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City of Akron
—  City  —
From upper left: Ohio & Erie Canal bridge, the All-American Bridge, Lock 3, Downtown Akron, Akron Art Museum, the National Inventors Hall of Fame, and Goodyear Polymer Center

Flag

Seal
Nickname(s): Rubber Capital of the World, City of Invention, Rubber City, Tire City
Location within the state of Ohio
Location within Summit County, Ohio
Coordinates: 41°4′23″N 81°31′4″W / 41.07306°N 81.51778°W / 41.07306; -81.51778Coordinates: 41°4′23″N 81°31′4″W / 41.07306°N 81.51778°W / 41.07306; -81.51778
Country United States
State Ohio
County Summit
Founded 1825
Incorporated 1835 (village)
- 1865 (city)
Government
 - Mayor Don Plusquellic (D)
Area
 - City 62.4 sq mi (161.6 km2)
 - Land 62.1 sq mi (160.8 km2)
 - Water 0.3 sq mi (0.9 km2)
Elevation 1,004 ft (306 m)
Population (2000)[1]
 - City 217,074
 - Density 3,497.3/sq mi (1,350.3/km2)
 - Metro 694,960
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
Area code(s) 330, 234
FIPS code 39-01000[2]
GNIS feature ID 1064305[3]
Website http://www.ci.akron.oh.us

Akron is a city in the U.S. state of Ohio and the county seat of Summit County. The city is located in northeastern Ohio along the Cuyahoga River between Cleveland to the north and Canton to the south. It was founded in 1825 at the highest point of the Ohio and Erie Canal and would became a manufacturing center initially due to its location along both the Ohio and Erie and the western end of the Pennsylvania and Ohio Canals. During the late 19th and early 20th century the city grew into a boom town due mainly to the emergence of the rubber industry, earning the nickname "Rubber Capital of the World." After the decline of heavy manufacturing and the loss of many of the rubber companies beginning in the 1960s the city's industry has since diversified to include research, financial, and high-tech sectors. Akron is also home to the All-American Soapbox Derby.

As of the 2000, the city proper had a total population of 217,074, and is the 81st largest city in the United States, and also the fifth largest city in Ohio.[4] It is the principal city of the Akron Metropolitan Statistical Area, which includes Summit and Portage counties and a population of 698,553. Akron is also part of the larger Cleveland-Akron-Elyria Combined Statistical Area, which in 2000 had a population of 2,945,831, and ranked as the country's 14th largest. Like many former urban manufacturing centers of the U.S. Rust Belt, Akron's population has declined, falling from a peak of 290,351 in 1960.

In 2001, Newsweek named Akron one of nine “High-Tech Havens," a list of cities that had become important in the Information Age, due to the research and development of polymers.[5] In 1999, the United States Conference of Mayors awarded Akron with the City Livability Award, for creating the first Joint Economic Development District, the city also won the award in 2008.[6] Akron won the All-American City award three times making it into the National Civic League Hall of Fame. The National Arbor Day Foundation has designated Akron as a Tree City USA. Akron is home to the All-American Soap Box Derby, which has attracted thousands of children from across the world to race since the 1930s. The Firestone Country Club hosts the WGC-Bridgestone Invitational, an annual professional golf event since 1975.

Residents of Akron are referred to as "Akronites". Nicknames used for the city include "Rubber Capital of the World," "Rubber City,"[7] "City of Invention,"[8] and "Tire City"[9]. Historical nicknames for the city include, "Summit City"[10] and "The Cross Roads of the Deaf".[11]

History

Start as a canal town

Original town plot of Akron

Akron was founded in December 1825 by Simon Perkins. It began as a small village on the divide between the St. Lawrence River and the Mississippi River drainage basins. The village was a 43-block square with its main intersection at Exchange and Main Streets;[12] its northern limit was one block beyond State Street. Much of Akron's early growth was because of its location along the Ohio and Erie Canal which at one time connected Lake Erie and the Ohio River. The locks were needed due to the steep 400-foot (120 m) rise in elevation as the canal crossed the summit between the Lake Erie and Ohio River watersheds. Akron comes from the Greek word ἄκρον meaning "summit".[13] This would later be applied to the name of Summit County, which Akron would be made part and declared county seat of in 1840.[14]

In 1833, Eliakim Crosby established a "second" Akron just north of the existing village known as Cascade, which would also be referred to locally as "north Akron."[15] Cascade developed around a construction project originally intended to provide increased water power for industries. In 1836 the villages joined under the Akron name. The completion of the Pennsylvania and Ohio Canal along Main Street in 1839 started Akron on its climb to industrial importance. Coal, a major railroad, and manufacturing growth from the Civil War contributed to a population increase from 3,500 to 10,000 inhabitants between 1860 and 1870. The nickname, Summit City,[10] was started during the century.

Because of physical obstacles — the steep hill on West Market Street, the Little Cuyahoga Valley, and the swamp south of the city — Akron grew to the east. This encouraged the annexation of Spicertown, centered on Spicer and Exchange, and then Middlebury, which was centered where the Arlington and Market Street commercial area is now located. In 1915, Akron's area increased from 7,254 acres (29.36 km2) to 16,120 acres (65.2 km2).

Rubber Capital of the World, airships, and military importance

Former Goodrich factory
Former Firestone factory

Akron’s history and the history of the rubber industry are intertwined. The rubber industry transformed Akron from a small canal town into a fledgling city. It also had a major role in making Akron the birthplace of the American trucking industry and once the hub of interstate trucking.[16] The birth of the rubber industry started in the 1800s. In 1869, B.F. Goodrich started the Goodrich Corporation, the first rubber company in Akron. In 1898, Frank A. Seiberling founded the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company.[17] In 1900, Firestone Tire and Rubber Company was established in Akron, the same year the city experienced its worst riot in history resulting in the destruction of both Columbia Hall and the City Building.[18][19] General Tire was founded in 1915 by the O'Neils, whose department store named O'Neil's became an Akron landmark.[20] The Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company became America's top tire manufacturer, buying The Kelly-Springfield Tire Company in 1935, and Akron was granted the moniker of "The Rubber Capital of the World".[21] During the first half of the 20th century, the city would also gain the nickname "Crossroads of the Deaf" due to many deaf people coming for jobs in the rubber factories.[11]

Goodyear headquarters

The rubber industry shaped not just the industrial, but also the residential landscape in Akron. Rubber companies responded to housing crunches caused by the booming rubber business by building affordable housing for workers. Goodyear's president F.A. Seiberling built homes costing around $3,500 for employees in what would become known as Goodyear Heights.[22] Likewise, Harvey Firestone built employee homes in what would be called Firestone Park.[23]

For a time Akron was the fastest-growing city in the country,[24] its population exploding from 69,000 in 1910 to 208,000 in 1920. People came for the jobs in the rubber factories from many places, including Europe and West Virginia. Of those 208,000, almost one-third were immigrants and their children. Among the factory workers in the early 1920s was a young Clark Gable.[25] In the 1950s and '60s Akron saw a surge in industry as use of the automobile took off. In the 1970s and '80s, the rubber industry experienced a major decline as a number of strikes and factory shutdowns delivered the final blows to the industry. Between 2000 and 2007, the number of Akron workers in plastics and rubber products manufacturing was slashed in half.[26] By the early '90s Goodyear was the only remaining tire manufacturer based in Akron.

Airship over Akron, 2009

During Akron's rubber period, Goodyear began experimenting with airship development, and created a subsidiary with the Zeppelin Company to build dirigibles in the United States. During the early 1900s, Akron and Lakehurst, New Jersey, were the American centers of dirigible research and manufacturing. The United States' largest airships, Akron, and Macon, were both built in Akron.

Goodyear Airdock, 1941

After their tragic accidents in 1933 and 1935 and the Hindenburg disaster in 1937, rigid airships were abandoned and Goodyear focused on the production of blimps. The US Navy used many blimps in World War II such as The GZ-22 class, Spirit of Akron (N4A), for aerial observation. In the 1960s Goodyear famously began using them for advertising, with the invention of the Skytacular which debuted on the Mayflower, at the Indy 500 in 1966. Though very few new airships are built today, the Goodyear Blimp remains a popular corporate symbol. The Goodyear Airdock, now owned by Lockheed Martin, at one time was the largest building in the world without interior supports.[27][28][29] The space suits that the Goodrich company manufactured, were also used in NASA's Project Mercury.[30]

City of Invention

Former City of Invention Seal

Akron is referred to as the "City of Invention." Numerous technological advances have been developed by inventors who were born and/or resided in the city. Akron native Stanford R. Ovshinsky has been granted over 400 patents for his inventions and patented his first invention - an automatic drive lathe known as the Benjamin Center drive - while living in Akron in the 1940s. In 1872, philanthropist Lewis Miller, Walter Blythe, and architect Jacob Snyder designed Akron's First Methodist Episcopal Church using a floor plan that would become known as the Akron Plan.[31] Numerous Congregational, Baptist, and Presbyterian churches were also erected this style of building, which was popular between 1870 and World War I.[32][33] In 1891, Samuel C. Dyke invented the first mass-produced marbles, balloons, and rubber dolls.[34] In 1896, the Goodrich Corporation produced the first automobile tires made in the United States.[35] Other technological innovations from the company included the first rubber-wound golf ball,[36] cotton-covered rubber fire hose,[37] commercial tubeless tire,[38] and U.S. Project Mercury space suits.[39] In 1899, the first automobile police patrol wagon was invented to help Akron police.[40] In 1925, the Goodrich company decided to market galoshes with Sundback's fasteners. A Goodrich executive is said to have slid the fastener up and down on the boot and exclaimed, “Zip 'er up,” immitating the sound made by the device, which led to the name "zippers." Zipper was originally a B.F. Goodrich trademark that the company sued to protect but was allowed to retain proprietary rights only over Zipper Boots. The term zipper has since became a common noun.[41]

Goodyear Research Center

Since establishing a major research facility in 1943, Goodyear has received thousands of patents. The ABC Line, the first long distance electric railway in world, was anchored by Akron.[42] The optical polymer film, which made clarity and viewing from an angle possible for the large LCD screen television, was invented at the University of Akron in 1989. The technology is also used on the cockpit displays of Boeing Commercial Airplanes, and exceeds $1 billion in sales.[43] The concept of a graded school system in the U.S. began in the city.[44] Akron is also home to the National Inventors Hall of Fame museum.

Industry and major corporation births

Aside from the rubber, tire, and American trucking industries, others have also started in Akron. In the mid 1800s, immigrant Ferdinand Schumacher produced his worldwide popular oatmeal and breakfast cereal in Downtown Akron. The larger scale production of vitrified clay pipe, which has salt glazing on both the pipe's interior and exterior surfaces, which came from Europe, in the U.S. was started in 1849 by D.E. Hill's the firm of Hill, in Middlesbury, Ohio, now an Akron neighborhood. The Akron Sewer Pipe Company, which was the largest factory for glazed vitrified clay pipe in the 1890s, was also founded in the city.[45] In 1863, the Buckeye Mower and Reaper Company, which became one of the world's leading manufacturers of farm equipment, was established in the city.[46] In 1881, immigrant, E.F. Pflueger, established the Enterprise Manufacturing Company, which manufactured the first angling baits, hooks, and other lines of tackle. Also in 1881, O.C. Barber, founded the Diamond Match Company through a merger with the Barber Match Company and others, to become the largest match producer in the United States.[47] In 1891, Samuel C. Dyke founded the American Marble & Toy Manufacturing Company, which became the largest toy company to operate in the nineteenth century. In 1946, Gojo Industries produced the heavy duty hand cleaner called GOJO Hand Sanitizer, invented by rubber factory workers, Goldie and Jerry Lippman, and Professor Clarence Cook. In 1958, local sports agent, Eddie Elias, founded the Professional Bowlers Association.

Geography

Downtown Akron from the All-American Bridge

Topography

Akron is located in the Midwestern United States in Northeast Ohio along the Cuyahoga River, between Cleveland to the north and Canton to the south. The city is also located on the Little Cuyahoga River.[48] Much of Akron is built on the Glaciated Allegheny Plateau region of Ohio. The city's southern edge rests on the St.Lawrence Seaway Continental Divide of the Americas.

The city's land currently covers 62.1 square miles (161 km2). 0.3 square miles (0.78 km2) of this is water and 62.1 square miles (161 km2) is land.[49] The elevation of the city varies from 955 ft (291 m) to 1,004 ft (306 m) above sea level. Downtown Akron and the Merriman Valley neighborhoods sit lower than other neighborhoods such as Highland Square and Goodyear Heights.

Climate

Akron has a humid continental climate (Koppen climate classification Dfa), with cold but changeable winters, wet, cool springs, warm (sometimes hot) and humid summers, and cool, rather dry autumns. Precipitation is fairly well-distributed through the year, but summer tends to have the most rainfall (and also, somewhat paradoxically, the most sunshine), and autumn the least. The mid-autumn through early-spring months tend to be quite cloudy, with sometimes less than 30% possible sunshine. The cloudiest month is December, and the sunniest month is usually July, which is also the wettest month because most of the precipitation occurs with brief, intense thunderstorms. Winters tend to be cold, with average January high temperatures of 33 °F (1 °C), and average January lows of 17 °F (−8 °C), with considerable variation in temperatures. During a typical January, high temperatures of over 50 °F (10 °C) are just as common as low temperatures of below 0 °F (−18 °C). Snowfall is lighter than the snowbelt areas to the north, but is still somewhat influenced by Lake Erie. Akron-Canton Airport generally averages about 47.4 inches of snow per winter. During a typical winter, temperatures drop below 0 °F (−18 °C) on about 6 occurrences, generally only during the nighttime hours.[50] Average July high temperatures of 82 °F (28 °C), and average July lows of 61 °F (16 °C) are normal. Summer weather is more stable, generally humid with thunderstorms fairly common. Temperatures reach or exceed 90 °F (32 °C) about 9 times each summer, on average.[51] In hot summers, such as 1988, however, as many as 30 days over 90 °F (32 °C) have been observed, and in cooler summers, such as the summer of 2000, the temperature may never reach 90 °F (32 °C). Temperatures over 100 °F (38 °C) are rare (about once per decade on average), most recently occurring on several occasions in the hot summer of 1988.

The all-time record high in Akron of 104°F (40°C) was established on August 6, 1918,[52] and the all-time record low of −25 °F (−32 °C) was set on January 19, 1994.[53]

Weather data for Akron, Ohio
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °F (°C) 73
(23)
72
(22)
82
(28)
89
(32)
93
(34)
100
(38)
102
(39)
104
(40)
99
(37)
89
(32)
80
(27)
76
(24)
104
(40)
Average high °F (°C) 33
(1)
37
(3)
48
(9)
59
(15)
70
(21)
78
(26)
82
(28)
80
(27)
73
(23)
61
(16)
49
(9)
38
(3)
59
(15)
Average low °F (°C) 17
(-8)
20
(-7)
28
(-2)
37
(3)
48
(9)
57
(14)
61
(16)
60
(16)
53
(12)
42
(6)
33
(1)
24
(-4)
40
(4)
Record low °F (°C) −25
(-32)
−20
(-29)
−6
(-21)
10
(-12)
24
(-4)
32
(0)
41
(5)
39
(4)
29
(-2)
20
(-7)
−1
(-18)
−16
(-27)
−25
(-32)
Rainfall inches (mm) 2.49
(63.2)
2.28
(57.9)
3.15
(80)
3.39
(86.1)
3.96
(100.6)
3.55
(90.2)
4.02
(102.1)
3.65
(92.7)
3.43
(87.1)
2.53
(64.3)
3.04
(77.2)
2.98
(75.7)
38.47
(977.1)
Snowfall inches (mm) 13.2
(335.3)
9.4
(238.8)
8.3
(210.8)
2.6
(66)
0.1
(2.5)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.0
(0)
0.6
(15.2)
3.7
(94)
9.5
(241.3)
47.4
(1,204)
Source: National Weather Service[54] November 2008

Environment

In 2007 Akron opened a biogas facility,[55] which uses methane produced in the decomposition process of sludge to create electricity. It is the first such facility in the United States.[56]

Cityscape

View of the Akron skyline from the west looking east

Architecture

Spicer Village Townhomes
Northside Lofts

Financial and legal offices, hotels, hospitals, government and other civic buildings are predominant in the downtown area. Commercial uses and light industry are the primary land uses south of Cedar Street, in Opportunity Park, and along Wolf Ledges Parkway. Parks along the historic Ohio and Erie Canal provide recreation opportunities. Downtown features adaptive re-use of historic structures such as the B.F. Goodrich plant, which in present times, is the Canal Place, combined with modern additions. These include the Canal Park baseball stadium, Knight Convention Center, and National Inventors Hall of Fame. Residential redevelopment includes conversion of the Akron YMCA Building into modern apartments and construction of new condominiums at the Landings at Canal Park.[57]

The city has a diverse heritage of restaurants and shopping centers.[58] Quaker Square, located in the heart of Akron’s downtown, was redeveloped in the early 1970s as a downtown mall, created from the old Quaker Oats factory, which originally operated at that location. The oat silos had been transformed into round hotel rooms. Recently, the University of Akron purchased this complex for its own use, primarily as residence-hall space. Highland Square, located near West Akron and anchored by the historic Highland Theatre, is a well-known entertainment district, featuring antique stores, retail shops, and several unique restaurants and taverns. Other unique and historically significant Akron neighborhoods include Goodyear Heights and Firestone Park, originally developed and designed for employees of the large Akron rubber companies. Likewise, Northwest Akron is home to a number of large mansions, many of which, like Stan Hywet Hall and Gardens, were built early in the 20th century for the upper management of these companies, as well as the city's many other industries.

Y.M.C.A., Akron's eighth-tallest building

Parks and recreation

Parks in Akron include, Lock 3, Lock 2, Malasia, Prentiss, Perkins, Saint Mary's Stadium, Sand Run, Schneider, Shady, Shadyside, Cascade Valley, Firestone, Goodyear Heights, Hampton Hills, Gorge, and the F.A. Seiberling Nature Realm.[59]

The Ohio & Erie Canal Towpath running through Lock 2 Park

Lock 3 Park in downtown Akron is the city's hub for entertainment. It is commonly used as an outdoor amphitheater hosting live musical entertainment, festivals, and special events year-round. The park was created in the early 21st century to provide green space within the city of Akron. The Ohio-Erie Canal can still be seen flowing behind the stage where there was once a boat yard and dry dock. Later, a pottery factory stood there until the O’Neil’s parking deck was built in the current location. More than 65,000 guests use the park for recreation annually. During Lock 3 Live, it holds concerts for almost every musical genre, including alternative, R&B, reggae, gospel, country, pop, jazz, and classic rock. Some festivals the park hosts throughout the year include Soap Box Derby opening ceremonies, firefighter competitions, charity events, tournaments, and animal events. From November through February, Lock 3 Park is transformed into an outdoor ice-skating rink.[60]

Adjacent to the Derby Downs race hill is a 19,000-square-foot (1,800 m2) outdoor skatepark. The park features concrete ramps, including two bowls going as deep as 7 feet (2.1 m), a snake run, two hips, a stair set with handrail, many smaller quarter pipes and a variety of grind boxes. Positioned just a few feet from the Akron Skatepark is a Pro BMX course where organized races are often held in the warmer months.

The Towpath is a regional bike and hike trail that follows the Ohio and Erie Canal. A bridge was completed in Summer 2008, crossing Route 59/The Innerbelt, which connects the Towpath proper with bike routes painted onto downtown Akron's city streets, thus completing another step towards the connection of Cleveland and East Liverpool with a hike and bike trail. The State of Ohio plans to reconstruct the trail which once ran completely through Ohio, to New Philadelphia from Cleveland. The trail features a floating deck section over Summit Lake. It is a popular tourist attraction, as it attracts over 2 million visits annually.[61][62][63]

Neighborhoods

Neighborhood map

Akron consist of 24 neighborhoods, with an additional 3 that are unincorporated but recognized within the city. The neighborhoods of the cty differ in design largely due to expansions such as town merging, annexation, housing construction in various time periods, and rubber era.

Maple Valley covers the west end of Copley Road, before reaching I-77. Along this strip are several businesses using the name, as well as the Maple Valley Branch of the Akron-Summit County Public Library. Spicertown falls under the blanket of University Park, this term is used frequently to describe the student-centered retail and residential area around East Exchange St. and Spicer, near the University of Akron. West Hill is roughly bounded by West Market on the north, West Exchange on the south, Downtown on the East, and Rhodes Ave. on the West. It features many stately older homes, particularly in the recently recognized Oakdale Historic District.

Suburbs

Akron's suburbs include Fairlawn, Barberton, Cuyahoga Falls, Stow, Tallmadge, Silver Lake, and Mogadore. Akron formed Joint Economic Development Districts with Springfield, Coventry, Copley, and Bath (in conjunction with Fairlawn) townships.

Notable residents

Akron has produced a number of famous artists, including actor and actresses John Lithgow, Melina Kanakaredes, and Angie Everhart, musicians Chrissie Hynde, James Ingram, Chino Nino, and bands Devo and The Black Keys. Famous writers and journalists from the city include Rita Dove and Hugh Downs. Famous athletes include Baseball Hall of Fame member Thurman Munson, professional boxer Ray Anderson and all-star professional basketball players Lebron James, Stephen Curry, Gus Johnson, and Nate Thurmond. Other notable residents include, Notre Dame football coach Ara Parseghian, and astronaut Judith Resnik, who died in the Space Shuttle Challenger accident and also had the Resnik crater and Judith Resnik Award named after her.

Culture and contemporary life

Lock 3 North wall art

The culture of Akron is shaped by decades of immigration, the city's location, and its inventive and industrial history. The American toy industry began in Akron in the 19th century, starting with marbles and rubber-based objects. Notable natives of the city such as, Lebron James, have also affected the United States popular culture, being called The King of Basketball and The Akron Hammer by media.[64] Shoes and commercials from James also have cameos of the city. Akron has been accessed for music and film many times throughout the late 20th and early 21st century. The city's Highland Square neighborhood is considerred a gay community, Akron was also chose to host some of the 2014 Gay Games events. Many festivals, parades, and holiday events are hosted in downtown all-year round.

Museums and fine arts

Akron Art Museum

The Akron Art Museum, located downtown, features art produced since 1850 along with national and international exhibitions.[65] It first opened in 1922 as the Akron Art Institute and was located in the basement of the Akron-Summit County Public Library. It moved to its current location at the renovated 1899 old post office building in 1981. In 2007, the museum more than tripled in size with the addition of the John S. and James L. Knight Building, which received the 2005 American Architecture Award from the Chicago Athenaeum[66] while still under construction.[67][68] The Akron Police Museum displays mementos from the city's history, including some from the notorious bank robber Pretty Boy Floyd, who was arrested by Akron detectives.[69][70] Also located downtown are the Akron Civic Theatre—one of five remaining atmospheric theatres in the United States[71]—and the National Inventors Hall of Fame, which has a collection of inventions from American inventors. The city is home to several other galleries and museums, including Stan Hywet Hall and Gardens, American Marble and Toy Museum, and Don Drumm Studios & Gallery.[72] The archives of the History of American Psychology are located on the campus of the University of Akron.[73]

Film and television

Akron Art Museum, roof cloud lit during night

Several movies have been filmed in Akron, including More Than a Game[74] (2009) with LeBron James. The movie My Name is Bill W.[75], about one of the founders of Alcoholics Anonymous, is set in Akron.

Video games

The city has served as the setting on a stage in the award winning first-person-shooter PC platform video game, No One Lives Forever 2: A Spy In H.A.R.M.'s Way.[76]

Literature

Nolan N. Guzzetta Miniature Sculpture, and Sculpture

Akron natives such as former Poet Laureate Consultant in Poetry to the Library of Congress Rita Dove and author Renee Rosen have introduced Akron into popular culture through their writings. Thomas and Beulah, which largely takes place in Akron, and makes references to city landmarks such as, the All-America Bridge, Quaker Square silos, was written by Dove. Other writings of Rita, such as poems, in some way relate to the city. The Perfume of Akron, which was the constant smell of burned rubber from the rubber factories and oats from the Quaker Oats Company, was created by her in 20th century Akron. The Coast of Akron, written by Adrienne Miller, is a fictional story that takes place in the city during 21st century.[77] Every Crooked Pot, written by Renee Rosen, is also a fictional story that takes place in the city during 21st century.[78] A local pizza shop in Akron, Luigi's, is the inspiration for the pizza shop, Montoni's, in the comic strip Funky Winkerbean, written by native comic strip creator Tom Batiuk.[79]

Cryptozoology

The Grassman, also known as the Ohio Grassman and Kenmore Grassman, is an alleged bipedal, ape-like creature reportedly seen in Akron, primarily around Kenmore.[80] In 1995, the possible creature got its name when researchers from Cincinnati came to Akron due to claims of local residents who said an unusual creature was living in a swampy area of the Kenmore neighborhood off Manchester Road.

Tourism

Lock 3 on Independence Day

Northwest of downtown Akron is Highland Square, the most eclectic area of Akron. The region's oldest feature is the Portage Path, which was part of the effective western boundary of the white and Native American lands from 1785 to 1805. For decades the statue of an Indian named Unk, has watched over this famous pathway where Native Americans carried their canoes between the Cuyahoga and Tuscarawas Rivers. The refurbished statue now stands on a landscaped site on the corner of Portage Path and West Market Street. Other attractions in Akron include, the Akron Civic Theatre , the Archives of the History of American Psychology, Canal Park, the Cuyahoga Valley National Park, Derby Downs, Dr. Bob's Home, the Firestone Country Club, the Hower House , John Brown House, the Ohio and Erie Canal, Simon Perkin's Mansion, and the Stan Hywet Hall and Gardens. The Akron Marathon, which has grown each year consecutively in participants and increased by 87% in 2009, also takes place in the city.

Akron is home to many festivals throughout the year. In mid July, the National Hamburger Festival consist of over 20 venues serving original recipe hamburgers and has a Miss Hamburger contest. Lock 3 Park annually hosts the First Night Akron celebration on New Year's Eve. The park also annually hosts the Italian Festival and the "Rib, White & Blue" food festival in early July. Founders Day is celebrated annually due to the founding of Alcoholics Anonymous within the city. In Highland Square, Akron hosts a convergence of art, music, and community annually called Art in the Square, a festival featuring local artists and musicians.

4th Annual Hamburger Festival hosted at Lock 3 Park

Cuisine

Ferdinand Schumacher aka The Oatmeal King, founder of the German Mills American Oatmeal Company, created the first breakfast cereal and co-founded the Quaker Oats Company.[44] Native singer Chrissie Hynde owns The VegiTerranean restaurant in the Northside Lofts, and other notable eateries in Akron are Luigi's, Mary Coyle Ice Cream, Metro Burger, Swenson's, Ken Stewart's, The Diamond Grille, Tangier, Menches Brothers Restaurant, Louie's, New Era, The Office Bistro, Strickland's Frozen Custard, and Hamburger Station.[81][82]

Media

Akron Beacon Journal Headquarters

See also:Akron Radio

Akron is served in print by the Akron Beacon Journal daily newspaper, and weekly by the West Side Leader and Akron Life & Leisure. The Buchtelite, printed by the University of Akron, is also distributed throughout the city.

Akron is unique in that despite its size, it does not form its own television market, primarily due to being less than 40 miles (64 km) from Cleveland. It is part of the Cleveland-Akron-Canton media market, the 17th largest market in the US.[83] However, WAOH-LP, WEAO (PBS), WVPX (ION), and WBNX-TV (CW) stations are licensed to Akron. WAOH and WEAO serve the city of Akron specifically, while WBNX and WVPX identify themselves as "Akron-Cleveland", serving the entire Northeast Ohio market. Akron has no native news broadcast, having lost its only news station when the former WAKC became WVPX in 1996. WVPX and Cleveland's WKYC later provided a joint news program, which was cancelled in 2005.[84][85]

Akron is also served by WZIP 88.1 (Top 40 / College – University of Akron), WAPS 91.3 (Varied formats: local artists, modern rock, blues, jazz and public radio), WAKR 1590 (Oldies), WKDD 98.1 (Adult contemporary), WHLO 640 (News/talk), WJMP 1520 (News/Talk), WKSU 89.7 (National Public Radio, operated from the campus of Kent State University), WONE 97.5 (Classic rock), WNIR-FM 100.1 (News/talk), WSTB 88.9 (Alternative), WARF 1350 (Fox Sports Ohio), WQMX 94.9 (Country), WRQK 106.9 (Rock), and WHOF 101.7 (AC).

Spoken dialects

Although Akron is in northern Ohio, where the Inland North dialect is expected, its settlement history, puts it in the North Midland dialect area.[86] Some localisms that have developed include devilstrip, which refers to the grass strip between a sidewalk and street, and the unofficial term Akroness.[87]

Sports

Canal Park

Current sports teams

Summa Field at Infocision Stadium

Akron is currently home to two professional sports teams. The city plays host to the minor league baseball team known as the Akron Aeros of the Eastern League. The Aeros are the AA-class affiliate of the Cleveland Indians and moved to Akron in 1997. The franchise plays at Canal Park and has won three league championships and six division championships since moving to Akron including divisional and league titles in 2009. The Akron Racers are a professional softball team established in 1998 who play in the National Pro Fastpitch. The Racers play at historic Firestone Stadium and have claimed one league title in 2005.[88] Akron is home to a roller derby team known as the Northeast Ohio Rock n Roller Girls.[89] Additionally, as home to the University of Akron, the city is also home to Akron Zips, who compete in the NCAA in a variety of sports at the Division I level. The football team plays at recently-completed 27,000-seat Summa Field at InfoCision Stadium. Before completion of the stadium, the Rubber Bowl was the team's venue, which hosted some preseason games for the Cleveland Browns’ and one regular-season NFL game for the team. The men's basketball team and several other sports play at the 5,500-seat James A. Rhodes Arena. The Zips men's soccer team, which plays at Lee Jackson Field, recently completed an undefeated regular-season and national runner-up finish in the NCAA soccer tournament. They have won 12 regular-season Mid-American Conference titles and 6 MAC tournament titles since joining the MAC in 1992.

Past sports teams

Firestone Stadium hosts the National Pro Fastpitch Championship Series and Ohio High School Athletic Association softball finals[90]

Historically, Akron has served as home for a number of professional sports teams. One of the first teams in the National Football League, the Akron Pros, played from 1920-1926 winning the first NFL championship in 1920 with an undefeated record. Fritz Pollard, the first African-American head coach in the NFL, co-coached the Pros in 1921.[91] Akron also had a deaf semi-professional football team known as the Goodyear Silents during the early twentieth century. The city was home to a Negro League baseball team known as the Akron Black Tyrites in 1933. Akron's first professional basketball team, the Akron Wingfoots, won the first NBL title in 1938 and the International Cup three times (1967, 1968, 1969). Recently, Akron briefly served as home to an International Basketball League team known as the Akron Lightning in 2005.[92] The Akron Americans, a minor league professional ice hockey team, played in the International Hockey League's south division for the 1948-1949 season.

Sporting events

Derby Downs

On September 29, 2009, it was announced Akron will host some of the events of the 2014 Gay Games including the marathon, the men's and women's golf tournaments at Firestone Country Club, and softball at Firestone Stadium.[93] The Soap Box Derby is a youth soapbox car racing program which has been run in the United States since 1934. World Championship finals are held each July at Derby Downs. Cars competing in this and related events are unpowered, relying completely upon gravity to move. The Rubber City Open Invitational, first played as the Rubber City Open in 1954, was the first PGA Tour event to be held at the storied Firestone Country Club. The tournament, last played in 1959, was discontinued as Firestone gained national prominence and attracted bigger events beginning with hosting the 1960, and hosting again in 1966 and 1975 PGA Championship, the American Golf Classic in 1961, and in 1962 the World Series of Golf now known as the WGC-Bridgestone Invitational.

Firestone Country Club

Akron hosts an annual race named the Road Runner Akron Marathon, on September 26.[94] The Akron & National Marble Tournament was created in 1923, by Roy W. Howard. The tournament was sponsored by The Akron Press, then later the Akron Times-Press, and the Akron District Marbles Tournament from 1923 to 1937. In 1938 the Akron Beacon Journal took over the tournament and ran it until the 1950’s, and the American Legion continued it until the 1960s.[95] Akron annually hosts LeBron James' King for Kids bikeathon in June.[96] Annually in November, the city host the Home Run for the Homeless marathon. In 1958, before relocatng its headquarters, the Professional Bowlers Association and bowling tournaments were located in the city.

Economy

Gojos Industries headquarters
FirstMerit Tower and FirstEnergy headquarters

National media began referring to Akron as "The Rubber Capital of the World" in the 1930s, in reference to the city's rubber and tire industries. The city has played an important part in the United States' economy through spawning many industries, major corporations, and inventions. In recent times the national media takes notice to the city's plastics and polymer industry. In 1999, the United States Conference of Mayors awarded Akron with the City Livability Award, for creating the first Joint Economic Development District.[6] The city was again awarded with it in 2008, for the idea of rebuilding Akron's schools to act as community centers. Akron won the All-American City award three times, making it into the National Civic League Hall of Fame. In 2001, Newsweek magazine named Akron one of nine “High-Tech Havens," a list of cities that have been important in the information age.[5] Top tourist attractions include the All-American Soap Box Derby, WGC-Bridgestone Invitational, Stan Hywet Hall and Gardens, Cuyahoga Valley National Park, and Akron Marathon. Akron is home to two Fortune 500 companies: the Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company and FirstEnergy. In addition, Akron is home to a number of smaller companies such as GOJO (makers of Purell), Advanced Elastomer Systems, FirstMerit Bank, Roadway Express (a subsidiary of Yellow Roadway), Myers Industries, an international manufacturer of polymer products, Acme Fresh Market, Sterling Jewelers, and Lockheed Martin, Maritime Systems & Sensors division. The Eastern Ohio Division of KeyBank, which has six branches in the city, broke ground in May, for a regional headquarters in Dowtown Akron. Relocation is scheduled for completion by the fall of 2010.[97]

Wireless corridor

The OneCommunity Network collaborated with the city of Akron and Connect Akron to deploy a wireless network that provides free WiFi access to a 10-square-mile (26 km2) area centered in downtown. In June 2009, the project was successfully tested in a one-day demo and was completed in October.[98] The corridor reaches out to parts of the Goodyear Heights, East Akron, North Hill, Firestone Park, Kenmore, and West Akron neighborhoods.[99] Included in the area are places such as the Akron Public Library, John S. Knight Convention Center, and Transit Center.

Biomedical Corridor and health systems

Akron Children's Hospital

The Biomedical Corridor is an innovation district for technology-based economic development in Akron. The area is located downtown, bounded by Akron General Medical Center on the west, Akron City Hospital on the east, and includes Akron Children’s Hospital near the district’s center, with Saint Thomas Hospital to the north of its northern boundaries. Since its creation in 2006, the project has attracted some companies to move their headquarters into the district, such as Akron Polymer Systems.[100]

Akron City Hospital

Akron's adult hospitals are owned by two health systems, Summa Health System and Akron General Health System. Summa Health System operates Akron City Hospital and St. Thomas Hospital, which in 2008, were recognized for the 11th consecutive year as one of “America’s Best Hospitals” by U.S. News & World Report.[101][102] Due to Alcoholics Anonymous co-founder Doctor Bob's work with St. Thomas Hospital, it has been a setting for the television show Prison Break.[103] Summa is recognized as having one of the best orthopaedics programs in the nation with a ranking of 28th.[104] Akron General Health System operates Akron General Medical Center, which in 2009, was recognized as one of “America’s Best Hospitals” by U.S. News & World Report.[105][106] Akron Children's Hospital is an independent entity that specializes in pediatric care and burn care.[107] In 1974, Dr. Howard Igel and Dr. Aaron Freeman successfully grew human skin in a lab to treat burn victims, making Akron Children's Hospital the first hospital in the world to achieve such a feat.[108] Akron City and Akron General hospitals are designated Level I Trauma Centers.

Polymer Valley

Goodyear Polymer Center

Akron has moved forward into the world of polymer research, development, and technology. More than 400 companies manufacture polymer based materials, and the city is part of what is referred to as "Polymer Valley," a five county region in Northeast Ohio that is the main center of polymer research and production in the nation.[109] The University of Akron supports the industry with both the world’s first College of Polymer Engineering, and a specialized laboratory and research facility accessible by Akron area business partners called the Goodyear Polymer Center. Operations will further be increased after construction of the National Polymer Innovation Center.

Advanced Elastomer Systems headquarters

Rubber industry continuance

In late 2007 the Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company agreed on a deal that will keep its world headquarters in Akron for decades. The project involves the redevelopment of 280 acres (110 ha) in and around the operations off East Market Street. Goodyear is the fifth-largest private employer in Summit County. In an agreement with Industrial Realty Group (IRG) of Downey, California, Goodyear will sell most of its Akron area property and facilities to IRG so would build a new world headquarters building and a new headquarters for the company's North American tire business. IRG also plans to make improvements to the company's technical center and research facilities. Goodyear plans to move into the new buildings in 2010.[110] IRG envisions turning other parts of Goodyear's property into a project dubbed Akron Riverwalk. A retail and commercial development located within a short walking distance from the headquarters on the city's eastside.[111]

Bridgestone agreed with the city to build a technical center, with state-of-the-art R&D labs, where the Bridgestone Americas Tire Operations will relocate to no later than 2012.[112][113]

Demographics

Simon Perkins, founder of Akron, in front of the University of Akron College of Business Administration, moved from its original location in Grace Park
Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1850 3,266
1860 3,477 6.5%
1870 10,006 187.8%
1880 16,512 65.0%
1890 27,601 67.2%
1900 42,728 54.8%
1910 69,067 61.6%
1920 208,435 201.8%
1930 255,040 22.4%
1940 244,791 −4.0%
1950 274,605 12.2%
1960 290,351 5.7%
1970 275,425 −5.1%
1980 237,177 −13.9%
1990 223,019 −6.0%
2000 217,074 −2.7%
Est. 2008 207,510 −4.4%
[114]

As of the census[2] of 2000, there were 217,074 people, 90,116 households, and 53,709 families residing in the city. The population density was 3,497.3 people per square mile (1,350.3/km²). There were 97,315 housing units at an average density of 1,567.9/sq mi (605.3/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 67.22% White, 28.48% African American, 0.26% Native American, 1.50% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.43% from other races, and 2.07% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.16% of the population. The top 5 largest ancestries include German (18.1%), Irish (11.5%), English (7.2%), Italian (6.8%), and American (6.4%).[115]

There were 90,116 households out of which 28.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.5% were married couples living together, 17.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.4% were non-families. 33.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.2% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 3.01.

In the city the population was spread out with 25.3% under the age of 18, 10.5% from 18 to 24, 30.3% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, and 13.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 91.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.6 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $31,835, and the median income for a family was $39,381. Males had a median income of $31,898 versus $24,121 for females. The per capita income for the city was $17,596. About 14.0% of families and 17.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.7% of those under age 18 and 9.7% of those age 65 or over.

Akron has a metropolitan population of 694,960 (U.S. Census Bureau, 2000). Akron is also part of the larger Cleveland-Akron-Elyria Combined Statistical Area, which was the 14th largest in the country with a population of over 2.9 million according to the 2000 Census.

History in human rights and relations

In 1851, Sojourner Truth delivered her "Ain't I A Woman?" speech in the city at the Ohio Women's Rights Convention. When active, Akron was part of the Underground Railroad. Abolitionist, John Brown, lived in Akron, which has two landmarks, the John Brown House and John Brown Monument, dedicated to him in the city. In the 1900s, the Summit County Ku Klux Klan reported having 50,000, making it the largest local chapter in the United States. Members included many county officials, the sheriff, mayor of Akron, judges, county commissioners, and most members of Akron's school board. Wendell Willkie, after arriving in the city, took on the KKK and eventually ended it's influence in Akron politics.[116] Race took part in two of Akron's worst riots, both in the Riot of 1900 and the Wooster Ave. Riots of 1968. In 1920, Dr. W.E.B. DuBois gave a speech in the city on race and education.[117] On December 3, 1997, President Bill Clinton came to the city for a televised national discussion on race.[118] In 1971, Alpha Phi Alpha Homes Inc. was founded in Akron by the Eta Tau Lambda chapter, with James R. Williams as the chairman. The centerpiece, Henry Arthur Callis Tower, is located in the Channelwood Village area of the city.

Government and politics

The Ocasek Building includes state, county, and city offices.[119]

The mayor of Akron is elected in a citywide vote, the city has reached its 59th mayor. They city is divided into 10 wards, each elect a member to the Akron City Council, while an additional 3 are elected at large. The mayor's cabinent currently consist of directors and deputy directors of administration, communications, community relations, economic development, intergovernmental relations, labor relations, law, planning & urban development, planning director - deputy, public safety, and public service.[120] The city adopted a new charter of the commissioner manager type in 1920, but reverted to its old form in 1924.

The current mayor of Akron is Don Plusquellic, who is currently serving his fifth term and was the President of the United States Conference of Mayors during 2004. Plusquellic is also a member of the Mayors Against Illegal Guns Coalition, a bi-partisan group dedicated to making the public safer by getting illegal guns off the streets.[121] In 2008, he was selected along with other mayors, by President Barack Obama to work on solving the Global financial crisis of 2008–2009 at the local level.[122] He defeated a recall attempt in 2009.

In February 2009, Mayor Don Plusquellic announced in his State of the City Address the city will form a permanent citizens group to examine and provide input on the Police Department. The department recently has been criticized by Akron's black community for several officer-related shootings and has caught the attention of the U.S. Justice Department. In 2003, such a group was formed that developed a crime control plan for the city.[123]

Crime

Summit County Courthouse and police car. The modern police car originated in Akron in 1899.[40]

Preliminary Ohio Crime Statistics show that in year 2007, aggravated assaults increased by 45% and had a slight increase in burglary and rape while all other crimes remained average.[124] In a partnership deal with Israel’s Targetech Innovation Center, the city became the first in the United States to have officers trained and equipped with the high-tech Israeli gun, CornerShot, to aid officers in fighting crime.[125]

Historically, organized crime operated in the city with the presence of the Black Hand led by Rosario Borgio, once headquartered on the city's north side in the early to mid 1900s and the Walker-Mitchell mob, which Pretty Boy Floyd was associated with.[126] Akron has experienced two riots in its history, the Riot of 1900 and the Wooster Avenue Riots of 1968.

Methamphetamine problem

Distribution of methamphetamine in Akron started as late as the 1990s, during this period the outlaw motorcycle gang, Hells Angels, would distribute the drug from bars frequented by members.[127] The city is located in Summit County, which ranked third in the nation in the amount of meth sites and is long reputed as the "Meth Capital of Ohio".[128] Between January 2004 and August 2009, the city had significantly more registered sites than all other cities in the state.[129] The authorities say the decrease of Mexican meth being imported, after the disruption of a major operation in 2005, attributed to the increase in locally made meth.[130] In 2007, Akron police received a grant to help continue its work with other agencies and jurisdictions to support them in ridding the city of meth labs.[131] The Akron Police Department coordinates with the Summit County Drug Unit and the Drug Enforcement Administration, forming the Clandestine Methamphetamine Laboratory Response Team.[132]

Education

University of Akron's Bulger Hall

Higher education

Akron is home to the University of Akron, which serves nearly 26,000 students, making it the fifth largest public university in the state. The University is home to the Goodyear Polymer Center, and soon to be the location of the National Polymer Innovation Center.[133] The E.J. Thomas Performing Arts Hall was built on the campus, opening in 1973. The University underwent a $300 million dollar construction project, which added nine new buildings and renovated fourteen, and closed Carroll and Union Streets.[134] The University also offers a combined B.S./M.D. program with the Northeastern Ohio Universities College of Medicine. The Summa Field at InfoCision Stadium, is built on-campus as a replacement for the university's previous stadium, the Rubber Bowl.[135] The University of Akron School of Law founded in 1921 as the Akron School of Law, is the law school at the University of Akron, offering both the J.D. and LL.M. degrees.

Pre-college

In 2009 Akron-Summit County Public Library was recognized with a 5 Star rating by Library Journal[136]

Elementary and secondary education is mainly provided by the Akron Public Schools, which are currently going through a 15-year, $800 million rebuilding process, remodeling some schools and entirely replacing others. Some schools will be closing permanently due to a drop in enrollment.[137] The school board could not get a levy passed to pay for its portion of the construction expense so it worked out an arrangement with the city of Akron where the city will use the money from a new income tax to pay for Community Learning Centers, which will serve as schools but be owned by the city.[138] Meanwhile the academic situation has improved as the city’s schools have been moved from “Academic Watch” to “Continuous Improvement” by the Ohio Department of Education[139].

Private schools

Akron also has many private, parochial and charter schools. Akron Public Schools made headlines in 2004 when a freshman student of Akron Digital Academy, the district’s own online charter school, was not allowed to participate in extracurricular activities, an event later covered and satirized by The Daily Show. St. Vincent - St. Mary High School, just west of Akron’s downtown, also made headlines when basketball star LeBron James was drafted by the Cleveland Cavaliers first overall after his graduation in 2003.

Transportation

Airports

Former Akron Fulton International Airport administration building

Airline passengers travelling to or from Akron use either the Akron-Canton Regional Airport or Cleveland Hopkins International Airport. The Akron-Canton Airport is a commercial Class C airport located in the city of Green,[140] roughly 10 miles (16 km) southeast of Akron operated jointly by Stark and Summit counties. Two low-fare airlines, Frontier Airlines and AirTran Airways, have begun serving Akron-Canton in recent years, making it an alternative for travellers to or from the Cleveland area as well. Akron Fulton International Airport is a general aviation airport located in and owned by the City of Akron that serves private planes. It first opened in 1929 and has operated in several different capacities since then. The airport had commercial scheduled airline service until the 1950s and it is now used for both cargo and private planes.[141] It is home of the Lockheed Martin Airdock, where the Goodyear blimps were originally stored and maintained. The Goodyear blimps are now housed outside of Akron in a facility on the shores of Wingfoot Lake in nearby Suffield Township.

Railroads

Akron Northside Station

Akron Northside Station is a train station located in the city at 27 Ridge Street along the Cuyahoga Valley Scenic Railroad.[142]

Bus and public transportation

Intermodal Transit Center

Public transportation is available through the METRO Regional Transit Authority system, which has a fleet of over two hundred buses and trolleys and operates local routes as well as running commuter buses into downtown Cleveland. Stark Area Regional Transit Authority (SARTA) also has a bus line running between Canton and Akron and the Portage Area Regional Transportation Authority (PARTA) runs an express route connecting the University of Akron with Kent State University.[143] Metro RTA operates out of the Intermodal Transit Center located on South Broadway Street. This facility, which opened on January 18, 2009, also houses inter-city bus transportation available through Greyhound Lines.[144]

Freeways

Akron is served by two major Interstates that bisect the city. Unlike other cities, the bisection does not occur in the Central Business District, nor do the Interstates serve the downtown region, rather The Akron Innerbelt and to a much lesser extent Ohio State Route 8 serve these functions.

The Innerbelt looking northeast
  • Interstate 77 connects Marietta, Ohio to Cleveland, Ohio. In Akron, it features 15 interchanges, four of which permit freeway to freeway movements. It runs north-south at the southern part of the city to its concurrency with I-76 where it takes a westerly turn and after the concurrency takes a northwest turn.
  • Interstate 76 connects Interstate 71 to Youngstown, Ohio and farther environs. It runs east-west and has 18 interchanges in Akron, four of which are freeway to freeway. The East Leg was rebuilt in the 1990s to feature 6 lanes and longer merge lanes. The concurrency with Interstate 77 is eight lanes, with extremely close interchange spacing, high crash rates and heavy congestion. The Kenmore Leg is a four lane leg that is slightly less than two miles (3 km) long and connects to I-277.
  • Interstate 277 is an east-west spur that it forms with US 224 after I-76 splits to the north to form the Kenmore Leg. It is six lane and cosigned with U.S. 224.
View of Akron from the south looking north
  • The Akron Innerbelt is a six lane, 2.24-mile (3.60 km) spur from the I-76/I-77 concurrency and serves the urban core of the city. Its ramps are directional from the Interstates so it only serves west side drivers. ODOT is considering changing this design to attract more traffic to the route. The freeway comes to an abrupt end near the northern boundary of downtown where it becomes Martin Luther King Jr. Boulevard. The freeway itself is officially known as "The Martin Luther King Jr. Memorial Freeway". The freeway was originally designed to connect directly to State Route 8, but plans were laid to rest in the mid seventies due to financial troubles.
  • Ohio State Route 8 is an original state highway that is a limited access route that connects Akron's northern suburbs with Interstates 76 and 77. State Route 8's southern terminus is at the central interchange where it meets I-76 and I-77. The second freeway in Akron to be completed, it went through a major overhaul in 2003 with brand new ramps and access roads. In 2007 ODOT began a project to upgrade the road to Interstate highway standards north of Akron from State Route 303 to I-271, providing a high speed alternative to Cleveland.[145]

Sister cities

Global steet sign

Akron has two sister cities, as designated by Sister Cities International:

See also

References

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Further reading

  • Akron Chamber of Commerce Year Book, (1913–14)
  • The University of Akron Press
  • Dyer, Joyce, Gum-Dipped: A Daughter Remembers Rubber Town, The University of Akron Press: Akron (2003)
  • Endres, Kathleen, Akron's Better Half: Women's Clubs and the Humanization of a City, 1825–1925, The University of Akron Press: Akron (2006)
  • Jones, Alfred Winslow, Life, Liberty, & Property: A Story of Conflict and a Measurement of Conflicting Rights, The University of Akron Press: Akron (1999)
  • Russ Musarra and Chuck Ayers, Walks around Akron, The University of Akron Press: Akron (2007)
  • S. A. Lane, Fifty Years and Over of Akron and Summit County, (Akron, 1892)
  • S. Love and David Giffels, Wheels of Fortune: The Story of Rubber in Akron, Ohio, The University of Akron Press: Akron (1998)
  • S. Love, Ian Adams, and Barney Taxel, Stan Hywet Hall & Gardens, The University of Akron Press: Akron (2000)
  • F. McGovern, Written on the Hills: The Making of the Akron Landscape, The University of Akron Press: Akron (1996)
  • F. McGovern, Fun, Cheap, and Easy: My Life in Ohio Politics, 1949–1964, The University of Akron Press: Akron (2002).

External links


Simple English

City of Akron
—  City  —
Skyline of downtown Akron
Nickname(s): The Rubber Capital of the World

City of Akron
Coordinates: 41°4′23″N 81°31′4″W / 41.07306°N 81.51778°W / 41.07306; -81.51778
Country United States
State Ohio
County Summit
Founded 1825
Incorporated 1835 (village)
- 1865 (city)
Government
 - Mayor Don Plusquellic (D)
Area
 - City 62.4 sq mi (161.6 km2)
 - Land 62.1 sq mi (160.8 km2)
 - Water 0.3 sq mi (0.9 km2)
Elevation 955 ft (291 m)
Population (2000)[1]
 - City 217,074
 Density 3,497.3/sq mi (1,350.3/km2)
 Metro 694,960
Time zone EST (UTC-5)
 - Summer (DST) EDT (UTC-4)
Area code(s) 330/234
FIPS code 39-01000[2]
GNIS feature ID 1064305[3]
Website http://www.ci.akron.oh.us

Akron is a large city in the U.S. state of Ohio. It is found near the Ohio & Lake Erie canal. It is home to the U.S. rubber industry, including Goodyear tires.

Other websites

References








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