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Airbus A340
A Cathay Pacific A340-600 landing at London Heathrow Airport
Role Airliner
Manufacturer Airbus
First flight 25 October 1991
Introduced March 1993 (delivery began in January 1993)
Status Active Service
Primary users Lufthansa
Iberia Airlines
Virgin Atlantic Airways
South African Airways
Number built 371 as of 28 February 2010 [1]
Unit cost A340-200: $87,000,000 (1989)
A340-300: $211.8 to $228.0m (2010)[2]
A340-500: $233.0 to $250.8m (2010)[2]
A340-600: $245.0 to $263.8m (2010)[2]
Variants Airbus A330

The Airbus A340 is a long-range four-engined wide-body commercial passenger airliner manufactured by Airbus, a subsidiary of EADS. It seats between 261 and 380 passengers, and has a range between 6,700 and 9,000 NM (12400 to 16600 km). It is similar in design to the twin-engined A330. Initial A340 versions share the fuselage and wing of the A330 while later models are longer and have larger wings.[3]

Contents

Development

The first published studies for the A340 were as the TA11 in 1981, as shown in the November issue of Air International Magazine (coinciding with the display of the A300 at that year's Farnborough Airshow). Concept drawings of the A320 (SA 9) and A330 (TA9[4][5][6][7]) were also published, along with estimated performance figures by Airbus Industrie.

BWIA A340-300.

The A340 was launched in June 1987 as a long-range complement to the short-range A320 and the medium-range A300. At the time, Airbus's twinjets were at a disadvantage against aircraft such as the Boeing 747 because of the ETOPS problem as defined by the regulations: two-engined aircraft had to stay within 60 minutes' flying distance of a suitable diversion airport, which prevented them from competing on long over water routes. Furthermore, the existing ETOPS-immune wide-bodies in the 250-300 seat range, the trijet DC-10 and L-1011, were ageing, as they had been in service since the early 1970s.

The A340 was designed in parallel with the twin-engined A330: both aircraft share the same wing and similar fuselage structure, and borrow heavily from the advanced avionics and composite structure technology developed for the A320.

Both the A330 and A340 are assembled on the same final assembly line at Toulouse-Blagnac, France. The four-engined A340 is able to fly long over-water routes. Because of its ETOPS immunity, Virgin Atlantic Airways used the motto "4 Engines 4 Long Haul" on its A340 fleet.[citation needed]

The A340 was intended to use the new superfan engines of International Aero Engines, but the engine's development was stopped. The engine nacelles of the superfan engine consisted of provisions to allow a large fan near the rear of the engine. As a result of the superfan cancellation by IAE, the CFM International CFM56-5C4 was used as the sole engine choice instead of being an alternate choice as originally envisioned. The longer-range versions, the A340-500 and -600, are powered by Rolls-Royce Trent 500 engines.

Economy Class cabin of a Lufthansa Airbus A340-600: Although the cabin of the A340 has similarities with the A330, it is often better equipped.

When the A340 first flew in 1991, engineers noticed that the wings were not strong enough to carry the outboard engines at cruising speed without warping and fluttering. To alleviate this, an underwing bulge called a plastron was developed to correct airflow problems around the engine pylons and to add stiffness. The modified A340 began commercial service in 1993 with Lufthansa and Air France.[citation needed]

The A340 incorporates features such as fully digital fly-by-wire flight control system. It also uses sidesticks instead of yokes, with one sidestick to the left of the pilot and one to the right of the co-pilot. The A340's flight deck is highly similar to the A320s, and employs a common pilot rating with the A330. This enables A330/A340 flight crews to fly A320s and vice-versa with minimal extra training. This saves costs for airlines that operate both aircraft families. The cockpit used to feature CRT based glass cockpit displays on the A340-200 and A340-300 and is now based on LCD displays. Some composite primary structures are also used.

An A340 was the first commercial jet on which passengers could use their mobile phone during flight. In March 2008 Emirates Airlines introduced a system allowing passengers to make outgoing calls with their handset. Incoming calls are not possible and the system is not available at night or during landing and take-off.[8]

Operational history

With the introduction of higher gross weight Boeing 777s such as the 777-200ER and specifically 777-300ER, sales of the A340 began to decline. Over the last few years the 777 has outsold the A340 by a wide margin. Although the larger GE90 engines on the 777-300ER burn considerably more fuel than the Trent 500s, using only two of them compared to four Trents has meant a typical operating cost advantage of around 8-9%.[9]

A340-600 at the Farnborough Airshow, 2006.

In January 2006, Airbus announced plans to develop the A340E (Enhanced). Airbus promoted that the A340E would be more fuel-efficient than earlier A340s and close the 8-9% disparity with the Boeing 777 by using Trent 1500 engines.[9]

Airbus has predicted that it will probably produce 127 A340 units through 2016, after which production will cease.[10]

In mid-2008, with jet fuel prices double those of the year before, the A340's fuel consumption led airlines to curtail very long flights of greater than 15 hours. Thai Airways International cancelled its 17-hour, nonstop Bangkok-New York/JFK route on July 1, 2008. All 4 of its A340-500 fleet are for sale. While short flights stress aircraft more than long flights, and result in more frequent fuel-thirsty take-offs and landings, ultra-long flights require an airline to fill an aircraft's fuel tanks to the maximum; this means that, en route, the plane is burning a lot of fuel just to carry fuel, a "flying tanker with a few people on board," Air France-KLM SA's chief executive Pierre-Henri Gourgeon told the Wall Street Journal.

While Thai Airways has consistently filled 80% of the seats on its NYC-Bangkok flights, it estimates that, at 2008 fuel prices, it would need an impossible 120% of seats filled just to break even.[11] Other airlines are re-examining long-haul flights. In August, 2008, Cathay Pacific told the Wall Street Journal that rising fuel prices are hurting its trans-Pacific long haul routes disproportionately; it will cut the number of such flights it offers and redeploy its aircraft to shorter routes such as between Hong Kong and Australia. "We will...reshaping our network where necessary to ensure we fly aircraft to where we can cover our costs and also make some money," Cathay Pacific CEO Tony Tyler told the newspaper.[12]

Variants

There are four variants of the A340. The A340-200 and A340-300 were launched in 1987 with introduction into service in March 1993. The A340-500 and A340-600 were launched in 1997 with introduction into service in 2002. All variants are available in a corporate version from Airbus Executive and Private Aviation.

A340-200

Qatar Airways Airbus A340-200

One of two initial versions of the A340, the A340-200, with 261 passengers in a three-class cabin layout has a range of 7,450 nautical miles (13,800 km), or with 239 passengers also in a three-class cabin layout has a range of 8,000 nautical miles (14800 km). This is the shortest version of the type and the only version with wingspan measuring greater than the length of the plane. It is powered by four CFMI CFM56-5C4 engines. The plane was intended to open long and thin routes, especially over water.

One version of this type was ordered by the Sultan of Brunei requesting a non-stop range of 8,000 nautical miles (14820 km). This A340-8000 had an increased fuel capacity, a MTOW of 275 tonnes similar to the A340-300, and minor reinforcements to the undercarriage. Upon completion its final range was specified at 8,100 nautical miles (15,000 km). It is powered by the 34,000 lbf (151 kN) thrust CFMI CFM56-5C4s similar to the -300E.

Other A340-200s were later given performance improvement packages (PIPs) which helped them achieve similar gains in capability as to the A340-8000. Those aircraft are labeled A340-213X. The range for this version is 8,000 NM (14,820 km).

Due to its large wingspan, four engines, low capacity, and improvements to the A340-300, the -200 proved heavy and unpopular with mainstream airlines. Only 28 A340-200s were produced with several now in VIP service. South African Airways is the largest operator with 6 flying mostly on Cape Town routes. Other current operators include Aerolineas Argentinas (4), Royal Jordanian (4), Egypt Air (3) and Conviasa (1).

Some A340-200 are used for VIP or military use. Examples of these are Royal Brunei Airlines, Qatar Airways, Arab Republic of Egypt Government, Saudi Arabia Air Force, The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan and the French Air Force. Other historical operators include Cathay Pacific, Philippine Airlines, and Air Bourbon, among others. This version is now out of production.

A340-300

Turkish Airlines Airbus A340-300
Kuwait Airways Airbus A340-300

The A340-300 flies 295 passengers in a typical three-class cabin layout over 6,700 nautical miles (12,400 km). This is the initial version, having flown on 25 October 1991, and entered service with Lufthansa and Air France in March 1993. It is powered by four CFMI CFM56-5C engines, similar to the -200. Its two closest competitors are the Boeing 777-200ER and, formerly, the McDonnell-Douglas MD-11, which is no longer in production.

The A340-300E, often mislabeled as A340-300X, has an increased MTOW of up to 275 tonnes and is powered by the more powerful 34,000 lbf (151 kN) thrust CFMI CFM56-5C4 engines. Typical range with 295 passengers is between 7,200 and 7,400 nautical miles (13,300 km and 13,700 km). The largest operator of this type is Lufthansa with 30 aircraft. It was first delivered to Singapore Airlines in April 1996, though Singapore Airlines no longer operates this model.

The A340-300 Enhanced is the latest version of this type and was first delivered to South African Airways in 2003. It received newer CFM56-5C/P engines and improved Avionics and Fly-by-Wire systems developed for the A340-500/-600.

The A340-300 is no longer in production with the last of 217 -300s delivered to a private Russian customer in September 2008, with the final airline delivery to Finnair in July 2008. The A340-300 will be superseded by the A350-900.

A340-500

The A340-500 was introduced as the world's longest-range commercial airliner. It made its first flight on 11 February 2002, and was certified on 3 December 2002 with early deliveries to Emirates Airline. While the KC-10 Extender is the longest-ranged production aircraft, the A340-500 was the world's longest-range commercial airliner until the introduction of the Boeing 777-200LR in February 2006. The A340-500 can fly 313 passengers in a three-class cabin layout over 8,650 nautical miles (16,020 km), e.g. it is capable of travelling non-stop from London to Perth, Australia, though a return flight requires a fuel stop due to headwinds.[13] Singapore Airlines, for example, initially used this model in a two-class, 181-passenger layout for its Newark-Singapore nonstop route: an 18-hour, 45-minute "westbound" (really northbound to 70 nmi (130 km) abeam the North Pole; then south from there across Russia, Mongolia and China), 18-hour, 30-minute eastbound, 15,345 km (8,285 NM) journey that remains the longest scheduled non-stop commercial flight in the world[14]. By late June, 2008, Singapore Airlines completed conversion of its 5 A340-500's to an all-Business Class configuration, with 100 seats, due to high-end passenger demand. These aircraft are also used on the SQ Los Angeles-Singapore nonstop route. Thai Airways International flew this model on nonstop flights from Bangkok to Los Angeles and New York/JFK, but terminated its New York service on July 1, 2008 due to increased fuel costs. However, a major U.S. airline magazine reported in late January, 2010, that Thai is considering restarting its Bangkok-New York/JFK route with its A340-500 fleet.

Thai's Los Angeles-Bangkok route is still in service. Thai's entire fleet of four A340-500's was put up for sale, but poor resale value caused Thai to withdraw them from the market in October, 2008. Thai is now using some of these aircraft on thinner European routes, such as Bangkok-Athens, but may sell them all as soon as it can obtain a reasonable price. They are worth about USD 180 million each. A major airplane recycler recently offered Thai a paltry USD 50 million each for its A340-500 fleet, which was properly declined. Etihad Airways is a recent new customer.

In the first transfer of A340-500's from one airline to another, TAM Brazilian Airlines has leased two Air Canada airplanes for use on its São Paulo-Milan route. They will be transferred to a new TAM route between São Paulo and Johannesburg later in CY2010. Additionally, Nigeria's Arik Air has acquired three A340-500's following relinquishment of their delivery positions by Kingfisher Airlines of India. Kingfisher canceled one of its initial five-airplane A340-500 order in November, 2009; this may reduce the total orders for the A340-500 from 35 to 34. A total of 35 A340-500s have been ordered by seven airlines and four Government "VIP" operators (including Qatar and Algeria), with 30 delivered as of November, 2009.

Compared with the A340-300, the -500 features a 4.3 m fuselage stretch, an enlarged wing area, massive increase in fuel capacity (around 50% over -300), slightly higher cruising speed, larger horizontal stabilizer and smaller vertical tailplane. The A340-500/-600 has taxi cameras to help the pilots during ground maneuvers. The A340-500 is powered by four 53,000 lbf (236 kN) thrust Rolls-Royce Trent 553 turbofans.

Etihad Airways Airbus A340-500

The A340-500HGW (High Gross Weight) version has a range of 9,000 NM (16,700 km) and an MTOW of 380 tonnes and first flew on the 13th October 2006. It uses the strengthened structure and enlarged fuel capacity of the A340-600HGW. The certification aircraft became the first delivery, to Thai Airways International, on 11 April 2007[15]. Kingfisher Airlines had planned to use this model to operate nonstop flights from India to North America. However, in October 2008, Kingfisher transferred three of its five delivery positions to Arik Air of Nigeria, due to the worldwide recession. Arik Air received these three A340-500's in November, 2008, and placed them in service on its new Lagos-London Heathrow route and Lagos-Johannesburg route, with a nonstop route to New York added in January, 2010. Atlanta, Miami and Houston are planned to be added later.[16][17] The A340-500HGW is powered by four 56,000 lbf (249 kN) thrust Rolls-Royce Trent 556 turbofans. Emirates Airline is the largest operator, with ten aircraft.

The direct Boeing equivalent is the 777-200LR, which entered service in February 2006, exceeding the A340-500 as the world's longest-range commercial airliner.

A340-600

China Eastern Airbus A340-600 in Expo 2010 livery
Planform view of a Virgin Atlantic A340-600 take off. The undercarriages are still retracting.
Thai Airways Airbus A340-600

Designed as an early generation 747 replacement, the A340-600 flies 380 passengers in a three-class cabin layout (419 in 2 class) over 7,500 nautical miles (13,900 km). It provides similar passenger capacity to a 747 but with 25% more cargo volume, and at lower trip and seat costs. First flight of the A340-600 was made on 23 April 2001. Virgin Atlantic began commercial services in August 2002.

The A340-600 is more than 10 m longer than a basic -300, more than four metres longer than the Boeing 747-400 and 2.3m longer than the A380. It held the record for being the world's longest commercial aircraft until February 2010 with the first flight of the Boeing 747-8. The A340-600 is powered by four 56,000 lbf (249 kN) thrust Rolls-Royce Trent 556 turbofans. It also has an additional four-wheel undercarriage on the fuselage center-line to cope with the increased MTOW. Airbus has made provisions for freeing additional upper deck main cabin space by providing optional arrangements for additional facilities such as crew rest areas, galleys, and lavatories upon the "stretched" A340 aircraft's lower deck.

In April 2007, The Times reported that Airbus had advised carriers to reduce cargo in the forward section by five tonnes to compensate for overweight first and business class sections. The additional weight causes the aircraft's center of gravity to move forward thus reducing cruise efficiency. Airlines affected by the advisory are considering demanding compensation from Airbus.[18]

The A340-600HGW (High Gross Weight) version first flew on 18 November 2005[19] and was certified on 14 April 2006.[20] It has an MTOW of 380 tonnes and a range of up to 7,900 NM (14,600 km), made possible by strengthened structure, increased fuel capacity, more powerful engines and new manufacturing techniques like laser beam welding. The A340-600HGW is powered by four 60,000 lbf (267 kN) thrust Rolls-Royce Trent 560 turbofans.

Emirates Airline became the launch customer for the -600HGW when it ordered 18 at the 2003 Paris Air Show[21]; but postponed their order indefinitely and later cancelled. Rival Qatar Airways, which placed its order at the same airshow, took delivery of the first aircraft on 11 September 2006.[22] It has since let its purchase options expire.[23]

The most direct Boeing equivalent to the A340-600 is the 777-300ER.The A340-600 will eventually be replaced by the A350-1000, which will also compete with the 777-300ER.

Operators

Deliveries

By the end of February 2010 a total of 378 A340s had been ordered (28 A340-200, 218 A340-300, 35 A340-500 and 97 A340-600) and 371 delivered (28 A340-200, 218 A340-300, 30 A340-500 and 95 A340-600).[1]

2010 2009 2008 2007 2006 2005 2004 2003 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 1997 1996 1995 1994 1993
0 10 13 11 24 24 28 33 16 22 19 20 24 33 28 19 25 22

Accidents and incidents

As of January 2010, the A340 has not had a fatal incident, but there have been five hull-loss accidents:

  • 20 January 1994 - Air France, an A340-211 (F-GNIA) was lost to fire during servicing at Charles de Gaulle Airport.
  • 24 July 2001 - SriLankan Airlines, an A340-300 (4R-ADD) was blown up by Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam terrorists while on the ground at the Bandaranaike International Airport.
  • 2 August 2005 - Air France Flight 358, all 297 passengers and 12 crew survived a crash and fire after their A340-300 (F-GLZQ) overshot runway 24L at Toronto Pearson International Airport during a landing in a thunderstorm. The aircraft slid into Etobicoke Creek and broke-up. Forty-three were injured, one seriously; some passengers jumped nearly 20 ft (6 m) to the ground.
  • 9 November 2007 - An Iberia Airlines A340-600 (EC-JOH) was badly damaged after sliding off the runway at Ecuador’s Mariscal Sucre International Airport. The landing gear collapsed and two engines broke off. All 333 passengers and crew were evacuated via inflatable slides, and there were no serious injuries. The aircraft was scrapped.
  • 15 November 2007 - An A340-600 (F-WWCJ) was damaged beyond repair during ground engine testing at Airbus facilities at Toulouse Blagnac International Airport. During a brake test, prior to the airplane's planned delivery to Etihad Airways,[24] the aircraft accelerated to 31 knots[24] and collided with a sloped concrete wall, raising the nose of the plane several meters. The cockpit section broke off and fell to the ground from a significant height. Nine people on board were injured, four of them seriously.[24] The aircraft was written off.[25]
  • 20 March 2009 - An A340-500 (A6-ERG) being used for Emirates Airline Flight 407 struck its tail multiple times during the takeoff roll from Melbourne Airport, when an incorrect flex temp was used,[26] resulting in severe damage to the rear pressure bulkhead. The aircraft returned safely to the airport after dumping fuel and no serious injuries were reported among the 225 passengers. The aircraft was initially expected to be written-off, but was instead flown back to Airbus Industries in Toulouse, France from Melbourne for major repairs, as Flight EK-7608. This special, unpressurized flight, lasting several days from 20 June 2009, was flown at 10,000 feet, with two en route stops at Perth and Dubai. The repair estimate is 80 million U.S. dollars.[27]

Specifications

Model A340-200 A340-300 A340-500 A340-600
Cockpit crew Two
Seating capacity 300 (2-class, typical)
261 (3-class, typical)
375 maximum[28][29]
335 (2-class, typical)
295 (3-class, typical)
375 maximum[28][29]
359 (2-class, typical)
313 (3-class, typical)
375 maximum[28]
419 (2-class, typical)
380 (3-class, typical)
440 maximum[28]
Length 59.39 metres (194 ft 10 in) 63.60 metres (208 ft 8 in) 67.90 metres (222 ft 9 in) 75.30 metres (247 ft 1 in)
Wingspan 60.30 metres (197 ft 10 in) 63.45 metres (208 ft 2 in)
Wing area 361.6 square metres (3,892 sq ft) 439.4 square metres (4,730 sq ft)
Wing sweepback 30 degrees 31.1 degrees
Tail height 16.70 metres (54 ft 9 in) 16.85 metres (55 ft 3 in) 17.10 metres (56 ft 1 in) 17.30 metres (56 ft 9 in)
Cabin width 5.28 metres (17 ft 4 in)
Fuselage width 5.64 metres (18 ft 6 in)
Cargo capacity 19.7 cubic metres (700 cu ft)
Empty weight, typical 129,000 kilograms (280,000 lb) 130,200 kilograms (287,000 lb) 170,900 kilograms (377,000 lb)
HGW: 174,800 kilograms (385,000 lb)
177,800 kilograms (392,000 lb)
HGW: 181,900 kilograms (401,000 lb)
Maximum take-off weight (MTOW) 275,000 kilograms (610,000 lb) 276,500 kilograms (610,000 lb) 372,000 kilograms (820,000 lb)
HGW: 380,000 kilograms (840,000 lb)
368,000 kilograms (810,000 lb)
HGW: 380,000 kilograms (840,000 lb)
Cruising speed Mach 0.82 (871 km/h/537 mph at 11,000 m/36,000 ft) Mach 0.83 (881 km/h/543 mph at 11,000 m/36,000 ft)
Maximum speed Mach 0.86 (913 km/h/563 mph at 11,000 m/36,000 ft)
Maximum range, fully loaded 8,000 nautical miles (15,000 km; 9,200 mi) 7,400 nautical miles (13,700 km; 8,500 mi) 8,670 nautical miles (16,060 km; 9,980 mi)
HGW: 9,000 nautical miles (17,000 km; 10,000 mi)
7,750 nautical miles (14,350 km; 8,920 mi)
HGW: 7,900 nautical miles (14,600 km; 9,100 mi)
Take off run at MTOW 2,990 metres (9,810 ft) 3,000 metres (9,800 ft) 3,050 metres (10,010 ft) 3,100 metres (10,200 ft)
Maximum fuel capacity 155,040 litres (34,100 imp gal; 40,960 US gal) 147,850 litres (32,520 imp gal; 39,060 US gal) 214,810 litres (47,250 imp gal; 56,750 US gal)
HGW: 222,000 litres (49,000 imp gal; 59,000 US gal)
195,880 litres (43,090 imp gal; 51,750 US gal)
HGW: 204,500 litres (45,000 imp gal; 54,000 US gal)
Service ceiling 12,527 metres (41,099 ft)
Engines (×4) CFM56-5C RR Trent 500
Thrust (×4) 139–151 kilonewtons (31,000–34,000 lbf) 236–249 kilonewtons (53,000–56,000 lbf) 249–267 kilonewtons (56,000–60,000 lbf)

Engines

Model Date Engines[28]
A340-211 1993 CFM 56-5C2
A340-212 1994 CFM 56-5C3
A340-213 1994 CFM 56-5C4
A340-311 1993 CFM 56-5C2
A340-312 1994 CFM 56-5C3
A340-313 1997 CFM 56-5C4
A340-541 2003 RR Trent 553-61
A340-642 2002 RR Trent 556-61

See also

Related development

Comparable aircraft

Related lists

References

  1. ^ a b "Airbus orders & deliveries". Airbus S.A.S. http://www.airbus.com/odxml/orders_and_deliveries.xls. 
  2. ^ a b c "Airbus Aircraft Range of 2008 List Prices" (PDF). Airbus S.A.S. http://www.airbus.com/store/mm_repository/pdf/att00011726/media_object_file_ListPrices2008.pdf. Retrieved 27 July 2008. 
  3. ^ Aircraft Family - (A330-200) Specifications
  4. ^ Aviation Past- Airbus A330
  5. ^ Steve's Airshow World - Aircraft Factfile and Recognition Guide - Airbus A330
  6. ^ FLUG REVUE February 2000: The Airbus story
  7. ^ The Airbus A330 Aircraft Information
  8. ^ BCC article onMobile call during flight dated 20 March 2008
  9. ^ a b EXCLUSIVE: Enhanced A340 to take on 777
  10. ^ Aviation Week & Space Technology, October 29, 2007, p. 63
  11. ^ Airlines curb Long Flights to Save on Fuel, Wall Street Journal, July 8, 2008, pp.B1-B2
  12. ^ Cathay Pacific to Cut Flights to Los Angeles, Wall Street Journal, August 12, 2008, p.D3
  13. ^ "Record longest flight flies in the face of its critics". The Guardian. 2004-06-29. http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2004/jun/29/theairlineindustry.travelnews. Retrieved 2010-02-03. 
  14. ^ "Singapore Air makes longest flight". CNN. Archived from the original on 2007-12-25. http://web.archive.org/web/20071225022217/http://edition.cnn.com/2004/BUSINESS/06/28/singapore.airline/. 
  15. ^ Jetphotos Airbus A340-541HGW HS-TLD JetPhotos.net
  16. ^ Kingfisher Purchases Five Airbus A340-500 flykingfisher.com
  17. ^ Kingfisher purchases five A340-500 Airbus.com
  18. ^ "Carriers ponder compensation claims against Airbus for overweight aircraft". London. 2007-04-07. http://business.timesonline.co.uk/tol/business/industry_sectors/engineering/article1624119.ece. Retrieved 2007-04-07. 
  19. ^ "New A340-600 takes to the skies". 2005-11-18. http://www.airbus.com/en/presscentre/pressreleases/pressreleases_items/11_18_05_A340600.html. Retrieved 2006-08-06. 
  20. ^ "Newly certified A340-600 brings 18% higher productivity". 2006-04-14. http://www.airbus.com/en/presscentre/pressreleases/pressreleases_items/06_04_14_certifies_a3400600.html. Retrieved 2006-08-06. 
  21. ^ "Emirates orders 41 additional Airbus aircraft". 2003-06-16. http://www.airbus.com/en/presscentre/pressreleases/pressreleases_items/06_16_03_Emirates.html. Retrieved 2006-08-06. 
  22. ^ "Qatar Airways First Airbus A340-600 Arrives In Doha". http://www.qatarairways.com/global/en/homepage.html?id=0,2773,0,0,1,0&tab=5.  www.qatarairways.com
  23. ^ "First Boeing jet of many touches down in Qatar". http://www.seattlepi.com/business/341702_qatar30.html. 
  24. ^ a b c "Accident survenu le 15 novembre 2007 sur l’aérodrome de Toulouse Blagnac à l’Airbus A340-600 numéro de série 856" (in French). BEA (Bureau d'Enquêtes et d'Analyses pour la Sécurité de l'Aviation Civile). http://www.bea-fr.org/docspa/2007/f-cj071115/pdf/f-cj071115.pdf. Retrieved 2009-11-04. 
  25. ^ "Toulouse accident occurred as Airbus A340 was exiting engine test-pen". Flight Global.com. http://www.flightglobal.com/articles/2007/11/19/219705/toulouse-accident-occurred-as-airbus-a340-was-exiting-engine-test-pen.html. Retrieved 2008-11-17. 
  26. ^ Australian Transport Safety Bureau. ATSB Interim report AO-2009-012. 18-Dec-2009. Viewed 20-Dec-2009.
  27. ^ "Accident: Emirates A345 at Melbourne on Mar 20th 2009, tail strike and overrun on takeoff". Aviation Herald. 2009-06-19. http://avherald.com/h?article=416c9997/0009. Retrieved 2009-06-29. 
  28. ^ a b c d e "Type Certificate Data Sheet A.015 AIRBUS A340". European Aviation Safety Agency. 27 Nov 2009. http://easa.europa.eu/ws_prod/c/doc/Design_Appro/Aircrafts/TCDS%20EASA.A.015%20Airbus%20A340%20_issue%2017%20dtd%2027%20Nov%2009_%20bis.pdf. Retrieved 2010-01-18. 
  29. ^ a b 375 When four A type doors fitted

External links


Simple English

File:Lufthansa A340-600
Lufthansa A340-600

The Airbus A340 is a long-range four-engined widebody commercial passenger airplane manufactured by Airbus S.A.S. a subsidiary of EADS. It is similar in design to the twin-engined A330.

There are 4 variants of this model: The A340-200 (which is the shortest), the A340-300, the A340-500 and the longest one the A340-600. The A340-600 is the second longest passenger plane in the world.









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