Akihito: Wikis

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Akihito
Emperor of Japan
Reign 7 January 1989 – present
Enthronement 12 November 1990
Predecessor Hirohito
Heir apparent Prince Naruhito
Prime Ministers
Spouse Empress Michiko
Issue
Naruhito, Prince Hiro
Fumihito, Prince Aya
Sayako Kuroda
House Yamato Dynasty
Father Hirohito
Mother Empress Kojun
Born 23 December 1933 (1933-12-23) (age 76)
Tokyo, Japan
Occupation Emperor, ichthyologist
Religion Shinto
This article contains Japanese text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of kanji and kana.

Akihito (明仁?, born 23 December 1933) is the current Emperor of Japan (天皇 tennō?), and the 125th Emperor according to Japan's traditional order of succession. He acceded to the throne in 1989, and is the 19th most senior monarch or lifelong leader. He is the world's only reigning monarch whose title is customarily translated into English as "Emperor".

Contents

Name

In Japan, the emperor is never referred to by his given name, but rather is referred to as "His Imperial Majesty the Emperor" which may be shortened to "His Imperial Majesty" (陛下 heika?). In writing, the emperor is also referred to formally as "The Reigning Emperor" (今上天皇 kinjō tennō?). The Era of Akihito's reign bears the name "Heisei" (平成), and according to custom he will be renamed "Emperor Heisei" (平成天皇; see "posthumous name") after his death by order of the cabinet, in which the name of the next era under his successor will also be established.[1]

Biography

Akihito is the eldest son and the fifth child of Emperor Shōwa (Hirohito) and Nagako (Kōjun). Titled Prince Tsugu (継宮 Tsugu-no-miya?) as a child, he was raised and educated by his private tutors and then attended the elementary and secondary departments of the Peers' School (Gakushuin) from 1940 to 1952.[2] Unlike his precedents in the Imperial Family, he did not receive a commission as an Army officer, at the request from his father, Hirohito.

During the American firebombing raids on Tokyo in March 1945, he and his younger brother, HIH Prince Masahito, were evacuated from the city. During the American occupation of Japan following World War II, Prince Akihito was tutored in English and Western manners by Elizabeth Gray Vining. He briefly studied at the Department of Political Science at Gakushuin University in Tokyo, though he never received a degree. Although he was Heir-Apparent to the Chrysanthemum Throne from the moment of his birth, his formal Investiture as Crown Prince (立太子礼 Rittaishi-no-rei?) was held at the Tokyo Imperial Palace on 10 November 1952. In June 1953, Crown Prince Akihito represented Japan at the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II.[2]

Then-Crown Prince Akihito and Crown Princess Michiko made official visits to thirty-seven countries. As an Imperial prince, Akihito compared the role of Japanese royalty to that of a robot; and he expressed the hope that he would like to help in bringing the Imperial family closer to the people of Japan.[3]

After the death of Emperor Shōwa on 7 January 1989, the crown prince received the succession (senso).[4] Emperor Akihito formally acceded to the throne (sokui)[4] on 12 November 1990.[2] In 1998, during a state visit to the United Kingdom, he was invested with The Most Noble Order of the Garter. To this date, Akihito is the only Knight of the Garter who is of non-European descent.[5]

On 23 December 2001, during his annual birthday meeting with reporters, the Emperor, in response to a reporter's question about tensions with Korea, remarked that he felt a kinship with Koreans and went on to explain that in the Shoku Nihongi the mother of Emperor Kammu (736–806) is related to Muryeong of Korea, King of Baekje.[6] The Emperor also noted that Koreans who migrated to Japan in ancient times introduced important aspects of culture and technology to the country, and the regrettable fact that Japan’s exchanges with Korea have not all been so friendly should never be forgotten.[7]

Emperor Akihito underwent surgery for prostate cancer in January, 2003.[8] Since succeeding to the throne, Emperor Akihito has made an effort to bring the Imperial Family closer to the Japanese people. The Emperor and Empress of Japan have made official visits to eighteen countries, as well as all forty-seven Prefectures of Japan.[2]

Marriage and children

Imperial House of Japan
Imperial Seal of Japan.svg


HIH The Prince Mikasa
HIH The Princess Mikasa

Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko of Japan.

On 10 April 1959, he married Miss Michiko Shōda (born 24 October 1934), the eldest daughter of Mr. Hidesaburo Shōda, the president and later honorary chairman of Nisshin Flour Milling Company.[2][9] The new Crown Princess was the first commoner to marry into the imperial family. The Emperor and the Empress have three children:

  • HIH The Crown Prince Naruhito (b. 23 February 1960, titled Hiro-no-miya or Prince Hiro),
  • HIH The Prince Akishino (Fumihito, b. 30 November 1965, titled Aya-no-miya or Prince Aya) and
  • Sayako Kuroda, formerly HIH The Princess Sayako (titled Nori-no-miya or Princess Nori, b. 18 April 1969).[2]

Official functions

The emperor with then U.S Vice President Dick Cheney in 2007.
Emperor of Japan - Tenno - New Years 2010.ogv
The Emperor of Japan, at Chowaden Reception Hall, giving a New Year's address to the people of Japan in 2010.

Despite being strictly constrained by his constitutional position, he also issued several wide-ranging statements of remorse to Asian countries, for their suffering under Japanese occupation, beginning with an expression of remorse to China made in April 1989, three months after the death of his father, Emperor Shōwa.

In June 2005, the Emperor visited the U.S. territory of Saipan, the site of one of the most brutal World War II battles from 15 June to 9 July 1944 (Battle of Saipan). Accompanied by Empress Michiko, he offered prayers and flowers at several memorials, honoring not only the Japanese who died, but also American soldiers, Korean laborers, and local islanders. It was the first trip by a Japanese monarch to a World War II battlefield abroad. The Saipan journey was received with high praise by the Japanese people, as were the Emperor's visits to war memorials in Tokyo, Hiroshima, Nagasaki, and Okinawa in 1995.

On 6 September 2006, the Emperor celebrated the birth of his first grandson, Prince Hisahito, the third child of the Emperor's younger son. Prince Hisahito is the first male heir born to the Japanese imperial family in 41 years (since his father Prince Akishino) and could avert a possible succession crisis as the Emperor's elder son, the Crown Prince, has only one daughter, Princess Aiko. Under Japan's current male-only succession law, Princess Aiko is not eligible for the throne. The birth of Prince Hisahito could mean that proposed changes to the law to allow Aiko to ascend the Chrysanthemum Throne will not go through after being temporarily shelved following the announcement of Princess Kiko's third pregnancy in February 2006.

Ichthyological research

In extension of his father's interest in marine biology, the Emperor is a published ichthyological researcher, and has specialized studies within the taxonomy of the family Gobiidae.[10] He has written papers for publication in Japanese and English scholarly journals, namely Gene and the Japanese Journal of Ichthyology[11].

He has also written papers about Scientific History in Japan during the Edo and Meiji Eras, which were published in Science[12] and Nature[13]. In 2005 a newly described goby was named Exyrias akihito in his honour.

Awards

Personal standard of the emperor

Foreign Awards

Country Awards
 Afghanistan Order of the Supreme Sun
 Austria Decoration for Services to the Republic of Austria Grand Star
 Bahrain Order of al-Khalifa Collar
 Belgium Order of Leopold (Belgium) Grand Cross
 Botswana Presidential Order
 Brazil Order of the Southern Cross Grand Collar
 Cameroon Order of Valour Grand Cordon
 Chile Order of the Merit of Chile Grand Collar
 Colombia Order of the Cross of Boyaca Grand Collar
 Côte d'Ivoire Order of the Ivory Coast Grand Cordon
 Czech Republic Order of the White Lion 1st Class (Civil Division) with Collar Chain
 Denmark Order of the Elephant Knight Grand Cross
 Egypt Order of the Nile Grand Collar
 Estonia Order of the Cross of Terra Mariana The Collar of the Cross
 Ethiopia Order of Solomon Grand Collar
 Finland Order of the White Rose Grand Cross with Collar
 France Légion d'honneur Grand Cross
 Germany Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany Grand Cross, Special Class
 Greece Order of the Redeemer Grand Cross
 Hungary Order of Merit of Hungary Grand Cross
 Iceland Order of the Falcon Grand Cross with Collar
 Indonesia Star of Adipurna 1st Class
 Italy Order of Merit of the Republic Grand Cross with Cordon
 Jordan Order of Hussein ibn' Ali Collar
 Kazakhstan Order of the Golden Eagle
 Kenya Order of the Golden Heart
 Kuwait Order of Mubarak the Great Collar
 Latvia Order of the Three Stars Grand Cross with Collar
 Liberia Order of the Star of Africa Knight Grand Band
Order of the Pioneers of the Republic Knight Grand Band
 Lithuania Order of Vytautas the Great the Great Grand Cross with Collar[14]
 Luxembourg Order of the Gold Lion of the House of Nassau Knight
 Malawi Order of the Lion Grand Commander
 Mali National Order Grand Cordon
 Mexico Order of the Aztec Eagle Grand Collar
 Morocco Order of Muhammad Grand Collar
 Nepal Order of Ojaswi Rajanya
 Netherlands Order of the Netherlands Lion Knight Grand Cross
 Nigeria Order of the Federal Republic Grand Cordon
 Norway Royal Norwegian Order of St. Olav Grand Cross with Collar
 Oman Order of Oman Superior Class
 Pakistan Order of Pakistan 1st Class
 Panama Order of Manuel Amador Guerrero Gold Collar
 Peru Order of the Sun Grand Cross in Brilliants
 Philippines Philippine Legion of Honor Chief Commander[15]
 Poland Order of the White Eagle
 Portugal Riband of the Three Orders
 Qatar Collar of Independence
 Saudi Arabia Badr Chain
 Senegal Order of the Lion Grand Cordon
 South Africa Order of Good Hope Grand Cross in Gold
 Spain Order of Carlos III Grand Cross with Collar
Order of the Golden Fleece Knight
 Sweden Royal Order of the Seraphim Knight
 Thailand The Most Auspicious Order of the Rajamitrabhorn
The Most Illustrious Order of the Royal House of Chakri
 The Gambia Order of the Republic of Gambia Grand Commander
 United Arab Emirates Collar of the Federation
 United Kingdom Stranger 984th Knight of Order of the Garter
Knight Grand Cross of the Royal Victorian Order
Queen Elizabeth II Coronation Medal
 Yugoslavia Order of the Yugoslavian Grand Star
 Zaire Order of the Leopard Grand Cordon

Other Awards

Ancestors

Akihito's ancestors in three generations
Akihito Father:
Hirohito, Emperor Shōwa
Paternal Grandfather:
Yoshihito, Emperor Taishō
Paternal Great-grandfather:
Mutsuhito, Emperor Meiji
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Adopted: Haruko, Empress Shōken; Biological: Lady Yanagihara Naruko , concubine
Paternal Grandmother:
Princess Sadako of the Fujiwara Clan, Empress Teimei
Paternal Great-grandfather:
Prince Kujō Michitaka of the Fujiwara Clan
Paternal Great-grandmother:
Lady Noma Ikuko, concubine
Mother:
Nagako, Empress Kōjun
Maternal Grandfather:
Imperial Prince Kuniyoshi Kuni
Maternal Great-grandfather:
Prince Kuni Asahiko
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Lady Isume Makiko, concubine
Maternal Grandmother:
Princess Shimazu Chikako of Satsuma
Maternal Great-grandfather:
Prince Shimazu Tadayoshi, 29th and last Daimyo of Satsuma, Osumi and Hyuga
Maternal Great-grandmother:
Lady Hiro Sumako, concubine

See also

References

  1. ^ "NATIONAL DAY OF JAPAN TO BE CELEBRATED". Embassy of Japan in Pakistan. 2007-12-07. http://www.pk.emb-japan.go.jp/PRESS/Press%202007/JPNEMPAK%2007-041,%20NATIONAL%20DAY%20OF%20JAPAN%20TO%20BE%20CELEBRATED.htm. Retrieved 2007-12-28. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f "Their Majesties the Emperor and Empress". Imperial Household Agency. 2002. http://www.kunaicho.go.jp/e03/ed03-01.html. Retrieved 2007-12-28. 
  3. ^ "Those Apprentice Kings and Queens Who May -- One Day -- Ascend a Throne," New York Times. 14 November 1971.
  4. ^ a b Varley, H. Paul. (1980). Jinnō Shōtōki, p. 44.
  5. ^ "PoWs' anger at Akihito honour". BBC News (British Broadcasting Corporation). 1998-04-10. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/76386.stm. Retrieved 2007-12-28. 
  6. ^ "Press Conference on the Occasion of His Majesty's Birthday". Imperial Household Agency. http://www.kunaicho.go.jp/epress/epress-01-12.html. Retrieved 2008-07-07. 
  7. ^ 일 환무왕 생모‘백제 화씨부인’묘소 탐방기;초라한 왕후릉... 교토 야산에 홀로 잠들어 조선일보 2002.02.05 발행 / 19
  8. ^ "Akihito has successful cancer operation". BBC News (British Broadcasting Corporation). 2003-01-18. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/asia-pacific/2671271.stm. Retrieved 2007-12-28. 
  9. ^ Fukada, Takahiro, "Emperor — poise under public spotlight", Japan Times, November 24, 2009, p. 3.
  10. ^ Hamilton, Alan. "Palace small talk problem solved: royal guest is a goby fish fanatic," The Times (London). 30 May 2007
  11. ^ PubMed Search Results
  12. ^ Akihito (Oct 1992). "Early cultivators of science in Japan". Science 258 (5082): 578–80. doi:10.1126/science.1411568. PMID 1411568. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=1411568. 
  13. ^ His Majesty The Emperor of Japan (Jul 2007). "Linnaeus and taxonomy in Japan". Nature 448 (7150): 139–140. doi:10.1038/448139a. PMID 17632886. 
  14. ^ Decree 1K-974
  15. ^ http://www.ops.gov.ph/japan2002/news2.htm

External links

Akihito
Born: 23 December 1933
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Emperor Shōwa
Hirohito
Emperor of Japan
7 January 1989 – present
Incumbent
Heir:
Crown Prince Naruhito
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Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Taxonavigation

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Osteichthyes
Classis: Actinopterygii
Subclassis: Neopterygii
Infraclassis: Teleostei
Superordo: Acanthopterygii
Ordo: Perciformes
Subordo: Gobioidei
Familia: Gobiidae
Subfamilia: Sicydiinae
Genus: Akihito
Species: A. vanuatu


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