The Full Wiki

Al-Andalus: Wikis

Advertisements
  
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Al-Andalus

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

History of al-Andalus
Granada Alhambra gazelle Poterie 9019.JPG
711–1492

711–732 Invasions


756–1039 Omayyads of Córdoba


1039–1085 Taifas


1085–1145 Almoravids


1147–1238 Almohads


1238–1492 Emirate of Granada


connected articles
(Granada، Al-Andalus)

Al-Andalus (Arabic: الأندلس‎) was the Arabic name given to the parts of the Iberian Peninsula and Septimania governed by Arab and North African Muslims (given the generic name of Moors), at various times in the period between 711 and 1492.[1][2][3]

Following the conquest, al-Andalus was divided into five administrative areas roughly corresponding to Andalusia, Galicia and Portugal, Castile and Léon, Aragon and Catalonia, and Septimania.[4] As a political domain or domains, it successively constituted a province of the Umayyad Caliphate, initiated by the Caliph Al-Walid I (711–750); the Emirate of Córdoba (c. 750–929); the Caliphate of Córdoba (929–1031); and the Caliphate of Córdoba's taifa (successor) kingdoms.

In succeeding centuries, Al-Andalus became a province of the Berber Muslim dynasties of the Almoravids and Almohads, subsequently fragmenting into a number of minor states, most notably the Emirate of Granada. For large parts of its history, particularly under the Caliphate of Córdoba, Al-Andalus was a beacon of learning, and the city of Córdoba became one of the leading cultural and economic centres in both the Mediterranean basin and the Islamic world.

For much of its history, Al-Andalus existed in conflict with Christian kingdoms to the north. In 1085, Alfonso VI of León and Castile captured Toledo, precipitating a gradual decline until, by 1236, with the fall of Córdoba, the Emirate of Granada remained the only Muslim-ruled territory in what is now Spain. The Portuguese Reconquista culminated in 1249 with the conquest of the Algarve by Afonso III. In 1238, Granada officially became a tributary state to the Kingdom of Castile, then ruled by Ferdinand III. On January 2, 1492, Muhammad XII surrendered complete control of Granada to Ferdinand and Isabella, Los Reyes Católicos, "The Catholic Monarchs".

Contents

Etymology of al-Andalus

The etymology of the word "al-Andalus" is disputed. Furthermore, the extent of Iberian territory encompassed by the name changed over the centuries. As a designation for Iberia or its southern portion, the name is first attested by inscriptions on coins minted by the new Muslim government in Iberia circa 715 (the uncertainty in the year is due to the fact that the coins were bilingual in Latin and Arabic and the two inscriptions differ as to the year of minting).[5]

At least three specific etymologies have been proposed in Western scholarship, all presuming that the name arose after the Roman period in the Iberian Peninsula's history. Their originators or defenders have been historians. Recently, linguistics expertise has been brought to bear on the issue. Arguments from toponymy (the study of place names), history, and language structure demonstrate the lack of substance in all preceding proposals, and evidence has been presented that the name predates the Roman occupation rather than postdates it.[6]

A major objection to all earlier proposals is that the very name Andaluz (the equivalent of Andalus in Spanish spelling) exists in several places in mountainous areas of Castile.[7] Furthermore, the fragment and- is common in Spanish place names, and the fragment -luz also occurs several times across Spain.

Advertisements

Older proposals

The name "Andalusia" or "Vandalusia" was traditionally believed to be derived from "Vandal" (the Germanic tribe that colonized parts of Iberia from 407 to 429), however, there is no historical reference to support this. This proposal is sometimes associated with the 19th century historian Reinhart Dozy,[8] but it predates him and he recognized some of its shortcomings. Although he accepted that "al-Andalus" derived from "Vandal", he believed that geographically it referred only to the harbor from which the Vandals departed Iberia for Africa—the location of which harbour was unknown.[9]

Another proposal is that "Andalus" is an Arabic language version of the name "Atlantis". This idea has recently been defended by the Spanish historian Vallvé, but purely on the grounds that it is allegedly plausible phonetically and would explain several toponymic facts (no historical evidence was offered).[10] In Modern Standard Arabic, the name for "Atlantis" is aţlānţis.

Vallvé writes:

Arabic texts offering the first mentions of the island of al-Andalus and the sea of al-Andalus become extraordinarily clear if we substitute this expressions with "Atlantis" or "Atlantic". The same can be said with reference to Hercules and the Amazons whose island, according to Arabic commentaries of these Greek and Latin legends, was located in jauf al-Andalus—that is, to the north or interior of the Atlantic Ocean.

The "Island of al-Andalus" is mentioned in an anonymous Arabic chronicle of the conquest of Iberia composed two to three centuries after the fact.[11] It is identified as the location of the landfall of the advance guard of the Moorish invasion of Iberia. The chronicle also says that "Island of al-Andalus" was subsequently renamed "Island of Tarifa". The preliminary invasion force of a few hundred, led by the Berber chief, Tarif abu Zura, seized the first bit of land that is encountered after crossing the Strait of Gibraltar in 710. The main invasion force led by Tariq ibn Ziyad followed them a year later. The landfall, now known in Spain as either Punta Marroquí or Punta de Tarifa, is in fact the southern tip of an islet, presently known as Isla de Tarifa or Isla de las Palomas, just offshore of the Iberian mainland.

This testimony of the Arab chronicle, the modern name "Isla de Tarifa", and the above mentioned toponymic evidence that "Andaluz" is a name of pre-Roman origin taken together lead to the supposition that the "Island of Andalus" is the present day Isla de Tarifa, which lies just offshore from the modern day Spanish city of Tarifa. The extension of the scope of the designation "Al-Andalus" from a single islet to all of Iberia has several historical precedents.

In the 1980s, the historian Halm, also rejecting the "Vandal" proposal, originated an innovative alternative.[12] Halm took as his points of departure ancient reports that Germanic tribes in general were reported to have distributed conquered lands by having members draw lots, and that Iberia during the period of Visigothic rule was sometimes known to outsiders by a Latin name, Gothica Sors, whose meaning is 'lot Gothland'. Halm thereupon speculated that the Visigoths themselves might have called their new lands "lot lands" and done so in their own language. However, the Gothic language version of the term Gothica Sors is not attested. Halm claimed to have been able to reconstruct it, proposing that it was *landahlauts (the asterisk is the standard symbol among linguists for a linguistic form that is merely proposed, not attested). Halm then suggested that the hypothetical Gothic language term gave rise to both the attested Latin term, Gothica Sors (by translation of the meaning), and the Arabic name, Al-Andalus (by phonetic imitation). However, Halm did not offer evidence (historical or linguistic) that any of the language developments in his argument had in fact occurred.

The Emirate and Caliphate of Córdoba

The Age of the Caliphs      Muhammad, 622–632      Rashidun Caliphate, 632–661      Umayyad Caliphate, 661–750
The interior of the Cathedral of Cordoba, formerly the Mosque of Cordoba, built by the Umayyads on the site of the Saint Vincent Visigothic Christian basilica and rededicated as a Christian cathedral in the 13th century. The mosque is one of the finest examples of Arab-Islamic architecture in the Umayyad style.

Under the orders of the Great Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I, Tariq ibn-Ziyad led a small force that landed at Gibraltar on April 30, 711. After a decisive victory at the Battle of Guadalete on July 19, 711, Tariq ibn-Ziyad brought most of the Iberian Peninsula under Muslim occupation in a seven-year campaign. They crossed the Pyrenees and occupied parts of southern France, but were defeated by the Frank Charles Martel at the Battle of Poitiers in 732. However Poitiers did not stop the progress of the Berber Arabs and in 734 Avignon was occupied, Arles was looted and the whole of Provence was overrun. In 737, the Muslims reached Burgundy, where they captured a large quantity of slaves to take back to Iberia. Charles Martel responded with continuous campaigns against the Muslims in the south of Gaul between 736 and 739 and twenty years later, in 759, the Franks under the leadership of Pepin the Short expelled the Muslims from Septimania which was one of the five administrative areas of Al-Andalus.[13]

The Iberian peninsula, except for the Kingdom of Asturias, became part of the expanding Umayyad empire, under the name of al-Andalus. The earliest attestation of this Arab name is a dinar coin, preserved in the Archaeological Museum in Madrid, dating from five years after the conquest (716). The coin bears the word "al-Andalus" in Arabic script on one side and the Iberian Latin "Span" on the obverse.[14]

At first, al-Andalus was ruled by governors appointed by the Caliph, most ruling for periods of under three years. However, from 740, a series of civil wars between various Muslim groups in Iberia resulted in the breakdown of Caliphal control, with Yūsuf al-Fihri, who emerged as the main winner, effectively becoming an independent ruler.

In 750, the Abbasids overthrew the Umayyads for control of the great Arab empire. But in 756, the exiled Umayyad prince Abd-ar-Rahman I (later titled Al-Dākhil) ousted Yūsuf al-Fihri to establish himself as the Emir of Córdoba. He refused to submit to the Abbasid caliph, as Abbasid forces had killed most of his family. Over a thirty year reign, he established a tenuous rule over much of al-Andalus, overcoming partisans of both the al-Fihri family and of the Abbasid caliph.[citation needed]

For the next century and a half, his descendants continued as emirs of Córdoba, with nominal control over the rest of al-Andalus and sometimes even parts of western North Africa, but with real control, particularly over the marches along the Christian border, vacillating depending on the competence of the individual emir. Indeed, the power of emir Abdallah ibn Muhammad (circa 900) did not extend beyond Córdoba itself. But his grandson Abd-al-Rahman III, who succeeded him in 912, not only rapidly restored Umayyad power throughout al-Andalus but extended it into western North Africa as well. In 929 he proclaimed himself Caliph, elevating the emirate to a position competing in prestige not only with the Abbasid caliph in Baghdad but also the Shi'ite caliph in Tunis—with whom he was competing for control of North Africa.

The Caliphate of Cordoba c. 1000 at the apogee of Al-Mansur.
The Caliphate broke up into many taifa states in 1031. (The northern areas shown here in white, red, yellow and dark blue were Christian)

The period of the Caliphate is seen by Muslim writers as the golden age of al-Andalus. Crops produced using irrigation, along with food imported from the Middle East, provided the area around Córdoba and some other Andalusī cities with an agricultural economic sector by far the most advanced in Europe. Among European cities, Córdoba under the Caliphate, with a population of perhaps 500,000, eventually overtook Constantinople as the largest and most prosperous city in Europe.[15] Within the Islamic world, Córdoba was one of the leading cultural centres. The work of its most important philosophers and scientists (notably Abulcasis and Averroes) had a major influence on the intellectual life of medieval Europe.

Muslims and non-Muslims often came from abroad to study in the famous libraries and universities of al-Andalus after the reconquista of Toledo in 1085. The most noted of these was Michael Scot (c. 1175 to c. 1235), who took the works of Ibn Rushd ("Averroes") and Ibn Sina ("Avicenna") to Italy. This transmission was to have a significant impact on the formation of the European Renaissance.

The First Taifa Period

The Córdoba Caliphate effectively collapsed during a ruinous civil war between 1009 and 1013, although it was not finally abolished until 1031. Al-Andalus then broke up into a number of mostly independent states called taifas. These were generally too weak to defend themselves against repeated raids and demands for tribute from the Christian states to the north and west, which were known to the Muslims as "the Galician nations",[16] and which had spread from their initial strongholds in Galicia, Asturias, Cantabria, the Basque country and the Carolingian Marca Hispanica to become the Kingdoms of Navarre, León, Portugal, Castile and Aragon and the County of Barcelona. Eventually raids turned into conquests, and in response the taifa kings were forced to request help from the Almoravids, Islamic rulers of the Maghreb. Their desperate maneuver would eventually fall to their disadvantage, however, as the Moravids they had summoned from the south went on to conquer many of the taifa kingdoms.

Map showing the extent of the Almoravid empire

Almoravids, Almohads and Marinids

Oldest known flag of Morocco (11th-13th century)

Part of a series on
History of Morocco

Ancient Morocco

Prehistoric Morocco
Mauretania Tingitana
Byzantine Empire

Arab Caliphates (654-780)

Rashidun Caliphate · Umayyad Caliphate
Abbasid Caliphate · Caliphate of Córdoba

Moroccan Dynasties (780-current)

Idrisid dynasty · Almoravid dynasty
Almohad dynasty · Marinid dynasty
Wattasid dynasty · Saadi dynasty
Alaouite dynasty

European Protectorate (1912-1956)

Treaty of Fez · French Morocco
Spanish Morocco · Rif Republic

Modern Morocco (since 1956)

Mohammed V · Hassan II
Sand War · 1970s
Green March · Madrid Accords
1980s · 1990s
Mohammed VI · 2000s

Historical Figures

Uqba ibn Nafi · Tariq ibn Ziyad
Idris I · Yaqub al-Mansur
Ibn Battuta · Ahmad al-Mansur
Abd al-Malik I · Al Rashid
Ismail Ibn Sharif · Hassan I

Related Topics

Economic history · Military history
Postal history · Imperial cities

Marinid emblem of Morocco.svg

Morocco Portal
  

Almohad dynasty and surrounding states, c. 1200.

In 1086 the Almoravid ruler of Morocco Yusuf ibn Tashfin was invited by the Muslim princes in Iberia to defend them against Alfonso VI, King of Castile and León. In that year, Yusuf ibn Tashfin crossed the straits to Algeciras and inflicted a severe defeat on the Christians at the az-Zallaqah. By 1094, Yusuf ibn Tashfin had removed all Muslim princes in Iberia and annexed their states, except for the one at Zaragoza. He regained Valencia from the Christians.

The Almoravids were succeeded in the 12th century by the Almohads, another Berber dynasty, after the victory of Abu Yusuf Ya'qub al-Mansur over the Castilian Alfonso VIII at the Battle of Alarcos. In 1212 a coalition of Christian kings under the leadership of the Castilian Alfonso VIII defeated the Almohads at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa. The Almohads continued to rule Al Andalus for another decade, but with much reduced power and prestige; and the civil wars following the death of Abu Ya'qub Yusuf II rapidly led to the re-establishment of taifas. The taifas, newly independent but now weakened, were quickly conquered by Portugal, Castile and Aragon. After the fall of Murcia (1243) and the Algarve (1249), only the Emirate of Granada survived as a Muslim state, but only as a tributary of Castile. Most of its tribute was paid in gold from present-day Mali and Burkina Faso that was carried to Iberia through the merchant routes of the Sahara.

The last Muslim threat to the Christian kingdoms was the rise of the Marinids in Morocco during the 14th century, who took Granada into their sphere of influence and occupied some of its cities, like Algeciras. However, they were unable to take Tarifa, which held out until the arrival of the Castilian Army led by Alfonso XI. The Castilian king, helped by Afonso IV of Portugal and Pedro IV of Aragon, decisively defeated the Marinids at the Battle of Salado in 1340 and took Algeciras in 1344. Gibraltar, then under Granadian rule, was besieged in 1349–1350, Alfonso XI along with most of his army perished by the Black Death. His successor, Pedro of Castile, made peace with the Muslims and turned his attention to Christian lands, starting a period of almost 150 years of rebellions and wars between the Christian states that secured the survival of Granada.

In 1469 the marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile signaled the launching of the final assault on the Emirate of Granada (Gharnatah). The King and Queen convinced the Pope to declare their war a crusade. The Christians crushed one center of resistance after another and finally, in January 1492, after a long siege, the Moorish sultan, Muhammad XII, surrendered the fortress palace, the renowned Alhambra, itself.

Society

A manuscript page of the Qur'an in the script developed in al-Andalus, 12th century.

The society of Al-Andalus was made up of three main religious groups: Christians, Muslims and Jews. The Muslims, though united on the religious level, had several ethnic divisions, the main being the distinction between the Berbers and the Arabs. Mozarabs were Christians that had long lived under Muslim rule and so had adopted many Arabic customs, art and words, while still maintaining their Christian rituals and their own Romance languages. Each of these communities inhabited distinct neighborhoods in the cities. In the 10th century a massive conversion of Christians took place, so that muladies (Muslims of ethnic Iberian origin) comprised the majority of the population of Al-Andalus by the century's end.[17]

A later illustration, depicting the Jewish Soldiers fighting alongside the forces of Muhammed IX, Nasrid Sultan of Granada, at the Battle of Higueruela, 1431.

The Berbers, who made up the bulk of the invaders, lived in the mountainous regions of what is now the north of Portugal and in the Meseta Central, while the Arabs settled in the south and in the Ebro Valley in the northeast. The Jews worked mainly as tax collectors, in trade, or as doctors or ambassadors. At the end of the fifteenth century there were about 50,000 Jews in Granada and roughly 100,000 in the whole of Islamic Iberia.[18]

Non-Muslims under the Caliphate

Treatment of non-Muslims

The non-Muslims were given the status of ahl al-dhimma (the people under protection), adults paying a "Jizya" tax, equal to one Dinar per year with exemptions for old people, women, children and the disabled, whenever there was a Christian authority in the community. When there was no Christian authority, the non-Muslims were given the status of majus.[19]

The treatment of non-Muslims in the Caliphate has been a subject of considerable debate among scholars and commentators, especially those interested in drawing parallels to the coexistence of Muslims and non-Muslims in the modern world. María Rosa Menocal, a specialist in Iberian literature, has argued that "tolerance was an inherent aspect of Andalusian society".[20] In her view, the Jewish and Christian dhimmis living under the Caliphate, while allowed fewer rights than Muslims, were much better off than in other parts of Christian Europe.

Jews constituted more than 5% of the population.[21] Jews from other parts of Europe emigrated to Al-Andalus, where they were treated with dignity, as were Christians of sects regarded as heretical by various European Christian states.[citation needed] Al-Andalus was a key center of Jewish life during the early Middle Ages, producing important scholars and one of the most stable and wealthy Jewish communities. But there is no consensus among scholars that the relationship between Jews and Muslims was indeed a paragon of interfaith relations. Bernard Lewis takes issue with this view, arguing its modern use is ahistorical and apologetic. He argues that Islam traditionally did not offer equality nor even pretended that it did, arguing that it would have been both a "theological as well as a logical absurdity."[22]

Rise and fall of Muslim power

Image of a Jewish cantor reading the Passover story in al-Andalus, from a 14th century Spanish Haggadah.

The Caliphate treated non-Muslims differently at different times. The longest period of tolerance began after 912, with the reign of Abd-ar-Rahman III and his son, Al-Hakam II where the Jews of Al-Andalus prospered, devoting themselves to the service of the Caliphate of Cordoba, to the study of the sciences, and to commerce and industry, especially to trading in silk and slaves, in this way promoting the prosperity of the country. Southern Iberia became an asylum for the oppressed Jews of other countries.[23][24]

Christians, braced by the example of their coreligionists across the borders of al-Andalus, sometimes asserted the claims of Christianity and knowingly courted martyrdom, even during these tolerant periods. For example, 48 Christians of Córdoba were decapitated for religious offences against Islam. They became known as the Martyrs of Córdoba. These deaths played out, not in a single spasm of religious unrest, but over an extended period of time; dissenters were fully aware of the fates of their predecessors and chose to protest against Islamic rule.[25]

Under the Almoravids and the Almohads there may have been intermittent persecution of Jews,[26] but sources are extremely scarce and do not give a clear picture, though the situation appears to have deteriorated after 1160.[27]

During these successive waves of violence against non-Muslims, many Jewish and even Muslim scholars left the Muslim-controlled portion of Iberia for the then-still relatively tolerant city of Toledo, which had been reconquered in 1085 by Christian forces. Some Jews joined the armies of the Christians (about 40,000), while others joined the Almoravids in the fight against Alfonso VI of Castile.

The 11th century saw Muslim pogroms against Jews in Spain; those occurred in Cordoba in 1011 and in Granada in 1066.[28][29][30]

The Almohads, who had taken control of the Almoravids' Maghribi and Andalusian territories by 1147,[31] far surpassed the Almoravides in fundamentalist outlook, and they treated the dhimmis harshly. Faced with the choice of either death or conversion, many Jews and Christians emigrated.[32][33] Some, such as the family of Maimonides, fled east to more tolerant Muslim lands,[32] while others went northward to settle in the growing Christian kingdoms.[34][35]

Medieval Spain and Portugal was the scene of almost constant warfare between Muslims and Christians. Periodic raiding expeditions were sent from Al-Andalus to ravage the Christian Spanish and Portuguese kingdoms, bringing back booty and slaves. In raid against Lisbon in 1189, for example, the Almohad caliph Yaqub al-Mansur took 3,000 female and child captives, while his governor of Córdoba, in a subsequent attack upon Silves in 1191, took 3,000 Christian slaves.[36]

The last Muslim bastion, Nasrid Granada fell around 1492. By this time the Moors in Castile numbered "half a million within the realm, 100,000 had died or been enslaved, 200,000 emigrated, and 200,000 remained as the residual population. Many of the Muslim elite, including Muhammad XII, who had been given the area of the Alpujarra mountain as a principality, found life under Christian rule intolerable and passed over into north Africa"[37]

Culture

The interiors of the Alhambra in Spain are decorated with arabesque designs.

C.W. Previte-Orton writes in his Cambridge medieval history,[38]

The brilliant Saracenic civilization of Moslem Spain rendered the Moors, even during their declines under the Reyes de Taifas, the most cultured people of the West.

Many tribes, religions and races coexisted in al-Andalus, each contributing to the intellectual prosperity of Andalusia. Literacy in Islamic Iberia was far more widespread than any other country of the West.[39]

From the earliest days, the Umayyads wanted to be seen as intellectual rivals to the Abbasids, and for Córdoba to have libraries and educational institutions to rival Baghdad's. Although there was a clear rivalry between the two powers, freedom to travel between the two Caliphates was allowed, which helped spread new ideas and innovations over time.

In the 10th century, the city of Cordoba had 700 mosques, 60,000 palaces, and 70 libraries, the largest of which had up to 600,000 books. In comparison, the largest library in Christian Europe at the time had no more than 400 manuscripts, while the University of Paris library still had only 2,000 books later in the 14th century. In addition, as many as 60,000 treatises, poems, polemics and compilations were published each year in Al-Andalus.[40] In comparison, modern Spain published 46,330 books per year as of 1996.[41]

Philosophy

Andalusian philosophy

Averroes, founder of the Averroism school of philosophy, was influential in the rise of secular thought in Western Europe.

The historian Said Al-Andalusi wrote that Caliph Abd-ar-Rahman III had collected libraries of books and granted patronage to scholars of medicine and "ancient sciences". Later, al-Mustansir (Al-Hakam II) went yet further, building a university and libraries in Córdoba. Córdoba became one of the world's leading centres of medicine and philosophical debate.

However, when Al-Hakam's son Hisham II took over, real power was ceded to the hajib, al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir. Al-Mansur was a distinctly religious man and disapproved of the sciences of astronomy, logic and especially astrology, so much so that many books on these subjects, which had been preserved and collected at great expense by Al-Hakam II, were burned publicly. However, with Al-Mansur's death in 1002 interest in philosophy revived. Numerous scholars emerged, including Abu Uthman Ibn Fathun, whose masterwork was the philosophical treatise "Tree of Wisdom". An outstanding scholar in astronomy and astrology was Maslamah Ibn Ahmad al-Majriti (died 1008), an intrepid traveller who journeyed all over the Islamic world and beyond, and who kept in touch with the Brethren of Purity. Indeed, it is said to have been he who brought the 51 "Epistles of the Brethren of Purity" to al-Andalus and who added the compendium to this work, although it is quite possible that it was added later by another scholar of the name al-Majriti. Another book attributed to al-Majriti is the Ghayat al-Hakim "The Aim of the Sage", a book which explored a synthesis of Platonism with Hermetic philosophy. Its use of incantations led the book to be widely dismissed in later years, although the Sufi communities kept studies of it.

A prominent follower of al-Majriti was the philosopher and geometer Abu al-Hakam al-Kirmani. A follower of his in turn was the great Abu Bakr Ibn al-Sayigh, usually known in the Arab world as Ibn Bajjah, "Avempace"

The Andalusian philosopher Averroes (1126–1198) is considered the father of secular thought in Europe and possibly the most important among them. He was the founder of the Averroism school of philosophy, and his works and commentaries had an impact on the rise of secular thought in Western Europe.[42] He also developed the concept of "existence precedes essence".[43]

Another influential Andalusian philosopher who had a significant influence on modern philosophy was Ibn Tufail. His philosophical novel, Hayy ibn Yaqdhan, translated into Latin as Philosophus Autodidactus in 1671, developed the themes of empiricism, tabula rasa, nature versus nurture,[44] condition of possibility, materialism,[45] and Molyneux's Problem.[46] European scholars and writers influenced by this novel include John Locke,[47] Gottfried Leibniz,[48] Melchisédech Thévenot, John Wallis, Christiaan Huygens,[49] George Keith, Robert Barclay, the Quakers,[50] and Samuel Hartlib.[51]

Jewish philosophy and culture

With the relative tolerance of al-Andalus and the decline of the previous centre of Jewish thought in Babylonia, al-Andalus became the centre of Jewish intellectual endeavours. Poets and commentators like Judah Halevi (1086–1145) and Dunash ben Labrat (920–990) contributed to the cultural life of al-Andalus, but the area was even more important to the development of Jewish philosophy. A stream of Jewish philosophers, cross-fertilizing with Muslim philosophers, (see joint Jewish and Islamic philosophies) culminated in a widely celebrated Jewish thinker of the Middle Ages, Maimonides (1135–1205), though he did not actually do any of his work in al-Andalus, as, when he was 13, his family fled persecution by the Almohads.

Sciences

Astronomy

In the 11th-12th centuries, astronomers in Al-Andalus took up the challenge earlier posed by Ibn al-Haytham, namely to develop an alternate non-Ptolemaic configuration that evaded the errors found in the Ptolemaic model.[52] Like Ibn al-Haytham's critique, the anonymous Andalusian work, al-Istidrak ala Batlamyus (Recapitulation regarding Ptolemy), included a list of objections to Ptolemic astronomy. This marked the beginning of the Andalusian school's revolt against Ptolemaic astronomy, otherwise known as the "Andalusian Revolt".[53]

In the late 11th century, al-Zarqali (Latinized as Arzachel) discovered that the orbits of the planets are elliptic orbits and not circular orbits,[54] though he still followed the Ptolemaic model.

In the 12th century, Averroes rejected the eccentric deferents introduced by Ptolemy. He rejected the Ptolemaic model and instead argued for a strictly concentric model of the universe. He wrote the following criticism on the Ptolemaic model of planetary motion:[55]

"To assert the existence of an eccentric sphere or an epicyclic sphere is contrary to nature. [...] The astronomy of our time offers no truth, but only agrees with the calculations and not with what exists."

Averroes' contemporary, Maimonides, wrote the following on the planetary model proposed by Ibn Bajjah (Avempace):

"I have heard that Abu Bakr [Ibn Bajja] discovered a system in which no epicycles occur, but eccentric spheres are not excluded by him. I have not heard it from his pupils; and even if it be correct that he discovered such a system, he has not gained much by it, for eccentricity is likewise contrary to the principles laid down by Aristotle ... I have explained to you that these difficulties do not concern the astronomer, for he does not profess to tell us the existing properties of the spheres, but to suggest, whether correctly or not, a theory in which the motion of the stars and planets is uniform and circular, and in agreement with observation."[56]

Ibn Bajjah also proposed the Milky Way galaxy to be made up of many stars but that it appears to be a continuous image due to the effect of refraction in the Earth's atmosphere.[57] Later in the 12th century, his successors Ibn Tufail and Nur Ed-Din Al Betrugi (Alpetragius) were the first to propose planetary models without any equant, epicycles or eccentrics. Al-Betrugi was also the first to discover that the planets are self-luminous.[58] Their configurations, however, were not accepted due to the numerical predictions of the planetary positions in their models being less accurate than that of the Ptolemaic model,[59] mainly because they followed Aristotle's notion of perfect circular motion.

Earth sciences

In the late 11th century, Abu 'Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Ma'udh, who lived in Al-Andalus, wrote a work on optics later translated into Latin as Liber de crepisculis, which was mistakenly attributed to Alhazen. This was a short work containing an estimation of the angle of depression of the sun at the beginning of the morning twilight and at the end of the evening twilight, and an attempt to calculate on the basis of this and other data the height of the atmospheric moisture responsible for the refraction of the sun's rays. Through his experiments, he obtained the accurate value of 18°, which comes close to the modern value.[60]

In the early 13th century, the Andalusian-Arabian biologist Abu al-Abbas al-Nabati developed an early scientific method for botany, introducing empirical and experimental techniques in the testing, description and identification of numerous materia medica, and separating unverified reports from those supported by actual tests and observations.[61] His student Ibn al-Baitar published the Kitab al-Jami fi al-Adwiya al-Mufrada, which is considered one of the greatest botanical compilations in history, and was a botanical authority for centuries. It contains details on at least 1,400 different plants, foods, and drugs, 300 of which were his own original discoveries. The Kitab al-Jami fi al-Adwiya al-Mufrada was also influential in Europe after it was translated into Latin in 1758.[62][63]

Medicine

Córdoba alone was reported to have had as many as 50 Bimaristan hospitals at the time of Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis).[64] Sir John Bagot Glubb wrote:[65]

"By Mamun's time medical schools were extremely active in Baghdad. The first free public hospital was opened in Baghdad during the Caliphate of Haroon-ar-Rashid. As the system developed, physicians and surgeons were appointed who gave lectures to medical students and issued diplomas to those who were considered qualified to practice. The first hospital in Egypt was opened in 872 AD and thereafter public hospitals sprang up all over the empire from Spain and the Maghrib to Persia."

Muslim physicians from Al-Andalus contributed significantly to the field of medicine, including the subjects of anatomy and physiology. Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis), regarded as the "father of modern surgery",[66] contributed greatly to the discipline of medical surgery with his Kitab al-Tasrif ("Book of Concessions"), a 30-volume medical encyclopedia which was later translated to Latin and used in European and Muslim medical schools for centuries. He helped lay the foudations for modern surgery,[66] with his Kitab al-Tasrif, in which he invented numerous surgical instruments, including the first instruments unique to women,[67] as well as the surgical uses of catgut and forceps, the ligature, surgical needle, scalpel, curette, retractor, surgical spoon, sound, surgical hook, surgical rod, and specula,[68] and bone saw.[69]

From the 10th century, Muslim physicians and surgeons were applying purified alcohol to wounds as an antiseptic agent. Surgeons in Islamic Spain utilized special methods for maintaining antisepsis prior to and during surgery. They also originated specific protocols for maintaining hygiene during the post-operative period. Their success rate was so high that dignitaries throughout Europe came to Córdoba, Spain, to be treated at what was comparably the "Mayo Clinic" of the Middle Ages.[70]

Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar) was the earliest known experimental surgeon.[71] In the 12th century, he was responsible for introducing the experimental scientific method into surgery, as he was the first to employ animal testing in order to experiment with surgical procedures before applying them to human patients.[72] He also performed the first dissections and postmortem autopsies on humans as well as animals.[73] He also established surgery as an independent discipline of medicine, by introducing a training course designed specifically for future surgeons, in order that they be qualified before being allowed to perform operations independently, and for defining the roles of a general practitioner and a surgeon in the treatment of a surgical condition.[72]

In Islamic Spain, Abu al-Qasim and Ibn Zuhr, among other Muslim surgeons, performed hundreds of surgeries under inhalant anesthesia with the use of narcotic-soaked sponges which were placed over the face. Muslim physicians also introduced the anesthetic value of opium derivatives during the Middle Ages. Ibn Sina (Avicenna) wrote about its medical uses in The Canon of Medicine, which later influenced the works of Paracelsus. Sigrid Hunke wrote:[70][74]

"The science of medicine has gained a great and extremely important discovery and that is the use of general anaesthetics for surgical operations, and how unique, efficient, and merciful for those who tried it the Muslim anaesthetic was. It was quite different from the drinks the Indians, Romans and Greeks were forcing their patients to have for relief of pain. There had been some allegations to credit this discovery to an Italian or to an Alexandrian, but the truth is and history proves that, the art of using the anaesthetic sponge is a pure Muslim technique, which was not known before. The sponge used to be dipped and left in a mixture prepared from cannabis, opium, hyoscyamus and a plant called Zoan."

During the Black Death bubonic plague in 14th century Al-Andalus, Ibn Khatima and Ibn al-Khatib hypothesized that infectious diseases are caused by minute "contagious entities" which enter the human body.[75]

Psychology and sociology

Abu al-Qasim (Abulcasis), the father of modern surgery, developed material and technical designs which are still used in neurosurgery. Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar) gave the first accurate descriptions on neurological disorders, including meningitis, intracranial thrombophlebitis, and mediastinal germ cell tumors, and made contributions to modern neuropharmacology. Averroes suggested the existence of Parkinson's disease and attributed photoreceptor properties to the retina. Maimonides wrote about neuropsychiatric disorders and described rabies and belladonna intoxication.[66]

Said Al-Andalusi (1029–1168) stated that people in all corners of the world have a common origin but differ in certain aspects: "ethics, appearance, landscape and language". He treated the history of Egypt as part of the universal history of all humanity, and he linked Egypt and Sudan to the history of the Arabs through a common ancestry.[76] They linked ancient Egypt to Muslim history through Hajar (Hagar), the wife of Ibrahim (Abraham) and mother of Ismail (Ishmael), the patriarch of the Arabs,[76] thus making Hajar the mother of the Arabs.[77]

Translation movement

Contributing to the growth of European science was the major search by European scholars for new learning which they could only find among Muslims, especially in Islamic Spain and Sicily. These scholars translated new scientific and philosophical texts from Arabic into Latin.

One of the most productive translators in Spain was Gerard of Cremona, who translated 87 books from Arabic to Latin,[78] including Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī's On Algebra and Almucabala, Jabir ibn Aflah's Elementa astronomica,[79] al-Kindi's On Optics, Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Kathīr al-Farghānī's On Elements of Astronomy on the Celestial Motions, al-Farabi's On the Classification of the Sciences,[80] the chemical and medical works of Razi,[81] the works of Thabit ibn Qurra and Hunayn ibn Ishaq,[82] and the works of Arzachel, Jabir ibn Aflah, the Banū Mūsā, Abū Kāmil Shujā ibn Aslam, Abu al-Qasim, and Ibn al-Haytham (including the Book of Optics).[78]

With the fall of Islamic Spain in 1492, the scientific and technological initiative of the Islamic world was inherited by Europeans and laid the foundations for Europe's Renaissance and Scientific Revolution.[83]

Agriculture and cuisine

As early as the 9th century, an essentially modern agricultural system became central to economic life and organization in the Arab caliphates, replacing the largely export driven Roman model. Cities of the Near East, North Africa, and Moorish Spain were supported by elaborate agricultural systems which included extensive irrigation based on knowledge of hydraulic and hydrostatic principles, some of which were continued from Roman times.[citation needed]

The introduction of new crops transforming private farming into a new global industry exported everywhere,[84] including Europe, where farming was mostly restricted to wheat strains obtained much earlier via central Asia. Spain received what she in turn transmitted to the rest of Europe; many agricultural and fruit-growing processes, together with many new plants, fruit and vegetables. These new crops included sugar cane, rice, citrus fruit, apricots, cotton, artichokes, aubergines, and saffron. Others, previously known, were further developed. Several were later exported from Spanish coastal areas to the Spanish colonies in the New World. Also transmitted via Muslim influence, a silk industry flourished, flax was cultivated and linen exported, and esparto grass, which grew wild in the more arid parts, was collected and turned into various articles.

Restaurants in medieval Islamic Spain served three-course meals, which was introduced in the 9th century by Ziryab, who insisted that meals should be served in three separate courses consisting of soup, the main course, and dessert.[85]

As a result of the improved agriculture and cuisine, the average life expectancy of the scholarly class in Islamic Spain increased to 69–75 years by the 11th century.[86]

Economics

The systems of contract relied upon by merchants was very effective. Merchants would buy and sell on commission, with money loaned to them by wealthy investors, or a joint investment of several merchants, who were often Muslim, Christian and Jewish. Business partnerships would be made for many commercial ventures, and bonds of kinship enabled trade networks to form over huge distances. Networks developed during this time enabled a world in which money could be promised by a bank in Baghdad and cashed in Spain, creating the cheque system of today. Each time items passed through one of the cities along this extraordinary network, the city imposed a tax, resulting in high prices once the items reached their final destinations. These innovations made by Muslims laid the foundations for the modern economic system.

Geography and exploration

The caravel was heavily influenced by Muslim vessel designs.

Long distance travel created a need for mapping, and travelers often provided the information to achieve the task. While such travel during the medieval period was hazardous, Muslims nonetheless undertook long journeys. One motive for these was the Hajj or the Muslim pilgrimage. Annually, Muslims came to Mecca in Arabia from Africa, Islamic Spain, Persia and India. Another motive for travels was commerce. Muslims were involved in trade with Europeans, Indians and the Chinese, and Muslim merchants travelled long distances to conduct commercial activities.[87]

The baculus, used for nautical astronomy, originates from Islamic Spain and was later used by Portuguese navigators for long-distance travel.[88] The origins of the caravel ship, used for long distance travel by the Portuguese and Spanish since the 15th century, date back to the qarib used by explorers from Islamic Spain in the 13th century.[89]

According to a controversial theory, explorers from Al-Andalus may have travelled to the Americas (see Pre-Columbian Andalusian-Americas contact theories).

Linguistics and literature

The "Toledo School" was a famous center of medieval linguistics. Members of this school included; Yehudah ibn Tibbon, Herman the German, Adelard of Bath and Gerard of Cremona.

In the 12th century, the Andalusian-Arabian philosopher and novelist Ibn Tufail (known as "Abubacer" or "Ebn Tophail" in the West) first demonstrated Avicenna's theory of tabula rasa as a thought experiment in his Arabic novel, Hayy ibn Yaqzan, in which he depicted the development of the mind of a feral child "from a tabula rasa to that of an adult, in complete isolation from society" on a desert island. The Latin translation of his work, titled Philosophus Autodidactus, published by Edward Pococke the Younger in 1671, had an influence on John Locke's formulation of tabula rasa in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding,[44] which went on to become one of the principal sources of empiricism in modern Western philosophy, and influenced many Enlightenment philosophers, such as David Hume and George Berkeley.

Hadith Bayad wa Riyad (The Story of Bayad and Riyad) was a 13th century Arabic love story written in Al-Andalus. The main characters of the tale are Bayad, a merchant's son and a foreigner from Damascus, and Riyad, a well educated girl in the court of an unnamed Hajib (vizier or minister) of Al-Andalus who is referred to as the lady. The Hadith Bayad wa Riyad manuscript is believed to be the only illustrated manuscript known to have survived from more than eight centuries of Muslim and Arab presence in Spain.

Music

The lute was adopted from the Arab world. 1568 print.

A number of musical instruments used in classical music, particularly in Spanish music, are believed to have been derived from Arabic musical instruments used in Al-Andalus: the lute was derived from the al'ud, the rebec (ancestor of violin) from the rebab, the guitar from qitara, naker from naqareh, adufe from al-duff, alboka from al-buq, anafil from al-nafir, exabeba from al-shabbaba (flute), atabal (bass drum) from al-tabl, atambal from al-tinbal,[90] the balaban, the castanet from kasatan, sonajas de azófar from sunuj al-sufr, the conical bore wind instruments,[91] the xelami from the sulami or fistula (flute or musical pipe),[92] the shawm and dulzaina from the reed instruments zamr and al-zurna,[93] the gaita from the ghaita, rackett from iraqya or iraqiyya,[94] the harp and zither from the qanun,[95] canon from qanun, geige (violin) from ghichak,[96] and the theorbo from the tarab.[97] It is also commonly acknowledged by flamenco performers that the vocal, instrumental, and dance elements of modern flamenco were greatly influenced by the Arab performing arts.

Pottery

Tin-glazed Hispano-Moresque ware with lusterware decoration, from Spain circa 1475.

Hispano-Moresque ware was a style of Islamic pottery created in Islamic Spain, after the Moors had introduced two ceramic techniques to Europe: glazing with an opaque white tin-glaze, and painting in metallic lusters. Hispano-Moresque ware was distinguished from the pottery of Christendom by the Islamic character of it decoration.[98]

The tin-glazing of ceramics was invented by Muslim potters in 8th century Basra, Iraq.[99] The earliest tin-glazed pottery thus appears to have been made in Iraq in the 9th century.[100] From there, it spread to Egypt, Persia and Spain, before reaching Italy in the Renaissance, Holland in the 16th century, and England, France and other European countries shortly after.

Lusterware was invented by Geber, who applied it to ceramic glazes in the 8th century.[101] After the production of lusterware became popular in the Middle East, it spread to Europe—first to Al-Andalus, notably at Malaga, and then to Italy, where it was used to enhance maiolica.

An albarello is a type of maiolica earthenware jar originally designed to hold apothecaries' ointments and dry drugs. The development of this type of pharmacy jar had its roots in the Islamic Middle East. It was brought to Italy by Hispano-Moresque traders by the 15th century.

Technology

The first vertical-axle windmills were built in the Islamic world

Industrial water mills were built in Al-Andalus between the 11th and 13th centuries. Fulling mills, steel mills, and other mills, spread from Islamic Spain to Christian Spain by the 12th century.[102] The first windmills were built in Sistan, Afghanistan, sometime between the 7th century and 9th century, as described by Muslim geographers. These were vertical axle windmills, which had long vertical driveshafts with rectangle shaped blades.[103] These were introduced to Europe through Spain. The bridge mill was a unique type of water mill that was built as part of the superstructure of a bridge. The earliest record of a bridge mill is from Cordoba in the 12th century.[104] The first forge to be driven by a hydropowered water mill rather than manual labour, also known as a finery forge, was invented in 12th century Islamic Spain.[105] Stamp mills were used by miners in Samarkand from as early as 973. They were used in medieval Persia for the purpose of crushing ore. By the 11th century, stamp mills were in widespread use throughout the Islamic world, including Islamic Spain.[106]

Many dams, acequia and qanat water supply systems, and "Tribunal of Waters" irrigation systems, were built during the Islamic Golden Age and are still in use today in the Islamic world and in formerly Islamic regions of Europe such as Sicily and the Iberian Peninsula, particularly in the Andalusia, Aragon and Valencia provinces of Spain. The Arabic systems of irrigation and water distribution were later adopted in the Canary Islands and Americas due to the Spanish and are still used in places like Texas, Mexico, Peru, and Chile.[107]

Muslim cities such as Cordoba had advanced domestic water systems with sanitary sewers, public baths, drinking fountains, piped drinking water supplies,[108] and widespread private and public toilet and bathing facilities.[109] The first street lamps were built in the Arab Empire,[110] especially in Cordoba, which also had the first facilities and waste containers for litter collection.[111]

In 9th century Islamic Spain, Abbas Ibn Firnas (Armen Firnas) invented a primitive version of the parachute.[112][113][114][115] John H. Lienhard described it in The Engines of Our Ingenuity as follows:

"In 852, a new Caliph and a bizarre experiment: A daredevil named Armen Firman decided to fly off a tower in Cordova. He glided back to earth, using a huge winglike cloak to break his fall. He survived with minor injuries, and the young Ibn Firnas was there to see it."[116]

Ibn Firnas was also the first to make an attempt at controlled flight, as opposed to earlier gliding attempts in ancient China which were not controllable. Ibn Firnas manipulated the flight controls of his hang glider using two sets of artificial wings to adjust his altitude and to change his direction. He successfully returned to where he had lifted off from, but his landing was unsuccessful.[117][118] According to Philip Hitti in History of the Arabs:

"Ibn Firnas was the first man in history to make a scientific attempt at flying."

Ibn Firnas' glider was possibly the first hang glider, though there were earlier instances of manned kites being used in ancient China. Knowledge of Firman and Firnas' flying machines spread to other parts of Europe from Arabic references.[112][113] Ibn Firnas' hang glider was also the first to have artificial wings, though the flight was eventually unsuccessful.

See also

History of Spain
Coat of Arms of Spain
This article is part of a series
Early History
Prehistoric Iberia
Roman Hispania
Medieval Spain
Visigothic Kingdom
Kingdom of Asturias
Suebic Kingdom
Byzantine Spania
al-Andalus
Reconquista
Kingdom of Spain
Age of Expansion
Age of Enlightenment
Republic
Reaction and Revolution
First Spanish Republic
The Restoration
Second Spanish Republic
Under Franco
Spanish Civil War
Spanish State
Modern Spain
Transition to Democracy
Modern Spain
Topics
Economic History
Military History

Spain Portal
 v • d • e 
History of Portugal
series
Topics
 Timeline of Portuguese history 

Footnotes

  1. ^ "Para los autores árabes medievales, el término al-Andalus designa la totalidad de las zonas conquistadas — siquiera temporalmente — por tropas arabo-musulmanas en territorios actualmente pertenecientes a Portugal, Espana y Francia" ("For the medieval Arab authors, al-Andalus designates all the conquered areas — even temporarily — by Arab-Muslim troops in territories now belonging to Portugal, Spain and France"), José Ángel García de Cortázar, V Semana de Estudios Medievales: Nájera, 1 al 5 de agosto de 1994, Gobierno de La Rioja, Instituto de Estudios Riojanos, 1995, p.52.
  2. ^ "Los arabes y musulmanes de la Edad Media aplicaron el nombre de al-andalus a todas aquellas tierras que habian formado parte del reino visigodo : la Peninsula Ibérica y la Septimania ultrapirenaica." ("The Arabs and Muslims from the Middle Ages used the name of al-Andalus to all those lands that were formerly part of the Visigothic kingdom: the Iberian Peninsula and Septimania"), Eloy Benito Ruano, Tópicos y realidades de la Edad Media, Real Academia de la Historia, 2000, p.79.
  3. ^ "Andalus, al-" Oxford Dictionary of Islam. John L. Esposito, Ed. Oxford University Press. 2003. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Accessed 12 June 2006.
  4. ^ Joseph F. O'Callaghan, A History of Medieval Spain , Cornell University Press, 1983, p.142
  5. ^ Bossong 2002[online]:1
  6. ^ Bossong 2002
  7. ^ The village of Andaluz (41°31', -2°49') lies at the foot of Andaluz Mountain on the Duero River in the province of Soria, and within 10 km of it are the villages of Torreandaluz and Centenera de Andaluz. A brook named Andaluz is said to flow in the province of Guadalajara out of the Cueva de la Hoz (41°00', -2°18'). Bossong[online]:10-11, but the coordinates given are according to Google Maps and differ slightly from those in Bossong.
  8. ^ Dozy, Reinhart P. 1881. Recherches sur l'histoire et la littérature des Arabes d'Espagne pendant le Moyen-Age.
  9. ^ Bossong 2002[online]:2
  10. ^ Vallvé Bermejo, Joaquín. 1986. The Territorial Divisions of Muslim Spain. Madrid: CSIC (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas).
  11. ^ Bossong[online]:3. The document in question is the Akhbar Majmu'a fi fath al-Andalus, "Collection of traditions on the conquest of al-Andalus". It was published in Spanish translation in 1867 by Emilio Lafuente y Alcántara. Its subtitle indicates it dates from the 11th c., but several historians today say the 10th c. instead, during the rule of caliph 'Abd al-Rahman III.
  12. ^ Halm 1989
  13. ^ Franco Cardini, Europe and Islam , Wiley-Blackwell, 2001, p.9
  14. ^ Halm 1989:254
  15. ^ Tertius Chandler. Four Thousand Years of Urban Growth: An Historical Census (1987), St. David's University Press (etext.org). ISBN 0-88946-207-0.
  16. ^ Khaldun. The Muqaddimah
  17. ^ Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages. Chapter 5: Ethnic Relations, Thomas F. Glick
  18. ^ Wasserstein, 1995, p. 101.
  19. ^ Jayyusi. The legacy of Muslim Spain
  20. ^ The Ornament of the World by María Rosa Menocal, Accessed, 12 June 2006.
  21. ^ "Spain — AL ANDALUS". http://countrystudies.us/spain/5.htm. 
  22. ^ Lewis, Bernard W (1984). The Jews of Islam, p. 4.
  23. ^ Stavans, 2003, p. 10.
  24. ^ Kraemer, 2005, pp. 10–13.
  25. ^ Orthodox Europe: St Eulogius and the Blessing of Cordoba, Accessed 12 June 2006.
  26. ^ O'Callaghan, 1975, p. 286.
  27. ^ Roth, 1994, pp. 113–116.
  28. ^ Frederick M. Schweitzer, Marvin Perry., Anti-Semitism: myth and hate from antiquity to the present, Palgrave Macmillan, 2002, ISBN 0312165617, pp. 267–268.
  29. ^ Granada by Richard Gottheil, Meyer Kayserling, Jewish Encyclopedia. 1906 ed.
  30. ^ Harzig, Hoerder and Shubert, 2003, p. 42.
  31. ^ Islamic world. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved September 2, 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
  32. ^ a b Frank and Leaman, 2003, pp. 137–138.
  33. ^ "The Almohads". http://www.myjewishlearning.com/history_community/Medieval/IntergroupTO/JewishMuslim/Almohads.htm. 
  34. ^ "Sephardim". http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/Sephardim.html. 
  35. ^ Kraemer, 2005, pp. 16–17.
  36. ^ "Ransoming Captives in Crusader Spain: The Order of Merced on the Christian-Islamic Frontier". http://libro.uca.edu/rc/rc1.htm. 
  37. ^ Henry Kamen, Spain 1469-1714 A Society of Conflict Third edition, pp 37–38
  38. ^ Previte-Orton (1971), vol. 1, pg. 376
  39. ^ Previte-Orton (1971), vol. 1, pg. 377
  40. ^ Dato' Dzulkifli Abd Razak, Quest for knowledge, New Sunday Times, 3 July 2005
  41. ^ UNESCO. "Europe", Book production: number of titles by UDC classes, UNESCO Institute of Statistics
  42. ^ Majid Fakhry (2001). Averroes: His Life, Works and Influence. Oneworld Publications. ISBN 1851682694.
  43. ^ Irwin, Jones (Autumn 2002), "Averroes' Reason: A Medieval Tale of Christianity and Islam", The Philosopher LXXXX (2) 
  44. ^ a b G. A. Russell (1994), The 'Arabick' Interest of the Natural Philosophers in Seventeenth-Century England, pp. 224–262, Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004094598.
  45. ^ Dominique Urvoy, "The Rationality of Everyday Life: The Andalusian Tradition? (Aropos of Hayy's First Experiences)", in Lawrence I. Conrad (1996), The World of Ibn Tufayl: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Ḥayy Ibn Yaqẓān, pp. 38–46, Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004093001.
  46. ^ Muhammad ibn Abd al-Malik Ibn Tufayl and Léon Gauthier (1981), Risalat Hayy ibn Yaqzan, p. 5, Editions de la Méditerranée.[1]
  47. ^ G. A. Russell (1994), The 'Arabick' Interest of the Natural Philosophers in Seventeenth-Century England, pp. 224–239, Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004094598.
  48. ^ Martin Wainwright, Desert island scripts, The Guardian, 22 March 2003
  49. ^ G. A. Russell (1994), The 'Arabick' Interest of the Natural Philosophers in Seventeenth-Century England, p. 227, Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004094598.
  50. ^ G. A. Russell (1994), The 'Arabick' Interest of the Natural Philosophers in Seventeenth-Century England, p. 247, Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004094598.
  51. ^ G. J. Toomer (1996), Eastern Wisedome and Learning: The Study of Arabic in Seventeenth-Century England, p. 222, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0198202911.
  52. ^ (Saliba 1981, p. 219)
  53. ^ Sabra, A. I., "The Andalusian Revolt Against Ptolemaic Astronomy: Averroes and al-Bitrûjî", in Mendelsohn, Everett, Transformation and Tradition in the Sciences: Essays in honor of I. Bernard Cohen, Cambridge University Press, pp. 233–53 
  54. ^ Robert Briffault (1938). The Making of Humanity, p. 190.
  55. ^ Gingerich, Owen (April 1986), "Islamic astronomy", Scientific American 254 (10): 74, http://faculty.kfupm.edu.sa/PHYS/alshukri/PHYS215/Islamic_astronomy.htm, retrieved 2008-05-18 
  56. ^ Bernard R. Goldstein (March 1972). "Theory and Observation in Medieval Astronomy", Isis 63 (1): 39–47 [40–41].
  57. ^ Josep Puig Montada (September 28, 2007). "Ibn Bajja". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ibn-bajja. Retrieved 2008-07-11. 
  58. ^ Bernard R. Goldstein (March 1972). "Theory and Observation in Medieval Astronomy", Isis 63 (1): 39–47 [41].
  59. ^ "Ptolemaic Astronomy, Islamic Planetary Theory, and Copernicus's Debt to the Maragha School", Science and Its Times, Thomson Gale, 2005–2006, http://www.bookrags.com/research/ptolemaic-astronomy-islamic-planeta-scit-021234, retrieved 2008-01-22 
  60. ^ Sabra, A. I. (Spring 1967), "The Authorship of the Liber de crepusculis, an Eleventh-Century Work on Atmospheric Refraction", Isis 58 (1): 77–85 [77] 
  61. ^ Huff, Toby (2003), The Rise of Early Modern Science: Islam, China, and the West, Cambridge University Press, p. 218, ISBN 0521529948 
  62. ^ Diane Boulanger (2002), "The Islamic Contribution to Science, Mathematics and Technology", OISE Papers, in STSE Education, Vol. 3.
  63. ^ Russell McNeil, Ibn al-Baitar, Malaspina University-College.
  64. ^ "Muslim Contribution to Cosmetics". FSTC Limited. 2003-05-20. http://muslimheritage.com/topics/default.cfm?ArticleID=364. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 
  65. ^ John Bagot Glubb (cf. Quotations on Islamic Civilization)
  66. ^ a b c A. Martin-Araguz, C. Bustamante-Martinez, Ajo V. Fernandez-Armayor, J. M. Moreno-Martinez (2002). "Neuroscience in al-Andalus and its influence on medieval scholastic medicine", Revista de neurología 34 (9): 877–892
  67. ^ Bashar Saad, Hassan Azaizeh, Omar Said (October 2005). "Tradition and Perspectives of Arab Herbal Medicine: A Review", Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2 (4), pp. 475–479 [476]. Oxford University Press.
  68. ^ Khaled al-Hadidi (1978), "The Role of Muslim Scholars in Oto-rhino-Laryngology", The Egyptian Journal of O.R.L. 4 (1), pp. 1–15. (cf. Ear, Nose and Throat Medical Practice in Muslim Heritage, Foundation for Science Technology and Civilization.)
  69. ^ Paul Vallely, How Islamic Inventors Changed the World, The Independent, 11 March 2006.
  70. ^ a b Dr. Kasem Ajram (1992), Miracle of Islamic Science, Appendix B. Knowledge House Publishers, ISBN 0911119434
  71. ^ Rabie E. Abdel-Halim (2006), "Contributions of Muhadhdhab Al-Deen Al-Baghdadi to the progress of medicine and urology", Saudi Medical Journal 27 (11): 1631–1641.
  72. ^ a b Rabie E. Abdel-Halim (2005), "Contributions of Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar) to the progress of surgery: A study and translations from his book Al-Taisir", Saudi Medical Journal 2005; Vol. 26 (9): 1333–1339.
  73. ^ Islamic medicine, Hutchinson Encyclopedia.
  74. ^ Sigrid Hunke (1969), Allah Sonne Uber Abendland, Unser Arabische Erbe, Second Edition, pp. 279–80 (cf. Prof. Dr. M. Taha Jasser, Anaesthesia in Islamic medicine and its influence on Western civilization, Conference on Islamic Medicine)
  75. ^ Ibrahim B. Syed, Ph.D. (2002). "Islamic Medicine: 1000 years ahead of its times", Journal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine 2, pp. 2–9.
  76. ^ a b El Daly, Okasha (2004), Egyptology: The Missing Millennium: Ancient Egypt in Medieval Arabic Writings, Routledge, p. 17, ISBN 1844720632 
  77. ^ El Daly, Okasha (2004), Egyptology: The Missing Millennium: Ancient Egypt in Medieval Arabic Writings, Routledge, p. 18, ISBN 1844720632 
  78. ^ a b Salah Zaimeche (2003). Aspects of the Islamic Influence on Science and Learning in the Christian West, p. 10. Foundation for Science Technology and Civilisation.
  79. ^ V. J. Katz, A History of Mathematics: An Introduction, p. 291
  80. ^ For a list of Gerard of Cremona's translations see: Edward Grant (1974) A Source Book in Medieval Science, (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Pr.), pp. 35–8 or Charles Burnett, "The Coherence of the Arabic-Latin Translation Program in Toledo in the Twelfth Century," Science in Context, 14 (2001): at 249–288, at pp. 275–281.
  81. ^ Jerome B. Bieber. Medieval Translation Table 2: Arabic Sources, Santa Fe Community College.
  82. ^ D. Campbell, Arabian Medicine and Its Influence on the Middle Ages, p. 6.
  83. ^ Edward Grant (1996), The Foundations of Modern Science in the Middle Ages: Their Religious, Institutional, and Intellectual Contexts, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
  84. ^ Andrew M. Watson (1974), "The Arab Agricultural Revolution and Its Diffusion, 700–1100", The Journal of Economic History 34 (1), pp. 8–35.
  85. ^ Salma Khadra Jayyusi and Manuela Marin (1994), The Legacy of Muslim Spain, p. 117, Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004095993
  86. ^ Shatzmiller, Maya (1994), Labour in the Medieval Islamic World, Brill Publishers, p. 66, ISBN 9004098968 
  87. ^ Edson and Savage-Smith (2004), pp. 113–6
  88. ^ Dr. Salah Zaimeche PhD (University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology), 1000 years of missing Astronomy, FSTC.
  89. ^ John M. Hobson (2004), The Eastern Origins of Western Civilisation, p. 141, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0521547245.
  90. ^ (Farmer 1988, p. 137)
  91. ^ (Farmer 1988, p. 140)
  92. ^ (Farmer 1988, pp. 140–1)
  93. ^ (Farmer 1988, p. 141)
  94. ^ (Farmer 1988, p. 142)
  95. ^ Rabab Saoud (March 2004). "The Arab Contribution to the Music of the Western World" (PDF). FSTC Limited. http://www.muslimheritage.com/uploads/Music2.pdf. Retrieved 2008-06-20. 
  96. ^ (Farmer 1988, p. 143)
  97. ^ (Farmer 1988, p. 144)
  98. ^ Caiger-Smith, 1973, p.65
  99. ^ Mason, Robert B. (1995). "New Looks at Old Pots: Results of Recent Multidisciplinary Studies of Glazed Ceramics from the Islamic World". Muqarnas: Annual on Islamic Art and Architecture (Brill Academic Publishers) XII: 1. ISBN 9004103147. 
  100. ^ Caiger-Smith, 1973, p.23
  101. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan, Lustre Glass and Lazaward And Zaffer Cobalt Oxide In Islamic And Western Lustre Glass And Ceramics, History of Science and Technology in Islam
  102. ^ Adam Robert Lucas (2005), "Industrial Milling in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds: A Survey of the Evidence for an Industrial Revolution in Medieval Europe", Technology and Culture 46 (1): 1–30 [11]
  103. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan, Donald Routledge Hill (1986). Islamic Technology: An illustrated history, p. 54. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-42239-6.
  104. ^ Adam Lucas (2006), Wind, Water, Work: Ancient and Medieval Milling Technology, p. 62, BRILL, ISBN 9004146490
  105. ^ Adam Lucas (2006), Wind, Water, Work: Ancient and Medieval Milling Technology, p. 65, Brill Publishers, ISBN 9004146490
  106. ^ Adam Robert Lucas (2005), "Industrial Milling in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds: A Survey of the Evidence for an Industrial Revolution in Medieval Europe", Technology and Culture 46 (1): 1–30 [10–1 and 27]
  107. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan, Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West, Part II: Transmission Of Islamic Engineering
  108. ^ Fiona MacDonald (2006), The Plague and Medicine in the Middle Ages, pp. 42–3, Gareth Stevens, ISBN 0836859073.
  109. ^ Tor Eigeland, "The Tiles of Iberia", Saudi Aramco World, March-April 1992, pp. 24–31.
  110. ^ Fielding H. Garrison, History of Medicine:
    "The Saracens themselves were the originators not only of algebra, chemistry, and geology, but of many of the so-called improvements or refinements of civilization, such as street lamps, window-panes, firework, string instruments, cultivated fruits, perfumes, spices, etc."
  111. ^ S. P. Scott (1904), History of the Moorish Empire in Europe, 3 vols, J. B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia and London.
    F. B. Artz (1980), The Mind of the Middle Ages, Third edition revised, University of Chicago Press, pp 148–50.
    (cf. References, 1001 Inventions)
  112. ^ a b Poore, Daniel. A History of Early Flight. New York: Alfred Knopf, 1952.
  113. ^ a b Smithsonian Institution. Manned Flight. Pamphlet 1990.
  114. ^ David W. Tschanz, Flights of Fancy on Manmade Wings, IslamOnline.net.
  115. ^ Parachutes, Principles of Aeronautics, Franklin Institute.
  116. ^ "'Abbas Ibn Firnas". John H. Lienhard. The Engines of Our Ingenuity. NPR. KUHF-FM Houston. 2004. No. 1910. Transcript.
  117. ^ Lynn Townsend White, Jr. (Spring, 1961). "Eilmer of Malmesbury, an Eleventh Century Aviator: A Case Study of Technological Innovation, Its Context and Tradition", Technology and Culture 2 (2), pp. 97–111 [100–101].
  118. ^ First Flights, Saudi Aramco World, January-February 1964, pp. 8–9.

Bibliography

  • Alfonso, Esperanza, 2007. Islamic culture through Jewish eyes: al-Andalus from the tenth to twelfth century. New York, NY: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-43732-5
  • Al-Djazairi, S.E. 2005. The Hidden Debt to Islamic Civilisation. Bayt Al-Hikma Press. ISBN 0-9551156-1-2
  • Bossong, Georg. 2002. Der Name Al-Andalus: Neue Überlegungen zu einem alten Problem. In David Restle and Dietmar Zaefferer, eds, Sounds and systems: studies in structure and change. A festschrift for Theo Vennemann. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. pp. 149–164. (In German) Also available online: see External Links below.
  • Cohen, Mark. 1995. Under Crescent and Cross: The Jews in the Middle Ages Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01082-X
  • Collins, Roger. 1989. The Arab Conquest of Spain, 710–797, Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19405-3
  • Frank, Daniel H. and Leaman, Oliver. 2003. The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Jewish Philosophy. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521655749
  • Gerli, E. Michael, ed., 2003. Medieval Iberia: an encyclopedia. New York. ISBN 0-415-93918-6
  • Halm, Heinz. 1989. Al-Andalus und Gothica Sors. Der Islam 66:252–263.
  • Hamilton, Michelle M., Sarah J. Portnoy, and David A. Wacks, eds. 2004. Wine, Women, and Song: Hebrew and Arabic Literature in Medieval Iberia. Newark, Del.: Juan de la Cuesta Hispanic Monographs.
  • Harzig, Christiane, Hoerder, Dirk and Shubert, Adrian. 2003. The Historical Practice in Diversity. Berghahn Books. ISBN 1571813772
  • Jayyusi, Salma Khadra, ed. 1994. The legacy of Muslim Spain. 2 vol. Chief consultant to the editor, Manuela Marín. Leiden: Brill. [Originally published 1992 in German.]
  • Kennedy, Hugh. 1996. Muslim Spain and Portugal: A Political History of al-Andalus, Longman. ISBN 0-582-49515-6
  • Kraemer, Joel. 1997. Comparing Crescent and Cross (book review). The Journal of Religion, 1997 July, 77(3):449–454.
  • Kraemer, Joel. 2005. Moses Maimonides: An Intellectual Portrait. In Kenneth Seeskin, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Maimonides. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521819741
  • Lafuente y Alcántara, Emilio, translator. 1867. Ajbar Machmua (colección de tradiciones): crónica anónima del siglo XI / dada a luz por primera vez, traducida y anotada por Emilio Lafuente y Alcántara. Madrid: Real Academia de la Historia y Geografía. In Spanish and Arabic. Also available in the public domain online, see External Links.
  • Luscombe, David et al., eds. 2004. The New Cambridge Medieval History: Volume 4, c.1024–c.1198, Part 1. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-41411-3
  • Marín, Manuela et al., eds. 1998. The Formation of Al-Andalus: History and Society. Ashgate. ISBN 0-86078-708-7
  • Menocal, Maria Rosa. 2002. Ornament of the World: How Muslims, Jews, and Christians Created a Culture of Tolerance in Medieval Spain. Back Bay Books. ISBN 0-316-16871-8
  • Monroe, James T. 1974. Hispano-Arabic Poetry: A Student Anthology. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Netanyahu, Benzion. 1995. The Origins Of The Inquisition In Fifteenth Century Spain. Random House ISBN 0-679-41065-1
  • O'Callaghan, Joseph F. 1975. A History of Medieval Spain. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0801492645
  • Omaar, Rageh. 2005. An Islamic History of Europe. video documentary, BBC 4, August 2005.
  • Reilly, Bernard F. 1993. The Medieval Spains. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521397413
  • Roth, Norman. 1994. Jews, Visigoths and Muslims in Medieval Spain: Cooperation and Conflict. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 9004061312
  • Sanchez-Albornoz, Claudio. 1974. El Islam de España y el Occidente. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe. Colección Austral; 1560. [Originally published in 1965 in the conference proceedings, L'occidente e l'islam nell'alto medioevo: 2-8 aprile 1964, 2 vols. Spoleto: Centro Italiano di studi sull'Alto Medioevo. Series: Settimane di studio del Centro Italiano di studi sull'Alto Medioevo; 12. Vol. 1:149–308.]
  • Stavans, Ilan. 2003. The Scroll and the Cross: 1,000 Years of Jewish-Hispanic Literature. London: Routledge. ISBN 041592930X
  • Wasserstein, David J. 1995. Jewish élites in Al-Andalus. In Daniel Frank (Ed.). The Jews of Medieval Islam: Community, Society and Identity. Brill. ISBN 90-04-10404-6

Films

External links

Coordinates: 41°31′N 2°49′W / 41.517°N 2.817°W / 41.517; -2.817


History of al-Andalus
711–1492

711–732 Invasions


756–1039 Omayyads of Córdoba


1039–1085 Taifas


1085–1145 Almoravids


1147–1238 Almohads


1238–1492 Emirate of Granada


connected articles
File:GRX Generalife 7661
Moorish Garden in Granada, al-Andalus

Al-Andalus (Arabic: الأندلس‎) was the Arabic name given to a nation in the parts of the Iberian Peninsula and Septimania governed by Muslims (given the generic name of Moors), at various times in the period between 711 and 1492.[1][2][3]

Following the conquest, al-Andalus was divided into five administrative areas roughly corresponding to Andalusia, Galicia and Portugal, Castile and Léon, Aragon and Catalonia, and Septimania.[4] As a political domain or domains, it successively constituted a province of the Umayyad Caliphate, initiated by the Caliph Al-Walid I (711–750); the Emirate of Córdoba (c. 750–929); the Caliphate of Córdoba (929–1031); and the Caliphate of Córdoba's taifa (successor) kingdoms.

In succeeding centuries, al-Andalus became a province of the Berber Muslim dynasties of the Almoravids and Almohads, subsequently fragmenting into a number of minor states, most notably the Emirate of Granada. For large parts of its history, particularly under the Caliphate of Córdoba, al-Andalus was a beacon of learning, and the city of Córdoba became one of the leading cultural and economic centres in both the Mediterranean Basin and the Islamic world.

For much of its history, al-Andalus existed in conflict with Christian kingdoms to the north. In 1085, Alfonso VI of León and Castile captured Toledo, precipitating a gradual decline until, by 1236, with the fall of Córdoba, the Emirate of Granada remained the only Muslim-ruled territory in what is now Spain. The Portuguese Reconquista culminated in 1249 with the conquest of the Algarve by Afonso III. In 1238, the Emirate of Granada officially became a tributary state to the Kingdom of Castile, then ruled by King Ferdinand III. On January 2, 1492, Emir Muhammad XII surrendered the Emirate of Granada to Queen Isabella I of Castile, who along with her husband King Ferdinand II of Aragon were Los Reyes Católicos, or "The Catholic Monarchs". The surrender concluded al-Andalus as a political entity.

Contents

Etymology of al-Andalus

The etymology of the word "al-Andalus" is disputed. Furthermore, the extent of Iberian territory encompassed by the name changed over the centuries. As a designation for Iberia or its southern portion, the name is first attested by inscriptions on coins minted by the new Muslim government in Iberia circa 715 (the uncertainty in the year is due to the fact that the coins were bilingual in Latin and Arabic and the two inscriptions differ as to the year of minting).[5]

At least three specific etymologies have been proposed in Western scholarship, all presuming that the name arose after the Roman period in the Iberian Peninsula's history. Their originators or defenders have been historians. Recently, linguistics expertise has been brought to bear on the issue. Arguments from toponymy (the study of place names), history, and language structure demonstrate the lack of substance in all preceding proposals, and evidence has been presented that the name predates the Roman occupation rather than postdates it.[6]

A major objection to all earlier proposals is that the very name Andaluz (the equivalent of Andalus in Spanish spelling) exists in several places in mountainous areas of Castile.[7] Furthermore, the fragment and- is common in Spanish place names, and the fragment -luz also occurs several times across Spain.

Older proposals

The name "Andalusia" or "Vandalusia" was traditionally believed to be derived from "Vandal" (the Germanic tribe that colonized parts of Iberia from 407 to 429). However, there is no historical reference to support this. The proposal is sometimes associated with the 19th century historian Reinhart Dozy,[8] but it predates him and he recognized some of its shortcomings. Although he accepted that "al-Andalus" derived from "Vandal", he believed that geographically it referred only to the harbor from which the Vandals departed Iberia for Africa—the location of which harbour was unknown.[9]

Another proposal is that "Andalus" is an Arabic language version of the name "Atlantis". This idea has recently been defended by the Spanish historian Vallvé, but purely on the grounds that it is allegedly plausible phonetically and would explain several toponymic facts (no historical evidence was offered).[10]

Vallvé writes:

Arabic texts offering the first mentions of the island of al-Andalus and the sea of al-Andalus become extraordinarily clear if we substitute this expressions with "Atlantis" or "Atlantic". The same can be said with reference to Hercules and the Amazons whose island, according to Arabic commentaries of these Greek and Latin legends, was located in jauf al-Andalus—that is, to the north or interior of the Atlantic Ocean.

The "Island of al-Andalus" is mentioned in an anonymous Arabic chronicle of the conquest of Iberia composed two to three centuries after the fact.[11] It is identified as the location of the landfall of the advance guard of the Moorish conquest of Iberia. The chronicle also says that "Island of al-Andalus" was subsequently renamed "Island of Tarifa". The preliminary conquest force of a few hundred, led by the Berber chief, Tarif abu Zura, seized the first bit of land that is encountered after crossing the Strait of Gibraltar in 710. The main conquest force led by Tariq ibn Ziyad followed them a year later. The landfall, now known in Spain as either Punta Marroquí or Punta de Tarifa, is in fact the southern tip of an islet, presently known as Isla de Tarifa or Isla de las Palomas, just offshore of the Iberian mainland.

This testimony of the Arab chronicle, the modern name "Isla de Tarifa", and the above mentioned toponymic evidence that "Andaluz" is a name of pre-Roman origin taken together lead to the supposition that the "Island of Andalus" is the present day Isla de Tarifa, which lies just offshore from the modern day Spanish city of Tarifa. The extension of the scope of the designation "Al-Andalus" from a single islet to all of Iberia has several historical precedents.

In the 1980s, the historian Halm, also rejecting the "Vandal" proposal, originated an innovative alternative.[12] Halm took as his points of departure ancient reports that Germanic tribes in general were reported to have distributed conquered lands by having members draw lots, and that Iberia during the period of Visigothic rule was sometimes known to outsiders by a Latin name, Gothica Sors, whose meaning is 'Gothic lot'. Halm thereupon speculated that the Visigoths themselves might have called their new lands "lot lands" and done so in their own language. However, the Gothic language version of the term Gothica Sors is not attested. Halm claimed to have been able to reconstruct it, proposing that it was *landahlauts (the asterisk is the standard symbol among linguists for a linguistic form that is merely proposed, not attested). Halm then suggested that the hypothetical Gothic language term gave rise to both the attested Latin term, Gothica Sors (by translation of the meaning), and the Arabic name, Al-Andalus (by phonetic imitation). However, Halm did not offer evidence (historical or linguistic) that any of the language developments in his argument had in fact occurred.

Emirate and Caliphate of Córdoba

, present day Cathedral of Cordoba. The mosque is one of the finest examples of Arab-Islamic architecture in the Umayyad style. An Islamic Mosque (742) built on the site of the Visigothic Christian 'Saint Vincent basilica' (600) then reconquested for the Christian Catedral de Nuestra Señora de la Asunción in 1236.]]

Under the orders of the Great Umayyad Caliph Al-Walid I, Tariq ibn-Ziyad led a small force that landed at Gibraltar on April 30, 711. After a decisive victory at the Battle of Guadalete on July 19, 711, Tariq ibn-Ziyad brought most of the Iberian Peninsula under Muslim occupation in a seven-year campaign. They crossed the Pyrenees and occupied parts of southern France, but were defeated by the Frank Charles Martel at the Battle of Poitiers in 732. However Poitiers did not stop the progress of the Berber Arabs and in 734 Avignon was conquered, Arles was attacked and the whole of Provence was overrun. In 737, the Muslims reached Burgundy, where they captured a large quantity of slaves to take back to Iberia. Charles Martel responded with continuous campaigns against the Muslims in the south of Gaul between 736 and 739 and twenty years later, in 759, the Franks under the leadership of Pepin the Short expelled the Muslims from Septimania which was one of the five administrative areas of Al-Andalus.[13]

The Iberian peninsula, except for the Kingdom of Asturias, became part of the expanding Umayyad empire, under the name of al-Andalus. The earliest attestation of this Arab name is a dinar coin, preserved in the Archaeological Museum in Madrid, dating from five years after the conquest (716). The coin bears the word "al-Andalus" in Arabic script on one side and the Iberian Latin "Span" on the obverse.[14]

At first, al-Andalus was ruled by governors appointed by the Caliph, most ruling for periods of under three years. However, from 740, a series of civil wars between various Muslim groups in Iberia resulted in the breakdown of Caliphal control, with Yūsuf al-Fihri, who emerged as the main winner, effectively becoming an independent ruler.

In 750, the Abbasids overthrew the Umayyads for control of the great Arab empire. But in 756, the exiled Umayyad prince Abd-ar-Rahman I (later titled Al-Dākhil) ousted Yūsuf al-Fihri to establish himself as the Emir of Córdoba. He refused to submit to the Abbasid caliph, as Abbasid forces had killed most of his family. Over a thirty year reign, he established a tenuous rule over much of al-Andalus, overcoming partisans of both the al-Fihri family and of the Abbasid caliph.[citation needed]

For the next century and a half, his descendants continued as emirs of Córdoba, with nominal control over the rest of al-Andalus and sometimes even parts of western North Africa, but with real control, particularly over the marches along the Christian border, vacillating depending on the competence of the individual emir. Indeed, the power of emir Abdallah ibn Muhammad (circa 900) did not extend beyond Córdoba itself. But his grandson Abd-al-Rahman III, who succeeded him in 912, not only rapidly restored Umayyad power throughout al-Andalus but extended it into western North Africa as well. In 929 he proclaimed himself Caliph, elevating the emirate to a position competing in prestige not only with the Abbasid caliph in Baghdad but also the Shi'ite caliph in Tunis—with whom he was competing for control of North Africa. .]] )]] The period of the Caliphate is seen as the golden age of al-Andalus. Crops produced using irrigation, along with food imported from the Middle East, provided the area around Córdoba and some other Andalusī cities with an agricultural economic sector by far the most advanced in Europe. Among European cities, Córdoba under the Caliphate, with a population of perhaps 500,000, eventually overtook Constantinople as the largest and most prosperous city in Europe.[15] Within the Islamic world, Córdoba was one of the leading cultural centres. The work of its most important philosophers and scientists (notably Abulcasis and Averroes) had a major influence on the intellectual life of medieval Europe.

Muslims and non-Muslims often came from abroad to study in the famous libraries and universities of al-Andalus after the reconquista of Toledo in 1085. The most noted of these was Michael Scot (c. 1175 to c. 1235), who took the works of Ibn Rushd ("Averroes") and Ibn Sina ("Avicenna") to Italy. This transmission was to have a significant impact on the formation of the European Renaissance.

First Taifa Period

The Córdoba Caliphate effectively collapsed during a ruinous civil war between 1009 and 1013, although it was not finally abolished until 1031. Al-Andalus then broke up into a number of mostly independent states called taifas. These were generally too weak to defend themselves against repeated raids and demands for tribute from the Christian states to the north and west, which were known to the Muslims as "the Galician nations",[16] and which had spread from their initial strongholds in Galicia, Asturias, Cantabria, the Basque country and the Carolingian Marca Hispanica to become the Kingdoms of Navarre, León, Portugal, Castile and Aragon and the County of Barcelona. Eventually raids turned into conquests, and in response the taifa kings were forced to request help from the Almoravids, Islamic rulers of the Maghreb. Their desperate maneuver would eventually fall to their disadvantage, however, as the Moravids they had summoned from the south went on to conquer many of the taifa kingdoms. ]]

Almoravids, Almohads and Marinids

In 1086 the Almoravid ruler of Morocco Yusuf ibn Tashfin was invited by the Muslim princes in Iberia to defend them against Alfonso VI, King of Castile and León. In that year, Yusuf ibn Tashfin crossed the straits to Algeciras and inflicted a severe defeat on the Christians at the az-Zallaqah. By 1094, Yusuf ibn Tashfin had removed all Muslim princes in Iberia and annexed their states, except for the one at Zaragoza. He regained Valencia from the Christians.

The Almoravids were succeeded in the 12th century by the Almohads, another Berber dynasty, after the victory of Abu Yusuf Ya'qub al-Mansur over the Castilian Alfonso VIII at the Battle of Alarcos. In 1212 a coalition of Christian kings under the leadership of the Castilian Alfonso VIII defeated the Almohads at the Battle of Las Navas de Tolosa. The Almohads continued to rule Al Andalus for another decade, but with much reduced power and prestige; and the civil wars following the death of Abu Ya'qub Yusuf II rapidly led to the re-establishment of taifas. The taifas, newly independent but now weakened, were quickly conquered by Portugal, Castile and Aragon. After the fall of Murcia (1243) and the Algarve (1249), only the Emirate of Granada survived as a Muslim state, but only as a tributary of Castile. Most of its tribute was paid in gold from present-day Mali and Burkina Faso that was carried to Iberia through the merchant routes of the Sahara.

The last Muslim threat to the Christian kingdoms was the rise of the Marinids in Morocco during the 14th century, who took Granada into their sphere of influence and occupied some of its cities, like Algeciras. However, they were unable to take Tarifa, which held out until the arrival of the Castilian Army led by Alfonso XI. The Castilian king, helped by Afonso IV of Portugal and Peter IV of Aragon, decisively defeated the Marinids at the Battle of Salado in 1340 and took Algeciras in 1344. Gibraltar, then under Granadian rule, was besieged in 1349–1350, Alfonso XI along with most of his army perished by the Black Death. His successor, Peter of Castile, made peace with the Muslims and turned his attention to Christian lands, starting a period of almost 150 years of rebellions and wars between the Christian states that secured the survival of Granada.

In 1469 the marriage of Ferdinand of Aragon and Isabella of Castile signaled the launching of the final assault on the Emirate of Granada (Gharnatah). The King and Queen convinced the Pope to declare their war a crusade. The Christians crushed one center of resistance after another and finally, in January 1492, after a long siege, the Moorish sultan, Muhammad XII, surrendered the fortress palace, the renowned Alhambra, itself.

Society

in the script developed in al-Andalus, 12th century.]]

The society of Al-Andalus was made up of three main religious groups: Christians, Muslims and Jews. The Muslims, though united on the religious level, had several ethnic divisions, the main being the distinction between the Berbers and the Arabs. Mozarabs were Christians that had long lived under Muslim rule and so had adopted many Arabic customs, art and words, while still maintaining their Christian rituals and their own Romance languages. Each of these communities inhabited distinct neighborhoods in the cities. In the 10th century a massive conversion of Christians took place, so that muladies (Muslims of ethnic Iberian origin) comprised the majority of the population of Al-Andalus by the century's end.[17]

Sultan of Granada, at the Battle of La Higueruela, 1431.]]

The Berbers, who made up the bulk of the invaders, lived in the mountainous regions of what is now the north of Portugal and in the Meseta Central, while the Arabs settled in the south and in the Ebro Valley in the northeast. The Jews worked mainly as tax collectors, in trade, or as doctors or ambassadors. At the end of the fifteenth century there were about 50,000 Jews in Granada and roughly 100,000 in the whole of Islamic Iberia.[18]

Non-Muslims under the Caliphate

Treatment of non-Muslims

The non-Muslims were given the status of ahl al-dhimma (the people under protection), adults paying a "Jizya" tax, equal to one Dinar per year with exemptions for old people, women, children and the disabled, whenever there was a Christian authority in the community. When there was no Christian authority, the non-Muslims were given the status of majus.[19]

The treatment of non-Muslims in the Caliphate has been a subject of considerable debate among scholars and commentators, especially those interested in drawing parallels to the coexistence of Muslims and non-Muslims in the modern world. María Rosa Menocal, a specialist in Iberian literature, has argued that "tolerance was an inherent aspect of Andalusian society".[20] In her view, the Jewish and Christian dhimmis living under the Caliphate, while allowed fewer rights than Muslims, were much better off than in other parts of Christian Europe.

Jews constituted more than 5% of the population.[21] Al-Andalus was a key center of Jewish life during the early Middle Ages, producing important scholars and one of the most stable and wealthy Jewish communities. But there is no consensus among scholars that the relationship between Jews and Muslims was indeed a paragon of interfaith relations. Bernard Lewis takes issue with this view, arguing its modern use is ahistorical and apologetic. He argues that Islam traditionally did not offer equality nor even pretended that it did, arguing that it would have been both a "theological as well as a logical absurdity."[22] However, even Bernard Lewis states:

Generally, the Jewish people were allowed to practice their religion and live according to the laws and scriptures of their community. Furthermore, the restrictions to which they were subject “were social and symbolic rather than tangible and practical in character. That is to say, these regulations served to define the relationship between the two communities, and not to oppress the Jewish population.

Bernard Lewis, The Jews of Islam (1984),

[23]

Naturally, toleration varied according to who ruled; when the Almohads took Cordoba in 1148 they gave the Jews there the choice of conversion, exile or death, with Jews like Maimonides choosing exile.[24]

Rise and fall of Muslim power

reading the Passover story in al-Andalus, from a 14th century Spanish Haggadah.]]

The Caliphate treated non-Muslims differently at different times. The longest period of tolerance began after 912, with the reign of Abd-ar-Rahman III and his son, Al-Hakam II where the Jews of Al-Andalus prospered, devoting themselves to the service of the Caliphate of Cordoba, to the study of the sciences, and to commerce and industry, especially to trading in silk and slaves, in this way promoting the prosperity of the country. Southern Iberia became an asylum for the oppressed Jews of other countries.[25][26]

Christians, braced by the example of their coreligionists across the borders of al-Andalus, sometimes asserted the claims of Christianity and knowingly courted martyrdom, even during these tolerant periods. For example, 48 Christians of Córdoba were decapitated for religious offences against Islam. They became known as the Martyrs of Córdoba. These deaths played out, not in a single spasm of religious unrest, but over an extended period of time; dissenters were fully aware of the fates of their predecessors and chose to protest against Islamic rule.[27]

Under the Almoravids and the Almohads there may have been intermittent persecution of Jews,[28] but sources are extremely scarce and do not give a clear picture, though the situation appears to have deteriorated after 1160.[29]

During these successive waves of violence against non-Muslims, many Jewish and even Muslim scholars left the Muslim-controlled portion of Iberia for the then-still relatively tolerant city of Toledo, which had been reconquered in 1085 by Christian forces. Some Jews joined the armies of the Christians (about 40,000), while others joined the Almoravids in the fight against Alfonso VI of Castile.

The 11th century saw Muslim pogroms against Jews in Spain; those occurred in Cordoba in 1011 and in Granada in 1066.[30][31][32]

The Almohads, who had taken control of the Almoravids' Maghribi and Andalusian territories by 1147,[33] far surpassed the Almoravides in fundamentalist outlook, and they treated the dhimmis harshly. Faced with the choice of either death or conversion, many Jews and Christians emigrated.[34][35] Some, such as the family of Maimonides, fled east to more tolerant Muslim lands,[34] while others went northward to settle in the growing Christian kingdoms.[36][37]

Medieval Spain and Portugal was the scene of almost constant warfare between Muslims and Christians. Periodic raiding expeditions were sent from Al-Andalus to ravage the Christian Spanish and Portuguese kingdoms, bringing back booty and slaves. In raid against Lisbon in 1189, for example, the Almohad caliph Yaqub al-Mansur took 3,000 female and child captives, while his governor of Córdoba, in a subsequent attack upon Silves in 1191, took 3,000 Christian slaves.[38]

The last Muslim bastion, Nasrid Granada fell around 1492. By this time the Moors in Castile numbered "half a million within the realm, 100,000 had died or been enslaved, 200,000 emigrated, and 200,000 remained as the residual population. Many of the Muslim elite, including Muhammad XII, who had been given the area of the Alpujarra mountain as a principality, found life under Christian rule intolerable and passed over into North Africa"[39]

Culture

in Spain are decorated with arabesque designs.]]

C.W. Previte-Orton writes in his Cambridge medieval history,[40]

The brilliant Saracenic civilization of Moslem Spain rendered the Moors, even during their declines under the Reyes de Taifas, the most cultured people of the West.

Many tribes, religions and races coexisted in al-Andalus, each contributing to the intellectual prosperity of Andalusia. Literacy in Islamic Iberia was far more widespread than any other country of the West.[41]

From the earliest days, the Umayyads wanted to be seen as intellectual rivals to the Abbasids, and for Córdoba to have libraries and educational institutions to rival Baghdad's. Although there was a clear rivalry between the two powers, freedom to travel between the two Caliphates was allowed, which helped spread new ideas and innovations over time.

In the 10th century, the city of Cordoba had 700 mosques, 60 palaces, and 70 libraries, the largest of which had up to 600,000 books. In comparison, the largest library in Christian Europe at the time had no more than 400 manuscripts, while the University of Paris library still had only 2,000 books later in the 14th century. In addition, as many as 60,000 treatises, poems, polemics and compilations were published each year in Al-Andalus.[42] In comparison, modern Spain published 46,330 books per year as of 1996.[43] For large parts of its history, particularly under the Caliphate of Córdoba, al-Andalus was a beacon of learning, and the city of Córdoba became one of the leading cultural and economic centres in both the Mediterranean Basin and the Islamic world.

Philosophy

Andalusian philosophy

, founder of the Averroism school of philosophy, was influential in the rise of secular thought in Western Europe.]]

The historian Said Al-Andalusi wrote that Caliph Abd-ar-Rahman III had collected libraries of books and granted patronage to scholars of medicine and "ancient sciences". Later, al-Mustansir (Al-Hakam II) went yet further, building a university and libraries in Córdoba. Córdoba became one of the world's leading centres of medicine and philosophical debate.

However, when Al-Hakam's son Hisham II took over, real power was ceded to the hajib, al-Mansur Ibn Abi Aamir. Al-Mansur was a distinctly religious man and disapproved of the sciences of astronomy, logic and especially astrology, so much so that many books on these subjects, which had been preserved and collected at great expense by Al-Hakam II, were burned publicly. However, with Al-Mansur's death in 1002 interest in philosophy revived. Numerous scholars emerged, including Abu Uthman Ibn Fathun, whose masterwork was the philosophical treatise "Tree of Wisdom". An outstanding scholar in astronomy and astrology was Maslamah Ibn Ahmad al-Majriti (died 1008), an intrepid traveller who journeyed all over the Islamic world and beyond, and who kept in touch with the Brethren of Purity. Indeed, it is said to have been he who brought the 51 "Epistles of the Brethren of Purity" to al-Andalus and who added the compendium to this work, although it is quite possible that it was added later by another scholar of the name al-Majriti. Another book attributed to al-Majriti is the Ghayat al-Hakim "The Aim of the Sage", a book which explored a synthesis of Platonism with Hermetic philosophy. Its use of incantations led the book to be widely dismissed in later years, although the Sufi communities kept studies of it.

A prominent follower of al-Majriti was the philosopher and geometer Abu al-Hakam al-Kirmani. A follower of his in turn was the great Abu Bakr Ibn al-Sayigh, usually known in the Arab world as Ibn Bajjah, "Avempace"

The Andalusian philosopher Averroes (1126–1198) is considered the father of secular thought in Europe and possibly the most important among them. He was the founder of the Averroism school of philosophy, and his works and commentaries had an impact on the rise of secular thought in Western Europe.[44] He also developed the concept of "existence precedes essence".[45]

Another influential Andalusian philosopher who had a significant influence on modern philosophy was Ibn Tufail. His philosophical novel, Hayy ibn Yaqdhan, translated into Latin as Philosophus Autodidactus in 1671, developed the themes of empiricism, tabula rasa, nature versus nurture,[46] condition of possibility, materialism,[47] and Molyneux's Problem.[48] European scholars and writers influenced by this novel include John Locke,[49] Gottfried Leibniz,[50] Melchisédech Thévenot, John Wallis, Christiaan Huygens,[51] George Keith, Robert Barclay, the Quakers,[52] and Samuel Hartlib.[53]

Jewish philosophy and culture

With the relative tolerance of al-Andalus and the decline of the previous centre of Jewish thought in Babylonia, al-Andalus became the centre of Jewish intellectual endeavours. Poets and commentators like Judah Halevi (1086–1145) and Dunash ben Labrat (920–990) contributed to the cultural life of al-Andalus, but the area was even more important to the development of Jewish philosophy. A stream of Jewish philosophers, cross-fertilizing with Muslim philosophers, (see joint Jewish and Islamic philosophies) culminated in a widely celebrated Jewish thinker of the Middle Ages, Maimonides (1135–1205), though he did not actually do any of his work in al-Andalus, as, when he was 13, his family fled persecution by the Almohads.

Legacies of Al-Andalus

Science legacy

Astronomy

In the 11th-12th centuries, astronomers in Al-Andalus took up the challenge earlier posed by Ibn al-Haytham, namely to develop an alternate non-Ptolemaic configuration that evaded the errors found in the Ptolemaic model.[54] Like Ibn al-Haytham's critique, the anonymous Andalusian work, al-Istidrak ala Batlamyus (Recapitulation regarding Ptolemy), included a list of objections to Ptolemic astronomy. This marked the beginning of the Andalusian school's revolt against Ptolemaic astronomy, otherwise known as the "Andalusian Revolt".[55]

In the late 11th century, al-Zarqali (Latinized as Arzachel) discovered that the orbits of the planets are elliptic orbits and not circular orbits,[56] though he still followed the Ptolemaic model.

In the 12th century, Averroes rejected the eccentric deferents introduced by Ptolemy. He rejected the Ptolemaic model and instead argued for a strictly concentric model of the universe. He wrote the following criticism on the Ptolemaic model of planetary motion:[57]

"To assert the existence of an eccentric sphere or an epicyclic sphere is contrary to nature. [...] The astronomy of our time offers no truth, but only agrees with the calculations and not with what exists."

Averroes' contemporary, Maimonides, wrote the following on the planetary model proposed by Ibn Bajjah (Avempace):

"I have heard that Abu Bakr [Ibn Bajja] discovered a system in which no epicycles occur, but eccentric spheres are not excluded by him. I have not heard it from his pupils; and even if it be correct that he discovered such a system, he has not gained much by it, for eccentricity is likewise contrary to the principles laid down by Aristotle ... I have explained to you that these difficulties do not concern the astronomer, for he does not profess to tell us the existing properties of the spheres, but to suggest, whether correctly or not, a theory in which the motion of the stars and planets is uniform and circular, and in agreement with observation."[58]

Ibn Bajjah also proposed the Milky Way galaxy to be made up of many stars but that it appears to be a continuous image due to the effect of refraction in the Earth's atmosphere.[59] Later in the 12th century, his successors Ibn Tufail and Nur Ed-Din Al Betrugi (Alpetragius) were the first to propose planetary models without any equant, epicycles or eccentrics. Al-Betrugi was also the first to discover that the planets are self-luminous.[60] Their configurations, however, were not accepted due to the numerical predictions of the planetary positions in their models being less accurate than that of the Ptolemaic model,[61] mainly because they followed Aristotle's notion of perfect circular motion.

Earth sciences

In the late 11th century, Abu 'Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Ma'udh, who lived in Al-Andalus, wrote a work on optics later translated into Latin as Liber de crepisculis, which was mistakenly attributed to Alhazen. This was a short work containing an estimation of the angle of depression of the sun at the beginning of the morning twilight and at the end of the evening twilight, and an attempt to calculate on the basis of this and other data the height of the atmospheric moisture responsible for the refraction of the sun's rays. Through his experiments, he obtained the accurate value of 18°, which comes close to the modern value.[62]

In the early 13th century, the Andalusian-Arabian biologist Abu al-Abbas al-Nabati developed an early scientific method for botany, introducing empirical and experimental techniques in the testing, description and identification of numerous materia medica, and separating unverified reports from those supported by actual tests and observations.[63] His student Ibn al-Baitar published the Kitab al-Jami fi al-Adwiya al-Mufrada, which is considered one of the greatest botanical compilations in history, and was a botanical authority for centuries. It contains details on at least 1,400 different plants, foods, and drugs, 300 of which were his own original discoveries. The Kitab al-Jami fi al-Adwiya al-Mufrada was also influential in Europe after it was translated into Latin in 1758.[64][65]

Geography and exploration

may have been influenced by Muslim vessel designs.]]

Long distance travel created a need for mapping, and travelers often provided the information to achieve the task. While such travel during the medieval period was hazardous, Muslims nonetheless undertook long journeys. One motive for these was the Hajj or the Muslim pilgrimage. Annually, Muslims came to Mecca in Arabia from Africa, Islamic Spain, Persia and India. Another motive for travels was commerce. Muslims were involved in trade with Europeans, Indians and the Chinese, and Muslim merchants travelled long distances to conduct commercial activities.[66]

The baculus, used for nautical astronomy, originates from Islamic Spain and was later used by Portuguese navigators for long-distance travel.[citation needed] The origins of the caravel ship, used for long distance travel by the Portuguese and Spanish since the 15th century, date back to the qarib used by explorers from Islamic Spain in the 13th century.[67]

According to a controversial theory, explorers from Al-Andalus may have travelled to the Americas (see Pre-Columbian Andalusian-Americas contact theories).

Medicine

Córdoba alone was reported to have had as many as 50 Bimaristan hospitals at the time of Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis).[citation needed] Sir John Bagot Glubb wrote:[68]

"By Mamun's time medical schools were extremely active in Baghdad. The first free public hospital was opened in Baghdad during the Caliphate of Haroon-ar-Rashid. As the system developed, physicians and surgeons were appointed who gave lectures to medical students and issued diplomas to those who were considered qualified to practice. The first hospital in Egypt was opened in 872 AD and thereafter public hospitals sprang up all over the empire from Spain and the Maghrib to Persia."

Muslim physicians from Al-Andalus contributed significantly to the field of medicine, including the subjects of anatomy and physiology. Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi (Abulcasis), regarded as the "father of modern surgery",[69] contributed greatly to the discipline of medical surgery with his Kitab al-Tasrif ("Book of Concessions"), a 30-volume medical encyclopedia which was later translated to Latin and used in European and Muslim medical schools for centuries. He helped lay the foudations for modern surgery,[69] with his Kitab al-Tasrif, in which he invented numerous surgical instruments,[70] as well as the surgical uses of catgut, the ligature, retractor, and surgical rod[citation needed].[71]

From the 10th century, Muslim physicians and surgeons were applying purified alcohol to wounds as an antiseptic agent. Surgeons in Islamic Spain utilized special methods for maintaining antisepsis prior to and during surgery. They also originated specific protocols for maintaining hygiene during the post-operative period. Their success rate was so high that dignitaries throughout Europe came to Córdoba, Spain, to be treated at what was comparably the "Mayo Clinic" of the Middle Ages.[72]

Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar) was the earliest known experimental surgeon.[73] In the 12th century, he was responsible for introducing the experimental scientific method into surgery, as he was the first to employ animal testing in order to experiment with surgical procedures before applying them to human patients.[74] He also performed the first dissections and postmortem autopsies on humans as well as animals.[75] He also established surgery as an independent discipline of medicine, by introducing a training course designed specifically for future surgeons, in order that they be qualified before being allowed to perform operations independently, and for defining the roles of a general practitioner and a surgeon in the treatment of a surgical condition.[74]

In Islamic Spain, Abu al-Qasim and Ibn Zuhr, among other Muslim surgeons, performed hundreds of surgeries under inhalant anesthesia with the use of narcotic-soaked sponges which were placed over the face. Muslim physicians also introduced the anesthetic value of opium derivatives during the Middle Ages. Ibn Sina (Avicenna) wrote about its medical uses in The Canon of Medicine, which later influenced the works of Paracelsus. Sigrid Hunke wrote:[72][76]

"The science of medicine has gained a great and extremely important discovery and that is the use of general anaesthetics for surgical operations, and how unique, efficient, and merciful for those who tried it the Muslim anaesthetic was. It was quite different from the drinks the Indians, Romans and Greeks were forcing their patients to have for relief of pain. There had been some allegations to credit this discovery to an Italian or to an Alexandrian, but the truth is and history proves that, the art of using the anaesthetic sponge is a pure Muslim technique, which was not known before. The sponge used to be dipped and left in a mixture prepared from cannabis, opium, hyoscyamus and a plant called Zoan."

During the Black Death bubonic plague in 14th century Al-Andalus, Ibn Khatima and Ibn al-Khatib hypothesized that infectious diseases are caused by minute "contagious entities" which enter the human body.[77]

Psychology and sociology

Abu al-Qasim (Abulcasis), the father of modern surgery, developed material and technical designs which are still used in neurosurgery. Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar) gave the first accurate descriptions on neurological disorders, including meningitis, intracranial thrombophlebitis, and mediastinal germ cell tumors, and made contributions to modern neuropharmacology. Averroes suggested the existence of Parkinson's disease and attributed photoreceptor properties to the retina. Maimonides wrote about neuropsychiatric disorders and described rabies and belladonna intoxication.[69]

Said Al-Andalusi (1029–1070) stated that people in all corners of the world have a common origin but differ in certain aspects: "ethics, appearance, landscape and language". He treated the history of Egypt as part of the universal history of all humanity, and he linked Egypt and Sudan to the history of the Arabs through a common ancestry.[78] They linked ancient Egypt to Muslim history through Hajar (Hagar), the wife of Ibrahim (Abraham) and mother of Ismail (Ishmael), the patriarch of the Arabs,[78] thus making Hajar the mother of the Arabs.[79]

Agriculture

As early as the 9th century, an essentially modern agricultural system became central to economic life and organization in the Arab caliphates, replacing the largely export driven Roman model. Cities of the Near East, North Africa, and Moorish Spain were supported by elaborate agricultural systems which included extensive irrigation based on knowledge of hydraulic and hydrostatic principles, some of which were continued from Roman times.[citation needed]

The introduction of new crops transforming private farming into a new global industry exported everywhere,[80] including Europe, where farming was mostly restricted to wheat strains obtained much earlier via central Asia. Spain received what she in turn transmitted to the rest of Europe; many agricultural and fruit-growing processes, together with many new plants, fruit and vegetables. These new crops included sugar cane, rice, citrus fruit, apricots, cotton, artichokes, aubergines, and saffron. Others, previously known, were further developed. Several were later exported from Spanish coastal areas to the Spanish colonies in the New World. Also transmitted via Muslim influence, a silk industry flourished, flax was cultivated and linen exported, and esparto grass, which grew wild in the more arid parts, was collected and turned into various articles.

Economics

The systems of contract relied upon by merchants was very effective. Merchants would buy and sell on commission, with money loaned to them by wealthy investors, or a joint investment of several merchants, who were often Muslim, Christian and Jewish. Business partnerships would be made for many commercial ventures, and bonds of kinship enabled trade networks to form over huge distances. Networks developed during this time enabled a world in which money could be promised by a bank in Baghdad and cashed in Spain.[citation needed] Each time items passed through one of the cities along this extraordinary network, the city imposed a tax, resulting in high prices once the items reached their final destinations.[citation needed]

Culture legacy

Cuisine

Restaurants in medieval Islamic Spain served three-course meals, which was introduced in the 9th century by Ziryab, who insisted that meals should be served in three separate courses consisting of soup, the main course, and dessert.[81]

As a result of the improved agriculture and cuisine, the average life expectancy of the scholarly class in Islamic Spain increased to 69–75 years by the 11th century.[82][not in citation given]

Linguistics and literature

The "Toledo School" was a famous center of medieval linguistics. Members of this school included; Yehudah ibn Tibbon, Herman the German, Adelard of Bath and Gerard of Cremona.

In the 12th century, the Andalusian-Arabian philosopher and novelist Ibn Tufail (known as "Abubacer" or "Ebn Tophail" in the West) first demonstrated Avicenna's theory of tabula rasa as a thought experiment in his Arabic novel, Hayy ibn Yaqzan, in which he depicted the development of the mind of a feral child "from a tabula rasa to that of an adult, in complete isolation from society" on a desert island. The Latin translation of his work, titled Philosophus Autodidactus, published by Edward Pococke the Younger in 1671, had an influence on John Locke's formulation of tabula rasa in An Essay Concerning Human Understanding,[46] which went on to become one of the principal sources of empiricism in modern Western philosophy, and influenced many Enlightenment philosophers, such as David Hume and George Berkeley.

Hadith Bayad wa Riyad (The Story of Bayad and Riyad) was a 13th century Arabic love story written in Al-Andalus. The main characters of the tale are Bayad, a merchant's son and a foreigner from Damascus, and Riyad, a well educated girl in the court of an unnamed Hajib (vizier or minister) of Al-Andalus who is referred to as the lady. The Hadith Bayad wa Riyad manuscript is believed to be the only illustrated manuscript known to have survived from more than eight centuries of Muslim and Arab presence in Spain.

Translations

Contributing to the growth of European science was the major search by European scholars for new learning which they could only find among Muslims, especially in Islamic Spain and Islamic Sicily. These scholars translated new scientific and philosophical texts from Arabic into Latin.

One of the most productive translators in Spain was Gerard of Cremona, who translated 87 books from Arabic to Latin, including Muhammad ibn Mūsā al-Khwārizmī's On Algebra and Almucabala, Jabir ibn Aflah's Elementa astronomica,[83] al-Kindi's On Optics, Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Kathīr al-Farghānī's On Elements of Astronomy on the Celestial Motions, al-Farabi's On the Classification of the Sciences,[84] the chemical and medical works of Razi,[85] the works of Thabit ibn Qurra and Hunayn ibn Ishaq,[86] and the works of Arzachel, Jabir ibn Aflah, the Banū Mūsā, Abū Kāmil Shujā ibn Aslam, Abu al-Qasim, and Ibn al-Haytham (including the Book of Optics).[citation needed]

With the fall of Islamic Spain in 1492, the scientific and technological initiative of the Islamic world was inherited by Europeans and laid the foundations for Europe's Renaissance and Scientific Revolution.[87]

Music

was adopted from the Arab world. 1568 print.]]

A number of musical instruments used in classical music, particularly in Spanish music, are believed to have been derived from Arabic musical instruments used in Al-Andalus: the lute was derived from the al'ud, the rebec (ancestor of violin) from the rebab, the guitar from qitara, naker from naqareh, adufe from al-duff, alboka from al-buq, anafil from al-nafir, exabeba from al-shabbaba (flute), atabal (bass drum) from al-tabl, atambal from al-tinbal,[88] the balaban, the castanet from kasatan, sonajas de azófar from sunuj al-sufr, the conical bore wind instruments,[89] the xelami from the sulami or fistula (flute or musical pipe),[90] the shawm and dulzaina from the reed instruments zamr and al-zurna,[91] the gaita from the ghaita, rackett from iraqya or iraqiyya,[92] the harp and zither from the qanun,[citation needed] canon from qanun, geige (violin) from ghichak,[93] and the theorbo from the tarab.[94] It is also commonly acknowledged by flamenco performers that the vocal, instrumental, and dance elements of modern flamenco were greatly influenced by the Arab performing arts.

Pottery

Hispano-Moresque ware with lusterware decoration, from Spain circa 1475.]]

Hispano-Moresque ware was a style of Islamic pottery created in Islamic Spain, after the Moors had introduced two ceramic techniques to Europe: glazing with an opaque white tin-glaze, and painting in metallic lusters. Hispano-Moresque ware was distinguished from the pottery of Christendom by the Islamic character of its decoration.[95]

The tin-glazing of ceramics was invented by Muslim potters in 8th century Basra, Iraq.[96] The earliest tin-glazed pottery thus appears to have been made in Iraq in the 9th century.[97] From there, it spread to Egypt, Persia and Spain, before reaching Italy in the Renaissance, Holland in the 16th century, and England, France and other European countries shortly after.

Lusterware was invented by Jābir ibn Hayyān, who applied it to ceramic glazes in the 8th century.[98] After the production of lusterware became popular in the Middle East, it spread to Europe—first to Al-Andalus, notably at Malaga, and then to Italy, where it was used to enhance maiolica.

An albarello is a type of maiolica earthenware jar originally designed to hold apothecaries' ointments and dry drugs. The development of this type of pharmacy jar had its roots in the Islamic Middle East. It was brought to Italy by Hispano-Moresque traders by the 15th century.

Technology legacy

s were built by Islamic engineers]]

Infrastructure

Industrial water mills were built in Al-Andalus between the 11th and 13th centuries. Fulling mills, steel mills, and other mills, spread from Islamic Spain to Christian Spain by the 12th century.[99] The first windmills were built in Sistan, Afghanistan, sometime between the 7th century and 9th century, as described by Muslim geographers. These were horizontal axis windmills with rectangle shaped blades, geared to long vertical driveshafts.[100] These were introduced to Europe through Spain. The bridge mill was a unique type of water mill that was built as part of the superstructure of a bridge. The earliest record of a bridge mill is from Cordoba in the 12th century.[101] The first forge to be driven by a hydropowered water mill rather than manual labour, also known as a finery forge, was invented in 12th century Islamic Spain.[102] Stamp mills were used by miners in Samarkand from as early as 973. They were used in medieval Persia for the purpose of crushing ore. By the 11th century, stamp mills were in widespread use throughout the Islamic world, including Islamic Spain.[103]

Many Damdams (or dams), acequias, and qanat water supply systems, and "Tribunal of Waters" irrigation systems, were built during the Islamic Golden Age and are still in use today in Islamic countries and in formerly Islamic Provinces in Europe such as Sicily and the Iberian Peninsula, particularly in the Andalusia, Aragon and Valencia Provinces of Spain. The Arabic systems of irrigation and water distribution were later adopted in the Canary Islands and Americas due to the Spanish and are still used including in Texas, New Mexico, Mexico, Peru, and Chile.[104]

Muslim cities such as Cordoba had advanced domestic water systems with sanitary sewers, public baths, drinking fountains, piped drinking water supplies,[105] and widespread private and public toilet and bathing facilities.[106] The first street lamps were built in the Arab Empire,[107] especially in Cordoba, which also had the first facilities and waste containers for litter collection.[108]

Aviation

In 9th century Islamic Spain, Abbas Ibn Firnas (Armen Firnas) invented a primitive version of the parachute.[109][110][111][112] John H. Lienhard described it in The Engines of Our Ingenuity as follows:

"In 852, a new Caliph and a bizarre experiment: A daredevil named Armen Firman decided to fly off a tower in Cordova. He glided back to earth, using a huge winglike cloak to break his fall. He survived with minor injuries, and the young Ibn Firnas was there to see it."[113]

Ibn Firnas was also the first to make an attempt at controlled flight, as opposed to earlier gliding attempts in ancient China which were not controllable. Ibn Firnas manipulated the flight controls of his hang glider using two sets of artificial wings to adjust his altitude and to change his direction. He successfully returned to where he had lifted off from, but his landing was unsuccessful.[114][115] According to Philip Hitti in History of the Arabs:

"Ibn Firnas was the first man in history to make a scientific attempt at flying."

Ibn Firnas' glider was possibly the first hang glider, though there were earlier instances of manned kites being used in ancient China. Knowledge of Firman and Firnas' flying machines spread to other parts of Europe from Arabic references.[109][110] Ibn Firnas' hang glider was also the first to have artificial wings, though the flight was ultimately unsuccessful.

See also

History of Spain

This article is part of a series
Early History
Prehistoric Iberia
Roman Hispania
Medieval Spain
Visigothic Kingdom
Kingdom of Asturias
Suebic Kingdom
Byzantine Spania
al-Andalus
Reconquista
Kingdom of Spain
Age of Expansion
Age of Enlightenment
Republic
Reaction and Revolution
First Spanish Republic
The Restoration
Second Spanish Republic
Under Franco
Spanish Civil War
Spanish State
Modern Spain
Transition to Democracy
Modern Spain
Topics
Economic History
Military History

Spain Portal
 v • d • e 

History of Portugal
series
Topics
 Timeline of Portuguese history 

Footnotes

  1. ^ "Para los autores árabes medievales, el término al-Andalus designa la totalidad de las zonas conquistadas — siquiera temporalmente — por tropas arabo-musulmanas en territorios actualmente pertenecientes a Portugal, Espana y Francia" ("For the medieval Arab authors, al-Andalus designates all the conquered areas — even temporarily — by Arab-Muslim troops in territories now belonging to Portugal, Spain and France"), José Ángel García de Cortázar, V Semana de Estudios Medievales: Nájera, 1 al 5 de agosto de 1994, Gobierno de La Rioja, Instituto de Estudios Riojanos, 1995, p.52.
  2. ^ "Los arabes y musulmanes de la Edad Media aplicaron el nombre de al-andalus a todas aquellas tierras que habian formado parte del reino visigodo : la Peninsula Ibérica y la Septimania ultrapirenaica." ("The Arabs and Muslims from the Middle Ages used the name of al-Andalus to all those lands that were formerly part of the Visigothic kingdom: the Iberian Peninsula and Septimania"), Eloy Benito Ruano, Tópicos y realidades de la Edad Media, Real Academia de la Historia, 2000, p.79.
  3. ^ "Andalus, al-" Oxford Dictionary of Islam. John L. Esposito, Ed. Oxford University Press. 2003. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Accessed 12 June 2006.
  4. ^ Joseph F. O'Callaghan, A History of Medieval Spain , Cornell University Press, 1983, p.142
  5. ^ Bossong 2002[online]:1
  6. ^ Bossong 2002
  7. ^ The village of Andaluz (41°31', -2°49') lies at the foot of Andaluz Mountain on the Duero River in the province of Soria, and within 10 km of it are the villages of Torreandaluz and Centenera de Andaluz. A brook named Andaluz is said to flow in the province of Guadalajara out of the Cueva de la Hoz (41°00', -2°18'). Bossong[online]:10-11, but the coordinates given are according to Google Maps and differ slightly from those in Bossong.
  8. ^ Dozy, Reinhart P. 1881. Recherches sur l'histoire et la littérature des Arabes d'Espagne pendant le Moyen-Age.
  9. ^ Bossong 2002[online]:2
  10. ^ Vallvé Bermejo, Joaquín. 1986. The Territorial Divisions of Muslim Spain. Madrid: CSIC (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas).
  11. ^ Bossong[online]:3. The document in question is the Akhbar Majmu'a fi fath al-Andalus, "Collection of traditions on the conquest of al-Andalus". It was published in Spanish translation in 1867 by Emilio Lafuente y Alcántara. Its subtitle indicates it dates from the 11th c., but several historians today say the 10th c. instead, during the rule of caliph 'Abd al-Rahman III.
  12. ^ Halm 1989
  13. ^ Franco Cardini, Europe and Islam , Wiley-Blackwell, 2001, p.9
  14. ^ Halm 1989:254
  15. ^ Tertius Chandler. Four Thousand Years of Urban Growth: An Historical Census (1987), St. David's University Press (etext.org). ISBN 0-88946-207-0.
  16. ^ Khaldun. The Muqaddimah
  17. ^ Islamic and Christian Spain in the Early Middle Ages. Chapter 5: Ethnic Relations, Thomas F. Glick
  18. ^ Wasserstein, 1995, p. 101.
  19. ^ Jayyusi. The legacy of Muslim Spain
  20. ^ The Ornament of the World by María Rosa Menocal, Accessed, 12 June 2006.
  21. ^ Spain — AL ANDALUS, http://countrystudies.us/spain/5.htm 
  22. ^ Lewis, Bernard W (1984). The Jews of Islam, p. 4.
  23. ^ Bernard Lewis 1984, p. 26
  24. ^ 1954 Encyclopedia Americana, vol. 18, p. 140.
  25. ^ Stavans, 2003, p. 10.
  26. ^ Kraemer, 2005, pp. 10–13.
  27. ^ Orthodox Europe: St Eulogius and the Blessing of Cordoba, Accessed 12 June 2006.
  28. ^ O'Callaghan, 1975, p. 286.
  29. ^ Roth, 1994, pp. 113–116.
  30. ^ Frederick M. Schweitzer, Marvin Perry., Anti-Semitism: myth and hate from antiquity to the present, Palgrave Macmillan, 2002, ISBN 0-312-16561-7, pp. 267–268.
  31. ^ Granada by Richard Gottheil, Meyer Kayserling, Jewish Encyclopedia. 1906 ed.
  32. ^ Harzig, Hoerder and Shubert, 2003, p. 42.
  33. ^ Islamic world. (2007). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved September 2, 2007, from Encyclopædia Britannica Online.
  34. ^ a b Frank and Leaman, 2003, pp. 137–138.
  35. ^ The Almohads, http://www.myjewishlearning.com/history_community/Medieval/IntergroupTO/JewishMuslim/Almohads.htm 
  36. ^ Sephardim, http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Judaism/Sephardim.html 
  37. ^ Kraemer, 2005, pp. 16–17.
  38. ^ Ransoming Captives in Crusader Spain: The Order of Merced on the Christian-Islamic Frontier, http://libro.uca.edu/rc/rc1.htm 
  39. ^ Henry Kamen, Spain 1469-1714 A Society of Conflict Third edition, pp 37–38
  40. ^ Previte-Orton (1971), vol. 1, pg. 376
  41. ^ Previte-Orton (1971), vol. 1, pg. 377
  42. ^ Dato' Dzulkifli Abd Razak, Quest for knowledge, New Sunday Times, 3 July 2005
  43. ^ UNESCO. "Europe", Book production: number of titles by UDC classes, UNESCO Institute of Statistics
  44. ^ Majid Fakhry (2001). Averroes: His Life, Works and Influence. Oneworld Publications. ISBN 1-85168-269-4.
  45. ^ Irwin, Jones (Autumn 2002), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "Averroes' Reason: A Medieval Tale of Christianity and Islam"], The Philosopher LXXXX (2) 
  46. ^ a b G. A. Russell (1994), The 'Arabick' Interest of the Natural Philosophers in Seventeenth-Century England, pp. 224–262, Brill Publishers, ISBN 90-04-09459-8.
  47. ^ Dominique Urvoy, "The Rationality of Everyday Life: The Andalusian Tradition? (Aropos of Hayy's First Experiences)", in Lawrence I. Conrad (1996), The World of Ibn Tufayl: Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Ḥayy Ibn Yaqẓān, pp. 38–46, Brill Publishers, ISBN 90-04-09300-1.
  48. ^ Muhammad ibn Abd al-Malik Ibn Tufayl and Léon Gauthier (1981), Risalat Hayy ibn Yaqzan, p. 5, Editions de la Méditerranée.[1]
  49. ^ G. A. Russell (1994), The 'Arabick' Interest of the Natural Philosophers in Seventeenth-Century England, pp. 224–239, Brill Publishers, ISBN 90-04-09459-8.
  50. ^ Martin Wainwright, Desert island scripts, The Guardian, 22 March 2003
  51. ^ G. A. Russell (1994), The 'Arabick' Interest of the Natural Philosophers in Seventeenth-Century England, p. 227, Brill Publishers, ISBN 90-04-09459-8.
  52. ^ G. A. Russell (1994), The 'Arabick' Interest of the Natural Philosophers in Seventeenth-Century England, p. 247, Brill Publishers, ISBN 90-04-09459-8.
  53. ^ G. J. Toomer (1996), Eastern Wisedome and Learning: The Study of Arabic in Seventeenth-Century England, p. 222, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-820291-1.
  54. ^ (Saliba & Sezgin 1981, p. 219)
  55. ^ Sabra, A. I., [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "The Andalusian Revolt Against Ptolemaic Astronomy: Averroes and al-Bitrûjî"], in Mendelsohn, Everett, Transformation and Tradition in the Sciences: Essays in honor of I. Bernard Cohen, Cambridge University Press, pp. 233–53 
  56. ^ Robert Briffault (1938). The Making of Humanity, p. 190.
  57. ^ Gingerich, Owen (April 1986), "Islamic astronomy", Scientific American 254 (10): 74, http://faculty.kfupm.edu.sa/PHYS/alshukri/PHYS215/Islamic_astronomy.htm, retrieved 2008-05-18 
  58. ^ Bernard R. Goldstein (March 1972). "Theory and Observation in Medieval Astronomy", Isis 63 (1): 39–47 [40–41].
  59. ^ Josep Puig Montada (September 28, 2007), Ibn Bajja, Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/ibn-bajja, retrieved 2008-07-11 
  60. ^ Bernard R. Goldstein (March 1972). "Theory and Observation in Medieval Astronomy", Isis 63 (1): 39–47 [41].
  61. ^ "Ptolemaic Astronomy, Islamic Planetary Theory, and Copernicus's Debt to the Maragha School", Science and Its Times, Thomson Gale, 2005–2006, http://www.bookrags.com/research/ptolemaic-astronomy-islamic-planeta-scit-021234, retrieved 2008-01-22 
  62. ^ Sabra, A. I. (Spring 1967), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "The Authorship of the Liber de crepusculis, an Eleventh-Century Work on Atmospheric Refraction"], Isis 58 (1): 77–85 [77], doi:10.1086/350185 
  63. ^ Huff, Toby (2003), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator The Rise of Early Modern Science: Islam, China, and the West], Cambridge University Press, p. 218, ISBN 0521529948 
  64. ^ Diane Boulanger (2002), "The Islamic Contribution to Science, Mathematics and Technology", OISE Papers, in STSE Education, Vol. 3.
  65. ^ Russell McNeil, Ibn al-Baitar, Malaspina University-College.
  66. ^ Edson and Savage-Smith (2004), pp. 113–6
  67. ^ John M. Hobson (2004), The Eastern Origins of Western Civilisation, p. 141, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-521-54724-5.
  68. ^ John Bagot Glubb (cf. Quotations on Islamic Civilization)
  69. ^ a b c A. Martin-Araguz, C. Bustamante-Martinez, Ajo V. Fernandez-Armayor, J. M. Moreno-Martinez (2002). "Neuroscience in al-Andalus and its influence on medieval scholastic medicine", Revista de neurología 34 (9): 877–892
  70. ^ Bashar Saad, Hassan Azaizeh, Omar Said (October 2005). "Tradition and Perspectives of Arab Herbal Medicine: A Review", Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 2 (4), pp. 475–479 [476]. Oxford University Press.
  71. ^ Paul Vallely, How Islamic Inventors Changed the World, The Independent, 11 March 2006.
  72. ^ a b Dr. Kasem Ajram (1992), Miracle of Islamic Science, Appendix B. Knowledge House Publishers, ISBN 0-911119-43-4
  73. ^ Rabie E. Abdel-Halim (2006), "Contributions of Muhadhdhab Al-Deen Al-Baghdadi to the progress of medicine and urology", Saudi Medical Journal 27 (11): 1631–1641.
  74. ^ a b Rabie E. Abdel-Halim (2005), "Contributions of Ibn Zuhr (Avenzoar) to the progress of surgery: A study and translations from his book Al-Taisir", Saudi Medical Journal 2005; Vol. 26 (9): 1333–1339.
  75. ^ Islamic medicine, Hutchinson Encyclopedia.
  76. ^ Sigrid Hunke (1969), Allah Sonne Uber Abendland, Unser Arabische Erbe, Second Edition, pp. 279–80 (cf. Prof. Dr. M. Taha Jasser, Anaesthesia in Islamic medicine and its influence on Western civilization, Conference on Islamic Medicine)
  77. ^ Ibrahim B. Syed, Ph.D. (2002). "Islamic Medicine: 1000 years ahead of its times", Journal of the International Society for the History of Islamic Medicine 2, pp. 2–9.
  78. ^ a b El Daly, Okasha (2004), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator Egyptology: The Missing Millennium: Ancient Egypt in Medieval Arabic Writings], Routledge, p. 17, ISBN 1844720632 
  79. ^ El Daly, Okasha (2004), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator Egyptology: The Missing Millennium: Ancient Egypt in Medieval Arabic Writings], Routledge, p. 18, ISBN 1844720632 
  80. ^ Andrew M. Watson (1974), "The Arab Agricultural Revolution and Its Diffusion, 700–1100", The Journal of Economic History 34 (1), pp. 8–35.
  81. ^ Salma Khadra Jayyusi and Manuela Marin (1994), The Legacy of Muslim Spain, p. 117, Brill Publishers, ISBN 90-04-09599-3
  82. ^ Shatzmiller, Maya (1994), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator Labour in the Medieval Islamic World], Brill Publishers, p. 66, ISBN 9004098968 
  83. ^ V. J. Katz, A History of Mathematics: An Introduction, p. 291
  84. ^ For a list of Gerard of Cremona's translations see: Edward Grant (1974) A Source Book in Medieval Science, (Cambridge: Harvard Univ. Pr.), pp. 35–8 or Charles Burnett, "The Coherence of the Arabic-Latin Translation Program in Toledo in the Twelfth Century," Science in Context, 14 (2001): at 249–288, at pp. 275–281.
  85. ^ Jerome B. Bieber. Medieval Translation Table 2: Arabic Sources, Santa Fe Community College.
  86. ^ D. Campbell, Arabian Medicine and Its Influence on the Middle Ages, p. 6.
  87. ^ Edward Grant (1996), The Foundations of Modern Science in the Middle Ages: Their Religious, Institutional, and Intellectual Contexts, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
  88. ^ (Farmer 1978, p. 137)
  89. ^ (Farmer 1978, p. 140)
  90. ^ (Farmer 1978, pp. 140–1)
  91. ^ (Farmer 1978, p. 141)
  92. ^ (Farmer 1978, p. 142)
  93. ^ (Farmer 1978, p. 143)
  94. ^ (Farmer 1978, p. 144)
  95. ^ Caiger-Smith, 1973, p.65
  96. ^ Mason, Robert B. (1995), [Expression error: Unexpected < operator "New Looks at Old Pots: Results of Recent Multidisciplinary Studies of Glazed Ceramics from the Islamic World"], Muqarnas: Annual on Islamic Art and Architecture (Brill Academic Publishers) XII: 1, ISBN 90-04-10314-7 
  97. ^ Caiger-Smith, 1973, p.23
  98. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan, Lustre Glass and Lazaward And Zaffer Cobalt Oxide In Islamic And Western Lustre Glass And Ceramics, History of Science and Technology in Islam
  99. ^ Adam Robert Lucas (2005), "Industrial Milling in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds: A Survey of the Evidence for an Industrial Revolution in Medieval Europe", Technology and Culture 46 (1): 1–30 [11]
  100. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan, Donald Routledge Hill (1986). Islamic Technology: An illustrated history, p. 54. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-42239-6.
  101. ^ Adam Lucas (2006), Wind, Water, Work: Ancient and Medieval Milling Technology, p. 62, BRILL, ISBN 90-04-14649-0
  102. ^ Adam Lucas (2006), Wind, Water, Work: Ancient and Medieval Milling Technology, p. 65, Brill Publishers, ISBN 90-04-14649-0
  103. ^ Adam Robert Lucas (2005), "Industrial Milling in the Ancient and Medieval Worlds: A Survey of the Evidence for an Industrial Revolution in Medieval Europe", Technology and Culture 46 (1): 1–30 [10–1 and 27]
  104. ^ Ahmad Y Hassan, Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West, Part II: Transmission Of Islamic Engineering
  105. ^ Fiona MacDonald (2006), The Plague and Medicine in the Middle Ages, pp. 42–3, Gareth Stevens, ISBN 0-8368-5907-3.
  106. ^ Tor Eigeland, "The Tiles of Iberia", Saudi Aramco World, March–April 1992, pp. 24–31.
  107. ^ Fielding H. Garrison, History of Medicine:
    "The Saracens themselves were the originators not only of algebra, chemistry, and geology, but of many of the so-called improvements or refinements of civilization, such as street lamps, window-panes, firework, string instruments, cultivated fruits, perfumes, spices, etc."
  108. ^ S. P. Scott (1904), History of the Moorish Empire in Europe, 3 vols, J. B. Lippincott Company, Philadelphia and London.
    F. B. Artz (1980), The Mind of the Middle Ages, Third edition revised, University of Chicago Press, pp 148–50.
    (cf. References, 1001 Inventions)
  109. ^ a b Poore, Daniel. A History of Early Flight. New York: Alfred Knopf, 1952.
  110. ^ a b Smithsonian Institution. Manned Flight. Pamphlet 1990.
  111. ^ David W. Tschanz, Flights of Fancy on Manmade Wings, IslamOnline.net.
  112. ^ Parachutes, Principles of Aeronautics, Franklin Institute.
  113. ^ "'Abbas Ibn Firnas". John H. Lienhard. The Engines of Our Ingenuity. NPR. KUHF-FM Houston. 2004. No. 1910. Transcript.
  114. ^ Lynn Townsend White, Jr. (Spring, 1961). "Eilmer of Malmesbury, an Eleventh Century Aviator: A Case Study of Technological Innovation, Its Context and Tradition", Technology and Culture 2 (2), pp. 97–111 [100–101].
  115. ^ First Flights, Saudi Aramco World, January–February 1964, pp. 8–9.

References

Bibliography

  • Alfonso, Esperanza, 2007. Islamic culture through Jewish eyes: al-Andalus from the tenth to twelfth century. New York, NY: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-43732-5
  • Al-Djazairi, S.E. 2005. The Hidden Debt to Islamic Civilisation. Bayt Al-Hikma Press. ISBN 0-9551156-1-2
  • Bossong, Georg. 2002. Der Name Al-Andalus: Neue Überlegungen zu einem alten Problem. In David Restle and Dietmar Zaefferer, eds, Sounds and systems: studies in structure and change. A festschrift for Theo Vennemann. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. pp. 149–164. (In German) Also available online: see External Links below.
  • Cohen, Mark. 1995. Under Crescent and Cross: The Jews in the Middle Ages Princeton University Press. ISBN 0-691-01082-X
  • Collins, Roger. 1989. The Arab Conquest of Spain, 710–797, Blackwell. ISBN 0-631-19405-3
  • Frank, Daniel H. and Leaman, Oliver. 2003. The Cambridge Companion to Medieval Jewish Philosophy. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-65574-9
  • Gerli, E. Michael, ed., 2003. Medieval Iberia: an encyclopedia. New York. ISBN 0-415-93918-6
  • Halm, Heinz. 1989. Al-Andalus und Gothica Sors. Der Islam 66:252–263.
  • Hamilton, Michelle M., Sarah J. Portnoy, and David A. Wacks, eds. 2004. Wine, Women, and Song: Hebrew and Arabic Literature in Medieval Iberia. Newark, Del.: Juan de la Cuesta Hispanic Monographs.
  • Harzig, Christiane, Hoerder, Dirk and Shubert, Adrian. 2003. The Historical Practice in Diversity. Berghahn Books. ISBN 1-57181-377-2
  • Jayyusi, Salma Khadra, ed. 1994. The legacy of Muslim Spain. 2 vol. Chief consultant to the editor, Manuela Marín. Leiden: Brill. [Originally published 1992 in German.]
  • Kennedy, Hugh. 1996. Muslim Spain and Portugal: A Political History of al-Andalus, Longman. ISBN 0-582-49515-6
  • Kraemer, Joel. 1997. Comparing Crescent and Cross (book review). The Journal of Religion, 1997 July, 77(3):449–454.
  • Kraemer, Joel. 2005. Moses Maimonides: An Intellectual Portrait. In Kenneth Seeskin, ed., The Cambridge Companion to Maimonides. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-81974-1
  • Kraemer, Joel. 2008. Maimonides : the life and world of one of civilization's greatest minds. New York :Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-51199-X
  • Lafuente y Alcántara, Emilio, translator. 1867. Ajbar Machmua (colección de tradiciones): crónica anónima del siglo XI / dada a luz por primera vez, traducida y anotada por Emilio Lafuente y Alcántara. Madrid: Real Academia de la Historia y Geografía. In Spanish and Arabic. Also available in the public domain online, see External Links.
  • Luscombe, David et al., eds. 2004. The New Cambridge Medieval History: Volume 4, c.1024–c.1198, Part 1. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-41411-3
  • Marcus, Ivan G.,1985. Beyond the Sepahrdic mystique. in Orim, vol. 1, 35-53.
  • Marín, Manuela et al., eds. 1998. The Formation of Al-Andalus: History and Society. Ashgate. ISBN 0-86078-708-7
  • Menocal, Maria Rosa. 2002. Ornament of the World: How Muslims, Jews, and Christians Created a Culture of Tolerance in Medieval Spain. Back Bay Books. ISBN 0-316-16871-8
  • Monroe, James T. 1970. Islam and the Arabs in Spanish scholarship : (Sixteenth century to the present). Leiden.
  • Monroe, James T. 1974. Hispano-Arabic Poetry: A Student Anthology. Berkeley: University of California Press.
  • Netanyahu, Benzion. 1995. The Origins Of The Inquisition In Fifteenth Century Spain. Random House ISBN 0-679-41065-1
  • O'Callaghan, Joseph F. 1975. A History of Medieval Spain. Cornell University Press. ISBN 0-8014-9264-5
  • Omaar, Rageh. 2005. An Islamic History of Europe. video documentary, BBC 4, August 2005.
  • Reilly, Bernard F. 1993. The Medieval Spains. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-39741-3
  • Roth, Norman. 1994. Jews, Visigoths and Muslims in Medieval Spain: Cooperation and Conflict. Leiden: Brill. ISBN 90-04-06131-2
  • Sanchez-Albornoz, Claudio. 1974. El Islam de España y el Occidente. Madrid: Espasa-Calpe. Colección Austral; 1560. [Originally published in 1965 in the conference proceedings, L'occidente e l'islam nell'alto medioevo: 2-8 aprile 1964, 2 vols. Spoleto: Centro Italiano di studi sull'Alto Medioevo. Series: Settimane di studio del Centro Italiano di studi sull'Alto Medioevo; 12. Vol. 1:149–308.]
  • Schorsch, Ismar, 1989. The myth of Sephardic supremacy, in The Leo Baeck Institute Yearbook 34, 47-66
  • Stavans, Ilan. 2003. The Scroll and the Cross: 1,000 Years of Jewish-Hispanic Literature. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-92930-X
  • Wasserstein, David J. 1995. Jewish élites in Al-Andalus. In Daniel Frank (Ed.). The Jews of Medieval Islam: Community, Society and Identity. Brill. ISBN 90-04-10404-6

Films

External links

Coordinates: 41°31′N 2°49′W / 41.517°N 2.817°W / 41.517; -2.817


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Al-Andalus was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula and Septimania governed by Arab Muslims, at various times in the period between 711 and 1492. As a political domain or domains, it successively constituted a province of the Umayyad Caliphate, initiated by the Caliph Al-Walid I (711-750); the Emirate of Córdoba (c. 750-929); the Caliphate of Córdoba (929-1031); and the Caliphate of Córdoba's taifa (successor) kingdoms. In succeeding centuries, al-Andalus became a province of the Arab-Berber dynasties of the Almoravids and Almohads, subsequently fragmenting into a number of minor states, most notably the Emirate of Granada

Contents

Sourced

Civilization

  • Christianity destroyed for us the whole harvest of ancient civilization, and later it also destroyed for us the whole harvest of Mohammedan civilization. The wonderful culture of the Moors in Spain, which was fundamentally nearer to us and appealed more to our senses and tastes than that of Rome and Greece, was trampled down (—I do not say by what sort of feet—) Why? Because it had to thank noble and manly instincts for its origin—because it said yes to life, even to the rare and refined luxuriousness of Moorish life! ... The crusaders later made war on something before which it would have been more fitting for them to have grovelled in the dust -- a civilization beside which even that of our nineteenth century seems very poor and very "senile".
  • Science and knowledge, especially that of philosophy, came from the Arabs into the West.
  • These Moors cultivated the sciences with success, and taught Spain and Italy for five centuries.
    • Voltaire, A Philosophical Dictionary, J. and H. L. Hunt, 1843, p.172
  • I have to deplore the systematic manner in which the literature of Europe has continued to put out of sight our obligations to the Muhammadans. Surely they cannot be much longer hidden. Injustice founded on religious rancour and national conceit cannot be perpetuated forever. (...) The Arab has left his intellectual impress on Europe. He has indelibly written it on the heavens as any one may see who reads the names of the stars on a common celestial globe. Our obligations to the Spanish Moors in the arts of life are even more marked than in the higher branches of sciences.
    • John William Draper, A History of the Intellectual Development of Europe, Harper & brothers, 1863, p.356
  • The most powerful influence exercised by the Arabs on general natural physics was that directed to the advances of chemistry; a science for which this race created a new era.(...) Besides making laudatory mention of that which we owe to the natural science of the Arabs in both the terrestrial and celestial spheres, we must likewise allude to their contributions in separate paths of intellectual development to the general mass of mathematical science.
  • For four or five centuries, Islam was the most brilliant civilization in the Old World. (...) At its higher level the golden age of Muslim civilization was both an immense scientific success and a exceptional revival of ancient philosophy. These was not its only triumphs; literature was another: but they eclipse the rest. First, science: it was there that the Saracens (...) made the most original contributions. These, in brief, were nothing less than trigonometry and algebra (with its significantly Arab name). (...) Equally distinguished were Islam's mathematical geographers, its atronomical observatories and instruments (...). The Muslims also deserve high marks for optics, for chemistry (...) and for pharmacy. More than half the remedies and healings aids used by the West came from Islam (...). Muslim medical skill was incontestable. (...) In the field of philosophy, what took place was rediscovery - a return, essentially of the peripatetic philosophy. The scope of this rediscovery, however, was not limited to copying and handling on, valuable as that undoubtely was. It also involved continuing, elucidating and creating.
  • Contacts with the Mohammedans in Spain, and to a lesser extent in Sicily, made the West aware of Aristotle; also of Arabic numerals, algebra, and chemistry. It was this contact that began the revival of learning in the eleventh century, leading to the Scholastic philosophy. It was later, from the thirteenth century onward, that the study of the Greek enabled men to go direct to the works of Plato and Aristotle and other Greeks writers of antiquity. But if the Arabs had not preserved the tradition, the men of the Renaissance might not have suspected how much was to be gained by the revival of classical learning.
  • Our use of the phrase 'The Dark Ages' to cover the period from 600 to 1000 marks our undue concentration on Western Europe. [...] From India to Spain, the brilliant civilisation of Islam flourished. What was lost to Christendom at this time was not lost to civilisation, but quite the contrary. [...] To us it seems that West-European civilisation is civilisation, but this is a narrow view.
  • Above all, the great role of the Arabs and Jews was as the transmitters of Aristotelian thought. It was especially the Spanish Arabs who brought the texts of the great Greek philosopher to the countries of the West, and this contribution marks the period of Scholasticism's maturity. From the point of view of this transmission as well as from the point of view of philosophic activity, Arabic Spain merits first place in the world of medieval Eastern philosophy.
    • Julián Marías, History of Philosophy (1941), Courrier Dover, 1967, p.153
  • I must be content to say that immeasurably the strongest stimulation that began to awaken Christendom from its medieval nightmare came from the brilliant civilization which liberal Arabs and Persians had now created in Spain, Sicily and the east. It was because the Normans settled in Sicily that they were civilized so rapidly; it was because the Albigensians, or the people of the south of France, were the nearest neighbours of the Arabs of Spain that they rose to a high civilization. The full truth about the reawakening of Europe at this stage is so fatal to the legend of Christian inspiration that history is only now daring to tell it.
    • Joseph McCabe, The Social Record of Christianity (1935), Book Tree, 2000, p.61
  • It was, however, from Spain, and not from Arabia, that a knowledge of eastern mathematics first came into western Europe. The Moors had established their rules in Spain in 747, and by the tenth or eleven century had attained a high degree of civilisation.
    • W. W. Rouse Ball, A Short Account of the History of Mathematics (1888), Courier Dover, 1960, p.164
  • The significant contribution to mathematics we owe to the Arabs was to absorb Greek and Hindu mathematics, preserve it, and ultimately, through events we have yet to look in, transmit it to Europe. (...) In Spain the Arabs were constantly attacked and finally conquered in 1492 by the Christians; this ended the mathematical and scientific activity in the region.
    • Morris Kline, Mathematical Thought from Ancient to Modern Times, Oxford University Press, 1990, p.197
  • During the almost 1000 years that science was dormant in Europe, the Arabs, who by the 9th century had extended their sphere of influence as far as Spain, became the custodians of science and dominated biology, as they did other disciplines.
  • The rapidity of the progress made by Islam in the sciences, arts, industry, and commerce, and all the refinements of civilized life, is almost as amazing as the rapidity of its conquest.
  • I want to see the gardens and palace of the Alcazar where the Moorish Kings used to live. It is as perfect an architecture as the Egyptian, Greek or Gothic and just as beautiful, maybe more beautiful and it is well built for it looks as new as if it had just been done. We have to thanks these Moors for our greatest sciences, they did the big work for us, they started them, Algebra, Chemistry, Astronomy. They are our masters.
    • Thomas Eakins, in Vistas de España, Mary Elizabeth Boone, Yale University Press, 2007, p.77
  • Clearly it is we who were the barbarians when we went to harass the East with our crusades. What is more, we owe what is noble in our own way of life to these crusades and to the Moors of Spain.
    • Stendhal, Love (1822), Penguin Classics, 1975, p.175
  • It must be owned (...) that all the knowledge, whether of physic, astronomy, philosophy, or mathematics, which flourished in Europe from the tenth century, was originally derived from them; and that the Spanish Saracens, in a more particular manner, may be looked upon as the fathers of European philosophy.
  • The Arabian epoch (...) was the most cultured, the most intellectual and in every way best and happiest epoch in Spanish history. It was followed by the period of the persecutions with its unceasing atrocities.
    • Adolf Hitler, Secret Conversations, 1941-1944, Farrar, Straus and Young, 1953, p.493
  • Only in the Roman Empire and in Spain under Arab domination has culture been a potent factor. Under the Arab, the standard attained was wholly admirable; to Spain flocked the greatest scientists, thinkers, astronomers, and mathematicians of the world, and side by side there flourished a spirit of sweet human tolerance and a sense of purist chivalry. Then with the advent of Christianity, came the barbarians.
    • Adolf Hitler, Secret Conversations, 1941-1944, Farrar, Straus and Young, 1953, p.542
  • It was under the influence of the arabs and Moorish revival of culture and not in the 15th century, that a real renaissance took place. Spain, not Italy, was the cradle of the rebirth of Europe. After steadily sinking lower and lower into barbarism, it had reached the darkest depths of ignorance and degradation when cities of the Saracenic world, Baghdad, Cairo, Cordova, and Toledo, were growing centers of civilization and intellectual activity. It was there that the new life arose which was to grow into new phase of human evolution. (...) It was under their successors at Oxford School (that is, successors to the Muslims of Spain) that Roger Bacon learned Arabic and Arabic Sciences. Neither Roger Bacon nor later namesake has any title to be credited with having introduced the experimental method. Roger Bacon was no more than one of apostles of Muslim Science and Method to Christian Europe; and he never wearied of declaring that knowledge of Arabic and Arabic Sciences was for his contemporaries the only way to true knowledge.
    • Robert Briffault, The Making of Humanity , G. Allen & Unwin ltd., 1919, p.188-201
  • Spain, under Arab rule, became the most civilized country in the world.
    • Max Dimont, The Amazing Adventures of the Jewish People, Behrman House, 1995, p.81
  • That period was a very dreamland of culture. Under enlightened caliphs, the Arabs in Spain developed a civilization which, during the whole of the middle ages up to the Renaissance, exercised pregnant influence upon every department of human knowledge. (...) Yet this Spanish-Arabic period bequeathed to us such magnificent tokens of architectural skill, of scientific research, and of philosophic thought, that far from regarding it as a fancy's dream, we know it to be one of the corner-stone of civilization.
    • Gustav Karpeles, Jewish Literature and Other Essays (1895), Kessinger Publishing, 2003, p.147
  • Many of the traits on which modern Europe prides itself came to it from Muslim Spain. Diplomacy, free trade, open borders, the techniques of academic research, of anthropology, etiquette, fashion, various types of medicine, hospitals, all came from this great city of cities. Medieval Islam was a religion of remarkable tolerance for its time, allowing Jews and Christians the right to practise their inherited beliefs, and setting an example which was not, unfortunately, copied for many centuries in the West. The surprise (...) is the extent to which Islam has been a part of Europe for so long, first in Spain, then in the Balkans, and the extent to which it has contributed so much towards the civilisation which we all too often think of, wrongly, as entirely Western. Islam is part of our past and our present, in all fields of human endeavour. It has helped to create modern Europe. It is part of our own inheritance, not a thing apart.
  • In order to a better understanding of the character of the Spanish Arabs, or Moors, who exercised an important influence on that of their Christian neighbours, the present chapter will be devoted to a consideration of their previous history in the Peninsula, where they probably reached a higher degree of civilization than in any other part of the world.
    • William H. Prescott, History of the reign of Ferdinand and Isabella, the Catholic, of Spain, Richard Bentley, t.1, 1842, p.338
  • Spain under the Omayyad caliphs (...) developed the most brilliant civilization in the Europe of the period, with achievements in science, the arts, and literature far beyond anything the nascent northern or Italian states could offer, or even the decadent Byzantines.
    • Fletcher Pratt, The Battles that Changed History (1956), Courier Dover Publications, 2000, p.93
  • There was [in Spain] a civilization in many respects admirable. It was eminent for industry, science, art and poetry; its annals are full of romantic interests; it was in some respects superior to the Christian system which supplanted it; in many ways it contributed largely to the progress of the human race. (...) Yet because of the fundamental defect that between the Christians Spaniards and his Mussulman conqueror there could be no political fusion, this brilliant civilization was doomed.
    • John Fiske, The Beginnings of New England (1889),Kessinger Publishing, 2004, p.11
  • Europe was darkened at sunset, Cordova shone with public lamps; Europe was dirty, Cordova built a thousand baths; Europe was covered with vermine, Cordova changed its undergarments daily; Europe lay in mud, Cordovas streets were paved; Europes palaces had smoke-holes in the ceiling, Cordovas arabesques were exquisite; Europes nobility could not sign its name, Cordovas children went to school; Europes monks could not read the baptismal service, Cordovas teachers created a library of Alexandrian dimensions.
    • Victor Robinson, The Story of Medicine (1932), Kessinger Publishing, 2005, p.164

People

  • Who were these conquerors, who had so quickly and so completely overturned the strongest western European monarchy of their day ? It is customary to refer to these stirrings events as 'Arab' or the 'Islamic' invasion and conquest of spain. But only in a very limited sense was it either Arab or Islamic : it was mainly Berber. The Berbers were, as they still are, the indigenous inhabitants of northwest Africa, the Maghrib.
  • 'Moorish' Spain does at least have the merit of reminding us that the bulk of the invaders and settlers were Moors, i.e. Berbers from northwest Africa.
  • The Andalusians themselves were of varied origins. The numerically tiny Arab elite had intermarried with other people, including local Iberians, ever since they arrived. Berbers were still the most numerous of the conquerors, while the Jewish community was also large and influential. The descendants of African and European slaves were fully integrated; but the most numerous Muslim community stemmed from local Iberians. By the 11th century these had fused together to form y new Andalusian people.
  • In one sense the word 'Moor' means the Mohammedan Berbers and Arabs of north-western Africa, with some Syrians, who conquered most of Spain in the eighth century and dominated the country for hundreds of years, leaving behind some magnificent examples of their architecture as a lasting memorial of their presence. These so-called 'Moors' were far in advance of any of the peoples of northern Europe at that time, not only in architecture but also in literature, science, technology, industry, and agriculture; and their civilization had a permanent influence on Spain. They were Europids, unhybridized with members of any other race. The Berbers were (and are) Mediterranids, probably with some admixture from the Cromagnid subrace of ancient times. The Arabs were Orientalids, the Syrians probably of mixed Orientalid and Armenoid stock.
    • John Baker, Race, Oxford University Press, 1974, p.226
  • The noble Moor of Spain is anything but a pure Arab of the desert, he is half a Berber (from the Aryan family) and his veins are so full of Gothic blood that even at the present day noble inhabitants of Morocco can trace their descent back to Teutonic ancestors.

Genetics

  • We analyzed Y chromosome haplotypes, which provide the necessary phylogeographic resolution, in 1140 males from the Iberian Peninsula and Balearic Islands. Admixture analysis based on binary and Y-STR haplotypes indicates a high mean proportion of ancestry from North African (10.6%) (...) with wide geographical variation, ranging from zero in Gascony to 21.7% in Northwest Castile. (...) Some mtDNA studies find evidence of the characteristic North African haplogroup U6 within the Iberian Peninsula. Although the overall absolute frequency of U6 is low (2.4%), this signals a possible current North African ancestry proportion of 8%–9%, because U6 is not a common lineage in North Africa itself. (...) This might suggest that initial admixture involved movement of approximately equal numbers of males and females. (...) Immigration events from the Middle East and North Africa over the last two millennia, followed by introgression driven by religious conversion and intermarriage, seem likely to have contributed a substantial proportion of the patrilineal ancestry of modern populations of Spain, Portugal, and the Balearic Islands.

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Andalucia article)

From Wikitravel

Europe : Iberia : Spain : Andalucia
Patio de Los Leones in the Alhambra. Andalucia is a region steeped in Moorish architecture and the Alhambra in Granada is widely regarded as the pinaccle of Moorish architecture.
Patio de Los Leones in the Alhambra. Andalucia is a region steeped in Moorish architecture and the Alhambra in Granada is widely regarded as the pinaccle of Moorish architecture.
For other places with the same name, see Andalucia (disambiguation).

Andalucia is a region in the south of Spain. It is a region of contrasts: ancient cities and deserts, amazing beaches along the Costa del Sol and Costa de la Luz and the Sierra Nevada mountain range where the highest mountain in Spain is found and also the most southerly ski resort in Europe.

Andalucia encompasses an area of 87,268 km2 with a population of just under 8 million people. It spans almost the entire south of Spain and is bordered to the west by Portugal. To the south in the Province of Cádiz at the very tip of Spain lies the British colony of Gibraltar where it is separate from North Africa by just a few miles.

Provinces of Andalucia, Spain
Provinces of Andalucia, Spain

Andalucia is divided into eight provinces, each having the same name as its respective provincial capital city.

Understand

Andalucia has a rich Moorish heritage, including many fantastic examples of Moorish architecture which were built during the eight centuries when Andalucia was the centre of the Arab population in the Iberian peninsular. The Moorish rule effectively ended in 1492AD when the Christians recaptured Granada.

Nowaday, the region is a very popular tourist destination with a lot of British and German package holidayers coming to stay in the concrete resorts on the Costa del Sol. But if you stay away from the concrete resorts you will find lots of culture, amazing scenery and great food.

Talk

Andalucian, Castilian, English,etc...

Get in

Major airports: Seville(Sevilla), Malaga, Almeria, Jerez de la Frontera.

By car

The main road routes into Andalucia are

The E-1 A-49 from the Algarve (Portugal) to Seville
The E-803 A-66 from Portugal and western Spain to Seville
The E-5 A-4 from Madrid to Cordoba and then Seville
The E-15 A-7 from Valencia and Murcia to Almeria and along the coast

By plane

Malaga has the third biggest international airport in Spain, which a lot of discount airlines fly to. From Malaga, the A-7 E-15 motorway runs westwards along the coast to Gibraltar and eastwards to Almeria and beyond. To head north from Malaga, the A-45 motorway runs to Cordoba.

By train

Spain's railway network isn't as developed as those of many other European countries, but Algeciras, Almeria, Cadiz, Granada, Huelva, Jaen, Malaga, Cordoba and Sevilla are all served by regular train services. Some of the other smaller towns are served by less frequent services, see individual city guides for further details. For more info, see the RENFE website.

  • Alsina Graells [2] provides bus services around Andalucia. Timetables and ticket booking available at the website.
  • Moorish architecture in Granada, including the Alhambra
Lake Negratin, Andalucia
Lake Negratin, Andalucia
  • Lake Negratin is situated at the foothills of Mount Jabalcón. As one of Europes largest lakes, it really is worth seeing not least for the most magnificent lunar-landscape that surrounds it. I would liken the rock formations and the colours it produces during different times of the day to those of the Grand Canyon. There is a manmade beach where you can laze the day away, a number of restaurants dotted round the lake and on a nice day you can swim or take out a pedalo boat, which might lead you to pink flamingos and various other wildlife.
  • Seron is nestled on the lower slopes of the Sierra de los Filabres and is a picturesque town that cascades down the hillside. Dominated by its Castle, which sits at the very top, Seron is famous for its ham and provides a more traditional experience of Andalucian life. It is a beautiful location to start your exploration of the Filabres, or visit at the right time of year and you might find yourself submerged in a vibrant fiesta.
  • Las Menas, an old mining village abandoned thirty years ago, makes an interesting stop in the Sierra de los Filabres. You can investigate old ruins crumbling amidst the most breathtaking countryside, stop for coffee and cake at the hotel and even camp for the night.
    • ANDAVENTUR GRANADA ADVENTURE COMPANY [3] ; outdoor sports in the Sierra Nevada National park and Granada province, Tandem paraglider flights, Canyoning, Hiking, Ski, Rock Climbing, Horse riding...
  • SKI SCHOOL in Sierra Nevada ski resort [[4]]
  • Rock Climbing Company, +34 952 742 962 / +44 (0)1492 641430, [5]. High quality rock climbing and scrambling courses in Andalucia. Courses based in Malaga province both on the coast and also inland near to the El Chorro gorge.  edit
  • Horse riding and Spain go hand-in-hand and with such spectacular mountain ranges at your disposal as the Sierra Nevada and Alpujarra Hills; you have a feast of beautiful Andalucian trekking land to indulge in astride your faithful friend. There are several stables situated in these areas and all offer the option to ride for an hour, a day or even as long as 7 nights. Accommodation and food are included in prices and the whole experience offers a truly magical and unique way to see this amazing part of Spain. Prices vary from 25 to 1200 EUROS and there are so many options to choose from that you will undoubtedly find something to suit your level and requirements.
  • Walking and cycling holidays in rural Andalucia [[6]]
  • Flamenco is the all-Andlusian art with a history stretching back over 3,000 years. The Museo del Baile Flamenco (Flamenco Dance Museum) is the ideal place to learn more about this phenomenon. Shows are offered on Friday and Saturday nights at 19:30, too. www.museoflamenco.com
  • Altiplano Tipis (Altiplano Tipis), Canada SoSal 18800 Baza, Spain, +34 664835417, [7]. Altiplano Tipis is a boutique accommodation offering where guests can experience eco-glamping (glamorous camping!) in a tipi or stay in a cave dwelling studio in the rugged, unspoilt countryside of Andalusia [8] From €35 a night for two people.  edit

Stay safe

Generally very safe; take usual precautions,especially in some parts of Algeciras, Malaga, Seville, etc...

This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Proper noun

Singular
Al-Andalus

Plural
-

Al-Andalus

  1. Islamic Spain (from AD 711 to 1492)

Translations

  • Arabic: الأندلس (al-’andalus)
  • Catalan: Al-Àndalus
  • Dutch: Al-Andalus
  • Esperanto: Al-Andalus
  • French: Al-Andalus
  • German: Al-Andalus
  • Hebrew: אל-אנדלוס (al-andalus)
  • Italian: Al-Andalus
  • Japanese: アンダルス (andarusu)
  • Norwegian: Al-Andalus
  • Polish: Al-Andalus
  • Portuguese: Al-Andalus
  • Spanish: Al-Ándalus
  • Swedish: Al-Andalus

Simple English

Al-Andalus (Arabic: الأندلس) was the Arabic name given to those parts of the Iberian Peninsula governed by Muslims, or Moors, at various times in the period between 711 and 1492.[1] As a political domain or domains, it was successively a province of the Umayyad Caliphate, the Caliphate of Córdoba (929-1031), and finally the Caliphate of Córdoba's taifa (successor) kingdoms. For large parts of its history, particularly under the Caliphate of Córdoba, Andalus was famous for learning and the city of Córdoba became one of the leading cultural and economic centers in both the Mediterranean basin and the Islamic world.

In 1236, the Reconquista (gradual Christian reconquest) under the forces of Ferdinand III of Castile progressed as far as the last remaining Islamic stronghold, Granada. Granada was reduced to a vassal state to Castile for the next 256 years, until January 2 1492, when Boabdil surrendered complete control of Granada to Ferdinand and Isabella.

Contents

Other pages

Footnotes

  1. "Andalus, al-" Oxford Dictionary of Islam. John L. Esposito, Ed. Oxford University Press. 2003. Oxford Reference Online. Oxford University Press. Accessed 12 June 2006.

Bibliography

An Islamic History of Europe. video documentary, BBC 4, August 2005.

  • Stavans, Ilan. 2003. The Scroll and the Cross: 1,000 Years of Jewish-Hispanic Literature. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-92930-X
  • Wasserstein, David J. 1995. Jewish élites in Al-Andalus. In Daniel Frank (Ed.). The Jews of Medieval Islam: Community, Society and Identity. Brill. ISBN 90-04-10404-6

Films

Other websites



Advertisements






Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message