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Osmanli-nisani.svg    Ahmed III
Ottoman Sultan
Caliph
Levni 002.jpeg
Tughra of Ahmed III.JPG
Reign December 28,1703–September 20,1730
Period Stagnation of the Ottoman Empire
Full Name Ahmed III
Predecessor Mustafa II
Successor Mahmud I
Royal House House of Osman
Dynasty Ottoman Dynasty
Religious beliefs Sunni Islam

Ahmed III (Ottoman Turkish: احمد ثالث Aḥmed-i sālis) (December 30/31, 1673 – July 1, 1736) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire and a son of Sultan Mehmed IV (1648–87). His mother was Valide Sultan Emetullah Rabia Gülnûş Sultan, originally named Evmania, who was an ethnic Greek.[1][2][3][4][5][6] He was born at Hajioglupazari, in Dobruja. He succeeded to the throne in 1703 on the abdication of his brother Mustafa II (1695–1703). Nevşehirli Damat İbrahim Pasha and his daughter, Princess Hatice (wife of the former) directed the government from 1718 to 1730, a period referred to as the Tulip Era.

Contents

Biography

Portrait of Ahmed III by John Young

Ahmed III cultivated good relations with France, doubtless in view of Russia's menacing attitude. He awarded refuge in Ottoman territory to Charles XII of Sweden (1682–1718) after the Swedish defeat at the hands of Peter I of Russia (1672–1725) in the Battle of Poltava of 1709. King Charles XII of Sweden escaped to the Ottoman Empire after losing the Battle of Poltava against the Russians, which was a part of the Great Northern War. In 1710 he convinced the Ottoman Sultan Ahmed III to declare war against Russia, and the Ottoman forces under Baltacı Mehmet Paşa won a major victory at the Battle of Prut. In the aftermath, Russia returned Azov back to the Ottomans, agreed to demolish the fortress of Taganrog and others in the area, and to stop interfering into the affairs of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.

Forced against his will into war with Russia, Ahmed III came nearer than any Ottoman sovereign before or since to breaking the power of his northern rival, whom his grand vizier Baltacı Mehmet Paşa succeeded in completely surrounding near the Prut River in 1711. The subsequent Ottoman victories against Russia enabled the Ottoman Empire to advance to Moscow, had the Sultan wished.

However, this was halted as a report reached Istanbul that the Safavids were invading the Ottoman Empire, causing a period of panic, turning the Sultan's attention away from Russia. Sultan Ahmed III had become unpopular by reason of the excessive pomp and costly luxury in which he and his principal officers indulged; on September 20, 1730, a mutinous riot of seventeen janissaries, led by the Albanian Patrona Halil, was aided by the citizens as well as the military until it swelled into an insurrection in front of which the sultan was forced to give up the throne.

Ahmed voluntarily led his nephew Mahmud I (1730–54) to the seat of sovereignty and paid allegiance to him as Sultan of the Empire. He then retired to the apartments in the palace previously occupied by Mahmud and died at Topkapi Palace after six years of confinement.

Character of Ahmed III's rule

Sultan Ahmed III receives French ambassador Vicomte d'Andrezel at Topkapı Palace.
French ambassador Marquis de Bonnac being received by Sultan Ahmed III.

The reign of Ahmed III, which had lasted for twenty-seven years, although marked by the disasters of the Great Turkish War, was not unsuccessful. The recovery of Azov and the Morea, and the conquest of part of Persia, managed to counterbalanced the Balkan territory ceded to the Habsburg Monarchy through the Treaty of Passarowitz, after the Ottoman Empire was defeated in Austro-Turkish War of 1716-18. In 1716, he sent and army of 33,000 men to capture Corfu from the Republic of Venice.

Ahmed III left the finances of the Ottoman Empire in a flourishing condition, which had remarkably been obtained without excessive taxation or extortion procedures. He was a cultivated patron of literature and art, and it was in his time that the first printing press authorized to use the Arabic or Turkish languages was set up in Istanbul, operated by Ibrahim Muteferrika (while the printing press had been introduced to Istanbul in 1480, all works published before 1729 were in Greek, Armenian, or Hebrew).

It was in this reign that an important change in the government of the Danubian Principalities was introduced: previously, the Porte had appointed Hospodars, usually native Moldavian and Wallachian boyars, to administer those provinces; after the Russian campaign of 1711, during which Peter the Great found an ally in Moldavian Prince Dimitrie Cantemir, the Porte began overtly deputizing Phanariote Greeks in that region, and extended the system to Wallachia after Prince Stefan Cantacuzino established links with Eugene of Savoy. The Phanariotes constituted a kind of Dhimmi nobility, which supplied the Porte with functionaries in many important departments of the state.

Marriages and issue

He married Valide Sultan Amina Mihr-i Shah, and Valide Sultan Rabia Sharmi. By first wife he had Mustafa III and by second wife he had Abdul Hamid I.

See also

References

References

  1. ^ Freely, John (2001). The lost Messiah. Viking. p. 132. ISBN 0670886750. "He set up his harem there, his favourite being Rabia Giilniis Ummetiillah, a Greek girl from Rethymnon on Crete"  
  2. ^ Palmer, Alan (2009). The decline and fall of the Ottoman Empire. Barnes & Noble. p. 27. ISBN 156619847X. "Unusually, the twenty-nine year old Ahmed III was a brother, rather than a half- brother, of his predecessor; their Cretan mother, Rabia"  
  3. ^ Bromley, J. S. (1957). The New Cambridge Modern History. University of California: University Press. p. 554. ISBN 0521221285. "the mother of Mustafa II and Ahmed III was a Cretan"  
  4. ^ Sardo, Eugenio Lo (1999). Tra greci e turchi: fonti diplomatiche italiane sul Settecento ottomano. Consiglio nazionale delle ricerche. p. 82. ISBN 88-8080-014-0. "Their mother, a Cretan, lady named Rabia Gulnus, continued to wield influence as the Walide Sultan - mother of the reigning sultan"  
  5. ^ Library Information and Research Service (2005). The Middle East. Library Information and Research Service. p. 91. "She was the daughter of a Cretan (Greek) family and she was the mother of Mustafa II (1664-1703), and Ahmed III (1673-1736)."  
  6. ^ Baker, Anthony E - Freely, John (1993). The Bosphorus. Redhouse Press. p. 146. ISBN 9754130620. "The Valide Sultan was born Evmania Voria, daughter of a Greek priest in a village near Rethymnon on Crete. She was captured by the Turks when they took Rethymnon in 1645."  

External links

Ahmed III
Born: December 30, 1673 Died: July 1, 1736[aged 62]
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Mustafa II
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
December 28, 1703 - September 20, 1730
Succeeded by
Mahmud I
Sunni Islam titles
Preceded by
Mustafa II
Caliph of Islam
December 28, 1703 - September 20, 1730
Succeeded by
Mahmud I
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

AHMED III. (1637-1736), sultan of Turkey, son of Mahommed IV., succeeded to the throne in 1703 on the abdication of his brother Mustafa II. He cultivated good relations with England, in view doubtless of Russia's menacing attitude. He afforded a refuge in Turkey to Charles XII. of Sweden, after his defeat at Poltava (1709). Forced against his will into war with Russia, he came nearer than any Turkish sovereign before or since to breaking the power of his northern rival, whom his Grand Vizier Baltaji Mahommed Pasha succeeded in completely surrounding near the Pruth (1711). In the treaty which Russia was compelled to sign Turkey obtained the restitution of Azov, the destruction of the forts built by Russia and the undertaking that the tsar should abstain from future interference in the affairs of the Poles or the Cossacks. Discontent at the leniency of these terms was so strong at Constantinople that it nearly brought on a renewal of the war. In 1715 the Morea was taken from the Venetians. This led to hostilities with Austria, in which Turkey was unsuccessful, and Belgrade fell into the hands of Austria (1717). Through the mediation of England and Holland the peace of Passarowitz was concluded (1718), by which Turkey retained her conquests from the Venetians, but lost Hungary.

A war with Persia terminated in disaster, leading to a revolt of the janissaries, who deposed Ahmed in September 1730. He died in captivity some years later.


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