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Al-Fatiha
الفاتحة
FirstSurahKoran.jpg
Al-Fatiha
Classification Makkan
Meaning of the name The Opening
Other names Umm al-Kitab (Mother of the Book)
Umm al-Qur'an (Mother of the Qur'an)
The Key
Surah al-Hamd (The Praise)
Time of revelation Early years of prophethood
Statistics
Sura number 1
Number of verses 7
Juz' number 1
Hizb number 1
Number of Sajdahs None
Harf-e-Mukatta'at No
Number of Ayats on particular subjects Praise of God: 3
Relation between Creator and creatures: 1
Prayer of the humankind: 3
Previous Sura
Next Sura Al-Baqara
Listen to Surah Fatiha
Listen to Surah Fatiha

Sura Al-Fatiha (Arabic: سورة الفاتحة‎, Sūratu al-Fātihah, "The Opening") is the first chapter of the Muslim holy book, the Qur'an. Its seven verses are a prayer for God's guidance and stress the lordship and mercy of God. This chapter has a special role in daily prayers, being recited at the start of each unit of prayer.

Contents

Interpretation

Muslims believe that the Qur'an is a revelation from God in the Arabic language. Translations into other languages are considered by many to be merely superficial "interpretations" of the meanings and not authentic versions of the Qur'an.

The Arabic text with transliteration and translation in English is as follows: [Qur'an 1:1].

1:1 بِسْمِ اللّهِ الرَّحْمـَنِ الرَّحِيم

Bismillāhi r-raḥmāni r-raḥīm
In the name of Allah, the Beneficent, the Merciful.

1:2 الْحَمْدُ للّهِ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِين

Al ḥamdu lillāhi rabbi l-'ālamīn
Praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds

1:3 الرَّحْمـنِ الرَّحِيم

Ar raḥmāni r-raḥīm
The Beneficent, the Merciful.

1:4 مَـالِكِ يَوْمِ الدِّين

Māliki yawmi d-dīn
Owner of the Day of Judgement

1:5 إِيَّاك نَعْبُدُ وإِيَّاكَ نَسْتَعِين

Iyyāka na'budu wa iyyāka nasta'īn
Thee do we worship, and Thine aid we seek.

1:6 اهدِنَــــا الصِّرَاطَ المُستَقِيمَ

Ihdinā ṣ-ṣirāṭ al-mustaqīm
Show us the straight path,

1:7 صِرَاطَ الَّذِينَ أَنعَمتَ عَلَيهِمْ غَيرِ المَغضُوبِ عَلَيهِمْ وَلاَ الضَّالِّين

Ṣirāṭ al-laḏīna an'amta 'alayhim ġayril maġḍūbi 'alayhim walāḍ ḍāllīn
The path of those whom Thou hast favoured; Not the (path) of those who earn Thine anger nor of those who go astray.

When recited during daily prayers, some schools of thought follow Al-Fatihah by the word Amin.

Notes

The first verse, transliterated as "bismillāhir rahmānir rahīm", may be familiar to non-Arabic speakers and non-Muslims because of its ubiquity in Arabic and Muslim societies. This verse appears at the start of every chapter in the Qur'an with the exception of the ninth chapter. The verse is normally said before reciting a chapter or part of a chapter during daily prayer, and also before public proclamations and indeed before many personal and everyday activities in many Arabic and Muslim societies as a way to invoke God's blessing and proclaim one's motives before an undertaking.

The two words "ar rahmān" and "ar rahīm" are often translated in English as "the beneficent" and "the merciful" or "the generous" and "the merciful." They are often also translated as superlatives, for example, "the most generous" and "the most merciful". Grammatically the two words "rahmaan" and "raheem" are different linguistic forms of the triconsonantal root R-H-M, connoting "mercy". (For more information, see the section on root forms in Semitic languages). The form "rahmaan" denotes degree or extent, i.e., "most merciful," while "raheem" denotes time permanence, i.e., "ever merciful".

The second verse's "الحمد الله" ranks as one of the most popular phrases in all of Arabic, being used to express one's well-being, general happiness, or even consolation in a disaster. The verse is also significant in that it includes a relationship between the two most common names for God in Arabic "الله" and "رب". The first word is a ubiquitous name for God, and the second roughly translates to "Lord." It shares the same root with the Hebrew "rabbi". In some printings of the Qur'an, both words appear in red everywhere in the Qur'an.

The reading of the first word of the fourth verse, translated as "master/king" above, has been the subject of debate. The two main recitations, of the Qur'an, Warsh and Hafs, differ on whether it should be "maliki" with a short "a," which means "king" (Warsh, from Nafi'; Ibn Kathir; Ibn Amir; Abu 'Amr; Hamza), or "māliki" with a long "a," which means "master" or "owner" (Hafs, from Asim, and al-Kisa'i). Both "maliki" and "māliki" derive from the same triconsonantal root in Arabic, M-L-K. Both readings are considered valid by many practitioners, since both can be seen as describing God.

In the seventh verse, hadith inform us that "ġayril maġḍūbi 'alayhim" (those who earned your anger) refers to the Jews, who, according to Allah, abandoned practicing his religion; "walāḍ ḍāllīn" (those who went astray) refers to the Christians, who lost the knowledge and thus deserve less anger.[1][2][3]

In some Muslim societies, Al-Fatiha is traditionally read together by a couple to seal their engagement, however this act is not recorded in the sunnah and is seen by many to be an innovation.

Revelation

Islamic scholarly tradition is concerned, amongst other things, with when and where verses and chapters of the Qur'an were revealed to [Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam] - for example, whether a verse was revealed while Muhammad Sal'lallaa'hoalaih'wa'salam was in Mecca or Medina. According to Ibn Abbas and others, Sura Al-Fatiha is a Meccan sura; according to Abu Hurayrah and others, it is a Medinan sura. The former view is more widely accepted, although some believe that it was revealed in both Mecca and Medina.[citation needed]

Alternate names

This surah is sometimes known in English as "the Exordium". In various Hadith it is described as "the mother of the Book" (Umm al-Kitab) and "the mother of the Qur'an" (Umm al-Qur'an), and "the cure of diseases" ("Sura-tul-shifa") and said to be the seven verses alluded to in Al-Hijr [Qur'an 15:87].

Statistics

This sura contains 7 verses, 29 words and 139 letters (or 25 and 120, not counting the first verse), although Ibn Kathir says "The scholars say that Al-Fatiha consists of 25 words, and that it contains 113 letters." It falls in the first hizb, and hence the first juz', which are sections of the Qur'an.

Previous Sura:
The Qur'an - Sura 1 Next Sura:
Al-Baqara
Arabic text

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114

Translations, interpretations and commentaries

Because of a hadith which states that "whoever does not recite Surah Al-fatihah in his prayer his prayer is invalid", many Islamic scholars emphasise the importance of this chapter in their commentaries. In practice, this means that Muslims who perform daily prayers according to traditional rules will recite Surah Al-Fatiha at least 17 times a day.

The first word of Grand Qur'aan discloses the first ever scientific/physical fact "Beginning is with the code/Name" [1]

References

  1. ^ (Verse 1:7) Narrated by ‘Adi bin Hâtim رضي الله عنه: I asked Allâh’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم , about the Statement of Allâh: 1. " غير المغضوب عليهم Ghairil-maghdûbi ‘alaihim (not the way of those who earned Your Anger)," he صلى الله عليه وسلم replied "They are the Jews". And 2. ولا الضالين Walad dâllîn (nor of those who went astray)," he صلى الله عليه وسلم replied: "The Christians, and they are the ones who went astray" - this hadith is quoted by At-Tirmidhi and Musnad Abu Dâwûd.
  2. ^ http://www.qurancomplex.com/Quran/Targama/Targama.asp?t=eng&l=eng
  3. ^ http://sharing4islamic.multiply.com/journal/item/80/The_sweetness_of_Surah_Al_Fatiha-the_opening

See also

External links








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