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Ahmed Sékou Touré (var. Ahmen Seku Ture) (January 9, 1922 – March 26, 1984) was an African political leader and President of Guinea from 1958 to his death in 1984. Touré was one of the primary Guinean nationalists involved in the liberation of the country from France.
Sékou Touré was born on January 9, 1922 into a poor Mandinka family in Faranah, French Guinea, while a colonial possession of France. He was a member of the Mandinka ethnic group and was the great-grandson of the famous Samory Touré,, who had resisted French rule until his capture.
Touré's early life was characterized by challenges of authority, including during his education. Touré was obliged to work to take care of himself. He began working for the Postal Services (PTT), and quickly became involved in Labor Union activity. During his youth and after becoming president, Touré studied the works of communist philosophers, especially those of Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin.
Touré's first work in a political group was in the Postal Workers Union (PTT). In 1945, he was one of the founders of their labour Union, becoming the general secretary of the postal workers' union in 1945. In 1952, he became the leader of the Guinean Democratic Party which was local section of the RDA (African Democratic Rally, French: Rassemblement Démocratique Africain) , a party agitating for the decolonization of Africa. In 1956 he organized the Union Générale des Travailleurs d'Afrique Noire, a common trade union centre for French West Africa. He was a leader of the RDA, working closely with a future rival, Félix Houphouët-Boigny, who later became the president of the Côte d'Ivoire. In 1956 he was elected Guinea's deputy to the French national assembly and mayor of Conakry, positions he used to launch pointed criticisms of the colonial regime
Touré is remembered as a charismatic figure and while his legacy as president is often disdained in his home country, he remains an icon of liberation in the wider African community. Touré served for some time as a representative of African groups in France, where he worked to negotiate for the independence of France's African colonies.
In 1958 Touré's RDA section in Guinea pushed for a "No" in the French Union referendum sponsored by the French government, and was the only one of France's African colonies to vote for immediate independence rather than continued association with France. Guinea became the only French colony to leave the French Community. In the event the rest of Francophone Africa gained its independence only two years later in 1960, but the French were extremely vindictive against Guinea: withdrawing abruptly, taking files, destroying infrastructure, and breaking political and economic ties.
As President of Guinea
In his home country, Touré was a strong president. In 1960, he declared his PDG to be the only legal party, though the country had effectively been a one-party state since independence.
During his presidency Touré led a strong policy based on Marxism, with the nationalization of foreign companies and strong planned economics. He won the Lenin Peace Prize as a result in 1961. Most of the opposition to his socialistic regime was arrested and jailed or exiled. His early actions to reject the French and then to appropriate wealth and farmland from traditional landlords  angered many powerful forces, but the increasing failure of his government to provide either economic opportunities or democratic rights angered more. While still revered in much of Africa and in the Pan-African movement, many Guineans, and activists of the Left and Right in Europe, have become critical of Touré's failure to institute meaningful democracy or free media.
Opposition to single party rule grew slowly, and by the late 1960s those who opposed his government faced fear of detention camps and secret police. His detractors often had two choices—say nothing or go abroad. From 1965 to 1975 he ended all his relations with France, the former colonial power. Touré argued that Africa had lost much during colonization, and that Africa ought to retaliate by cutting off ties to former colonial nations. Only in 1978, as Guinea's ties with the Soviet Union soured, President of France Valéry Giscard d'Estaing first visited Guinea as a sign of reconciliation.
Throughout his dispute with France, Guinea maintained good relations with several socialist countries. However, Touré's attitude toward France was not generally well received, and some African countries ended diplomatic relations with Guinea over the incident. Despite this, Touré's move won the support of many anti-colonialist and Pan-African groups and leaders.
Touré's primary ally in the region was President Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana and Modibo Keita of Mali. After Nkrumah was overthrown in a 1966 coup, Touré offered him a refuge in Guinea and made him co-president.  As a leader of the Pan-Africanist movement, he consistently spoke out against colonial powers, and befriended leaders from the African diaspora such as Malcolm X and Stokely Carmichael, to whom he offered asylum (and who took the two leaders names, as Kwame Ture). He, with Nkrumah, helped in the formation of the All-African Peoples Revolutionary Party, and aided forces fighting Portuguese colonialism in neighboring Guinea-Bissau (for which the Portuguese launched an attack upon Conakry in 1970).
Relations with the United States fluctuated during the course of Touré's reign. While Touré was unimpressed with the Eisenhower administration's approach to Africa, he came to consider President John F. Kennedy a friend and an ally. He even came to state that Kennedy was his "only true friend in the outside world". He was impressed by Kennedy's interest in African development and commitment to civil rights in the United States. Touré blamed Guinean labor unrest in 1962 on Soviet interference and turned to the United States.
Relations with Washington soured, however, after Kennedy's death. When a Guinean delegation was imprisoned in Ghana, after the overthrow of Nkrumah, Touré blamed Washington. He feared that the Central Intelligence Agency was plotting against his own regime. Over time, Touré's increasing paranoia led him to arrest large numbers of suspected political opponents and imprison them in camps, such as the notorious Camp Boiro National Guard Barracks. Tens of thousands of Guinean dissidents sought refuge in exile.  Once Guinea's reprochment with France began in the late 1970s, another section of his support, Marxists, began to oppose his government's increasing move to capitalist liberalisation. In 1978 he formally renounced Marxism and reestablished trade with the West.
Single-list elections for an expanded National Assembly were held in 1980. Touré was elected unopposed to a fourth seven-year term as president on 9 May 1982. A new constitution was adopted that month, and during the summer Touré visited the United States as part of an economic policy reversal that found Guinea seeking Western investment to develop its huge mineral reserves. Measures announced in 1983 brought further economic liberalization, including the relegation of produce marketing to private traders.
Touré died on 26 March 1984 while undergoing cardiac treatment at the Cleveland Clinic in Cleveland, Ohio; he had been rushed to the United States after being stricken in Saudi Arabia the previous day. Prime Minister Louis Lansana Béavogui then became acting president, pending elections that were to be held within 45 days. On 3 April, however, just as the Political Bureau of the ruling Guinea Democratic Party (PDG) was about to name its choice as Touré's successor, the armed forces seized power, denouncing the last years of Touré's rule as a "bloody and ruthless dictatorship." The constitution was suspended, the National Assembly dissolved, and the PDG abolished. The leader of the coup, Col. Lansana Conté, assumed the presidency on 5 April, heading the Military Committee for National Recovery (Comité Militaire de Redressement National—CMRN). About 1,000 political prisoners were freed.
To date, 50,000 people are believed to have been killed under the regime of Touré in concentration camps like Camp Boiro.
Ismael Touré is the brother of Ahmed Sékou Touré. He led the OSPAAAL that was born out of the Tricontinental Conference in Havana, which Mehdi Ben Barka was preparing before his October 1965 assassination. The OSPAA (Organization for Solidarity for the People of Africa and Asia) had gathered itself for the first time in Accra, Ghana in 1957. 500 delegates from 35 countries represented there national liberation movements and parties rather than states. Ismaël Touré presided the board responsible of the solidarity funds, assisted by three vice-presidents, among whom Mehdi Ben Barka. The OSPAA was debating the inclusion of Cuba and the rest of the Caribbean and Latin America to the group, a question posed again in Cairo, Egypt in June 1961 by the new commission, the Commission on Neocolonialism, which was presided by Ben Barka.
Works by Touré (partial)
- Ahmed Sékou Touré. 8 novembre 1964 (Conakry) : Parti démocratique de Guinée, (1965)
- Ahmed Sékou Touré. A propos du Sahara Occidental : intervention du président Ahmed Sékou Touré devant 1e 17e sommet de l'OUA, Freetown, 1e 3 juillet 1980. (S.l. : s.n., 1980)
- Ahmed Sékou Touré. Address of President Ahmed Sékou Touré, President of the Republic of Guinee (sic) : suggestions submitted during the West Africa consultative regional meeting held at Conakry, during 19 and 20 November 1971. (Cairo : Permanent Secretariat of the Afro-Asian Peoples' Solidarity Organization, 1971)
- Ahmed Sékou Touré. Afrika and imperialism. Newark, N.J. : Jihad Pub. Co., 1973.
- Ahmed Sékou Touré. (Conférences, discours et rapports .). Conakry : Impr. du Gouvernement, (1958-
- Ahmed Sékou Touré. Congres général de l'U.G.T.A.N. (Union général des travailleurs de l'Afrique noire) : Conakry, 15-18 janvier 1959 : rapport d'orientation et de doctrine. (Paris) : Présence africaine, c1959.
- Ahmed Sékou Touré. Discours de Monsieur Sékou Touré, Président du Conseil de Gouvernement des 28 juillet et 25 aout 1958, de Monsieur Diallo Saifoulaye, Président de L'Assemblée territoriale et du Général de Gaulle, Président du Gouvernement de la Républ (Conakry) : Guinée Française, (1958)
- Ahmed Sékou Touré. Doctrine and methods of the Democratic Party of Guinea (Conakry 1963).
- Ahmed Sékou Touré. Expérience guinéenne et unité africaine. Paris, Présence africaine (1959)
- Ahmed Sékou Touré. Guinée-Festival / commentaire et montage, Wolibo Dukuré dit Grand-pére. Conakry : Commission Culturelle du Comité Central, 1983.
- Ahmed Sékou Touré. Guinée, prélude à l'indépendance (Avant-propos de Jacques Rabemananjara) Paris, Présence africaine (1958)
- Ahmed Sékou Touré. Hommage a la révolution Cubaine ; Message du camarade Ahmed Sekou Toure au peuple Cubain a l'occasion du 20e anniversaire de l'attaque de la Caserne de Moncada (Juillet 1973). Conakry : Bureau de Presse de la Presidence de la Republique, (1975).
- Ahmed Sékou Touré. International policy and diplomatic action of the Democratic Party of Guinea; extracts from the report on doctrine and orientation submitted to the 3d National Conference of the P.D.G. (Cairo, Société Orientale de Publicité-Press, 1962)
- Ahmed Sékou Touré. Opening speech of the Summit of Heads of State and Government by President Ahmed Sékou Touré, chairman of the Summit (November 20, 1980). (S.l. : s.n., 1980)
- Ahmed Sékou Touré. Poemes militants. (Conakry, Guinea) : Parti démocratique de Guinée, 1972
- Ahmed Sékou Touré. Political leader considered as the representative of a culture. (Newark, N. J. : Jihad Productions, 19--)
- Ahmed Sékou Touré. Pour l'amitié algéro-guinéenne. (Conakry, Guinea : Parti démocratique de Guinée, 1972)
- Ahmed Sékou Touré. Rapport de doctrine et de politique générale. Conakry : Imprimerie Nationale, 1959.
- Ahmed Sékou Touré. Strategy and tactics of the revolution. Conakry, Guinea : Press Office, 1978.
- Ahmed Sékou Touré. Unité nationale. Conakry, République de Guinée (B.P. 1005, Conakry, République de Guinée) : Bureau de presse de la Présidence de la République, 1977.
- ^ RADIO-KANKAN: La premiere radio internet de Guinée-Conakry: GUINEE: RADIO-KANKAN
- ^ Webster, James & Boahen, Adu (1980), The Revolutionary Years; West Africa since 1800, p. 324.
- ^ Accueil | guineeconakry.info
- ^ See: William Derman. Serfs, Peasants, and Socialists: A Former Serf Village in the Republic of Guinea. University of California Press (1968, 2nd ed 1973). ISBN 978-0520017283
- ^ As one example see the text of a posthumous award given to Touré by the South African presidency.
- ^ http://www.fsa.ulaval.calpersonel/Vernag?leadership/disk/Guinee-dicateur-enfantshtm
- ^ Webster, James & Boahen, Adu (1980), The Revolutionary Years; West Africa since 1800, p. 377.
- ^ See Molefi K. Asante, Ama Mazama. Encyclopedia of Black Studies. pp78-80
- ^ Guinea Background note, Human Rights Watch, 2007. Numbers fleeing remain controversial. Anti-Toure activists and the United States government say a million fled, HRW say tens of thousands.
For the memorial to victims of Toure's government, see: campboiro.org/ For their view, reflected in the Statutes of the Camp Boiro International Memorial (CBIM), see : Tierno S. Bah: Camp Boiro International Memorial. "At its peak, Camp Boiro was a contemporary of the Khmer Rouge and a precursor of the Rwandan genocides."
- ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/africa/2349639.stm
- ^ http://ibamba.net/photos/guinea/boiro/index.html
- ^ http://www.rfi.fr/actufr/articles/099/article_64354.asp
- ^ http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3719/is_200001/ai_n8899100/pg_3
- ^ http://www.westafrik.com/cbim-documents/edito.html
- Henry Louis Gates, Anthony Appiah (eds). Africana: The Encyclopedia of the African and African. 'Ahmed Sékou Touré pp1857–58. Basic Civitas Books (1999). ISBN 0465000711
- Molefi K. Asante, Ama Mazama. Encyclopedia of Black Studies. Sage Publications (2005) ISBN 076192762X
- (French) Ibrahima Baba Kake. Sékou Touré. Le Héros et le Tyran. Paris, 1987, JA Presses. Collection Jeune Afrique Livres. 254 p
- Lansiné Kaba. From Colonialism to Autocracy: Guinea under Sékou Touré, 1957-1984; in Decolonization and African Independence, the Transfers of Power, 1960-1980. Prosser Gifford and William Roger Louis(eds). New Haven: Yale University Press, 1988.
- Phineas Malinga. Ahmed Sékou Touré: An African Tragedy in African Communist. 1985 N° 100, pp. 56–64.
- Baruch Hirson. Communalism and Socialism in Africa: The Misdirection of C.L.R . James. Communalism and Socialism in Africa, 1989.
- John Leslie. Towards an African socialism, International Socialism (1st series), No.1, Spring 1960, pp.15–19.
- (French) Alpha Mohamed Sow, Conflits ethnique dans un État révolutionnaire (Le cas Guinéen), in Les ethnies ont une histoire, Jean-Pierre Chrétien, Gérard Prunier (ed), pp. 386–405, KARTHALA Editions (2003) ISBN 2845863896
- Parts of this article were translated from French Wikipedia's fr:Ahmed Sékou Touré.
- New West Africa Union Sealed By Heads of Ghana and GuineaBy THOMAS F. BRADY Special to The New York Times. May 2, 1959, Saturday Page 2, 339
- GUINEA SHUNS TIE TO WORLD BLOCS; But New State Gets Most Aid From East—Toure Departs for a Visit to the U. S. By JOHN B. OAKES, The New York Times, October 25, 1959, Sunday Page 16, 576 words
- Red Aid to Guinea Rises By HOMER BIGART Special to The New York Times. March 6, 1960, Sunday Page 4, 608 words
- HENRY TANNER. REGIME IN GUINEA SEIZES 2 UTILITIES; Toure Nationalizes Power and Water Supply Concerns—Pledges Compensation, Special to The New York Times. February 2, 1961, Thursday, Page 3, 336 words
- TOURE SAYS REDS PLOTTED A COUP; Links Communists to Riots by Students Last Month. (UPI), New York Times. December 13, 1961, Wednesday, Page 14, 247 words
- Toure's Country--'Africa Incarnate'; Guinea embodies the emphatic nationalism and revolutionary hopes of ex-colonial Africa, but its energetic President confronts handicaps that are also typically African. Toure's Country--'Africa Incarnate' By David Halberstam July 8, 1962, Sunday The New York Times Magazine, Page 146, 3783 words
- GUINEA RELAXES BUSINESS CURBS; Turns to Free Enterprise to Rescue Economy. (Reuters), The New York Times, December 8, 1963, Sunday Page 24, 333 words
- U.S. PEACE CORPS OUSTED BY GUINEA; 72 Members and Dependents to Leave Within a Week By RICHARD EDER Special to The New York Times, November 9, 1966, Wednesday, Page 11, 655 words
- Guinea Is Warming West African Ties, The New York Times, January 26, 1968, Friday Page 52, 578 words
- ALFRED FRIENDLY Jr. TOURE ADOPTING A MODERATE TONE; But West Africa Is Skeptical of Guinean's Words. New York Times. April 28, 1968, Sunday, Page 13, 525 words
- Ebb of African 'Revolution' , The New York Times, December 7, 1968, Saturday Page 46, 305 words
- Guinea's President Charges A Plot to Overthrow Him, (Agence France-Presse), The New York Times, January 16, 1969, Thursday Page 10, 139 words
- Guinea Reports 2 Members Of Cabinet Seized in Plot, (Reuters), The New York Times, March 22, 1969, Saturday Page 14, 146 words
- 12 FOES OF REGIME DOOMED IN GUINEA Special to The New York Times May 16, 1969, Friday Page 2, 213 words
- Guinea Reports Invasion From Sea by Portuguese; Lisbon Denies Charge U.N. Council Calls for End to Attack Guinea Reports an Invasion From Sea by Portuguese By The Associated Press, The New York Times, November 23, 1970, Monday Page 1, 644 words
- Guinea: Attack Strengthens Country's Symbolic Role, The New York Times, November 29, 1970, Sunday, Page 194, 717 words
- GUINEAN IS ADAMANT ON DEATH SENTENCES, The New York Times, January 29, 1971, Friday. Page 3, 145 words
- Guinea Wooing the West In Bauxite Development; GUINEA IS SEEKING HELP ON BAUXITE, The New York Times, February 15, 1971, Monday Section: BUSINESS AND FINANCE, Page 34, 897 words
- Political Ferment Hurts Guinea , The New York Times, January 31, 1972, Monday Section: SURVEY OF AFRICA'S ECONOMY, Page 46, 464 words
- GUINEAN, IN TOTAL REVERSAL, ASKS MORE U.S. INVESTMENT By BERNARD WEINRAUB, The New York Times, , ; Foreign Desk July 2, 1982, Friday Late City Final Edition, Section A, Page 3, Column 5, 592 words
- GUINEA IS SLOWLY BREAKING OUT OF ITS TIGHT COCOON By ALAN COWELL, The New York Times, , ; Foreign Desk, December 3, 1982, Friday, Late City Final Edition, Section A, Page 2, Column 3, 1098 words
- IN REVOLUTIONARY GUINEA, SOME OF THE FIRE IS GONE By ALAN COWELL, The New York Times, , ; Foreign Desk, December 9, 1982, Thursday, Late City Final Edition, Section A, Page 2, Column 3, 1181 words
- GUINEA'S PRESIDENT, SEKOU TOURE, DIES IN CLEVELAND CLINIC By CLIFFORD D. MAY, The New York Times, , ; Obituary, March 28, 1984, Wednesday, Late City Final Edition, Section A, Page 1, Column 1, 1253 words
- THOUSANDS MOURN DEATH OF TOURE By CLIFFORD D. MAY The New York Times, ; Foreign Desk, March 29, 1984, Thursday, Late City Final Edition, Section A, Page 3, Column 1, 591 words
- AHMED SEKOU TOURE, A RADICAL HERO By ERIC PACE The New York Times, ; Obituary, March 28, 1984, Wednesday, Late City Final Edition, Section A, Page 6, Column 1, 1249 words
- IN POST-COUP GUINEA, A JAIL IS THROWN OPEN. CLIFFORD D. MAY. Special to The New York Times. Foreign Desk, April 12, 1984, Thursday, Late City Final Edition, Section A, Page 1, Column 4, 1336 words.
- TOPICS; HOW TO RUN THINGS, OR RUIN THEM, The New York Times, March 29, 1984.
- Guinea Airport Opens; Capital Appears Calm, The New York Times, April 7, 1984.
- Guinea Frees Toure's Widow, REUTERS, The New York Times, January 3, 1988.
- How France Shaped New Africa, HOWARD W. FRENCH, The New York Times, February 28, 1995.
- Conversations/Kwame Ture; Formerly Stokely Carmichael And Still Ready for the Revolution, KAREN DE WITT, The New York Times, April 14, 1996.
- Stokely Carmichael, Rights Leader Who Coined 'Black Power,' Dies at 57, MICHAEL T. KAUFMAN, The New York Times, November 16, 1998.
- 'Mass graves' found in Guinea. BBC, 22 October 2002.
- Stokely Speaks (Book Review), ROBERT WEISBROTThe New York Times Review of Books, November 23, 2003.
Other secondary works
- Ladipo Adamolekun. Sekou Toure's Guinea: An Experiment in Nation Building. Methuen (August 1976). ISBN 0416778402
- Koumandian Kéita. Guinée 61: L'École et la Dictature. Nubia (1984).
- Ibrahima Baba Kaké. Sékou Touré, le héros et le tyran. Jeune Afrique, Paris (1987)
- Alpha Abdoulaye Diallo. La vérité du ministre: Dix ans dans les geôles de Sékou Touré (Questions d'actualité), Calmann-Lévy, Paris (1985). ISBN 978-2702113905
- Kaba Camara. Dans la Guinée de Sékou Touré : cela a bien eu lieu.
- Ousmane Ardo Bâ. Camp Boiro. Sinistre geôle de Sékou Touré. Harmattan, Paris (1986) ISBN 978-2858026494
- Mahmoud Bah. Construire la Guinée après Sékou Touré
- Mgr. Raymond-Marie Tchidimbo. Noviciat d'un évêque : huit ans et huit mois de captivité sous Sékou Touré
- André Lewin. Diallo Telli. Le destin tragique d'un grand Africain
- Dr. Thierno Bah. Mon combat pour la Guinée
- Nadine Bari. Chroniques de Guinée (1994)
- Nadine Bari. Guinée. Les cailloux de la mémoire (2004)
- Maurice Jeanjean. Sékou Touré, Un totalitarisme africain
- Claude Abou Diakité. La Guinée enchaînée
- Alpha Condé. Guinée, néo-colonie américaine ou Albanie d'Afrique
- Lansiné Kaba. From colonialism to autocracy. Guinea under Sékou Touré: 1957-1984
- Charles E. Sory. Sékou Touré, l'ange exterminateur
- Charles Diané. Sékou Touré, l'homme et son régime : lettre ouverte au président Mitterrand
- Emile Tompapa. Sékou Touré : quarante ans de dictature
- Alpha Ousmane Barry. Pouvoir du discours et discours du pouvoir : l'art oratoire chez Sékou Touré de 1958 à 1984