having occurred in accordance with certain prophecies.[86] This has also proven controversial with most Christians. Freeland Abbott observed in his book Islam and Pakistan:

The primary significance of the Ahmadiyya Movement lay in its missionary emphasis. Every Muslim believed that Islam was the only religion free from error. The Ahmadis made it part of their principles to show the errors of other religions to their adherents and to proselytize energetically for Islam. In a sense, the Ahmadis represent the Muslims emerging, religiously speaking, from the withdrawal that had begun with the arrival of the British, just as the Muslim League represents the political emergence from that same withdrawal … Although the sect most attacked by Muslims in India and Pakistan, it has also been the one which has worked hardest, in both its branches, to defend and extend Islam against the competition offered by other faiths.
—Freeland Abbot, Islam and Pakistan[87]

Leaders

In 1914, 25 years after its founding, the Ahmadiyya movement split into two separate movements with different leaders. One movement remained in Qadian, and became known as the Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam (Jamaat-i Ahmadiyya); the other was established in Lahore, and is known as the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement for the Propagation of Islam (Ahmadiyya Anjuman Ishaat-i-Islam).

Only two leaders are recognized by both branches:

Leaders recognized by the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, referred to as Khulafa or Caliphs (Successors):

Leaders recognized by the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement for the Propagation of Islam, referred to as Emirs:

Some prominent Ahmadis

See also

Bibliography:

  • Yohanan Friedmann, "Prophecy Continuous - Aspects of Ahmadi Religious Thought and Its Medieval Background"; Oxford University Press (2003) ISBN 965264014X

References

  1. ^ “The Fourteenth-Century's Reformer / Mujaddid”, from the “Call of Islam”, by Maulana Muhammad Ali
  2. ^ Claims of Hadhrat Ahmad, Chapter Two
  3. ^ Reflection of all the Prophets
  4. ^ Future of Revelation, Part 7
  5. ^ The Removal of a Misunderstanding
  6. ^ a b The Ahmadi Muslim Community. Who are the Ahmadi Muslims and what do they believe? Waqar Ahmad Ahmedi gives a brief introduction to the Ahmadi branch of Islam. Times Online. May 27, 2008.
  7. ^ http://www.theasa.org/conferences/asa04/panels/panel21.htm
  8. ^ http://www.chaf.lib.latrobe.edu.au/dcd/page.php?title=&record=1512
  9. ^ Encyclopaedia Britannica Online: Ahmadiyya
  10. ^ The British Archives
  11. ^ “The Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam An Overview”, Al Islam, The official website of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community
  12. ^ World Wide Branches of AAIIL, Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement
  13. ^ The Multiple Nature of the Islamic Da'wa, Egdunas Racius, University of Helsinki, pages 158-160.
  14. ^ Black Crescent: the experience and legacy of African Muslims in the Americas, by Michael Angelo Gomez, pages 254-256.
  15. ^ America's Alternative Religions, by Timothy Miller, page 280.
  16. ^ [1]
  17. ^ a b "Ahmadiyya Islam." GlobalSecurity.org. 26 April 2005. Retrieved 14 December 2009.
  18. ^ Mirza Ghulam Ahmad: Tabligh-i-Risalat, Vol. IX, pp.90-91; Maulana Murtaza Khan: The Name Ahmadiyya and Its Necessity, 1945.
  19. ^ Duty towards God and fellow beings
  20. ^ The British Government and Jihad and it is on this account that he has been called the Mahdi (divinely guided one)
  21. ^ Ten Conditions of Baiat
  22. ^ alislam.org: Islam
  23. ^ The Founder of the Ahmadiyya Movement, Chapter 4 – Mahdi and Messiah, by Maulana Muhammad Ali
  24. ^ Jesus, a Humble Prophet of God
  25. ^ “Death of Jesus”, by Shahid Aziz, Bulletin October 2001, Ahmadiyya Anjuman Ishaat Islam Lahore (UK)
    The Promised Mehdi and Messiah, p. 50, “Jesus Migrated to India”, by Aziz Ahmad Chaudhry, Islam International Publications Limited
  26. ^ Muhammad in World Scriptures (Vol. 2); by Maulana Abdul Haq Vidyarthi, Advent of Holy Prophet Muhammad Foretold in the Books of the Old Testament of Jews and the New Testament of Christians
  27. ^ Lecture Sialkot
  28. ^ The Pilgrimage
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  30. ^ a b “The Issue of Khatam-un-Nabiyyin”, Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement
  31. ^ Tariq Hashmi: The Second Coming of Jesus, Renaissance - Monthly Islamic Journal, 14(9), September 2004
  32. ^ The Return of Jesus
  33. ^ “Islamic View of the Coming/Return of Jesus”, by Ahmad Shafaat, 2003, Islamic Perspectives
  34. ^ “Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Sahib of Qadian never Claimed Prophethood (in the light of his own writings)”, The Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement
  35. ^ “A Prophet Like Unto Moses”, The Promised Mehdi and Messiah, by Aziz Ahmad Chaudhry, Islam International Publications Limited
  36. ^ “Who Was the Impostor of Qadian? Decide for Yourself!!”, Inter-Islam.org
  37. ^ “The Use of the Terms Nabi & Rasul For Non-prophets”, The Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement
  38. ^ “A World Reformer”, The Promised Mehdi and Messiha, by Dr. Aziz Ahmad Chaudhry, Islam International Publications Limited
  39. ^ a b An Act to amend the Constitution (2nd Amendment) ACT, 1974. An Act to amend the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan Gazette of Pakistan, Extraordinary, Part I, 21 September 1974
  40. ^ Passport Application Form, Government of Pakistan
  41. ^ “Who is a Muslim?”, Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement
    “Tarjuman al-Quran” by Sayyid Abul Ala Maudoodi, issue for month of Jumadi al-Awwal, 1355 A.H., circa 1936, vol. viii, p. 5
  42. ^ Who is a Muslim!
  43. ^ Hadhrat Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmud Ahmad, The Truth about the Split, Islam International Publictions Limited, pages 56-61. 1st published 1924, English translation of Ai’nah-e-Sadaqt)[2]
  44. ^ “Further Similarities and Differences: (between esoteric, exoteric & Sunni/Shia) and (between Islam/Christianity/Judaism)”, Reproduced with permission from Exploring World Religions, © 2001, by Oxford University Press Canada.
  45. ^ “No Claim To Prophethood: 20 Arguments by Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad”, Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement
  46. ^ “Early History of Islam”, Religion Online, ThinkQuest, Oracle Education Foundation.
  47. ^ “Islam”, MSN Encarta Online, p. 42. Archived 2009-10-31.
  48. ^ “Further Similarities and Differences: (between esoteric, exoteric & Sunni/Shia) and (between Islam/Christianity/Judaism)”, Reproduced with permission from Exploring World Religions, © 2001, by Oxford University Press Canada.
  49. ^ “The Birth of Jesus”, Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement
  50. ^ The Promised Mehdi and Messiah, p. 34, “Jesus Did not Die on the Cross”, by Aziz Ahmad Chaudhry, Islam International Publications Limited.
  51. ^ The Promised Mehdi and Messiah, p. 50, “Jesus Migrated to India”, by Aziz Ahmad Chaudhry, Islam International Publications Limited.
  52. ^ See David Cook, Understanding Jihad, Cambridge University Press, 2005; also Basam Tibi, The Challenge of Fundamentalism, University of California Press, 1999.
  53. ^ Concept of Jihad and
    True Meaning of Jihad, compiled by Imam Kalamazad Mohammed; published by the Muslim Literary Trust, Trinidad
  54. ^ "Number of Ahmadis in India". Immigration and Refugee Board of Canada. 1 November 1991. http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/topic,464db4f52,47f237db2,3ae6ad202c,0.html. Retrieved March 9, 2009. 
  55. ^ a b c Hoque, Ridwanul (March 21, 2004). "On right to freedom of religion and the plight of Ahmadiyas". The Daily Star. http://www.thedailystar.net/law/2004/03/03/index.htm. 
  56. ^ Naqvi, Jawed (September 1, 2008). "Religious violence hastens India’s leap into deeper obscurantism". Dawn. http://www.dawn.com/weekly/jawed/20080109.htm. Retrieved December 23, 2009. 
  57. ^ http://www.economist.com/world/asia/displaystory.cfm?story_id=15266768
  58. ^ Khan, Naveeda. "Trespasses of the State: Ministering to Theological Dilemmas through the Copyright/Trademark". Sarai Reader 2005: Bare Acts. p. 184.
  59. ^ Khan, Naveeda. "Trespasses of the State: Ministering to Theological Dilemmas through the Copyright/Trademark". Sarai Reader 2005: Bare Acts. p. 178.
  60. ^ Heiner Bielefeldt: "Muslim Voices in the Human Rights Debate", Human rights quarterly, 1995 vol. 17 no. 4 p. 587.
  61. ^ Persecution of the Ahmadiyya Community in Pakistan: An Analysis Under International Law and International Relations Harvard Human Rights Journal, Vol 16, September 2003
    “Eight die in Pakistan sect attack”, BBC News
    “Sect offices closed in Pakistan”, BBC News
  62. ^ Denizens of Alien Worlds. T Rahman - Contemporary South Asia, 2004. A Survey of the Education System of Pakistan, by Tariq Rahman, page 15.
  63. ^ Peace and Democracy in South Asia, Volume 1, Number 1, January 2005. Passports to Privilege: The English-Medium Schools In Pakistan, Tariq Rahman.
  64. ^ “Violent Dhaka rally against sect”, BBC News
  65. ^ Bangladesh: The Ahmediyya Community - their rights must be protected, Amnesty International
  66. ^ Indonesia to ban Ahmadi activities, 06/09/2008
  67. ^ "Ahmadiyya Ban and Human Rights",Fazil Jamal on Jakarta Post
  68. ^ Indonesia to ban Ahmadi activities, AsiaNews.IT
  69. ^ Anti-Ahmadiyya Mullah Burning Ahmadiyya Mosques - Indonesia, Al Jazeera News Report
  70. ^ Indonesia's religious tolerance under threat-group, Jun 10, 2008.
  71. ^ “Five Pillars of Islam”, Islam101.com
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  73. ^ a b Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Sahib of Qadian never Claimed Prophethood (in the light of his own writings), The Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement
  74. ^ Chaudhry, Aziz Ahmad. The Question of Finality of Prophethood, The Promised Messiha and Mehdi, Islam International Publications Limited.
  75. ^ “In what way can we harmonize John the Baptist’s claim that he was not Elijah with the statement of the Lord that he was?”, Tony Capoccia, Bible Bulletin Board.
  76. ^ “The Fourteenth-Century's Reformer / Mujaddid”, Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement
  77. ^ Anti-Ahmadiyya Movement in Islam: Fatwas and Statements of Islamic Scholars about Ahmadiyya
  78. ^ On right to freedom of religion and the plight of Ahmadiyas. Retrieved on April 10, 2007.
  79. ^ Al-Azhar endorses publications by Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement, AAIIL, USA
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  81. ^ “Lies and the Liar who told them!”, inter-islam.org
  82. ^ Tributes to Maulana Muhammad Ali and The Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement, AAIIL Website
  83. ^ “Pakistan: Killing of Ahmadis continues amid impunity”, Amnesty International, Public Statement, AI Index: ASA 33/028/2005 (Public), News Service No: 271, 11 October 2005.
  84. ^ The British Empire and the Muslim World, Francis Robinson, page 21.
  85. ^ Review of Religions April 2006
  86. ^ Islam and Communism
  87. ^ Abbot, Freeland. Islam and Pakistan. Cornell University Press, 1968. p. 160-161.
  88. ^ The Afghan Martyrs by B. A. Rafiq
  89. ^ Mr. Shams-ul-Haq Khan - A personality to remember

External links

Ahmadiyya Muslim Community

Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement for the Propagation of Islam

Other links

Persecution

Simple English

File:Liwa-e-ahmadiyya
Liwa-e-Ahmadiyya, Flag of Ahmadiyya
File:Mirza Ghulam Ahmad.gif
Mirza Ghulam Ahmad

Ahmadiyya ( احمدیہ Ahmadiyya) is a movement founded in the 19th Century by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad from Qadian (Punjab, India). It was started before India was split into the modern day states of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.

Ahmad wanted to make small changes, or reforms, to Islam. In 1914, the movement split into two different groups, over a question of who should become the next Caliph. Both groups still exist today.

Mirza Ghulam Ahmad was an important religious leader. He claimed to have fulfilled the prophecies about the world reformer of the end times. Such things were told in the stories and writings of many World religions. These stories call the reformer the Mujaddid (divine reformer) of the 14th Islamic century, the promised Messiah (“Second Coming of Christ”) or Mahdi.[1][2][3][4][5]

Ahmadis consider themselves Muslims and claim to practice the Islam that was taught and practised by Muhammad and his followers. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad founded the movement in 1889 and named it the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community. His goal was to restore life into Islam.

The original Ahmadiyya movement split into two separate groups[6] after the death of Nooruddin, the first successor of Ghulam Ahmad.

These movements are the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community (AMJ) and the smaller Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement for the Propagation of Islam (Ahmadiyya Anjuman Ishaat-i-Islam, AAIIL). The groups have different interpretations of Ahmad's teachings and claims. They also have different opinions on who should have come after Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, and how this person should be chosen.[6][7]

The larger faction of the Ahmadiyya Movement, known as the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community is active in 190 countries of the world. The International Headquarters of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community is currently in London, England. Further, they have created a place called "Islamabad" in Tilford Surrey; the London Mosque; and also Western Europe’s biggest mosque, the Baitul Futuh “House of Victories” in Morden, south-west London.

The smaller faction, known as the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement, is active in 17 countries of the world. They are most notable in Germany, Australia and Pakistan. The International Headquarters of the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement is in the town of Lahore, Pakistan where the Lahore Movement started. Within Lahore, Pakistan, are the "Ahmadiyya Buildings Lahore" which act as the international administrative base for the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement.

The views of Ahmadiyya are controversial to popular Islam. The majority of Muslims have not accepted Mirza Ghulam Ahmad’s claims. They do not consider Ahmadis to be Muslims. Controversial points include the Ahmadiyya view on the death and return of Jesus and their concept of Jihad. The Ahmadiyya community also has a different interpretation of verse [Qur'an 33:40] of the Qur'an. This verse talks about the finality of Muhammad. The members of the Lahore Ahmadiyya Movement are not subject to such criticism because they do not believe in Mirza Ghulam Ahmad was a prophet. For this reason, they are more close to traditional mainstream Islam. Ahmadis (particularly the members of the International Ahmadiyya Muslim Community) argue that their beliefs are in accordance with Islam, and using arguments from the Qur'an, Hadith and opinion of Islamic jurists and theologians, challenge the contention of the groups calling them non-Muslims.

References

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