The Full Wiki

Ajara: Wikis

Advertisements

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Encyclopedia

(Redirected to Adjara article)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Autonomous Republic of Adjara
აჭარის ავტონომიური რესპუბლიკა
Ach'aris Avt'onomiuri Resp'ublik'a
Flag Coat of arms
Ajaria (gray) within Georgia
Detailed map of Adjara
Capital Batumi
Official language(s) Georgian
Ethnic groups (2002) 93.4% Georgians
  2.4% Russians
  2.3% Armenians
  0.6% Greeks
  0.4% Abkhazians
Government
 -  Chairman of
the Government

Levan Varshalomidze
Autonomous republic
 -  Part of unified
Georgian Kingdom

9th century 
 -  Conquered by
Ottoman Empire

1614 
 -  Ceded to Russian Empire 1878 
 -  Adjar ASSR 1921 
 -  Autonomous republic
of Georgia

1991 
Area
 -  Total 2,900 km2 
1,120 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) negligible
Population
 -  2002 census 376,016 
 -  Density 135.32/km2 
350.5/sq mi
Currency Georgian lari (GEL)
Time zone MSK (UTC+3)

Adjara (Georgian: აჭარა, Adjara.ogg ɑtʃʼɑrɑ ), officially the Autonomous Republic of Adjara (აჭარის ავტონომიური რესპუბლიკა; Autonomous Republic of Adjara (KA).ogg ɑtʃʼɑris ɑvtʼɔnɔmiuri rɛspʼublikʼɑ ), is an autonomous republic of Georgia.

Adjara is located in the southwestern corner of Georgia, bordered by Turkey to the south and the eastern end of the Black Sea. Adjara is a home to the Adjar ethnic subgroup of Georgians.

Adjara is also known as Ajara, Adzhara, Ajaria, Adjaria, Adzharia, or as Achara. Formerly Adjara was known as Acara under Ottoman rule and Adjarian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic (Adjar ASSR) under the Soviet Union.

Contents

History

Adjara has been part of Colchis and Caucasian Iberia since ancient times. Colonized by Greeks in the 5th century BC, the region fell under Rome in the 2nd century BC. It became part of the region of Egrisi before being incorporated into the unified Georgian Kingdom in the 9th century AD. The Ottomans conquered the area in 1614. The people of Adjara converted to Islam in this period. The Ottomans were forced to cede Adjara to the expanding Russian Empire in 1878.

After a temporary occupation by Turkish and British troops in 1918–1920, Adjara became part of the Democratic Republic of Georgia in 1920. After a brief military conflict in March 1921, Ankara's government ceded the territory to Georgia due to Article VI of Treaty of Kars on condition that autonomy is provided for the Muslim population. The Soviet Union established the Adjar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in 1921 in accord with this clause. Thus, Adjara was still a component part of Georgia, but with considerable local autonomy.

After the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991, Adjara became part of a newly independent but politically divided Republic of Georgia. It avoided being dragged into the chaos and civil war that afflicted the rest of the country between 1991–1993 due largely to the authoritarian rule of its leader Aslan Abashidze. Although he successfully maintained order in Adjara and made it one of the country's most prosperous regions, he was accused of involvement in organised crime—notably large-scale smuggling to fund his government and enrich himself personally—as well as human rights violations.[citation needed] The central government in Tbilisi had very little say in what went on in Adjara; during the presidency of Eduard Shevardnadze, it seemed convenient to turn a blind eye to events in Adjara.

This changed following the Rose Revolution of 2003 when Shevardnadze was deposed in favour of the reformist opposition leader Mikheil Saakashvili, who pledged to crack down on separatism within Georgia. In the spring of 2004, a major crisis in Adjara erupted as the central government sought to reimpose its authority on the region. It threatened to develop into an armed confrontation. However, Saakashvili's ultimatums and mass protests against Abashidze's autocratic rule forced the Adjaran leader to resign in May 2004, following which he went into exile in Russia. After Abashidze's ousting, a new law was introduced to redefine the terms of Adjara's autonomy. Levan Varshalomidze succeeded Abashidze as the chairman of the government.

For many years, Russia maintained the 12th Military Base (the former 145th Motor Rifle Division) in Batumi.[1] This was a source of great tension with Georgia, which had threatened to block access to the facility. Following talks in March 2005, the Russian government proposed to begin the process of withdrawal later the same year; Russia returned the base to Georgia on November 17, 2007, more than a year ahead of schedule.

In July 2007, the seat of the Georgian Constitutional Court was moved from Tbilisi to Batumi.[1]

Law and government

Logo of the Cabinet of Ministers
The Government of Adjara building in Batumi

The status of the Adjaran Autonomous Republic is defined by Georgia's law on Adjara and the region's new constitution, adopted following the ousting of Aslan Abashidze. The local legislative body, Supreme Council (parliament) of Adjara consists of 30 members and is elected for four years. The head of the region's government—the Council of Ministers of Adjara—is nominated by the President of Georgia who also has powers to dissolve the assembly and government and to overrule local authorities on issues where the constitution of Georgia is contravened. Levan Varshalomidze is the current head of the Adjaran government.

Adjara is subdivided into six administrative units:

  1. City of Batumi
  2. District of Keda
  3. District of Kobuleti
  4. District of Khelvachauri
  5. District of Shuakhevi
  6. District of Khulo

Geography and climate

Adjara is located on the south-eastern coast of the Black Sea and extends into the wooded foothills and mountains of the Lesser Caucasus. It has borders with the region of Guria to the north, Samtskhe-Javakheti to the east and Turkey to the south. Most of Adjara's territory either consists of hills or mountains. The highest mountains rise more than 3,000 meters (9,840 ft) above sea level. Around 60% of Adjara is covered by forests. Many parts of the Meskheti Range (the west-facing slopes) are covered by temperate rain forests.

Advertisements

Climate

The Lesser Caucasus Mountains in Adjara

Adjara is well-known for its humid climate (especially along the coastal regions) and prolonged rainy weather, although there is plentiful sunshine during the Spring and Summer months. Adjara receives the highest amounts of precipitation both in Georgia and in the Caucasus. It is also one of the wettest temperate regions in the northern hemisphere. No region along Adjara's coast receives less than 2,200mm (86.6 inches) of precipitation per year. The west-facing (windward) slopes of the Meskheti Range receive upwards of 4,500mm (177 inches) of precipitation per year. The coastal lowlands receive most of the precipitation in the form of rain (due to the area's subtropical climate). September and October are usually the wettest months. Batumi's average monthly rainfall for the month of September is 410mm (16.14 inches). The interior parts of Adjara are considerably drier than the coastal mountains and lowlands. Winter usually brings significant snowfall to the higher regions of Adjara, where snowfall often reaches several meters. Average summer temperatures are between 22-24 degrees Celsius in the lowland areas and 17–21 degrees Celsius in the highlands. The highest areas of Adjara have lower temperatures. Average winter temperatures are between 4–6 degrees Celsius along the coast while the interior areas and mountains average around -3–2 degrees Celsius. Some of the highest mountains of Adjara have average winter temperatures of -8–(-7) degrees Celsius.

Economy

Map of Adjara

Adjara has good land for growing tea, citrus fruits and tobacco. Mountainous and forested, the region has a subtropical climate, and there are many health resorts. Tobacco, tea, citrus fruits, and avocados are leading crops; livestock raising is also important. Industries include tea packing, tobacco processing, fruit and fish canning, oil refining, and shipbuilding.

The regional capital, Batumi, is an important gateway for the shipment of goods heading into Georgia, Azerbaijan and landlocked Armenia. The port of Batumi is used for the shipment of oil from Kazakhstan and Turkmenistan. Its oil refinery handles Caspian oil from Azerbaijan which arrives by pipeline to Supsa port and is transported from there to Batumi by rail. The Adjaran capital is a centre for shipbuilding and manufacturing.

Adjara is the main center of Georgia's coastal tourism industry, having displaced the northwestern province of Abkhazia since that region's de facto secession from Georgia in 1993.

Population

The Black Sea coast near the resort of Kvariati

According to the 2002 census, the population of Adjara is 376,016. The Adjarians (Ajars) are an ethnographic group of the Georgian people who speak a group of local dialects known collectively as Adjaran. The written language is Georgian.

The Georgian population of Adjara had been generally known as "Muslim Georgians" until the 1926 Soviet census which listed them as "Ajars" and counted 71,000 of them. Later, they were simply classified under a broader category of Georgians as no official Soviet census asked about religion. Today, calling them "Muslim Georgians" would be a misnomer in any case as Adjarans are now about half Christian (see below).

Ethnic minorities include Laz, Russians, Armenians, Greeks, Abkhaz, etc.[2]

Religion

The collapse of the Soviet Union and the re-establishment of Georgia's independence accelerated re-Christianisation, especially among the young,[3] a process allegedly encouraged by the governmental officials. However, there are still remaining Sunni Muslim communities in Adjara, mainly in the Khulo district. According to the 2006 estimates by the Department of Statistics of Adjara, 63% are Georgian Orthodox Christians, and 30% Muslim,[2] while according to the BBC, "nowadays about half the population professes the Islamic faith".[4] The remaining are Armenian Christians (0.8%), Roman Catholics (0.2%), and others (6%).[2]

Famous Adjarans

Batumi, 1900s

See also

References

  1. ^ Note that the promises made at the 1999 Istanbul OSCE conference were in regard to withdrawal of Russian forces from Vaziani, near Tbilisi, and Gudauta. See also Transcaucasus Group of Forces
  2. ^ a b c (Georgian)Autonomous Republic of Adjara, Department of Statistics
  3. ^ George Sanikidze and Edward W. Walker (2004), Islam and Islamic Practices in Georgia. Berkeley Program in Soviet and Post-Soviet Studies. University of California, Berkeley Institute of Slavic, East European, and Eurasian Studies.
  4. ^ BBC NEWS | World | Europe | Country profiles | Regions and territories: Ajaria

External links



Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Southwestern Georgia article)

From Wikitravel

Europe : Caucasus : Georgia : Southwestern Georgia
Contents
If you are looking for the region of the US state, see Southwest Georgia.

Southwestern Georgia is a region along Georgia's Black Sea coast, which borders Turkey to the south.

  • Ajara — a 30% Muslim autonomous region of Georgia with beaches, palm trees, and wonderfully fattening food
  • Guria — a region famous for its "Gurian Riders," trick horse riders who toured the United States as part of Buffalo Bill's Wild West Show
  • Batumi — the capital of Ajara and Georgia's third largest city is a pleasant Black Sea port with great Ajaruli cuisine
  • Chokhatauriy — the source of Georgia's second most famous mineral water, Nabeghlavi
  • Keda
  • Kobuleti
  • Ozurgeti — the capital of Guria is a fairly small town; near the Shemokmedi Monastery and the Likhauri Church
  • Sarpi
  • Ajara
    • Gonio Fortress
  • Guria
    • Askana Fortress
    • Likhauri Church (15th century)
    • Petra/Tsikhisdziri Fortress (3,000 years old)
    • Shemokmedi Monastery (16th century)

Sleep

Guria

There are seven resorts in the region, of which Ureki, Shekvetili and Grigoleti are located on the Black Sea; Bakhmaro, Gomi Mountain, Balneological Nabeghlavi and Nasakirali—in the mountainous alpine zone.

This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

Proper noun

Singular
Ajara

Plural
-

Ajara

  1. Alternative spelling of Adjara.

Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message