The Full Wiki

More info on Alabama

Alabama: Wikis

  
  
  
  
  

Note: Many of our articles have direct quotes from sources you can cite, within the Wikipedia article! This article doesn't yet, but we're working on it! See more info or our list of citable articles.

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Alabama

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

State of Alabama
Flag of Alabama State seal of Alabama
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): Yellowhammer State; Heart of Dixie; Cotton State
Motto(s): Audemus jura nostra defendere (Latin)
before statehood, known as
the Alabama Territory
Map of the United States with Alabama highlighted
Official language(s) English
Spoken language(s) English (96.17%)
Spanish (2.12%)
Demonym Alabamian or Alabaman
Capital Montgomery
Largest city Birmingham
229,800 (2007 estimate)[1]
Largest metro area Greater Birmingham Area
Area  Ranked 30th in the US
 - Total 52,419 sq mi
(135,765 km2)
 - Width 190 miles (306 km)
 - Length 330 miles (531 km)
 - % water 3.20
 - Latitude 30° 11′ N to 35° N
 - Longitude 84° 53′ W to 88° 28′ W
Population  Ranked 23rd in the US
 - Total 4,661,900 (2008 est.)[2]
4,447,100 (2000)
 - Density 84.83/sq mi  (33.84/km2)
Ranked 27th in the US
Elevation  
 - Highest point Mount Cheaha[3]
2,413 ft  (734 m)
 - Mean 499 ft  (152 m)
 - Lowest point Gulf of Mexico[3]
0 ft  (0 m)
Admission to Union  December 14, 1819 (22nd)
Governor Robert R. Riley (R)
Lieutenant Governor Jim Folsom, Jr. (D)
U.S. Senators Richard Shelby (R)
Jeff Sessions (R)
U.S. House delegation 5 Republicans, 2 Democrats (list)
Time zone Central: UTC-6/DST-5
Abbreviations AL Ala. US-AL
Website http://www.alabama.gov
Alabama State Symbols
Flag of Alabama.svg
The Flag of Alabama.

Animate insignia
Amphibian Red Hills salamander
Bird(s) Yellowhammer, Wild Turkey
Butterfly Eastern Tiger Swallowtail
Fish Largemouth bass, Fighting tarpon
Flower(s) Camellia, Oak-leaf Hydrangea
Insect Monarch Butterfly
Mammal(s) American Black Bear, Racking horse
Reptile Alabama red-bellied turtle
Tree Longleaf Pine

Inanimate insignia
Beverage Conecuh Ridge Whiskey
Colors Red, White
Dance Square Dance
Food Pecan, Blackberry, Peach
Fossil Basilosaurus
Gemstone Star Blue Quartz
Mineral Hematite
Rock Marble
Shell Johnstone's Junonia
Slogan(s) Share The Wonder,
Alabama the beautiful,
Where America finds its voice,
Sweet Home Alabama
Soil Bama
Song(s) Alabama

Route marker(s)
Alabama Route Marker

State Quarter
Quarter of Alabama
Released in 2003

Lists of United States state insignia

Alabama Listeni /ˌæləˈbæmə/ is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States of America. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east, Florida and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, and Mississippi to the west. Alabama ranks 30th in total land area and ranks second in the size of its inland waterways. The state ranks 23rd in population with almost 4.6 million residents in 2006.[4]

From the American Civil War until World War II, Alabama, like many Southern states, suffered economic hardship, in part because of continued dependence on agriculture. White rural interests dominated the state legislature until the 1960s, while urban interests and African Americans were underrepresented.[5] Following World War II, Alabama experienced significant recovery as the economy of the state transitioned from agriculture to diversified interests in heavy manufacturing, mineral extraction, education, and technology, as well as the establishment or expansion of multiple military installations, primarily those of the U.S. Army and U.S. Air Force. The state has heavily invested in aerospace, education, health care, and banking, and various heavy industries including automobile manufacturing, mineral extraction, steel production and fabrication.

Alabama is unofficially nicknamed the Yellowhammer State, which is also the name of the state bird. Alabama is also known as the "Heart of Dixie". The state tree is the Longleaf Pine, the state flower is the Camellia. The capital of Alabama is Montgomery, and the largest city by population is Birmingham. The largest city by total land area is Huntsville. The oldest city is Mobile.

Contents

Etymology of state name

The Alabama, a Muskogean tribe whose members lived just below the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers on the upper reaches of the Alabama River,[6] served as the etymological source of the names of the river and state. In the Alabama language, the word for an Alabama person is Albaamo (or variously Albaama or Albàamo in different dialects; the plural form "Alabama persons" is Albaamaha).[7] The word Alabama is believed to have originated from the Choctaw language[8] and was later adopted by the Alabama tribe as their name.[9] The spelling of the word varies significantly between sources.[9] The first usage appears in three accounts of the Hernando de Soto expedition of 1540 with Garcilasso de la Vega using Alibamo while the Knight of Elvas and Rodrigo Ranjel wrote Alibamu and Limamu, respectively.[9] As early as 1702, the tribe was known to the French as Alibamon with French maps identifying the river as Rivière des Alibamons.[6] Other spellings of the appellation have included Alibamu, Alabamo, Albama, Alebamon, Alibama, Alibamou, Alabamu, and Allibamou.[9][10][11][12]

Although the origin of Alabama was evident, the meaning of the tribe's name was not always clear. An article without a byline appearing in the Jacksonville Republican on July 27, 1842, originated the idea that the meaning was "Here We Rest."[9] This notion was popularized in the 1850s through the writings of Alexander Beaufort Meek.[9] Experts in the Muskogean languages have been unable to find any evidence that would support this translation.[6][9] It is now generally accepted that the word comes from the Choctaw words alba (meaning "plants" or "weeds") and amo (meaning "to cut", "to trim", or "to gather").[8][9][13] This results in translations such as "clearers of the thicket"[8] or even "herb gatherers"[13][14] which may refer to clearing of land for the purpose of planting crops[10] or to collection of medicinal plants by medicine men.[14]

History

Among the Native American people once living in the area of present day Alabama were Alabama (Alibamu), Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Koasati, and Mobile.[15] Trade with the Northeast via the Ohio River began during the Burial Mound Period (1000 BC-700 AD) and continued until European contact.[16] The agrarian Mississippian culture covered most of the state from 1000 to 1600 AD, with one of its major centers being at the Moundville Archaeological Site in Moundville, Alabama.[17][18] Artifacts recovered from archaeological excavations at Moundville were a major component in the formulation of the Southeastern Ceremonial Complex.[19] Contrary to popular belief, this development appears to have no direct links to Mesoamerica, but developed independently. This Ceremonial Complex represents a major component of the religion of the Mississippian peoples, and is one of the primary means by which their religion is understood.[20]

The French founded the first European settlement in the state with the establishment of Mobile in 1702.[21] Southern Alabama was French from 1702 to 1763, part of British West Florida from 1763 to 1780, and part of Spanish West Florida from 1780 to 1814. Northern and central Alabama was part of British Georgia from 1763 to 1783 and part of the American Mississippi territory thereafter. Its statehood was delayed by the lack of a coastline; rectified when Andrew Jackson captured Spanish Mobile in 1814.[22] Alabama was the twenty-second state, admitted to the Union in 1819. Its constitution provided for universal suffrage for white men.

Alabama was part of the new frontier in the 1820s and 1830s. Settlers rapidly arrived to take advantage of its fertile soil. Planters brought slaves with them, and traders brought in more from the Upper South as the cotton plantations expanded. The economy of the central "Black Belt" was built around large cotton plantations whose owners built their wealth on slave labor. It was named for the dark, productive soil.[23] Elsewhere poor whites were subsistence farmers. According to the 1860 census, enslaved Africans comprised 45% of the state's population of 964,201. There were only 2,690 free persons of color.

In 1861 Alabama declared its secession from the Union and joined the Confederate States of America. While few battles were fought in the state, Alabama contributed about 120,000 soldiers to the Civil War. All the slaves were freed by 1865.[24] Following Reconstruction, Alabama was restored to the Union in 1868.

After the Civil War, the state was still chiefly rural and tied to cotton. Planters resisted working with free labor and sought to re-establish controls over African Americans. Whites used paramilitary groups, Jim Crow laws and segregation to reduce freedoms of African Americans and restore their own dominance.

In its new constitution of 1901, the legislature effectively disfranchised African Americans through voting restrictions. While the planter class had engaged poor whites in supporting these efforts, the new restrictions resulted in disfranchising poor whites as well. By 1941, a total of more whites than blacks had been disfranchised: 600,000 whites to 520,000 blacks. This was due mostly to effects of the cumulative poll tax.[25]

The damage to the African-American community was pervasive, as nearly all its citizens lost the ability to vote. In 1900, fourteen Black Belt counties (which were primarily African American) had more than 79,000 voters on the rolls. By June 1, 1903, the number of registered voters had dropped to 1,081. In 1900, Alabama had more than 181,000 African Americans eligible to vote. By 1903, only 2,980 had managed to "qualify" to register, although at least 74,000 black voters were literate. The shut out was long-lasting.[25] The disfranchisement was ended only by African Americans leading the Civil Rights Movement and gaining Federal legislation in the mid-1960s to protect their voting and civil rights. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 also protected the suffrage of poor whites.

The rural-dominated legislature continued to underfund schools and services for African Americans in the segregated state, but did not relieve them of paying taxes.[23] Continued racial discrimination, agricultural depression, and the failure of the cotton crops due to boll weevil infestation led tens of thousands of African Americans to seek out opportunities in northern cities. They left Alabama in the early 20th century as part of the Great Migration to industrial jobs and better futures in northern industrial cities. The population growth rate in Alabama (see "Historical Populations" table below) dropped by nearly half from 1910–1920, reflecting the effect of outmigration.

At the same time, many rural whites and blacks migrated to the city of Birmingham for work in new industrial jobs. It experienced such rapid growth that it was nicknamed "The Magic City". By the 1920s, Birmingham was the 19th largest city in the U.S. and held more than 30% of the population of the state. Heavy industry and mining were the basis of the economy.[26]

Despite massive population changes in the state from 1901 to 1961, the rural-dominated legislature refused to reapportion House and Senate seats based on population. They held on to old representation to maintain political and economic power in agricultural areas. In addition, the state legislature gerrymandered the few Birmingham legislative seats to ensure election by persons living outside of Birmingham.

One result was that Jefferson County, containing Birmingham's industrial and economic powerhouse, contributed more than one-third of all tax revenue to the state. Urban interests were consistently underrepresented in the legislature. A 1960 study noted that because of rural domination, "A minority of about 25 per cent of the total state population is in majority control of the Alabama legislature."[5]

African Americans were presumed partial to Republicans for historical reasons, but they were disenfranchised. White Alabamans still felt bitter towards the Republican Party in the aftermath of the Civil War and Reconstruction. These factors created a longstanding tradition that any candidate who wanted to be viable with white voters had to run as a Democrat regardless of political beliefs. The state continued as one-party Democratic for more than a century after Reconstruction ended.[citation needed] It produced a number of national leaders. Industrial development related to the demands of World War II brought prosperity.[23] Cotton faded in importance as the state developed a manufacturing and service base. In the 1960s under Governor George Wallace, many whites in the state opposed integration efforts.

During the Civil Rights Movement, African Americans achieved a protection of voting and other civil rights through the passage of the national Civil Rights Act of 1964,[27] and the Voting Rights Act of 1965. De jure segregation ended in the states as Jim Crow laws were invalidated or repealed.[28]

Under the Voting Rights Act of 1965, cases were filed in Federal courts to force Alabama to properly redistrict by population both the state legislature House and Senate. In 1972, for the first time since 1901, the legislature implemented the Alabama constitution's provision for periodic redistricting based on population. This benefited the many urban areas that had developed, and all in the population who had been underrepresented for more than 60 years.[5]

After 1972, the state's white voters shifted much of their support to Republican candidates in presidential elections (as also occurred in neighboring southern states). Since 1990 the majority of whites in the state have also voted increasingly Republican in state elections, although Democrats are still the majority party in both houses of the legislature.[29]

Geography

Alabama terrain map: shows lakes, rivers, roads, with Mount Cheaha (right center) east of Birmingham.

Alabama is the thirtieth largest state in the United States with 52,423 square miles (135,775 km²) of total area: 3.19% of the area is water, making Alabama twenty-third in the amount of surface water, also giving it the second largest inland waterway system in the United States.[30] About three-fifths of the land area is a gentle plain with a general descent towards the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico. The North Alabama region is mostly mountainous, with the Tennessee River cutting a large valley creating numerous creeks, streams, rivers, mountains, and lakes.[31]

The states bordering Alabama are Tennessee to the north; Georgia to the east; Florida to the south; and Mississippi to the west. Alabama has coastline at the Gulf of Mexico, in the extreme southern edge of the state.[31] Alabama ranges in elevation from sea level[3] at Mobile Bay to over 1,800 feet (550 m) in the Appalachian Mountains in the northeast. The highest point is Mount Cheaha,[31] at a height of 2,407 ft (734 m). Alabama's land consists of 22 million acres (89,000 km2) of forest or 67% of total land area.[32] Suburban Baldwin County, along the Gulf Coast, is the largest county in the state in both land area and water area.[33]

Areas in Alabama administered by the National Park Service include Horseshoe Bend National Military Park near Alexander City; Little River Canyon National Preserve near Fort Payne; Russell Cave National Monument in Bridgeport; Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site in Tuskegee; and Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site near Tuskegee.[34] Additionally, Alabama has four National Forests including Conecuh, Talladega, Tuskegee, and William B. Bankhead.[35] Alabama also contains the Natchez Trace Parkway, the Selma To Montgomery National Historic Trail, and the Trail Of Tears National Historic Trail. A notable natural wonder in Alabama is "Natural Bridge" rock, the longest natural bridge east of the Rockies, located just south of Haleyville, in Winston County.

A 5-mile (8 km)-wide meteorite impact crater is located in Elmore County, just north of Montgomery. This is the Wetumpka crater, which is the site of "Alabama's greatest natural disaster".[36] A 1,000-foot (300 m)-wide meteorite hit the area about 80 million years ago.[36] The hills just east of downtown Wetumpka showcase the eroded remains of the impact crater that was blasted into the bedrock, with the area labeled the Wetumpka crater or astrobleme ("star-wound") because of the concentric rings of fractures and zones of shattered rock that can be found beneath the surface.[37] In 2002, Christian Koeberl with the Institute of Geochemistry University of Vienna published evidence and established the site as an internationally recognized impact crater.[36]

Urban areas

Birmingham, largest city and metropolitan area
Mobile, second largest metropolitan area
Huntsville, third largest metropolitan area
Montgomery, fourth largest metropolitan area
Rank Metropolitan Area Population (2008 estimates)
1 Birmingham-Hoover 1,117,608
2 Mobile 404,406
3 Huntsville 386,632
4 Montgomery 365,962
5 Tuscaloosa 205,218
6 Decatur 150,125
7 Florence-Muscle Shoals 143,791
8 Dothan 139,499
9 Auburn-Opelika 130,516
10 Anniston-Oxford 113,103
11 Gadsden 103,217
Total 3,260,077
Rank City Population
(2008 estimates)
1 Birmingham 228,798
2 Montgomery 202,696
3 Mobile 191,022
4 Huntsville 176,645
5 Tuscaloosa 90,221
6 Hoover 71,020
7 Dothan 66,505
8 Auburn 56,088
9 Decatur 56,068
10 Madison 38,714

Climate

The state is classified as humid subtropical (Cfa) under the Koppen Climate Classification.[38] The average annual temperature is 64 °F (18 °C). Temperatures tend to be warmer in the southern part of the state with its proximity to the Gulf of Mexico, while the northern parts of the state, especially in the Appalachian Mountains in the northeast, tend to be slightly cooler.[39] Generally, Alabama has very hot summers and mild winters with copious precipitation throughout the year. Alabama receives an average of 56 inches (1,400 mm) of rainfall annually and enjoys a lengthy growing season of up to 300 days in the southern part of the state.[39]

Summers in Alabama are among the hottest in the United States, with high temperatures averaging over 90 °F (32 °C) throughout the summer in some parts of the state. Alabama is also prone to tropical storms and even hurricanes. Areas of the state far away from the Gulf are not immune to the effects of the storms, which often dump tremendous amounts of rain as they move inland and weaken.

Though winters in the state are usually mild, nightly freezing occurs frequently in the North Alabama region. This is shown in this picture taken at the Old State Bank in Decatur during early January.

South Alabama reports more thunderstorms than any part of the U.S.[citation needed] The Gulf Coast, around Mobile Bay, averages between 70 and 80 days per year with thunder reported. This activity decreases somewhat further north in the state, but even the far north of the state reports thunder on about 60 days per year. Occasionally, thunderstorms are severe with frequent lightning and large hail – the central and northern parts of the state are most vulnerable to this type of storm. Alabama ranks seventh in the number of deaths from lightning and ninth in the number of deaths from lightning strikes per capita.[40] Sometimes tornadoes occur – these are common throughout the state, although the peak season for tornadoes varies from the northern to southern parts of the state. Alabama shares the dubious distinction, with Kansas, of having reported more EF5 tornadoes than any other state – according to statistics from the National Climatic Data Center for the period January 1, 1950, to October 31, 2006. An F5 tornado is the most powerful of its kind.[41] Several long – tracked F5 tornadoes have contributed to Alabama reporting more tornado fatalities than any other state except for Texas and Mississippi. The Super Outbreak in March 1974, badly affected Alabama. The northern part of the state – along the Tennessee Valley – is one of the areas in the US most vulnerable to violent tornadoes. The area of Alabama and Mississippi most affected by tornadoes is sometimes referred to as Dixie Alley, as distinct from the Tornado Alley of the Southern Plains. Alabama is one of the few places in the world that has a secondary tornado season (November and December) along with the spring severe weather season.

Winters are generally mild in Alabama, as they are throughout most of the southeastern United States, with average January low temperatures around 40 °F (4 °C) in Mobile and around 32 °F (0 °C) in Birmingham. Although snow is a rare event in much of Alabama, areas of the state north of Montgomery may receive a dusting of snow a few times every winter, with an occasional moderately heavy snowfall every few years. For example, the annual average snowfall for the Birmingham area is 2 inches per year. In the southern Gulf coast, snowfall is less frequent, sometimes going several years without any snowfall.

Monthly normal high and low temperatures for various Alabama cities[42]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
City temp °F °C °F °C °F °C °F °C °F °C °F °C °F °C °F °C °F °C °F °C °F °C °F °C
Birmingham high 53 12 58 14 66 19 74 23 81 27 88 31 91 33 90 32 85 29 75 24 64 18 56 13
low 32 0 35 2 42 6 48 9 58 14 65 18 70 21 69 21 63 17 51 11 42 6 35 2
Huntsville high 49 9 55 13 63 17 72 22 80 27 86 30 89 32 89 32 83 28 73 23 62 17 52 11
low 31 −1 34 1 41 5 48 9 58 14 65 18 70 21 68 20 62 17 50 10 41 5 34 1
Mobile high 61 16 64 18 71 22 77 25 84 29 89 32 91 33 91 33 87 31 79 26 70 21 63 17
low 40 4 42 6 49 9 55 13 63 17 69 21 72 22 72 22 68 20 56 13 48 9 42 6
Montgomery high 58 14 62 17 70 21 78 26 85 29 91 33 93 34 92 33 88 31 79 26 69 21 60 16
low 36 2 39 4 45 7 51 11 60 16 67 19 71 22 70 21 65 18 52 11 44 7 38 3

Demographics

Alabama population density map
Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1800 1,250
1810 9,046 623.7%
1820 127,901 1,313.9%
1830 309,527 142.0%
1840 590,756 90.9%
1850 771,623 30.6%
1860 964,201 25.0%
1870 996,992 3.4%
1880 1,262,505 26.6%
1890 1,513,401 19.9%
1900 1,828,697 20.8%
1910 2,138,093 16.9%
1920 2,348,174 9.8%
1930 2,646,248 12.7%
1940 2,832,961 7.1%
1950 3,061,743 8.1%
1960 3,266,740 6.7%
1970 3,444,165 5.4%
1980 3,893,888 13.1%
1990 4,040,587 3.8%
2000 4,447,100 10.1%
Est. 2009 4,708,708 [citation needed] 5.9%

The United States Census Bureau, as of July 1, 2008, estimated Alabama's population at 4,661,900,[2] which represents an increase of 214,545, or 4.8%, since the last census in 2000.[43] This includes a natural increase since the last census of 121,054 people (that is 502,457 births minus 381,403 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 104,991 people into the state.[43] Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 31,180 people, and migration within the country produced a net gain of 73,811 people.[43] The state had 108,000 foreign-born (2.4% of the state population), of which an estimated 22.2% were illegal immigrants (24,000).

The center of population of Alabama is located in Chilton County, outside of the town of Jemison, an area known as Jemison Division.[44]

Race and ancestry

The racial makeup of the state and comparison to the prior census:

Demographics of Alabama (csv)
By race White Black AIAN* Asian NHPI*
2000 (total population) 72.56% 26.33% 1.00% 0.89% 0.07%
2000 (Hispanic only) 1.48% 0.18% 0.04% 0.02% 0.01%
2005 (total population) 72.14% 26.70% 0.98% 1.02% 0.07%
2005 (Hispanic only) 2.08% 0.17% 0.05% 0.03% 0.01%
Growth 2000–05 (total population) 1.90% 3.95% -0.06% 17.43% 4.90%
Growth 2000–05 (non-Hispanic only) 1.02% 3.97% -0.55% 17.47% 6.67%
Growth 2000–05 (Hispanic only) 43.85% 1.05% 11.46% 16.20% -2.17%
* AIAN is American Indian or Alaskan Native; NHPI is Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander

The largest reported ancestry groups in Alabama: African American (26.0%), American (17.0%), English (7.8%), Irish (7.7%), German (5.7%), and Scots-Irish (2.0%). 'American' does not include those reported as Native American.

Religion

Alabama is located in the middle of the Bible Belt. In a 2007 survey, nearly 70% of respondents could name all four of the Christian Gospels. Of those who indicated a religious preference, 59% said they possessed a "full understanding" of their faith and needed no further learning.[45] In a 2007 poll, 92% of Alabamians reported having at least some confidence in churches in the state.[46][47] The Mobile area is notable for its large percentage of Catholics, owing to the area's unique early history under French and Spanish rule. Today, a majority of Alabamians identify themselves as Protestants.

In the 2008 American Religious Identification Survey, 80% of Alabama respondents reported their religion as "Other Christian" (survey's label), 6% as Catholic, and 11% as having no religion at all.[48]

Economy

Alabama's quarter depicting famous resident Helen Keller along with the longleaf pine branch and Camellia blossoms from the 50 State Quarters program. Released March 19, 2003.

According to the United States Bureau of Economic Analysis, the 2008 total gross state product was $170 billion, or $29,411 per capita. Alabama's 2008 GDP increased 0.7% from the previous year. The single largest increase came in the area of information.[49] In 1999, per capita income for the state was $18,189.[50]

Alabama's agricultural outputs include poultry and eggs, cattle, plant nursery items, peanuts, cotton, grains such as corn and sorghum, vegetables, milk, soybeans, and peaches. Although known as "The Cotton State", Alabama ranks between eight and ten in national cotton production, according to various reports,[51][52] with Texas, Georgia and Mississippi comprising the top three.

Alabama's industrial outputs include iron and steel products (including cast-iron and steel pipe); paper, lumber, and wood products; mining (mostly coal); plastic products; cars and trucks; and apparel. Also, Alabama produces aerospace and electronic products, mostly in the Huntsville area, location of NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center and the US Army Aviation and Missile Command, headquartered at Redstone Arsenal.

Alabama contains the largest industrial growth corridor in the nation, including the surrounding states of Tennessee, Mississippi, Florida, and Georgia. Most of this growth is due to Alabama's rapidly expanding automotive manufacturing industry. Headquartered in the state are Honda Manufacturing of Alabama, Hyundai Motor Manufacturing Alabama, Mercedes-Benz U.S. International, and Toyota Motor Manufacturing Alabama. Since 1993, the automobile industry has generated more than 67,800 new jobs in the state. Alabama currently ranks 4th in the nation in automobile output.[53]

In the 1970s and 1980s, Birmingham's economy was transformed by investments in bio-technology and medical research at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) and its adjacent hospital. The UAB Hospital is a Level I trauma center providing health care and breakthrough medical research. UAB is now the area's largest employer and the largest in Alabama with a workforce of about 20,000. Health care services provider HealthSouth is also headquartered in the city.

Birmingham is also a leading banking center, headquarters of the Regions Financial Corporation. Birmingham-based Compass Banchshares was acquired by Madrid-based BBVA in September 2007; the headquarters of the new BBVA Compass Bank remains in Birmingham. SouthTrust, another large bank headquartered in Birmingham, was acquired by Wachovia in 2004. The city still has major operations as one of the regional headquarters of Wachovia. In November 2006, Regions Financial merged with AmSouth Bancorporation, which was also headquartered in Birmingham. They formed the eighth largest U.S. bank based on by total assets.[citation needed] Nearly a dozen smaller banks are also headquartered in the Magic City, such as Superior Bank and New South Federal Savings Bank.

Telecommunications provider AT&T, formerly BellSouth, has a major presence with several large offices in the metropolitan area. Major insurance providers: Protective Life, Infinity Property & Casualty and ProAssurance among others, are headquartered in Birmingham and employ a large number of people in Greater Birmingham. The city is also a powerhouse of construction and engineering companies, including BE&K and B. L. Harbert International which routinely are included in the Engineering News-Record lists of top design and international construction firms.

Huntsville is regarded for its high-technology driven economy and is known as the "Rocket City" because of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center and the Redstone Arsenal. Huntsville's main economic influence is derived from aerospace and military technology. Redstone Arsenal, Cummings Research Park (CRP), The University of Alabama in Huntsville and NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center comprise the main hubs for the area's technology-driven economy. CRP is the second largest research park in the United States and the fourth largest in the world, and is over 38 years old. Huntsville has commercial technology companies such as the network access company ADTRAN, computer graphics company Intergraph and design and manufacturer of IT infrastructure Avocent. Telecommunications provider Deltacom, Inc. and copper tube manufacturer and distributor Wolverine Tube are also based in Huntsville. Cinram manufactures and distributes 20th Century Fox DVDs and Blu-ray Discs out of their Huntsville plant. Sanmina-SCI also has a large presence in the area. Forty-two Fortune 500 companies have operations in Huntsville. In 2005, Forbes Magazine named the Huntsville-Decatur Combined Statistical Area as 6th best place in the nation for doing business, and number one in terms of the number of engineers per total employment.

The city of Mobile, Alabama's only saltwater port, is a busy seaport on the Gulf of Mexico with inland waterway access to the Midwest by way of the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway. The Port of Mobile is currently the 9th largest by tonnage in the United States.[54] In May 2007, a site north of Mobile was selected by German steelmaker ThyssenKrupp for a $3.7 billion steel production plant, with the promise of 2,700 permanent jobs.[55]

Taxes

Alabama's tax structure is one the most regressive in the United States.[56] Alabama levies a 2, 4, or 5 percent personal income tax, depending upon the amount earned and filing status, though taxpayers can deduct their federal income tax from their Alabama state tax.

The state's general sales tax rate is 4%.[57] The collection rate could be substantially higher, depending upon additional city and county sales taxes. For example, the total sales tax rate in Mobile is 9% and there is an additional restaurant tax of 1%, which means that a diner in Mobile would pay a 10% tax on a meal. Sales and excise taxes in Alabama account for 51 percent of all state and local revenue, compared with an average of about 36 percent nationwide. Alabama is also one of the few remaining states that levies a tax on food and medicine. Alabama's income tax on poor working families is among the nation's very highest.[citation needed] Alabama is the only state that levies income tax on a family of four with income as low as $4,600, which is barely one-quarter of the federal poverty line.[citation needed] Alabama's threshold is the lowest among the 41 states and the District of Columbia with income taxes.[citation needed]

The corporate income tax rate is currently 6.5%. The overall federal, state, and local tax burden in Alabama ranks the state as the second least tax-burdened state in the country.[58] Property taxes are the lowest in the United States. The current state constitution requires a voter referendum to raise property taxes.

Since Alabama's tax structure largely depends on consumer spending, it is subject to high variable budget structure. For example, in 2003 Alabama had an annual budget deficit as high as $670 million. It is one of only a few states to accomplish large surpluses, with a budget surplus of nearly $1.2 billion in 2007, and estimated at more than $2.1 billion for 2008.[citation needed] However, the declining national economy in 2008 has eliminated that surplus and the state is again facing shortfall, with the governor declaring "proration," which will result in an immediate education budget cut and school layoffs.

Transportation

Alabama state welcome sign.

Alabama has five major interstate roads that cross it: I-65 runs north–south roughly through the middle of the state; I-59/I-20 travels from the central west border to Birmingham, where I-59 continues to the north-east corner of the state and I-20 continues east towards Atlanta; I-85 originates in Montgomery and runs east-northeast to the Georgia border, providing a main thoroughfare to Atlanta; and I-10 traverses the southernmost portion of the state, running from west to east through Mobile. Another interstate road, I-22, is currently under construction. When completed around 2012 it will connect Birmingham with Memphis, Tennessee. Several US Highways also pass through the state, such as US 11, US 29, US 31, US 43, US 72, US 78, US 80, US 82, US 84, US 98, US 231, and US 280.

Major airports in Alabama include Birmingham-Shuttlesworth International Airport (BHM), Huntsville International Airport (HSV), Dothan Regional Airport (DHN), Mobile Regional Airport (MOB), Montgomery Regional Airport (MGM), Muscle Shoals – Northwest Alabama Regional Airport (MSL), Tuscaloosa Regional Airport (TCL), and Pryor Field Regional Airport (DCU). For rail transport, Amtrak schedules the Crescent, a daily passenger train, running from New York to New Orleans with stops at Anniston, Birmingham, and Tuscaloosa.

Water ports

Aerial view of the port of Mobile

Listed from north to south

Port name Location Connected to
Port of Florence Florence/Muscle Shoals, on Pickwick Lake Tennessee River
Port of Decatur Decatur, on Wheeler Lake Tennessee River
Port of Guntersville Guntersville, on Lake Guntersville Tennessee River
Port of Birmingham Birmingham, on Black Warrior River Tenn-Tom Waterway
Port of Tuscaloosa Tuscaloosa, on Black Warrior River Tenn-Tom Waterway
Port of Montgomery Montgomery, on Woodruff Lake Alabama River
Port of Mobile Mobile, on Mobile Bay Gulf of Mexico

Law and government

The State Capitol, built in 1850

State government

The foundational document for Alabama's government is the Alabama Constitution, which was ratified in 1901. At almost 800 amendments and 310,000 words, it is the world's longest constitution and is roughly forty times the length of the U.S. Constitution.[59][60] There is a significant movement to rewrite and modernize Alabama's constitution.[61] This movement is based upon the fact that Alabama's constitution highly centralizes power in Montgomery and leaves practically no power in local hands. Any policy changes proposed around the state must be approved by the entire Alabama legislature and, frequently, by state referendum. One criticism of the current constitution claims that its complexity and length were intentional to codify segregation and racism.

Alabama is divided into three equal branches: The legislative branch is the Alabama Legislature, a bicameral assembly composed of the Alabama House of Representatives, with 105 members, and the Alabama Senate, with 35 members. The Legislature is responsible for writing, debating, passing, or defeating state legislation.

The executive branch is responsible for the execution and oversight of laws. It is headed by the Governor of Alabama. Other members of executive branch include the cabinet, the Attorney General of Alabama, the Alabama Secretary of State, the Alabama Commissioner of Agriculture and Industries, the Alabama State Treasurer, and the Alabama State Auditor.

The judicial branch is responsible for interpreting the Constitution and applying the law in state criminal and civil cases. The highest court is the Supreme Court of Alabama.

Local and county government

Alabama has 67 counties. Each county has its own elected legislative branch, usually called the County Commission, which usually also has executive authority in the county. Because of the restraints placed in the Alabama Constitution, all but seven counties (Jefferson, Lee, Mobile, Madison, Montgomery, Shelby, and Tuscaloosa) in the state have little to no home rule. Instead, most counties in the state must lobby the Local Legislation Committee of the state legislature to get simple local policies such as waste disposal to land use zoning.

Alabama is an alcoholic beverage control state; the government holds a monopoly on the sale of alcohol. However, counties can declare themselves "dry"; the state does not sell alcohol in those areas.

State politics

Alabama Governor Bob Riley in 2004

The current governor of the state is Republican Bob Riley. The lieutenant governor is Jim Folsom Jr. The Chief Justice of the Alabama Supreme Court is Democrat Sue Bell Cobb. The Democratic Party currently holds a large majority in both houses of the Legislature. Because of the Legislature's power to override a gubernatorial veto by a mere simple majority (most state Legislatures require a two-thirds majority to override a veto), the relationship between the executive and legislative branches can be easily strained when different parties control the branches.

During Reconstruction following the American Civil War, Alabama was occupied by federal troops of the Third Military District under General John Pope. In 1874, the political coalition known as the Redeemers took control of the state government from the Republicans, in part by suppressing the African American vote.

After 1890, a coalition of whites passed laws to segregate and disenfranchise black residents, a process completed in provisions of the 1901 constitution. Provisions which disfranchised African Americans also disfranchised poor whites, however. By 1941 more whites than blacks had been disfranchised: 600,000 to 520,000, although the impact was greater on the African-American community, as almost all of its citizens were disfranchised.

From 1901 to the 1960s, the state legislature failed to perform redistricting as population grew and shifted within the state. The result was a rural minority that dominated state politics until a series of court cases required redistricting in 1972.

With the disfranchisement of African Americans, the state became part of the "Solid South", a one-party system in which the Democratic Party became essentially the only political party in every Southern state. For nearly 100 years, local and state elections in Alabama were decided in the Democratic Party primary, with generally only token Republican challengers running in the General Election.

In the 1986 Democratic primary election, the then-incumbent Lieutenant Governor, Bill Baxley, lost the Democratic nomination for Governor in a scandal[citation needed] to then Attorney General Charles Graddick. The state Democratic party invalidated the election and placed the Baxley's name on the ballot as the Democratic candidate instead of the candidate chosen in the primary. The voters of the state revolted at what they perceived as disenfranchisement of their right to vote and elected the Republican challenger Guy Hunt as Governor. This was the first Republican Governor elected in Alabama since Reconstruction. Since then, Republicans have become increasingly competitive in Alabama politics. They currently control both seats in the U.S. Senate, four out of the state's seven congressional seats. Republicans hold an 8–1 majority on the Alabama Supreme Court[62] and have a 5–2 majority among statewide elected executive branch offices.

However, Democrats currently hold all three seats on the Alabama Public Service Commission[63][64] and they maintain control of both houses of the legislature, holding approximately 59.4% of seats in the Alabama Senate and 58.7% of seats in the Alabama House of Representatives. A majority of local offices in the state are still held by Democrats. Local elections in rural counties are generally decided in the Democratic primary and local elections in metropolitan counties are decided in the Republican Primary although there are exceptions to this rule.[65][66] Only one Republican Lt. Governor has been elected since Reconstruction, Steve Windom. Windom served as Lt. Governor under Democratic Gov. Don Siegelman. The last time that Alabama had a governor and Lt. governor of the same party was the period between 1983 and 1987 when Wallace was serving his fourth term as governor and Bill Baxley was serving as Lt. Governor, both were Democrats.

An overwhelming majority of sheriff's offices in Alabama are in Democratic hands. However, most of the Democratic sheriffs preside over more rural and less populated counties and the majority of Republicans preside over more urban/suburban and more populated counties.[67] Only three Alabama counties (Tuscaloosa, Montgomery and Calhoun) with a population of over 100,000 have Democratic sheriffs and only five Alabama counties with a population of under 75,000 have Republican sheriffs (Autauga, Coffee, Dale, Coosa, and Blount).[68]

Alabama state politics gained nationwide and international attention in the 1950s and 1960s during the American Civil Rights Movement, when majority whites bureaucratically, and at times, violently resisted protests for electoral and social reform. George Wallace, the state's governor, remains a notorious and controversial figure. Only with the passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964[27] and Voting Rights Act of 1965 did African Americans regain suffrage and other civil rights.

In 2007, the Alabama Legislature passed, and the Governor signed, a resolution expressing "profound regret" over slavery and its lingering impact. In a symbolic ceremony, the bill was signed in the Alabama State Capitol, which housed Congress of the Confederate States of America.[69]

National politics

Presidential elections results
Year Republican Democratic State winner
2008 60.32% 1,266,546 38.80% 813,479 John McCain
2004 62.46% 1,176,394 36.84% 693,933 George W. Bush
2000 56.47% 944,409 41.59% 695,602 George W. Bush
1996 50.12% 769,044 43.16% 662,165 Bob Dole
1992 47.65% 804,283 40.88% 690,080 George Bush
1988 59.17% 815,576 39.86% 549,506 George Bush
1984 60.54% 872,849 38.28% 551,899 Ronald Reagan
1980 48.75% 654,192 47.45% 636,730 Ronald Reagan
1976 42.61% 504,070 55.73% 659,170 Jimmy Carter
1972 72.43% 728,701 25.54% 256,923 Richard Nixon
1968* 13.99% 146,923 18.72% 196,579 George Wallace (I)
1964 69.45% 479,085 30.55% 210,732 Barry Goldwater
1960 42.16% 237,981 56.39% 318,303 John F. Kennedy
*State won by George Wallace
of the American Independent Party,
at 65.86%, or 691,425 votes

From 1876 through 1956, Alabama supported only Democratic presidential candidates, by large margins. In 1960, the Democrats won with John F. Kennedy on the ballot, but the Democratic electors from Alabama gave 6 of their 11 electoral votes as a protest to Harry Byrd. In 1964, Republican Barry Goldwater carried the state, in part because of his opposition to the 1964 Civil Rights Act, which restored the franchise for African Americans.

In the 1968 presidential election, Alabama supported native son and American Independent Party candidate George Wallace over both Richard Nixon and Hubert Humphrey. Wallace was the official Democratic candidate in Alabama, while Humphrey was listed as the "National Democratic".[70] In 1976, Democratic candidate Jimmy Carter from Georgia carried the state, the region, and the nation, but Democratic control of the region slipped after that.

Since 1980, conservative Alabama voters have increasingly voted for Republican candidates at the Federal level, especially in Presidential elections. By contrast, Democratic candidates have been elected to many state-level offices and comprise a longstanding majority in the Alabama Legislature; see Dixiecrat.

In 2004, George W. Bush won Alabama's nine electoral votes by a margin of 25 percentage points with 62.5% of the vote, mostly white voters. The eleven counties that voted Democratic were Black Belt counties, where African Americans are the majority racial group.

The state's two U.S. senators are Jefferson B. Sessions III and Richard C. Shelby, both Republicans.

In the U.S. House of Representatives, the state is represented by seven members, five of whom are Republicans: (Jo Bonner, Mike D. Rogers, Robert Aderholt, Parker Griffith, and Spencer Bachus) and two are Democrats: (Bobby Bright and Artur Davis).

Education

Primary and secondary education

Public primary and secondary education in Alabama is under the overview of the Alabama State Board of Education as well as local oversight by 67 county school boards and 60 city boards of education. Together, 1,541 individual schools provide education for 743,364 elementary and secondary students.[71]

Public school funding is appropriated through the Alabama Legislature through the Education Trust Fund. In FY 2006–2007, Alabama appropriated $3,775,163,578 for primary and secondary education. That represented an increase of $444,736,387 over the previous fiscal year.[71] In 2007, over 82 percent of schools made adequate yearly progress (AYP) toward student proficiency under the National No Child Left Behind law, using measures determined by the state of Alabama. In 2004, 23 percent of schools met AYP.[72]

While Alabama's public education system has improved, it lags behind in achievement compared to other states. According to U.S. Census data, Alabama's high school graduation rate – 75% – is the second lowest in the United States (after Mississippi).[73] The largest educational gains were among people with some college education but without degrees.[74]

Colleges and universities

Harrison Plaza at the University of North Alabama in Florence. The school was chartered as LaGrange College by the Alabama Legislature in 1830.

Alabama's programs of higher education include 14 four-year public universities, two-year community colleges, and 17 private, undergraduate and graduate universities. In the state are two medical schools (University of Alabama at Birmingham and University of South Alabama), two veterinary colleges (Auburn University and Tuskegee University), a dental school (University of Alabama at Birmingham), an optometry college (University of Alabama at Birmingham), two pharmacy schools (Auburn University and Samford University), and five law schools (University of Alabama School of Law, Birmingham School of Law, Cumberland School of Law, Miles Law School, and the Thomas Goode Jones School of Law). Public, post-secondary education in Alabama is overseen by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education. Colleges and universities in Alabama offer degree programs from two-year associate degrees to 16 doctoral level programs.[75]

Accreditation of academic programs is through the Southern Association of Schools and Colleges as well as a plethora of subject focused national and international accreditation agencies.[76]

Professional sports teams

Alabama has several minor league teams including four Southern League baseball teams as well as one Arena Football League team.

Club City Sport League Venue Notes
Alabama Vipers Huntsville Arena Football Arena Football League Von Braun Center formerly known as the Tennessee Valley Vipers
Birmingham Barons Birmingham Baseball Southern League Regions Park
Huntsville Havoc Huntsville Ice Hockey Southern Professional Hockey League Von Braun Center
Huntsville Stars Huntsville Baseball Southern League Joe W. Davis Stadium
Mobile BayBears Mobile Baseball Southern League Hank Aaron Stadium
Montgomery Biscuits Montgomery Baseball Southern League Montgomery Riverwalk Stadium
Rocket City United Huntsville Soccer National Premier Soccer League John Hunt Soccer Stadium
Tennessee Valley Tigers Huntsville Football Independent Women's Football League Milton Frank Stadium replaced the Alabama Renegades

Notable Alabamians

Famous people from Alabama include Hank Aaron, Tommie Agee, Tallulah Bankhead, William Brockman Bankhead, Jay Barker, Charles Barkley, Regina Benjamin, Hugo L. Black, Frank Bolling, Paul W. (Bear) Bryant, Jimmy Buffett, Bo Bice, George Washington Carver, William Christenberry, Nat King Cole, Jerricho Cotchery, Courteney Cox Arquette, Robert Gibbs, Mitch Holleman, Zelda Fitzgerald, Charles Ghigna, Winston Groom, William C. Handy, Emmylou Harris, Taylor Hicks, Joe Hilley, Bo Jackson, Kate Jackson, Jamey Johnson, Helen Keller, Coretta Scott King, William R. King, Harper Lee, Joe Louis, Heinie Manush, William March, Willie Mays, Willie McCovey,[77] Roy Moore, John Hunt Morgan, Jim Nabors, Randy Owen, Jesse Owens, Terrell Owens, Satchel Paige, Jake Peavy, Claude Pepper, Rosa Parks, Wilson Pickett, Howell Raines, Condoleezza Rice, Lionel Richie, Rich Boy, Philip Rivers, JaMarcus Russell, Kenny Stabler, Ozzie Smith, John Sparkman, Bart Starr, Ruben Studdard, Channing Tatum, Oscar W. Underwood, Jimmy Wales, George Wallace, Booker T. Washington, Billy Williams, and Hank Williams.[78]

See also

Cultural sites

The Alabama Theatre in Birmingham
Civil Rights Memorial in Montgomery
Mardi Gras in Mobile
The Vulcan statue in Birmingham

Events

Venues

References

  1. ^ "Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places Over 100,000, Ranked by July 1, 2007 Population: April 1, 2000, to July 1, 2007" (CSV). 2007 Population Estimates. U.S. Census Bureau, Population Division. July 8, 2008. http://www.census.gov/popest/cities/tables/SUB-EST2007-01.csv. Retrieved 2007-06-28.  in Excel format
  2. ^ a b "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/popest/states/tables/NST-EST2008-01.csv. Retrieved 2009-02-01. 
  3. ^ a b c "Elevations and Distances in the United States". U.S Geological Survey. April 29, 2005. http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html#Highest. Retrieved November 3, 2006. 
  4. ^ census.gov "Alabama Quick Facts". State and County Quick Facts. U.S. Census Bureau. http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/01000.html census.gov. Retrieved 2007-09-08. 
  5. ^ a b c George Mason University, United States Election Project: Alabama Redistricting Summary, accessed March 10, 2008
  6. ^ a b c Read, William A. (1984). Indian Place Names in Alabama. University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-0231-X. OCLC 10724679. 
  7. ^ Sylestine, Cora; Hardy; Heather; and Montler, Timothy (1993). Dictionary of the Alabama Language. Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-73077-2. OCLC 26590560. http://www.ling.unt.edu/~montler/Alabama/. 
  8. ^ a b c Rogers, William W.; Robert D. Ward, Leah R. Atkins, Wayne Flynt (1994). Alabama: the History of a Deep South State. University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-0712-5. OCLC 28634588. 
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h "Alabama: The State Name". All About Alabama. Alabama Department of Archives and History. http://www.archives.alabama.gov/statenam.html. Retrieved 2007-08-02. 
  10. ^ a b Wills, Charles A. (1995). A Historical Album of Alabama. The Millbrook Press. ISBN 1-56294-591-2. OCLC 32242468. 
  11. ^ Griffith, Lucille (1972). Alabama: A Documentary History to 1900. University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-0371-5. OCLC 17530914. 
  12. ^ The use of state names derived from Native American languages is common with an estimated 27 states having names of Native American origin. Weiss, Sonia (1999). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Baby Names. Mcmillan USA. ISBN 0-02-863367-9. OCLC 222611214. 
  13. ^ a b Swanton, John R. (1953). "The Indian Tribes of North America". Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 145: 153–174. http://www.hiddenhistory.com/PAGE3/swsts/alabam-1.htm. Retrieved 2007-08-02. 
  14. ^ a b Swanton, John R. (1937). "Review of Read, Indian Place Names of Alabama". American Speech 12 (12): 212–215. doi:10.2307/452431. 
  15. ^ "Alabama Indian Tribes". Indian Tribal Records. AccessGenealogy.com. Updated 2006. http://www.accessgenealogy.com/native/alabama/. Retrieved 2006-09-23. 
  16. ^ "Alabama". The New York Times Almanac 2004. The New York Times. 2006-08-11. http://travel2.nytimes.com/2004/07/15/travel/NYT_ALMANAC_US_ALABAMA.html. Retrieved 2006-09-23. 
  17. ^ Welch, Paul D. (1991). Moundville's Economy. University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0817305122. OCLC 21330955. 
  18. ^ Walthall, John A. (1990). Prehistoric Indians of the Southeast-Archaeology of Alabama and the Middle South. University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0817305521. OCLC 26656858. 
  19. ^ Townsend, Richard F. (2004). Hero, Hawk, and Open Hand. Yale University Press. ISBN 0300106017. OCLC 56633574. 
  20. ^ edited by F. Kent Reilly III and James F. Garber ; foreword by Vincas P. Steponaitis. (2004). F. Kent Reilly and James Garber. ed. Ancient Objects and Sacred Realms. University of Texas Press. ISBN 9780292713475. OCLC 70335213. 
  21. ^ "Alabama State History". theUS50.com. http://www.theus50.com/alabama/. Retrieved 2006-09-23. 
  22. ^ "AL-Alabama". Landscapes and History by state. StateMaster.com. http://www.statemaster.com/graph-T/bac_sum. Retrieved 2006-09-23. 
  23. ^ a b c "The Black Belt". Southern Spaces Internet Journal. Emory University. 2004-04-19. http://www.southernspaces.org/contents/2004/tullos/4a.htm. Retrieved 2006-09-23. 
  24. ^ "13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Abolition of Slavery (1865)". Historical Documents. HistoricalDocuments.com. 2005. http://www.historicaldocuments.com/13thAmendment.htm. Retrieved 2006-09-23. 
  25. ^ a b Glenn Feldman. The Disfranchisement Myth: Poor Whites and Suffrage Restriction in Alabama. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2004, p. 136.
  26. ^ http://www.bhamwiki.com/w/Birmingham
  27. ^ a b Civil Rights Act of 1964
  28. ^ "Voting Rights". Civil Rights: Law and History. US Department of Justice. 2002-01-09. Archived from the original on 2007-02-21. http://web.archive.org/web/20070221054512/http://www.usdoj.gov/kidspage/crt/voting.htm. Retrieved 2006-09-23. 
  29. ^ "The New South Rises, Again". Civil Rights: Law and History. Southerner.net. Spring 1999. http://www.southerner.net/v1n1_99/coverstory1.html. Retrieved 2006-09-23. 
  30. ^ "GCT-PH1-R. Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density (areas ranked by population): 2000". Geographic Comparison Table. US Census Bureau. Census Year 2000. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/GCTTable?_bm=n&_lang=en&mt_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U_GCTPH1R_US9S&format=US-9S&_box_head_nbr=GCT-PH1-R&ds_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U&geo_id=01000US. Retrieved 2006-09-23. 
  31. ^ a b c "The Geography of Alabama". Geography of the States. NetState.com. 2006-08-11. http://www.netstate.com/states/geography/al_geography.htm. Retrieved 2006-09-23. 
  32. ^ Alabama Forest Owner's Guide to Information Resources, Introduction, Alabamaforests.org
  33. ^ "Alabama County (geographies ranked by total population)". Geographic Comparison Table. U.S. Census Bureau. Census year 2000. http://factfinder.census.gov/servlet/GCTTable?_bm=y&-context=gct&-ds_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U&-mt_name=DEC_2000_SF1_U_GCTPH1R_ST2S&-CONTEXT=gct&-tree_id=4001&-redoLog=true&-geo_id=04000US01&-format=ST-2. Retrieved 2007-05-14. 
  34. ^ "National Park Guide". Geographic Search. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service – U.S. Department of the Interior. http://home.nps.gov/applications/parksearch/state.cfm?st=al. Retrieved 2006-09-23. 
  35. ^ "National Forests in Alabama". USDA Forest Service. United States Department of Agriculture. http://www.fs.fed.us/r8/alabama/forests/. Retrieved 2008-10-05. 
  36. ^ a b c "Wetumpka Impact Crater" Wetumpka Public Library. Retrieved August 21, 2007.
  37. ^ "The Wetumpka Astrobleme" by John C. Hall, Alabama Heritage, Fall 1996, Number 42.
  38. ^ Christopher M. Godfrey (2008-11-04). "Greenhouse effect and climate". Atmospheric Sciences. University of North Carolina, Asheville. http://facstaff.unca.edu/cgodfrey/courses/atms179/ppt/greenhouse.pdf. 
  39. ^ a b "Alabama Climate", Encyclopedia Britannica, Retrieved May 7, 2007
  40. ^ Lightning Fatalities, Injuries and Damages in the United States, 1990–2003, [1] Retrieved May 8, 2007
  41. ^ Fujita scale. Tornadoproject.com. Retrieved September 3, 2007.
  42. ^ Alabama Weather and Climate. US Travel Weather
  43. ^ a b c U. S. Census Bureau (2008-12-15). "Cumulative Estimates of the Components of Population Change for the United States, Regions and States: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008 (NST-EST2008-04)" (CSV). http://www.census.gov/popest/states/tables/NST-EST2008-04.csv. Retrieved 2009-01-16. 
  44. ^ "Population and Population Centers by State - 2000". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/geo/www/cenpop/statecenters.txt. Retrieved 2008-12-03. 
  45. ^ Campbell, Kirsten (2007-03-25). "Alabama rates well in biblical literacy". Mobile Register (Advance Publications, Inc.): p. A1. 
  46. ^ "Confidence in State and Local Institutions Survey" (PDF). Capital Survey Research Center. Archived from the original on 2007-08-09. http://web.archive.org/web/20070809021852/http://www.myaea.org/PDFfile/Confidence+in+State+Institutions07.pdf. Retrieved 2007-06-02. 
  47. ^ White, David (2007-04-01). "Poll says we feel good about state Trust in government, unlike some institutions, hasn't fallen". Birmingham News (Birmingham News): p. 13A. 
  48. ^ Barry A. Kosmin and Ariela Keysar (2009). "AMERICAN RELIGIOUS IDENTIFICATION SURVEY (ARIS) 2008" (PDF). Hartford, Connecticut, USA: Trinity College. p. 20. http://b27.cc.trincoll.edu/weblogs/AmericanReligionSurvey-ARIS/reports/ARIS_Report_2008.pdf. Retrieved 2009-05-08. 
  49. ^ "GDP by State (2008)". Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Economic Accounts. June 2, 2009. http://www.bea.gov/newsreleases/regional/gdp_state/gsp_newsrelease.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-09.  full release with tables
  50. ^ "United States Census Bureau". State and County Quick Facts. http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/01000.html. Retrieved 2007-05-30. 
  51. ^ "Alabama and CBER: 75 Years of Change" (PDF). Alabama Business. Center for Business and Economic Research, Culverhouse College of Commerce, The University of Alabama. Q4 2005. http://cber.cba.ua.edu/pdf/ab2005q4.pdf. Retrieved 2006-09-23. 
  52. ^ "State Highlights for 2004–2005" (PDF). Alabama Cooperative Extension System. USDA, NASS, Alabama Statistical Office. 2005. http://www.aces.edu/dept/nass/bulletin/2005/pg05.pdf. Retrieved 2006-09-23. 
  53. ^ [2]
  54. ^ ""WATERBORNE COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES"". "U.S. Army Corps of Engineers: Waterborne Commerce Statistics". http://www.iwr.usace.army.mil/ndc/wcsc/pdf/wcusnatl08.pdf. Retrieved 2010-3-8. 
  55. ^ "ThyssenKrupp's Alabama incentive package tops $811 million". Press register. 2007-05-11. http://www.al.com/newsflash/regional/index.ssf?/base/business-2/1178924126194090.xml&storylist=alabamanews. Retrieved 2007-05-11. 
  56. ^ Zengerle, Jason (December 14, 2003). "2003: THE 3rd ANNUAL YEAR IN IDEAS; Biblical Taxation". New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F07E3DB1E3DF937A25751C1A9659C8B63&scp=1&sq=biblical%20taxation&st=cse. Retrieved 2008-10-01. 
  57. ^ Comparison of State and Local Retail Sales Taxes, July 2004 Retrieved on May 25, 2007
  58. ^ "Alabama State Local Tax Burden Compared to U.S. Average (1970–2007)" (PDF). Tax Foundation. http://www.taxfoundation.org/files/sl_burden_alabama-2007-04-04.pdf. Retrieved 2007-05-30. 
  59. ^ Roig-Franzia, Manuel (2004-11-28). "Alabama Vote Opens Old Racial Wounds". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A16443-2004Nov27?language=printer. Retrieved 2006-09-22. 
  60. ^ "Constitution of Alabama - 1901". The Alabama Legislative Information System. http://www.legislature.state.al.us/CodeOfAlabama/Constitution/1901/Constitution1901_toc.htm. Retrieved 2006-09-22. 
  61. ^ Alabama Citizens for Constitutional Reform
  62. ^ "Sue Bell Cobb considering running for governor - Breaking News from The Birmingham News - al.com". Blog.al.com. 2009-05-02. http://blog.al.com/spotnews/2009/05/sue_bell_cobb_considering_runn.html. Retrieved 2009-08-07. 
  63. ^ "Commissioners". Psc.state.al.us. http://www.psc.state.al.us/commissioners.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-07. 
  64. ^ Special (2008-11-05). "Lucy Baxley wins Alabama Public Service Commission presidency, but recount possible - Breaking News from The Birmingham News - al.com". Blog.al.com. http://blog.al.com/spotnews/2008/11/lucy_baxley_wins_alabama_publi.html. Retrieved 2009-08-07. 
  65. ^ "2006 Gubernatorial Democratic Primary Election Results - Alabama". Uselectionatlas.org. http://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS/state.php?fips=1&year=2006&f=0&off=5&elect=1. Retrieved 2009-08-07. 
  66. ^ "2006 Gubernatorial Republican Primary Election Results - Alabama". Uselectionatlas.org. 2007-02-15. http://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS/state.php?fips=1&year=2006&f=0&off=5&elect=2. Retrieved 2009-08-07. 
  67. ^ "Association". Alabama Sheriffs. http://www.alabamasheriffs.com/?PageID=131&IsNav=true. Retrieved 2009-08-07. 
  68. ^ "2007-2011 Alabama Sheriffs". Alabamasheriffs.com. http://www.alabamasheriffs.com/Image.aspx?ImageID=11481&Title=2007-2011+Alabama+Sheriffs. Retrieved 2009-08-07. 
  69. ^ Rawls, Phillip (2007-06-01). "Alabama offers an apology for slavery". The Virginian Pilot (Landmark Communications). 
  70. ^ "1968 Presidential General Election Results - Alabama". Uselectionatlas.org. 1968-11-05. http://uselectionatlas.org/RESULTS/state.php?fips=1&year=1968&f=0&off=0&elect=0. Retrieved 2009-08-07. 
  71. ^ a b "Alabama Education Quick Facts 2007" (PDF). http://www.alsde.edu/general/quick_facts.pdf. Retrieved 2007-08-11. 
  72. ^ "Eighty-Two Percent of Alabama Schools Make AYP While Increasing Annual Measurable Objectives" (PDF). http://www.alsde.edu/Accountability/2007Reports/Press/2007AYPNewsRelease.pdf. Retrieved 2007-08-11. 
  73. ^ http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/c2kbr-24.pdf
  74. ^ Education Statistics. CensusScope.org
  75. ^ "Degree titles and abbreviations". Alabama Commission on Higher Education. http://www.ache.state.al.us/Acadaffr/ProInv/Degreeabbr.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-03. 
  76. ^ "Accreditation". Alabama Commission on Higher Education. http://www.ache.state.al.us/Colleges&Universities/Accreditation/index.htm. Retrieved 2007-09-03. 
  77. ^ Willie McCovey. National Baseball Hall of Fame and Museum. http://www.baseballhalloffame.org/hofers/detail.jsp?playerId=118605. Retrieved 2009-02-09. 
  78. ^ World Almanac & Book of Facts, Reader's Digest Publishing, 2008.

Further reading

For a detailed bibliography, see the History of Alabama.
  • Atkins, Leah Rawls, Wayne Flynt, William Warren Rogers, and David Ward. Alabama: The History of a Deep South State (1994)
  • Flynt, Wayne. Alabama in the Twentieth Century (2004)
  • Owen Thomas M. History of Alabama and Dictionary of Alabama Biography 4 vols. 1921.
  • Jackson, Harvey H. Inside Alabama: A Personal History of My State (2004)
  • Mohl, Raymond A. "Latinization in the Heart of Dixie: Hispanics in Late-twentieth-century Alabama" Alabama Review 2002 55(4): 243–274. ISSN 0002-4341
  • Peirce, Neal R. The Deep South States of America: People, Politics, and Power in the Seven Deep South States (1974). Information on politics and economics 1960–72.
  • Williams, Benjamin Buford. A Literary History of Alabama: The Nineteenth Century 1979.
  • WPA. Guide to Alabama (1939)

External links

Related information

Preceded by
Illinois
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on December 14, 1819 (22nd)
Succeeded by
Maine

Coordinates: 33°0′N 86°40′W / 33°N 86.667°W / 33; -86.667


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Alabama[1] is a state in the Southern United States of America.

State of Alabama Regions

Alabama can be characterized as having 4 regions:

Mountains - the north
Metropolitan Alabama - central
River Heritage - the south, except Gulf Coast
Gulf Coast - the south west
  • Montgomery - state capital and first capital of the Confederacy
  • Gulf Shores & Orange Beach - 32 miles of beautiful sugar white sands on the prettiest beaches on the Gulf of Mexico. A visit to Gulf Shores and Orange Beach offers the perfect balance of non-stop activity and lay-around-doing-nothing time. Putter around a bit on one of our championship golf courses. Cast your line for deep-sea adventure on a one of the Orange Beach fishing charters. Travel back in history with a visit to Fort Morgan, the site of the Civil War Battle of Mobile Bay. Commune with Mother Nature as you hike wildlife trails gazing at shorebirds.
  • Horseshoe Bend National Military Park - In the spring of 1814, General Andrew Jackson and an army of 3,300 men attacked 1,000 Upper Creek warriors on the Tallapoosa River. Over 800 Upper Creeks died defending their homeland.
  • Little River Canyon National Preserve [2] - Little River is unique because it flows for most of its length atop Lookout Mountain in northeast Alabama
  • Natchez Trace Parkway - The 444-mile Natchez Trace Parkway commemorates an ancient trail that connected southern portions of the Mississippi River, through Alabama, to salt licks in today's central Tennessee
  • Russell Cave National Monument [3] - For more than 10,000 years, Russell Cave was home to prehistoric peoples. Russell Cave provides clues to the daily lifeways of early North American inhabitants dating from 6500 B.C. to 1650 A.D.
  • Selma To Montgomery National Historic Trail - The Selma to Montgomery National Voting Rights Trail was established by Congress in 1996 to commemorate the events, people, and route of the 1965 Voting Rights March in Alabama
  • Trail Of Tears National Historic Trail - Come on a journey to remember and commemorate the survival of the Cherokee people despite their forced removal from their homelands in the Southeastern United States in the 1840s
  • Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site - In the 1940's Tuskegee, Alabama became home to a "military experiment" to train America's first African-American military pilots. In time the "experiment" became known as the Tuskegee Experience and the participants as the Tuskegee Airmen
  • Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site - Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site is nestled on the campus of historic Tuskegee University. The site includes the George W. Carver Museum and The Oaks, home of Booker T. Washington

Understand

Alabama, and the South in general has a reputation for "southern hospitality". The people of this state are generally genial and helpful and often go out of their way to help a stranger. While racial divisions still exist in the state they are much more muted than popular belief and stereotypes hold. In fact, many leaps and bounds have been made within Alabama, in terms of race relations, since the 1950s and 60s. The attitudes and problems of the Old South are mostly held today only by the old and the uneducated.

Known primarily for its status as the original capitol of the Confederacy (in Montgomery} and the birthplace of the Civil Rights movement of the 1960s, Alabama can be a study in contrasts.

The sport of American football is taken extremely seriously in Alabama. In addition to significant regional devotion to high-school football teams the entire state, in terms of college football, is divided into two factions: Auburn University fans and University of Alabama fans. The rivalry is so bitter, in fact, that it took an act by the Alabama State Legislature in the late 1940s to force the two colleges to play one another (the two had stopped playing each other in the first years of the 20th century over an officiating dispute). Even then the two schools would not agree to play at opposing sites so the State of Alabama used taxpayer funds to build Legion Field in Birmingham as a neutral site. It wasn't until 1989 that the Crimson Tide finally visited Auburn and 2000 that the Tigers visited Alabama. This can also be a point of concern for tourists as the rivalry is so serious that if you do not know about it then it is better to not say anything at all. Many friendships and marriages fall apart due to this rivalry and this is not an exaggeration of the truth. One could say that Auburn and Alabama fans are only rivaled in their fanaticism by those fans of European football (soccer).

Talk

Many (though certainly not all) Alabamians speak with thick local accents so non-native English speakers may have difficulty understanding them. Within the two major urban areas of Huntsville and Birmingham one will find that most accents are of a neutral variety (meaning most have no accent at all) while in the other two major urban areas of Mobile and Montgomery local accents are still widely prevalent. Visitors to North Alabama (Birmingham and north) will experience accents that are more "country" in nature (Senator Richard Shelby is one example) while visitors to South Alabama (south of Birmingham) will experience accents that are more closely reminiscent of those from the 1939 film Gone With the Wind and the 1994 film Forrest Gump, which takes place in Southern Alabama. Former governor Fob James is a textbook example of a southern Alabama accent.

Get in

By Car

Alabama is accessible by five interstate highways: I-10 crosses the state from east to west near Mobile in the south; I-20 enters Alabama from the east, traverses Birmingham, and joins I-59 as it traverses Tuscaloosa and exits the state in a southwesterly direction; I-59 enters northeastern Alabama, continues southwest through Birmingham, and exits the state toward the southwest; I-22 enters Alabama from the northwest and ends in Birmingham; I-65 enters Alabama from the north, traverses Birmingham, and ends in Mobile; I-85 enters the state in the east and ends in Montgomery.

By Train

There is one daily Amtrak service through the state: trains 19 (southbound) and 20 (northbound) run from New Orleans to Washington, D.C. and New York City. The trains stop in Alabama at Anniston, Birmingham and Tuscaloosa. Coach and sleeper service is available, with checked baggage, a restaurant car, a café and a lounge. See Amtrak [4] for more information.

By Plane

The biggest airport is in Birminghham, and from there or large airports in neighboring states you can get flights to Huntsville, Mobile and Montgomery. There are non-stop flights to Birmingham-Shuttlesworth International Airport from the following cities (some cities may be seasonal or only offer service certain days of the week): Atlanta, Baltimore, Charlotte, Chicago, Cincinnati, Dallas Fort Worth, Denver, Detroit, Houston, Jacksonville, Las Vegas, Louisville, Memphis, Nashville, New Orleans, New York, Orlando, Philadelphia, Phoenix, St Louis and Tampa [5].

Get around

Car is no doubt the best method, and the most scenic. Interstates converge on Montgomery, Birmingham, and Mobile, and make quick transportation between those cities and ones in other states. They also connect to Anniston, Tuscaloosa, & Huntsville. Elsewhere though, travel can be slower in more rural areas

  • Huntsville Space and Rocket Center, Huntsville, AL.  edit
  • Mt. Cheaha.  edit
  • Gulf Shores is home to the National Shrimp Festival [6]. This outdoor event is held annually in October and features over 300 vendors that offer fine art, arts and crafts, an international marketplace and plenty of shrimp. Three stages also carry music continuously throughout the festival. Over 200,000 people attend the festival annually and it has been ranked as one of the top twenty events in the southeast by the Southeast Tourism Society, and one of the top five in the state. 2006 will mark the 35th anniversary of this festival.
  • Tuscumbia is home to the Helen Keller Festival. This outdoor event is held annually in June for three days (Friday to Sunday) and kicks off with a lengthy parade complete with floats and its riders throwing candy to bystanders, high school marching bands, horses, Civil War reenactors and Shriners zipping about in their minature go-karts. Afterwards, Main Street is closed and is filled with local vendors selling everything from handmade crafts to fresh vegetables. An antique car show is also a highlighted feature. Many local and out of state bands perform throughout the day with at least one major performer, normally of the country music variety, performing Saturday night in Spring Park. Also performed at the birthplace of Helen Keller is a local production of the stage play The Miracle Worker which is a theatrical rendition of Helen Keller's childhood and interaction with Ann Sullivan. One little known fact about Helen Keller that most natives of Tuscumbia do not even realize is that she was an ardent and outspoken socialist during her adult life.

Sports

Home to the Talledega Super Speedway located in Talledega, AL.

Collegiate

Home to what is considered one of the top rivalries in sports, the state of Alabama revolves around college football. Each weekend of the fall, hundreds of thousands of fans around the state pack stadiums to cheer for their respective teams.

  • University of Alabama Crimson Tide [7]
  • Auburn University Tigers [8]
  • University of Alabama at Birmingham Blazers [9]
  • Troy University Trojans [10]
  • Iron Bowl [11]
  • GMAC Bowl [12]

Hike

Alabama has some decent hiking options. One of the best areas is the Sipsey Wilderness. Other areas include the trails and scenic overlooks in Mount Cheaha State Park.

  • Robert Trent Jones Golf Trail, 100 Sunbelt Parkway, +1 205-942-1177 or 1-800-949-4444 (, fax: +1 205-290-1230), [13]. Ten public golf courses throughout Alabama. $40-125 per course.  edit

Eat

Mobile Alabama has some of the best fried seafood east of the Mississippi River. Don't forget to try local oyster bars and the shrimp is superb. Ask locals for recommendations that are off the beaten path and area favorites. Alabama barbque is outstanding and comes in many forms, but pork is always most popular. World famous DREAMLAND was once only located in Tuscaloosa and was (and still is) often an important feature of any sports event televised from there. Ribs Ribs Ribs, served with white bread (A rib sandwich = 3 ribs and 3 slices of bread!) Dreamland now has locations in most major cities in Alabama, and their once famous "no slaw, no potato salad, don't ask" sign has been changed to offer these and other side orders as well. There are several other award winning barbque "joints" in Alabama, and their claim to fame is mostly the "pulled pork", but they will offer ribs, too. Birmingham has numerous well known restaurants with famous chefs. Highlands Bar and Grill wa recently nominated for a James Beard Foundation award as nest restaurant in the United States, and its owner, Frank Stitt has been nominated as best chef in the US as well! Ask locals about best "meat and 3" places for "soul food", and Don't forget the Fried Green Tomatoes at the Irondale Cafe, near where Fannie Flagg grew up and based her famous book/movie on!

  • Sweet Iced Tea. Most Alabamians like it so sweet, you have to drink it standing up!  edit One delicious recipe for making sweet tea is to put on a pan of water and bring to a boil. Once boiling place two family size Lipton tea bags in the boiling water and then immediately turn the stove eye off. While the water is still raging hot mix in 1-1/3 cup of cane sugar and stir so that the sugar does not stick to the bottom of the pan and burn. Wait one hour and then mix with one gallon of water in a gallon sized container. Serve over ice.
This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

Study guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiversity

Hello! Welcome to this course on Alabama.
After taking this course you will find Alabama an interesting state.
You can continue by selecting any one of the following sections:
You will be quizzed at the end of each lesson.

History :

pre-statehood history

Crystal Clear app kaddressbook.png
Please help develop this page

This page was created, but so far, little content has been added. Everyone is invited to help expand and create educational content for Wikiversity. If you need help learning how to add content, see the editing tutorial and the MediaWiki syntax reference.

To help you get started with content, we have automatically added references below to other Wikimedia Foundation projects. This will help you find materials such as information, media and quotations on which to base the development of "Alabama" as an educational resource. However, please do not simply copy-and-paste large chunks from other projects. You can also use the links in the blue box to help you classify this page by subject, educational level and resource type.

Wikipedia-logo.png Run a search on Alabama at Wikipedia.
Commons-logo.svg Search Wikimedia Commons for images, sounds and other media related to: Alabama
Wikimedia-logo.svg Search for Alabama on the following projects:
Smiley green alien whatface.svg Lost on Wikiversity? Please help by choosing project boxes to classify this resource by:
  • subject
  • educational level
  • resource type

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

ALABAMA, a southern state of the American Union, situated between 84° 51' and 88° 31' W. long. and about 30 13' and 35° N. lat., bounded N. by Tennessee, E. by Georgia, S. by Florida and the Gulf of Mexico, and W. by Mississippi. Its total area is 5 1 ,99 8 sq. m., of which 719 are water surface.

Table of contents

Physical Features

The surface of Alabama in the N. and N.E., embracing about two-fifths of its area, is diversified and picturesque; the remaining portion is occupied by a gently undulating plain having a general incline south-westward toward the Mississippi and the Gulf. Extending entirely across the state of Alabama for about 20 m. S. of its N. boundary, and in the middle stretching 60 m. farther S., is the Cumberland Plateau, or Tennessee Valley region, broken into broad table-lands by the dissection of rivers. In the N. part of this plateau, W. of Jackson county, there are about loon sq. m. of level highlands from 700 to 800 ft. above the sea. South of these highlands, occupying a narrow strip on each side of the Tennessee river, is a delightful country of gentle rolling lowlands varying in elevation from 500 to 800 ft. To the N.E. of these highlands and lowlands is a rugged section with steep mountain-sides, deep narrow coves and valleys, and flat mountain-tops. Its elevations range from 400 to 1800 ft. In the remainder of this region, the S. portion, the most prominent feature is Little Mountain, extending about 80 m. from E. to W. between two valleys, and rising precipitously on the N. side 500 ft. above them or i 000 ft. above the sea. Adjoining the Cumberland Plateau region on the S.E. is the Appalachian Valley (locally known as Coosa Valley) region, which is the S. extremity of the great Appalachian Mountain system, and occupies an area within the state of about 8000 sq. m. This is a limestone belt with parallel hard rock ridges left standing by erosion to form mountains. Although the general direction of the mountains, ridges and valleys is N.E. and S.W., irregularity is one of the most prominent characteristics. In the N.E. are several flat-topped mountains, of which Raccoon and Lookout are the most prominent, having a maximum elevation near the Georgia line of little more than 1800 ft. and gradually decreasing in height toward the S.W., where Sand Mountain is a continuation of Raccoon. South of these the mountains are marked by steep N.W. sides, sharp crests and gently sloping S.E. sides. South-east of the Appalachian Valley region, the Piedmont Plateau also crosses the Alabama border from the N.E. and occupies a small triangularshaped section of which Randolph and Clay counties, together with the N. part of Tallapoosa and Chambers, form the principal portion. Its surface is gently undulating and has an elevation of about l000 ft. above the sea. The Piedmont Plateau is a lowland worn down by erosion on hard crystalline rocks, then uplifted to form a plateau. The remainder of the state is occupied by the coastal plain. This is crossed by foot-hills and rolling prairies in the central part of the state, where it has a mean elevation of about 600 ft., becomes lower and more level toward the S.W., and in the extreme S. is flat and but slightly elevated above the sea. The Cumberland Plateau region is drained to the W.N.W. by the Tennessee river and its tributaries; all other parts of the state are drained to the S.W. In the Appalachian Valley region the Coosa is the principal river; and in the Piedmont Plateau, the Tallapoosa. In the Coastal Plain are the Tombigbee in the W., the Alabama (formed by the Coosa and Tallapoosa) in the W. central, and in the E. the Chattahoochee, which forms almost half of the Georgia boundary. The Tombigbee and Alabama unite near the S.W. corner of the state, their waters discharging into Mobile Bay by the Mobile and Tensas rivers. The Black Warrior is a considerable stream which joins the Tombigbee from the E. The valleys in the N. and N.E. are usually deep and narrow, but in the Coastal Plain they are broad and in most cases rise in three successive terraces above the stream. The harbour of Mobile was formed by the drowning of the lower part of the valley of the Alabama and Tombigbee rivers as a result of the sinking of the land here, such sinking having occurred on other parts of the Gulf coast.

The fauna and flora of Alabama are similar to those of the Gulf states in general and have no distinctive characteristics.

Climate and Soil

The climate of Alabama is temperate and fairly uniform. The heat of summer is tempered in the S. by the winds from the Gulf of Mexico, and in the N. by the elevation above the sea. The average annual temperature is highest in the S.W. along the coast, and lowest in the N.E. among the highlands. Thus at Mobile the annual mean is 67° F., the mean for the summer 81°, and for the winter 52°; and at Valley Head, in De Kalb county, the annual mean is 59°, the mean for the summer 75°, and for the winter 41°. At Montgomery, in the central region, the average annual temperature is 66°, with a winter average of 49°, and a summer average of 81°. The average winter minimum for the entire state is 35°, and there is an average of 35 days in each year in which the thermometer falls below the freezing-point. At extremely rare intervals the thermometer has fallen below zero, as was the case in the remarkable cold wave of the lath-13th of February 1899, when an absolute minimum of 17° was registered at Valley Head. The highest temperature ever recorded was 109° in Talladega county in 1902. The amount of precipitation is greatest along the coast (62 in.) and evenly distributed through the rest of the state (about 52 in.). During each winter there is usually one fall of snow in the S. and two in the N.; but the snow quickly disappears, and sometimes, during an entire winter, the ground is not covered with snow. Hail-storms occur in the spring and summer, but are seldom destructive. Heavy fogs are rare, and are confined chiefly to the coast. Thunderstorms occur throughout the year, but are most common in the summer. The prevailing winds are from the S. As regards its soil, Alabama may be divided into four regions. Extending from the Gulf northward for one hundred and fifty miles is the outer belt of the Coastal Plain, also called the "Timber Belt," whose soil is sandy and poor, but responds well to fertilization. North of this is the inner lowland of the Coastal Plain, or the "Black Prairie," which includes some 13,000 sq. m. and seventeen counties. It receives its name from its soil (weathered from the weak underlying limestone), which is black in colour, almost destitute of sand and loam, and rich in limestone and marl formations, especially adapted to the production of cotton; hence the region is also called the "Cotton Belt." Between the "Cotton Belt" and the Tennessee Valley is the mineral region, the "Old Land" area - "a region of resistant rocks" - whose soils, also derived from weathering in situ, are of varied fertility, the best coming from the granites, sandstones and limestones, the poorest from the gneisses, schists and slates. North of the mineral region is the "Cereal Belt," embracing the Tennessee Valley and the counties beyond, whose richest soils are the red clays and dark loams of the river valley; north of which are less fertile soils, produced by siliceous and sandstone formations.

==Agriculture== Agriculture is the principal occupation in Alabama, giving employment to 64.5% of the population. The farm acreage in 1900 was 20,685,427 acres (62% of the entire surface of the state), of which 8,654,991 acres (41.8%) were improved. Under the system of slave labour which existed before 1860, the average size of the plantations tended to increase, but since 1860 the reverse has been true, the average plantation in 1860 being 346 acres, and in 1900 92.7 acres. The average value per acre of farm land was $11�86 in 1860 and $8.67 in 1900. As to method of cultivation, 36.3 per cent of the farms were in 1900 managed by the owners, 33.3% by cash renters, 24.4% by share tenants, and the remaining 6% by other methods. The chief product is cotton, cultivated extensively in the "Black Belt" and less extensively in the other portions of the state. Cotton has always been the principal source of wealth, the amount of its exports at Mobile increasing from 7000 bales in 1818 to 25,000 bales in 1821, and the total product of the state in 1840 being double that of 1830. This was accompanied by an extensive employment of slave labour, and from 1820 until 1860 the rate of increase of the blacks was greater than that of the whites. The success of the economic system was such that in 1860 the cotton crop of Alabama was nearly 1,000,000 bales (9 8 9,955 bales), being 18.4% of the entire cotton product of the United States. The disorganization of labour resulting from the Civil War and the emancipation of slaves, was the cause of a temporary decline in the cotton crop. In 1889 the crop again approximated to 1,000,000 bales (915,210 bales, being 12.2% of the entire crop of the United States), and in 1899 it exceeded that amount, Alabama being fourth among the states of the entire country. The total value of the farm products of Alabama in 1899 was $91,387,409; in 1889, $66,240,190; and in 1879, $5 6, 8 7 2 ,994. The average yield per acre has also increased under the system of free labour. In recent years there has been a tendency to diversify crops, Indian corn, wheat and oats being raised extensively in the "Cereal Belt." In 1906, according to the Year-Book of the Department of Agriculture, the following were the acreages, yields and values of Alabama's more important crops (excepting cotton): - Indian corn, 2,990,387 acres, 47, 8 49,39 2 bushels, $30,623,611; wheat, 98,639 acres, 1,085,029 bushels, $1,019,927; oats, 184,179 acres, 3,167,879 bushels, $1,615,618; hay, 5 6 ,35 o acres, 109,882 tons, $1,461,431.

Minerals

The chief feature of Alabama's industrial life since 1880 has been the exploitation of her iron and coal resources. The iron ore (found chiefly in the region of which Birmingham is the centre) is primarily red haematite and (much less important) brown haematite; though as regards the latter Alabama ranked first among the states of the Union in 1905 (with 781,561 tons). The total production of all classes of iron ores was 3,782,831 tons in 1905, Alabama ranking third in the Union in this respect. The production of bituminous coal has also increased very rapidly. Coal was first discovered in the state in 1834, and in 1840 the total production was 946 tons; in 1870 it was 13,200 short tons. The real development of the mines began in 1881 and 1882, and the product increased from 420,000 tons in 1881 to 1,568,000 in 1883. By 1890 it had increased to 4,090,409 tons, by 1900 to 8,394,275 tons, and by 1905 to 11,866,069 tons, valued at $14,387,721, making Alabama sixth of the coalproducing states. Nearly 85% of the coal is produced in three counties (Jefferson, Walker and Bibb), though the coal-bearing formations cover about 40% of the northern half of the state. Gold, silver, lead, copper, tin and bauxite have also been discovered, but the greater richness of the iron and coal deposits has prevented their development.

Manufactures

The growth of manufactures in Alabama has been as remarkable as the revelation of mineral wealth. In 1880 the capital invested in manufactures was $9,668,008, little more than that ($9,098,181) in 1860; by 1890 it had increased to $46,122,571, or 377�1%; and in 1900 it amounted to $70,370,081, or 52.6% more than in 1890.1 On account of the proximity of coal, iron and limestone, the manufactures of iron and steel are the most extensive. In 1895 it was demonstrated that Alabama pig-iron could be sent to Liverpool and sold cheaper than the English product, and Birmingham (Alabama) came consequently to rank next to Middlesborough and Glasgow among the world centres of the pig-iron trade. The pig-iron produced in the state in 1860 was valued at $64,590, in 1870 at $210,258, in 1880 at $ 1 ,4 0 5,35 6, in 1900 at $13,487,769, and in 1905 at $16,614,577. In the production of foundry pig-iron Alabama held first rank both in 1900 and in 1905. The manufacture of steel, though in its infancy, gave promise of equalling that of iron, and the coke industry is also of growing importance, the product of Alabama during the five years from 1896 to 1901 showing a greater increase, relatively, than that of the other states. In 1900 the state ranked sixth and in 1905 fifth among the states of the United States in the manufactures of iron and steel. In 1905 the value of the product was 2.7% of the value of the total iron and steel product of the country, and 22.6% of the value of all the state's factory products. In 1900 and in 1905 Alabama ranked second among 1 The special census of manufactures taken in 1905 was confined to manufacturing establishments conducted under the so-called "factory system." According to this census the capital invested was $105,382,859, and the value of products was $109,169,922. The corresponding figures for 1900, if the same standard be taken for purposes of comparison, would be $60,165,904 and $72,109,929. During the five years, therefore, the capital invested in establishments under the factory system increased 75.2%, and the value of products 5 1� 4%. the states of the Union in the production of coke, its product being more than one-tenth of that for the whole country, and more than one-twentieth (5. 2% in 1900; 5.7% in 1905) of all the factory products of the state. The demand for coke is due to the rapidly growing iron and steel industry. Great possibilities were also shown for the production of lumber and naval stores. Approximately three-fourths of the total area of the state is woodland. In the "Timber Belt" the forests of long leaf pine have an estimated stand of 21,192 million ft.; and in 1905 the product of sawed lumber was valued at $13,563,815. Of this, yellow pine represented $11,320,909, oak $886,746, and poplar $627,686. In the decade 1890-1900 the number of turpentine factories increased from 7 to 152, and their product in 1900 and in 1905 ranked Alabama third among the states in that industry. The value of the turpentine and rosin products in 1905 was $2,434,365.

The manufacture of cotton goods has also developed rapidly. As late as 1890 there were only 13 cotton mills in Alabama, one more than the number in 1850; in 1900 there were 31, representing a capital of $11,638,757 and an annual product valued at $8,153,136, an increase of 272. 2% over the product ($2,190,771) of 1890; in 1905 there were 46 establishments, representing a capital of $24,758,049 (an increase of 112.7% over that of 1900), and having a product (for the year) of $16,760,332, an increase of 105.6% over that for 1900. To encourage the establishment of cotton mills the legislature of 1896-1897 exempted from taxation during the succeeding ten years all capital that should be invested in the manufacture of cotton, provided that $50,000 or more be invested in buildings and machinery. Other industries of less importance are flour, fertilizers and tanned leather.

Communications

The navigable mileage of the Alabama rivers is 2000 m., but obstructions often prevent the formation of a continuous route, notably the "Muscle Shoals" of the Tennessee, extending from a point io m. below Decatur to Florence, a distance of 38 m. To remove or circumvent these impediments, and to improve the Mobile harbour, the United States government spent, between 1870 and 1904, approximately $12,000,000. As the streams in the mineral region are not navigable, the railways are the carriers of its products. 2 Here all the large systems of the southern states find an entrance, the Mobile & Ohio, the Southern (Queen & Crescent Route), the Louisville & Nashville, and the 'Frisco system affording communication with the Mississippi and the west, and the Southern, Seaboard Air Line, Atlantic Coast Line, and the Central of Georgia forming connexions with northern and Atlantic states. Mobile, the only seaport of the state, has a channel 30 ft. deep, on which the national government spends large sums of money; yet an increasing amount of Alabama cotton is sent to New Orleans for shipment, and Pensacola, Florida, receives much of the lumber. The railway mileage of the state on the 31st of December 1906 was 4805.58 m.

Population

In 1880 the inhabitants of Alabama numbered 1,262,505; in 1890, 1,513,017, an increase of 17% in 1900, 1,828,697, a further increase of 20%. This population is notable for its large proportion of negroes (45.2 3%), its insignificant foreign element (�08%), and the small percentage of urban inhabitants (io %). As regards church membership, the Baptists are much the most numerous, followed by the Methodists, the Roman Catholics and the Presbyterians. In 1900 there were 201 incorporated cities, towns and villages in the state, but of these only nine had a population in excess of 5000, and only three a population in excess of 25,000. These three were Mobile (38,469), Birmingham (38,415), and Montgomery (30,346), the capital of the state. Other important cities, with their populations, were Selma (8713), Anniston (9695), Huntsville (8068), Bessemer (6358), Tuscaloosa (5094), Talladega (5056), Eufaula (4532) and Tuskegee (2170).

Government

Alabama has been governed under five constitutions, the original constitution of 1819, the revision of 1865, the constitutions of 1868 and 1875, and the present ,constitution, which was framed in 1901. The last has a number of notable provisions. It lengthened the term of service of executive and legislative officials from two to four years, made that of the

judiciary six years, provided for quadrennial sessions of the legislature, and introduced the office of lieutenant-governor. The passage of local or special bills by the legislature was prohibited. A provision intended to prevent lobbying is that no one except legislators and the representatives of the press may be admitted to the floor of the House except by unanimous vote. No executive official can succeed himself in office, and the governor cannot be elected or appointed to the United States Senate, or to any state office during his term as governor, or within one year thereafter. Sheriffs whose prisoners suffer mob violence may be impeached. The constitution eliminated the negro from politics by a suffrage clause which went into effect in 1903. This limits the right to vote to those who can read and write any article of the constitution of the United States, and have worked or been regularly engaged in some lawful employment, business or occupation, trade or calling for the greater part of the twelve months next preceding the time they offer to register, unless prevented from labour or ability to read and write by physical disability, or who own property assessed at $300 upon which the taxes have been paid; but those who have served in the army or navy of the United States or of the Confederate States in time of war, their lawful descendants in every degree, and persons of good character "who understand the duties and obligations of citizenship under a republican form of government," are relieved from the operation of this law provided they registered prior to the 20th of December 1902. The second of these exceptions is known as the "Grandfather Clause." No man may vote in any election who has not by the 1st of February next preceding that election paid all poll taxes due from him to the state. In 1902 nine-tenths of the negroes in the state were disqualified from voting.' The constitution of 1901 (like that of 1867) and special statutes require separate schools for white and negro children. A "Jim Crow" law was enacted in 1891. Buying, selling or offering to buy or sell a vote has for penalty disfranchisement, and since 1891 the Australian ballot system has been used. The governor, auditor and attorney-general are required to prepare and present to each legislature a general revenue bill, and the secretary of state, with the last two officers, constitute a board of pardons who make recommendations to the governor, who, however, is not bound to follow their advice in the exercise of his pardoning power. State officials are forbidden to accept railway passes from railway companies, and individuals are forbidden to receive freight rebates. The constitution of 1901 exempted a homestead of 80 acres of farm land, or of a house and lot not exceeding $2000 in value, from liability for any debt contracted since the 30th of July 1868 except for a mortage on it to which the wife consented; personal property to the value of $l000 is exempted. Under the civil code of 1897 the earnings of a wife are her separate property, and it is provided that "no woman, nor any boy under age of twelve years, shall be employed to work or labour in or about any mine in this state." By acts of 1903 child labour under 12 years is forbidden in any factory unless for support of "a widowed mother or aged or disabled father," or unless the child is an indigent orphan; "no child under the age of ten years shall be so employed under any circumstances." Certificates of children's ages are necessary before a child is employed; false certification is forbidden under penalty of a fine of from $5 to $100 or hard labour not exceeding three months. No child under 13 may do night work at all. No child 1 In Giles v. Harris, 189 U.S. 474, a negro asked that the defendant board of registry be required to enrol his name and the names of other negroes on the registration lists, and that certain sections of the constitution of Alabama be declared void as being contrary to the fourteenth and fifteenth amendments to the federal constitution. The Supreme Court dismissed the bill on the grounds that equity has no jurisdiction over political matters; that, assuming the fraudulent character of the objectionable constitutional provisions, the court was in effect asked to assist in administering a fraud; and that relief "must be given by them {the people of the state} or by the legislative and political departments of the government of the United States." The case attracted much attention; and it is often erroneously said that the court upheld the disfranchising clauses of the Alabama constitution.

under 16 may do more than 48 hours a week of night work. No child of less than 12 is allowed to work more than 66 hours in any one week. An able-bodied parent who does not work when he has the opportunity, unless "idle under strike orders, or lock-outs," and who hires out his minor children, is declared a vagrant and may be fined $50o and imprisoned or sentenced to hard labour for not more than six months.

All amendments to the constitution must be approved by a three-fifths vote of each house of the legislature and then ratified by the people. The legislature of 190o-1901 established a department of archives and history whose aim is to preserve documents and historical records.

Education

Public education for Mobile was authorized by the legislature of 1826, but it was not provided until 1852. Two years later (1854) a school system for the entire state was inaugurated. Its support was derived from public land given by the United States to the state of Alabama for educational purposes in 1819, and special taxes or tuition fixed by each township. The Civil War demoralized the nascent system. An important step in its revival seemed to be made in the constitution of 1868, which forbade any private recompense for instruction in the public schools and appropriated one-fifth of the state's revenue to common schools. But the attempt to teach whites and blacks in the same schools, and the corruption in the administration of funds, made the results unsatisfactory. The constitution of 1875 abolished the one-fifth revenue provision, made the support of the schools, except that derived from the land grant of 1819, and poll taxes, depend upon the appropriation of the legislature, and established separate schools for whites and blacks. Progress has been slow but steady. According to the constitution of 1901 the legislature is required to levy, in addition to the poll tax, an annual tax for education at the rate of 30 to 65 cents on the hundred dollars' worth of property, and practically every county in the state had made in 1906 an appropriation for its schools of a one mill tax on $loo. The school fund in 1900 amounted to $1,000,000, an increase of 37% over the average annual fund of the preceding decade; for the year ending the 30th of September 1907 the amount certified for apportionment by the state was $1,150,261.40, and the total annual expenditure was about $1,600,000; in 1906 the school census showed 697,465 children of school age. The legislature of 1907 voted an increase of $300,000 in the appropriation for the common school fund, and granted state-aid for rural school-houses; but its most important work probably was the establishment of county high schools. The rural schools have an annual term of five to seven months only. The percentage of illiterates declined from 50.97% in 1880 to 41% in 1890, and 34% in 1900, when Alabama ranked third among the states in illiteracy.

There are also a number of institutions for higher education in Alabama. The most important of these are the university of Alabama (co-educational - opened in 1831), at Tuscaloosa, the institution being part of the public school system maintained by the state; the Alabama Polytechnic Institute at Auburn, a "state college for the benefit of agriculture and the mechanic arts," organized in 1872 according to the United States land grant act for the promotion of industrial education; the Southern University (incorporated 1856 - Methodist Episcopal, South), at Greensboro; Howard College (Baptist), at East Lake (Birmingham); Spring Hill College (1830 - Roman Catholic), near Mobile; Talladega College (for negroes), at Talladega; the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute (for negroes), at Tuskegee; and state normal schools at Florence, Jacksonville, Troy and Livingston, and, for negroes, at Montgomery, Tuskegee and Normal.

Public Institutions

Alabama supports various philanthropic and penal institutions: a home for Confederate veterans, at Mountain Creek; an institution for the deaf, an academy for the blind, and a school for the negro deaf, dumb and blind, all at Talladega; a hospital for the insane, opened in 1860, at Tuscaloosa; a penitentiary, established in 1839, at Wetumpka; and a state industrial school for white boys, at East Lake (Birmingham), and a state industrial school for white girls at Montevallo.

These institutions are managed by trustees who are appointed by the governor. In addition to the usual method of employing convicts in the penitentiary or on state farms, Alabama, like other southern states, also hires its convicts to labour for private individuals. Reports of abuses under this system caused the legislature in 1901 to order a special investigation, the results of which led in 1903 to a new system of leasing to contractors, whereby the prisoners are kept under the direct supervision of state officials. In this same year a system of peonage that had grown up in the state attracted wide attention, and a Federal grand jury at a single term of court indicted a number of men for holding persons as "peons." Many similar cases were found later in other southern states, but those in Alabama being the first discovered attracted the most attention. The system came into existence in isolated communities through the connivance of justices of the peace with white farmers. The justices have jurisdiction over petty offences, of which negroes are usually the guilty parties, and the fines imposed would sometimes be paid by a white farmer, who would thus save the accused from imprisonment, but at the same time would require him to sign a contract to repay by his labour the sum advanced. By various devices the labourer would then be kept constantly in debt to his employer and be held in involuntary servitude for an indefinite time. The "peons" as a rule were negroes, but a few white ones were found; and in several instances negroes were found holding members of their own race in peonage. A law forbidding under severe penalties a labourer from hiring himself to a second employer without giving notice of a prior contract, and an employer from hiring a labourer known by him to be bound by such a contract, had aided in the development of the system, though it had been enacted for a different purpose. The Federal authorities, as soon as the existence of peonage became known, took active measures to stamp it out, and were supported by the press and by the leading citizens of the state. Up to 1907 the state licensed the sale of liquor, and liquor licence fees were partly turned over to the public school fund; there was a dispensary system in some counties; and in 1907 one-third of the counties of the state (22 out of 67) were "dry." Besides, saloons had been forbidden within 5 m. of certain churches and school-houses, so that liquor was sold scarcely at all except in incorporated towns, where in many cases local dispensaries were established. In the 1907 state legislature a county local option bill was passed in February, and immediately afterward the Sherrod anti-shipping bill was enacted forbidding the acceptance of liquors for shipment, transportation or delivery to prohibition districts, and penalising the soliciting of orders for liquor in "dry" districts with a punishment of $500 fine and six months' imprisonment with hard labour. In a special session of the legislature in November 1907 a law was passed forbidding the sale of liquor within the state, this prohibition to come into effect on the 1st of January 1909.

==Finance== One-half of the income of the state is derived from general taxes, the other sources of revenue being licences, a special school tax, poll tax and the lease of the convicts. The state debt, for which legislative corruption in the years 1868-1872 was largely responsible, amounted on the 1st of October 1906 to $9,057,000. Measures for its refunding, but not for its extinction, have been taken. The constitution of 1901 prohibits the increase of the debt for any other purposes than the suppression of insurrection or resistance to invasion, and the assumption of corporate debts by cities and towns is also restricted. All banks, except national banks, are subject to examination by a public official, and their charters expire within twenty years of their issue.

History

The first Europeans to enter the limits of the present state of Alabama were Spaniards, who claimed this region as a part of Florida. It is possible that a member of Panfilo de Narvaez's expedition of 1528 entered what is now southern Alabama, but the first fully authenticated visit was that of Hernando de Soto, who made an arduous but fruitless journey along the Coosa, Alabama and Tombigbee rivers in 1539. The English, too, claimed the region north of the Gulf of Mexico, and the territory of modern Alabama was included in the province of Carolina, granted by Charles II. to certain of his favourites by the charters of 1663 and 1665. English traders of Carolina were frequenting the valley of the Alabama river as early as 1687. Disregarding these claims, however, the French in 1702 settled on the Mobile river and there erected Fort Louis, which for the next nine years was the seat of government of Louisiana. In 1711 Fort Louis was abandoned to the floods of the river, and on higher ground was built Fort Conde, the germ of the present city of Mobile, and the first permanent white settlement in Alabama. Later, on account of the intrigues of the English traders with the Indians, the French as a means of defence established the military posts of Fort Toulouse, near the junction of the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers, and Fort Tombecbe on the Tombigbee river. The grant of Georgia to Oglethorpe and his. associates in 1732 included a portion of what is now northern. Alabama, and in 1739 Oglethorpe himself visited the Creek. Indians west of the Chattahoochee river and made a treaty with them. The peace of Paris, in 1763, terminated the French occupation, and England came into undisputed possession of the region between the Chattahoochee and the Mississippi. The portion of Alabama below the 31st parallel then became a part. of West Florida, and the portion north of this line a part of the "Illinois country," set apart, by royal proclamation, for the use of the Indians. In 1767 the province of West Florida was extended northward to 32° 28' N. lat., and a few years later, during the War for Independence, this region fell into the hands of Spain. By the treaty of Versailles, on the 3rd of September 1783, England ceded West Florida to Spain; but by the treaty of Paris, signed the same day, she ceded to the United States all of this province north of 30, and thus laid the foundation for a long controversy. By the treaty of Madrid, in 1795, Spain ceded to the United States her claims to the lands east of the Mississippi between 31° and 32° 28'; and three years later (1798) this district was organized by Congress as the Mississippi Territory. A strip of land 12 or 14 m. wide near the present northern boundary of Alabama and Mississippi was claimed by South Carolina;, but in 1787 that state ceded this claim to the general government. Georgia likewise claimed all the lands between the 31st and 35th parallels from its present western boundary to the Mississippi river, and did not surrender its claim until 1802; two years later the boundaries of the Mississippi Territory were extended so as to include all of the Georgia cession. In 1812 Congress annexed to the Mississippi Territory the Mobile District of West Florida, claiming that it was included in the Louisiana Purchase; and in the following year General James Wilkinson occupied this district with a military force, the Spanish commandant offering no resistance. The whole area of the present state of Alabama then for the first time became subject to the jurisdiction of the United States. In 1817 the Mississippi Territory was divided; the western portion became the state of Mississippi, and the eastern the territory of Alabama, with St Stephens, on the Tombigbee river, as the temporary seat of government. In 1819 Alabama was regularly admitted to the Union as a state.

One of the first problems of the new commonwealth was that of finance. Since the amount of money in circulation was not sufficient to meet the demands of the increasing population, a system of state banks was instituted. State bonds were issued and public lands were sold to secure capital, and the notes of the banks, loaned on security, became a medium of exchange. Prospects of an income from the banks led the legislature of 1836 to abolish all taxation for state purposes. This was hardly done, however, before the panic of 1837 wiped out a large portion of the banks' assets; next came revelations of grossly careless and even of corrupt management, and in 1843 the banks were placed in liquidation. After disposing of all their available assets, the state assumed the remaining liabilities, for which it had pledged its faith and credit, and these form a part. ($3,445, 000) of its present indebtedness.

The Indian problem was important. With the encroachment of the white settlers upon their hunting-grounds the Creek Indians began to grow restless, and the great Shawnee chief Tecumseh, who visited them in 1811, fomented their discontent. When the outbreak of the second war with Great Britain in 1812 gave the Creeks assurance of British aid they rose in arms, massacred several hundred settlers who had taken refuge in Fort Mims, near the junction of the Alabama and Tombigbee rivers, and in a short time no white family in the Creek country was safe outside a palisade. The Chickasaw and Choctaw Indians, however, remained the faithful allies of the whites, and volunteers from Georgia, South Carolina and Tennessee, and later United States troops, marched to the rescue of the threatened settlements. In the camf aign that followed the most distinguished services were rendered by General Andrew Jackson, whose vigorous measures broke for ever the power of the Creek Confederacy. By the treaty of Fort Jackson (9th of August 1814) the Creeks ceded their claims to about one-half of the present state; and cessions by the Cherokees, Chickasaws and Choctaws in 1816 left only about one-fourth of Alabama to the Indians. In 1832 the national government provided for the removal of the Creeks; but before the terms of the contract were effected, the state legislature formed the Indian lands into counties, and settlers flocked in. This caused a disagreement between Alabama and the United States authorities; although it was amicably settled, it engendered a feeling that the pulicy of the national government might not be in harmony wD.h the interests of the state - a feeling which, intensified by the slavery agitation, did much to cause secession in 1861.

The political history of Alabama may be divided into three periods, that prior to 1860, the years from 1860 to 1876, and the period from 1876 onwards.

The first of these is the only period of altogether healthy political life. Until 1832 there was only one party in the state, the Democratic, but the question of nullification caused a division that year into the (Jackson) Democratic party and the State's Rights (Calhoun Democratic) party; about the same time, also, there arose, chiefly in those counties where the proportion of slaves to freemen was greater and the freemen were most aristocratic, the Whig party. For some time the Whigs were nearly as numerous as the Democrats, but they never secured control of the state government. The State's Rights men were in a minority; nevertheless under their active and persistent leader, William L. Yancey (1814-1863), they prevailed upon the Democrats in 1848 to adopt their most radical views. During the agitation over the introduction of slavery into the territory acquired from Mexico, Yancey induced the Democratic State Convention of 1848 to adopt what is known as the "Alabama Platform," which declared in substance that neither Congress nor the government of a territory had the right to interfere with slavery in a territory, that those who held opposite views were not Democrats, and that the Democrats of Alabama would not support a candidate for the presidency if he did not agree with them on these questions. This platform was endorsed by conventions in Florida and Virginia and by the legislatures of Georgia and Alabama. Old party lines were broken by the Compromise of 1850. The State's Rights party, joined by many Democrats, founded the Southern Rights party, which demanded the repeal of the Compromise, advocated resistance to future encroachments and prepared for secession, while the Whigs, joined by the remaining Democrats, formed the party known as the "Unionists," which unwillingly accepted the Compromise and denied the "constitutional" right of secession. The "Unionists" were successful in the elections of 1851 and 1852, but the feeling of uncertainty engendered in the south by the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill and the course of the slavery agitation after 1852 led the State Democratic convention of 1856 to revive the "Alabama Platform"; and when the "Alabama Platform" failed to secure the formal approval of the Democratic National convention at Charleston, South Carolina, in 1860, the Alabama delegates, followed by those of the other cotton "states," withdrew. Upon the election of Abraham Lincoln, Governor Andrew B. Moore, according to previous instructions of the legislature, called a state convention on the 7th of January 1861. After long debate this convention adopted on the i 1 th of January an ordinance of secession, and Alabama became one of the Confederate states of America, whose government was organized at Montgomery on the 4th of February 1861. Yet secession was opposed by many prominent men, and in North Alabama an attempt was made to organize a neutral state to be called Nickajack; but with President Lincoln's call to arms all opposition to secession ended.

In the early part of the Civil War Alabama was not the scene of military operations, yet the state contributed about 120,000 men to the Confederate service, practically all her white population capable of bearing arms, and thirty-nine of these attained the rank of general. In 1863 the Federal forces secured a foothold in northern Alabama in spite of the opposition of General Nathan B. Forrest, one of the ablest Confederate cavalry leaders. In 1864 the defences of Mobile were taken by a Federal fleet, but the city held out until April 1865; in the same month Selma also fell.

According to the presidential plan of reorganization, a provisional governor for Alabama was appointed in June 1865; a state convention met in September of the same year, and declared the ordinance of secession null and void and slavery abolished; a legislature and a governor were elected in November, the legislature was at once recognized by the National government, and the inauguration of the governor-elect was permitted after the legislature had, in December, ratified the thirteenth amendment. But the passage, by the legislature, of vagrancy and apprenticeship laws designed to control the negroes who were flocking from the plantations to the cities, and its rejection of the fourteenth amendment, so intensified the congressional hostility to the presidential plan that the Alabama senators and representatives were denied their seats in Congress. In 1867 the congressional plan of reconstruction was completed and Alabama was placed under military government. The negroes were now enrolled as voters and large numbers of white citizens were disfranchised.' A Black Man's Party, composed of negroes, and political adventurers known as "carpet-baggers," was formed, which co-operated with the Republican party. A constitutional convention, controlled by this element, met in November 1867, and framed a constitution which conferred suffrage on negroes and disfranchised a large class of whites. The Reconstruction Acts of Congress required every new constitution to be ratified by a majority of the legal voters of the state. The whites of Alabama therefore stayed away from the polls, and, after five days of voting, the constitution wanted 13,550 to secure a majority. Congress then enacted that a majority of the votes cast should be sufficient, and thus the constitution went into effect, the state was admitted to the Union in June 1868, and a new governor and legislature were elected.

The next two years are notable for legislative extravagance and corruption. The state endorsed railway bonds at the rate of $12,000 and $16,000 a mile until the state debt had increased from eight millions to seventeen millions of dollars, and similar corruption characterized local government. The native white people united, formed a Conservative party and elected a governor and a majority of the lower house of the legislature in 1870; but, as the new administration was largely a failure, in 1872 there was a reaction in favour of the Radicals, a local term applied to the Republican party, and affairs went from bad to worse. In 1874, however, the power of the Radicals was finally broken, the Conservative Democrats electing all state officials. A commission appointed to examine the state debt found it to be $25,503,000; by compromise it was reduced to $15,000,000. A new constitution was adopted in 1875, which omitted the guaranty of the previous constitution that no one should be denied suffrage on account of race, colour or previous condition of servitude, and forbade the state to engage in internal improvements or to give its credit to any private enterprise.

Since 1874 the Democratic party has had constant control of the state administration, the Republicans failing to make nominations for office in 1878 and 1880 and endorsing the ticket ' The enrolment was 104,518 blacks and 61,295 whites.

of the Greenback party in 1882. The development of mining and manufacturing was accompanied by economic distress among the farming classes, which found expression in the Jeffersonian Democratic party, organized in 1892. The regular Democratic ticket was elected and the new party was then merged into the Populist party. In 1894 the Republicans united with the Populists, elected three congressional representatives, secured control of many of the counties, but failed to carry the state, and continued their opposition with less success in the next campaigns. Partisanship became intense, and charges of corruption of the ignorant negro electorate were made. Consequently after division on the subject among the Democrats themselves, as well as opposition of Republicans and Populists, a new constitution with restrictions on suffrage was adopted in 1901.

William Wyatt Bibb

... I 1817-1819

Governors of the State.

William Wyatt Bibb

1819-1820

Democrat.

Thomas Bibb' .

1820-1821

Israel Pickens

1821-1825

John Murphy .

1825-1829

Gabriel Moore .

1829-1831

Samuel B. Moore

1831

John Gayle .

1831-1835

Clement C. Clay .

1835-1837

Hugh M`Vay 2 .

.

1837

Arthur P. Bagby .

1837-1841

Benjamin Fitzpatrick'

1841-1845

Joshua L. Martin .

.

1845-1847

Reuben Chapman

1847-1849

Henry W. Collier

1849-1853

John A. Winston

1853-1857

Andrew B. Moore

1857-1861

John Gill Shorter

1861-1863

Thomas H. Watts

1863-1865

1/

Lewis E. Parsons

1865

Provisional

Governor.

Robert M. Patton

1865-1867

Republican.

Wager Swayne .

18 67- 186 8

Military

Governor.

William H. Smith

1868-1870

Republican.

Robert B. Lindsay

1870-1872

Democrat.

David P. Lewis .

1872-1874

Republican.

George S. Houston

1874-1878

Democrat.

Rufus W. Cobb

1878-1882

Edward A. O'Neal

1882-1886

Thomas Seay .

1886-1890

Thomas G. Jones

1890-1894

William C. Oates .

1894-1896

Joseph F. Johnston

1896-1900

William J. Samford;

1900-1901

William D. Jelks .

1901-1907

B. B. Corner .

1907

The following is a list of the territorial and state governors of Alabama: - Governor of the Territory. Bibliography. - For an elaborate bibliography of Alabama (by Thomas M. Owen) see the Annual Report of the American Historical Association for 1897 (Washington, 1898).

Information regarding the resources, climate, population and industries of Alabama may be found in the reports of the United States Census, and in the publications of the United States Department of Agriculture, the United States Geological Survey, the Bulletins of the Alabama Agricultural Experiment Station (published at Auburn, from 1888), the Bulletins and Reports of the Alabama Geological Survey (published at Tuscaloosa and Montgomery), and in the following works: - B. F. Riley's Alabama As It Is (Montgomery, 1893), and Saffold Berney's Handbook of Alabama (2nd ed., Birmingham, 1892).

Information concerning the history of the state may be obtained in William G. Brown's History of Alabama (New York, 1900); Newton W. Bates's History and Civil Government of Alabama (Florence, Ala., 1892); Willis Brewer's Alabama: Her History, Resources, War Record and Public Men (Montgomery, 1872); A. Davis Smith's and T. A. Deland's Northern Alabama, Historical and Biographical 1 William Wyatt Bibb died in 1820, and Thomas Bibb, then president of the state senate, filled the unexpired term of one year (1820).

2 In 1837 Governor Clay was elected United States Senator, and Hugh M`Vay, the president of the state senate, filled the unexpired. term.

Until 1845 the term of state officials was one year; from then until 1901 it was two years; since 1901 it has been four years.

(Birmingham, 1888); Albert J. Pickett's History of Alabama (5th ed., 2 vols., Birmingham, Ala., 1900), which contains a valuable compilation of the "Annals of Alabama from 1819 to 1900," by Thomas M. Owen; and Walter L. Fleming's Civil War and Reconstruction in Alabama (New York, 1905).

In addition, W. G. Clark's History of Education in Alabama (Washington, 1889); W. E. Martin's Internal Improvements in Alabama (Baltimore, 1902; Johns Hopkins University Studies, series 20, No. 4); and W. L. Martin's Code of Alabama (2 vols., Atlanta, Ga., 1897) may be consulted.

Information concerning the aboriginal remains in the state may be found in two papers by Clarence B. Moore, "Certain Aboriginal Remains of the Tombigbee River" and "Certain Aboriginal Remains of the Alabama River," published in the Journal of the Academy of Natural Sciences, series 2, 'vol. ii. (Philadelphia, 1900).


<< Ala

Alabama Arbitration >>


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Map of US highlighting Alabama

Contents

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Wikipedia

Etymology

From Alabama Albaamaha (the name of a people formerly native to the area)

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Alabama

Plural
-

Alabama

  1. A state of the United States of America (postal abbreviation AL) in the south-eastern United States with its capitol at Montgomery.
  2. The Alabama River, which runs through the state of Alabama.
  3. A Native American tribe originally from central Alabama.
  4. The language of the Alabama Nation.

Derived terms

Translations

See also

External links


Bosnian

Proper noun

Alabama f.

  1. Alabama

Czech

Proper noun

Alabama f.

  1. Alabama (a state of the United States of America)

Serbian

Proper noun

Alabama f.

  1. Alabama

See also


Vietnamese

Proper noun

Alabama

  1. Alabama

Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

State of Alabama
Flag of Alabama State seal of Alabama
Flag of Alabama SealImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Nickname(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: Yellowhammer State, Heart of Dixie
Motto(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: Audemus jura nostra defendere
Map of the United States with Alabama highlighted
Official language(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif English
Spoken language(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif English 96.17%,
Spanish 2.12%
CapitalImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Montgomery
Largest cityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Birmingham
(229,424, est. 2006)[1]
Largest metro areaImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Greater Birmingham Area
AreaImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked {{{AreaRank}}}Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total {{{TotalAreaUS}}} sq miImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
({{{TotalArea}}} km²Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Width {{{WidthUS}}} miles ({{{Width}}} kmImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Length {{{LengthUS}}} miles ({{{Length}}} km)
 - % water {{{PCWater}}}
 - Latitude {{{Latitude}}}
 - Longitude {{{Longitude}}}
PopulationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked {{{PopRank}}}Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total (2000Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif) {{{2000Pop}}}
 - DensityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif {{{2000DensityUS}}}/sq mi 
{{{2000Density}}}/km² ({{{DensityRank}}})
ElevationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  
 - Highest point {{{HighestPoint}}}
2,407 ft  (734 m)
 - Mean 499 ft  (152 m)
 - Lowest point Gulf of Mexico[2]
0 ft  (0 m)
Admission to UnionImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  {{{AdmittanceDate}}} ({{{AdmittanceOrder}}})
GovernorImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif {{{Governor}}}
U.S. SenatorsImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif {{{Senators}}}
Congressional DelegationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif ListImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Time zoneImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif {{{TimeZone}}}
Abbreviations Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif US-ALImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Web site www.alabama.gov


The State of Alabama (IPA: /ˌæləˈbæmə/), is located in the southern region of the United States of America. It is bordered by Tennessee to the north, Georgia to the east, Florida and the Gulf of Mexico to the south, and Mississippi to the west. Alabama ranks 30th in total land area and ranks second in the size of its inland waterways. The state ranks 23rd in population with almost 4.6 million residents in 2006.[3]

From the American Civil War until World War II, Alabama, like many Southern States, suffered economic hardship. In the years following the war, Alabama experienced significant recovery as the economy of the state transitioned from agriculture to diversified interests in heavy manufacturing, mineral extraction, education, and high technology. Today, the state is heavily invested in the aerospace, education, health care, banking, and various heavy industries including automobile manufacturing, mineral extraction, steel production and fabrication.

Alabama is officially nicknamed the Yellowhammer State, which is also the name of the state bird. Alabama is also known as the "Heart of Dixie." The capital of Alabama is Montgomery, and the largest city is Birmingham.

Contents

Etymology of state name

The Alabama, an Upper Creek tribe which resided just below the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa Rivers on the upper reaches of the Alabama River,[4] served as the etymological source of the names of the river and state. The word Alabama is believed to have originated from the Choctaw language[5] and was later adopted by the Alabama tribe as their name.[6] The spelling of the word varies significantly between sources.[6] The first usage appears in three accounts of the Hernando de Soto expedition of 1540 with Garcilasso de la Vega using Alibamo while the Knight of Elvas and Rodrigo Ranjel wrote Alibamu and Limamu, respectively.[6] As early as 1702, the tribe was known to the French as Alibamon with French maps identifying the river as Rivière des Alibamons.[4] Other spellings of the appellation have included Alibamu, Alabamo, Albama, Alebamon, Alibama, Alibamou, Alabamu, and Allibamou.[6][7][8] The use of state names derived from Indian languages is common with an estimated 27 states having names of Indian origin.[9]

Although the origin of Alabama was evident, the meaning of the tribe's name was not always clear. An article without a byline appearing in the Jacksonville Republican on July 27, 1842 originated the idea that the meaning was "Here We Rest."[6] This notion was popularized in the 1850s through the writings of Alexander Beaufort Meek.[6] Experts in the Muskogean languages have been unable to find any evidence that would support this translation.[4][6] It is now generally accepted that the word comes from the Choctaw words alba (meaning "plants" or "weeds") and amo (meaning "to cut", "to trim", or "to gather").[5][6][10] This results in translations such as "clearers of the thicket"[5] or even "herb gatherers"[10][11] which may refer to clearing of land for the purpose of planting crops[7] or to collection of medicinal plants by medicine men.[11]

Geography

Main article: Geography of Alabama
See also: List of Alabama counties
Alabama terrain map: shows lakes, rivers, roads, with Mount Cheaha (right center) east of Birmingham.

Alabama is the 30th largest state in the United States with 52,423 square miles (135,775 km²) of total area: 3.19% of the area is water, making Alabama 23rd in the amount of surface water, also giving it the second largest inland waterway system in the United States.[12] About three-fifths of the land area is a gentle plain with a general descent towards the Mississippi River and the Gulf of Mexico. The North Alabama region is mostly mountainous, with the Tennessee River cutting a large valley creating numerous creeks, streams, rivers, mountains, and lakes.[13] Another natural wonder in Alabama is "Natural Bridge" rock, the longest natural bridge east of the Rockies, located just south of Haleyville, in Winston County.

Alabama generally ranges in elevation from sea level,[2] down at Mobile Bay, to over 1,800 feet (550 m) in the Appalachian Mountains in the northeast. The highest point is Mount Cheaha[13] (see map), at a height of nearly 2,405 ft (733 m).

States bordering Alabama include Tennessee to the north; Georgia to the east; Florida to the south; and Mississippi to the west. Alabama has coastline at the Gulf of Mexico, in the extreme southern edge of the state.[13]

National Parks in Alabama include Horseshoe Bend National Military Park near Alexander City; Little River Canyon National Preserve in Fort Payne; Russell Cave National Monument in Bridgeport; Tuskegee Airmen National Historic Site in Tuskegee; and Tuskegee Institute National Historic Site near Tuskegee.[14]

Alabama also contains the Natchez Trace Parkway, the Selma To Montgomery National Historic Trail, and the Trail Of Tears National Historic Trail.

Baldwin County, along the Gulf Coast, is the largest county in the state in both land area and water area.[15]

A 5-mile-wide meteorite impact crater is located in Elmore County, just north of Montgomery. This is the Wetumpka crater, which is the site of "Alabama's greatest natural disaster."[16] A 1,000-foot-wide meteorite hit the area about 80 million years ago.[16] The hills just east of downtown Wetumpka showcase the eroded remains of the impact crater that was blasted into the bedrock, with the area labeled the Wetumpka crater or astrobleme ("star-wound") because of the concentric rings of fractures and zones of shattered rock that can be found beneath the surface.[17] In 2002, Christian Koeberl with the Institute of Geochemistry University of Vienna published evidence and established the site as an internationally recognized impact crater.[16]

Urban areas

Main article: List of Metropolitan areas of Alabama
See also: List of cities in Alabama
Rank Metropolitan Area Population
1 Birmingham-Hoover-Cullman CSA 1,184,212
2 Mobile-Daphne-Fairhope CSA 588,246
3 Montgomery MSA 469,268
4 Huntsville MSA 374,557
5 Tuscaloosa MSA 196,885
6 Decatur MSA 149,549
7 Florence-Muscle Shoals MSA 142,657
8 Dothan MSA 138,234
9 Auburn-Opelika MSA 125,102
10 Anniston-Oxford MSA 108,633
11 Gadsden MSA 104,782

Climate

The climate of Alabama is described as temperate with an average annual temperature of 64°F (18°C). Temperatures tend to be warmer in the southern part of the state with its close proximity to the Gulf of Mexico, while the northern parts of the state, especially in the Appalachian Mountains in the northeast, tend to be slightly cooler.[18] Generally, Alabama has very hot summers and mild winters with copious precipitation throughout the year. Alabama receives an average of 56 inches of rainfall annually and enjoys a lengthy growing season of up to 300 days in the southern part of the state. [18]

Summers in Alabama are among the hottest in the United States, with high temperatures averaging over 90 °F throughout the summer in the entire state. Alabama is also prone to tropical storms and even hurricanes. Areas of the state far away from the Gulf are not immune to the effects of the storms, which often dump tremendous amounts of rain as they move inland and weaken.

South Alabama reports more thunderstorms than any part of the US outside of Florida. The Gulf Coast, around Mobile Bay, averages between 70 and 80 days per year with thunder reported. This activity decreases somewhat further north in the state, but even the far north of the state reports thunder on about 60 days per year. Occasionally, thunderstorms are severe with frequent lightning and large hail - the central and northern parts of the state are most vulnerable to this type of storm. Alabama ranks seventh in the number of deaths from lightning and ninth in the number of deaths from lightning strikes per capita. [19] Sometimes tornadoes occur - these are common throughout the state, although the peak season for tornadoes varies from the northern to southern parts of the state. Alabama shares the dubious distinction, with Kansas, of having reported more F5 tornadoes than any other state - according to statistics from the National Climatic Data Center for the period 1 January 1950 to 31 October 2006. An F5 tornado is the most powerful of its kind.[20] Several long - tracked F5 tornadoes have contributed to Alabama reporting more tornado fatalities than any other state except for Texas and Mississippi. The Super Outbreak of March, 1974, badly affected Alabama. The northern part of the state - along the Tennessee Valley - is one of the areas in the US most vulnerable to violent tornadoes. The area of Alabama and Mississippi most affected by tornadoes is sometimes referred to as Dixie Alley, as distinct from the Tornado Alley of the Southern Plains. Alabama is one of the few places in the world that has a secondary tornado season (November and December) in addition to the Spring severe weather season.

Winters are generally mild in Alabama, as they are throughout most of the southeastern United States, with average January low temperatures around 40 °F in Mobile and around 32°F in Birmingham. Snow is a rare event in much of Alabama. Areas of the state north of Montgomery may receive a dusting of snow a few times every winter, with an occasional moderately heavy snowfall every few years. In the southern Gulf coast, snowfall is less frequent, sometimes going several years without any snowfall.

Monthly normal high and low temperatures for various Alabama cities
City Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
Birmingham 53/32 58/35 66/42 74/48 81/58 88/65 91/70 90/69 85/63 75/51 64/42 56/35
Huntsville 49/31 55/34 63/41 72/48 80/58 86/65 89/70 89/68 83/62 73/50 62/41 52/34
Mobile 61/40 64/42 71/49 77/55 84/63 89/69 91/72 91/72 87/68 79/56 70/48 63/42
Montgomery 58/36 62/39 70/45 78/51 85/60 91/67 93/71 92/70 88/65 79/52 69/44 60/38
[2]

History

Main article: History of Alabama


Among the Native American people once living in the area of present day Alabama were Alabama (Alibamu), Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek, Koasati, and Mobile.[21] Trade with the Northeast via the Ohio River began during the Burial Mound Period (1000 BC-A.D. 700) and continued until European contact.[22] Meso-American influence is evident in the agrarian Mississippian culture that followed.

The French founded the first European settlement in the state with the establishment of Mobile in 1702.[23] Southern Alabama was French from 1702 to 1763, part of British West Florida from 1763 to 1780, and part of Spanish West Florida from 1780 to 1814. Northern and central Alabama was part of British Georgia from 1763 to 1783 and part of the American Mississippi territory thereafter. Its statehood was delayed by the lack of a coastline; rectified when Andrew Jackson captured Spanish Mobile in 1814.[24] Alabama was the twenty-second state admitted to the Union, in 1819.

The economy of the central "Black Belt" featured large cotton plantations whose owners built their wealth on the labor of enslaved African Americans. It was named for the dark, fertile soil.[25] Elsewhere poor whites were subsistence farmers. According to the 1860 census, enslaved African Americans comprised 45% of the state's population of 964,201. There were only 2,690 free persons of color.

Alabama seceded from the Union in 1861 to join the Confederate States of America. Following the Civil War Alabama was readmitted to the Union in 1868. While not many battles were fought in the state, Alabama contributed about 120,000 soldiers to the Civil War. All the slaves were freed by 1865.[26] After the period of Reconstruction, the state was still chiefly rural and tied to cotton. Planters resisted working with free labor and sought to re-establish controls over African Americans. They used Jim Crow laws and segregation to reduce rights of African Americans and restore their own dominance. By the turn of the century whites effectively disfranchised African Americans and underfunded schools and services for them, but did not relieve them of the need to pay taxes.[25] Continued racial discrimination, agricultural depression, and the failure of the cotton crops due to boll weevil infestation, led tens of thousands of African Americans to seek out opportunities in northern cities. They left Alabama in the early 20th century as part of the Great Migration to industrial jobs and better futures in northern industrial cities such as Chicago, Detroit, Cleveland, Philadelphia and New York. What had been rapid population growth in Alabama (see table) dropped by half from 1910-1920, reflecting the migration of African Americans out of the state.

Because of the long disfranchisement of African Americans, the state continued as one-party Democratic for decades. It produced a number of national leaders. World War II brought prosperity.[25] Cotton faded in importance as the state developed a manufacturing and service base. In the 1960s under Governor George Wallace, many whites in the state opposed integration efforts. By the moral crusade of the Civil Rights Movement, African Americans achieved a restoration of voting and other civil rights through the passage of the national Civil Rights Laws of 1964 and 1965. De jure segregation ended in the states as Jim Crow laws were invalidated or repealed.[27] After 1972, the state's voting pattern shifted to the Republican Party in presidential elections (as occurred in neighboring southern states). Since 1990 the state has voted increasingly Republican in state elections.[28]

Demographics

Alabama Population Density map
Main article: Demographics of Alabama

As of 2005, Alabama has an estimated population of 4,557,808,[29] which is an increase of 32,433, or 0.7%, from the prior year and an increase of 110,457, or 2.5%, since the year 2000. This includes a natural increase since the last census of 77,418 people (that is 319,544 births minus 242,126 deaths) and an increase due to net migration of 36,457 people into the state. Immigration from outside the United States resulted in a net increase of 25,936 people, and migration within the country produced a net increase of 10,521 people.

The state had 108,000 foreign-born (2.4% of the state population), of which an estimated 22.2% were illegal immigrants (24,000).

The center of population of Alabama is located in Chilton County, outside of the town of Jemison, an area known as Jemison Division.[30]

Race and ancestry

The racial makeup of the state and comparison to the prior census: {{US DemogTable|Alabama|03-01.csv|= | 72.56| 26.33| 1.00| 0.89| 0.07|= | 1.48| 0.18| 0.04| 0.02| 0.01|= | 72.14| 26.70| 0.98| 1.02| 0.07|= | 2.08| 0.17| 0.05| 0.03| 0.01|= | 1.90| 3.95| -0.06| 17.43| 4.90|= | 1.02| 3.97| -0.55| 17.47| 6.67|= | 43.85| 1.05| 11.46| 16.20| -2.17}} The largest reported ancestry groups in Alabama: American (17.0%), English (7.8%), Irish (7.7%), German (5.7%), and Scots-Irish (2.0%). 'American' does not include those reported as Native American.

Religion

In a 2007 survey, nearly 70% of respondents could name all four of the Christian Gospels. Of those who indicated a religious preference, 59% said they possessed a "full understanding" of their faith and needed no further learning.[31] In a 2007 poll, 92% of Alabamians reported having at least some confidence in churches in the state.[32][33]

Economy

Alabama's quarter depicting famous resident Helen Keller along with the longleaf pine branch and Camellia blossoms from the 50 State Quarters program. Released March 19 2003.

According to the United States Bureau of Economic Analysis, the 2006 total gross state product was $160 billion, or $29,697 per capita for a ranking of 44th among states. Alabama's GDP increased 3.1% from 2005, placing Alabama number 23 in terms of state level GDP growth. The single largest increase came in the area of durable goods manufacturing.[34] In 1999, per capita income for the state was $18,189.[35]

Alabama's agricultural outputs include poultry and eggs, cattle, plant nursery items, peanuts, cotton, grains such as corn and sorghum, vegetables, milk, soybeans, and peaches. Although known as "The Cotton State", Alabama ranks between eight and ten in national cotton production, according to various reports,[36][37] with Texas, Georgia and Mississippi comprising the top three. Alabama's industrial outputs include iron and steel products (including cast-iron and steel pipe); paper, lumber, and wood products; mining (mostly coal); plastic products; cars and trucks; and apparel. Also, Alabama produces aerospace and electronic products, mostly in the Huntsville area, which is home of the NASA George C. Marshall Space Flight Center and the US Army Missile Command, headquartered at Redstone Arsenal.

Alabama is also home to the largest industrial growth corridor in the nation, including the surrounding states of Tennessee, Mississippi, Florida, and Georgia. Most of this growth is due to Alabama's rapidly expanding automotive manufacturing industry which in Alabama alone since its birth in 1993 (and has spread to other states), has generated over 67,800 new jobs. Alabama currently ranks 2nd in the nation behind Detroit in automobile output, but with recent expansions at sites in Alabama, the state by the first of 2009 will surpass Detroit, and become the largest builder of automobiles in North America.

In May 2007, a site north of Mobile was selected by German steelmaker ThyssenKrupp for a $3.7 billion steel production plant, with the promise of 2,700 permanent jobs.[38]

The city of Mobile, Alabama's only saltwater port, is a busy seaport on the Gulf of Mexico, and with inland waterway access to the Midwest via the Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway. Alabama levies a 2, 4, or 5% personal income tax, depending upon the amount earned and filing status. The state's general sales tax rate is 4%.[39] The collection rate could be substantially higher, depending upon additional city and county sales taxes. The corporate income tax rate is currently 6.5%. The overall federal, state, and local tax burden in Alabama ranks the state as the second least tax-burdened state in the country.[40]

Alabama as recently as 2003 had an annual budget deficit as high as $670 million, yet is one of only a few handful of states to turn around into large surpluses with its current state's budget surplus at nearly $1.2 billion for 2007, and estimated over $2.1 billion for 2008.

Transportation

Alabama has five major interstate roads that cross it: I-65 runs north-south roughly through the middle of the state; I-59/I-20 travels from the central west border to Birmingham, where I-59 continues to the north-east corner of the state and I-20 continues east towards Atlanta; I-85 goes from the border of Georgia and ends in Montgomery, providing a main thoroughfare to Atlanta; and I-10 traverses the southernmost portion of the state, running from west to east through Mobile. Another interstate road, I-22, is currently under construction. When completed (est. 2012), it will connect Birmingham with Memphis.

Major airports in Alabama include Birmingham International Airport (BHM), Dothan Regional Airport (DHN), Huntsville International Airport (HSV), Mobile Regional Airport (MOB), Montgomery Regional Airport (MGM), Muscle Shoals - Northwest Alabama Regional Airport (MSL), Tuscaloosa Regional Airport (TCL), and Pryor Field Regional Airport (DCU).

Water ports

Aerial view of the port of Mobile

Listed from north to south

Port name Location Connected to
Port of Guntersville Guntersville, on Lake Guntersville Tennessee River
Port of Birmingham Birmingham, on Black Warrior River Tenn-Tom Waterway
Port of Decatur Decatur, on Wheeler Lake Tennessee River
Port of Muscle Shoals Florence/Muscle Shoals, on Wilson Lake Tennessee River
Port of Tuscaloosa Tuscaloosa, on Black Warrior River Tenn-Tom Waterway
Port of Montgomery Montgomery, on Woodruff Lake Alabama River
Port of Mobile Mobile, on Mobile Bay Gulf of Mexico

Law and government

Main article: Government of Alabama
The State Capitol, built in 1850

State government

The foundational document for Alabama's government is the Alabama Constitution, which was ratified in 1901. At more than 770 amendments and 310,000 words, it is the world's longest constitution and is roughly forty times the length of the U.S. Constitution.[41][42]

Alabama is divided into three equal branches:

The legislative branch is the Alabama Legislature, a bicameral assembly composed of the Alabama House of Representatives, with 105 members, and the Alabama Senate, with 35 members. The Legislature is responsible for writing, debating, passing, or defeating state legislation.

The executive branch is responsible for the execution and oversight of laws. It is headed by the Governor of Alabama. Other members of executive branch include the cabinet, the Attorney General of Alabama, the Alabama Secretary of State, the Alabama Commissioner of Agriculture and Industries, the Alabama State Treasurer, and the Alabama State Auditor.

The judicial branch is responsible for interpreting the Constitution and applying the law in state criminal and civil cases. The highest court is the Supreme Court of Alabama.

Local and county government

Alabama has 67 counties. Each county has its own elected legislative branch, usually called the Board of Commissioners, which usually also has executive authority in the county. Due to the restraints placed in the Alabama Constitution, all but 7 counties (Jefferson, Lee, Mobile, Madison, Montgomery, Shelby, and Tuscaloosa) in the state have little to no home rule. Instead, most counties in the state must lobby the Local Legislation Committee of the state legislature to get simple local policies such as waste disposal to land use zoning.

Alabama is an alcoholic beverage control state; the government holds a monopoly on the sale of alcohol. However, counties can declare themselves "dry"; the state does not sell alcohol in those areas.

State politics

Alabama Governor Bob Riley

The current governor of the state is Bob Riley. The lieutenant governor is Jim Folsom Jr. The Democratic Party currently holds a large majority in both houses of the Legislature. Due to the Legislature's power to override a gubernatorial veto by a mere simple majority (most state Legislatures require a 2/3 majority to override a veto), the relationship between the executive and legislative branches can be easily strained when different parties control the branches.

During Reconstruction following the American Civil War, Alabama was occupied by federal troops of the Third Military District under General John Pope. In 1874, the political coalition known as the Redeemers took control of the state government from the Republicans. After 1890, a coalition of whites passed laws to segregate and disenfranchise black residents. The state became part of the "Solid South," a one-party system in which the Democratic Party became essentially the only political party in every Southern state. For nearly 100 years, local and state elections in Alabama were decided in the Democratic Party primary, with generally no Republican challenger running in the General Election. It was not until the 1980s that Republicans began to successfully challenge and win elections in local and state offices.

Alabama state politics gained nationwide and international attention in the 1950s and 1960s during the American Civil Rights Movement, when it bureaucratically, and at times, violently resisted protests for electoral and social reform. The state's governor during the period, George Wallace, remains a notorious and controversial figure. However, in 2007, the Alabama legislature passed, and the Governor signed, a resolution expressing "profound regret" over slavery and its lingering impact. The bill was signed in the Alabama state house which served as the first Capital of the Confederate States of America.[43]

National Politics

Presidential elections results
Year Republican Democrat
2004 62.46% 1,176,394 36.84% 693,933
2000 56.47% 944,409 41.59% 695,602
1996 50.12% 769,044 43.16% 662,165
1992 47.65% 804,283 40.88% 690,080
1988 59.17% 815,576 39.86% 549,506
1984 60.54% 872,849 38.28% 551,899
1980 48.75% 654,192 47.45% 636,730
1976 42.61% 504,070 55.73% 659,170
1972 72.43% 728,701 25.54% 256,923
1968* 13.99% 146,923 18.72% 196,579
1964 69.45% 479,085 30.55% 210,732
1960 42.16% 237,981 56.39% 318,303
*State won by George Wallace
of the American Independent Party,
at 65.86%, or 691,425 votes

From 1876 through 1956, Alabama supported only Democratic presidential candidates, by large margins. 1960 was a curious election. The Democrats won with John F. Kennedy on the ballot, but the Democratic electors from Alabama gave 6 of their 11 electoral votes as a protest to Harry Byrd. In 1964, Republican Barry Goldwater carried the state, in part because of his opposition to the 1964 Civil Rights Act, which restored the franchise for African Americans.

In the 1968 presidential election, Alabama supported native son and American Independent Party candidate George Wallace over both Richard Nixon and Hubert Humphrey. In 1976, Democratic candidate Jimmy Carter from Georgia carried the state, the region, and the nation, but Democratic control of the region slipped thereafter.

Since 1980, Alabama voters have increasingly voted for Republican candidates at the Federal level, especially in Presidential elections. By contrast, Democratic candidates are elected to many state-level offices and comprise a longstanding majority in the Alabama Legislature.

In 2004, George W. Bush won Alabama's nine electoral votes by a margin of 25 percentage points with 62.5% of the vote. The only 11 counties that voted Democratic were Black Belt counties, where African Americans are in the majority.

The state's two current U.S. senators are Jefferson B. Sessions III and Richard C. Shelby, both Republicans.

In the U.S. House of Representatives, the state is represented by seven members, five of whom are Republicans: (Jo Bonner, Terry Everett, Mike D. Rogers, Robert Aderholt, and Spencer Bachus) and two are Democrats: (Bud Cramer and Artur Davis).

Health and education

Primary and secondary education

Public primary and secondary education in Alabama is under the oversight of the Alabama State Board of Education as well as local oversight by 67 county school boards and 60 city boards of education. Together, 1,541 individual schools provide education for 743,364 elementary and secondary students.[44]

Public school funding is appropriated through the Alabama Legislature through the Education Trust Fund. In FY 2006-2007, Alabama appropriated $3,775,163,578 for primary and secondary education. That represented an increase of $444,736,387 over the previous fiscal year.[44]

In 2007, over 82 percent of schools made adequate yearly progress (AYP) toward student proficiency under the National No Child Left Behind law. In 2004, only 23 percent of schools met AYP.[45]

Colleges and universities

Main article: List of colleges and universities in Alabama
Harrison Plaza at the University of North Alabama in Florence. The University of North Alabama was originally chartered as LaGrange College by the Alabama Legislature in 1830.

Alabama's programs of higher education include 14 four-year public universities, numerous two-year community colleges, and 17 private, undergraduate and graduate universities. Public, post-secondary education in Alabama is overseen by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education. Colleges and universities in Alabama offer degree programs from 2-year associate degrees to 16 doctoral level programs. [46]

Accreditation of academic programs is through the Southern Association of Schools and Colleges as well as a variety of subject focused national and international accreditation agencies.[47]

Professional Sports teams

Club Sport League
Birmingham Barons Baseball Southern League
Huntsville Stars Baseball Southern League
Mobile BayBears Baseball Southern League
Montgomery Biscuits Baseball Southern League
Birmingham Steeldogs Arena football af2
Tennessee Valley Vipers Arena football af2
Huntsville Havoc Ice hockey Southern Professional Hockey League
Birmingham Magicians Basketball American Basketball Association
Southern Alabama Bounce Basketball American Basketball Association
Alabama Renegades Football National Women's Football Association
Birmingham Stallions (defunct) Football United States Football League
Birmingham Americans/Vulcans (defunct) Football World Football League
Birmingham Barracudas (defunct) Football Canadian Football League
Birmingham Fire (defunct) Football World League of American Football
Birmingham Thunderbolts (defunct) Football XFL
Birmingham Bulls (defunct) Ice Hockey World Hockey Association
Huntsville Blast (defunct) Ice Hockey East Coast Hockey League
Huntsville Channel Cats (defunct) Ice Hockey Southern Hockey League

Miscellaneous topics

  • The phrase The Heart of Dixie (originating from Montgomery being the first capital of the Confederate States during the Civil War) is required by state law to be included on standard state vehicle license plates, but has recently been reduced to a very small size and eclipsed by the phrase Stars Fell on Alabama. As of October 2006, Alabama also provides an alternative "God Bless America" license plate at no additional charge.[48] Both plates are considered the standard plate for the state.[49]
  • The world's first Electric Trolley System was introduced in Montgomery in 1886.[50]
  • 911 and its use as the standard emergency number was first used in Haleyville.[51]

See also

Cultural sites

Events

Venues

References

  1. ^ Annual Estimates of the Population for Incorporated Places in Alabama, Listed Alphabetically: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2006 (CSV) (June 28 2007).
  2. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named usgs
  3. ^ census.gov Alabama Quick Facts. State and County Quick Facts. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on 2007-09-08.
  4. ^ a b c Read, William A. (1984). Indian Place Names in Alabama. University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-0231-X. 
  5. ^ a b c Rogers, William W.; Robert D. Ward, Leah R. Atkins, Wayne Flynt (1994). Alabama: The History of a Deep South State. University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-0712-5. 
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Alabama: The State Name. All About Alabama. Alabama Department of Archives and History. Retrieved on 2007-08-02.
  7. ^ a b Wills, Charles A. (1995). A Historical Album of Alabama. The Millbrook Press. ISBN 1-56294-591-2. 
  8. ^ Griffith, Lucille (1972). Alabama: A Documentary History to 1900. University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-0371-5. 
  9. ^ Weiss, Sonia (1999). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Baby Names. Mcmillan USA. ISBN 0-02-863367-9. 
  10. ^ a b Swanton, John R. (1953). "The Indian Tribes of North America". Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 145: 153-174. Retrieved on 2007-08-02. 
  11. ^ a b Swanton, John R. (1937). "Review of Read, Indian Place Names of Alabama". American Speech (12): 212-215. 
  12. ^ GCT-PH1-R. Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density (areas ranked by population): 2000. Geographic Comparison Table. US Census Bureau (Census Year 2000). Retrieved on 2006-09-23.
  13. ^ a b c The Geography of Alabama. Geography of the States. NetState.com (2006-08-11). Retrieved on 2006-09-23.
  14. ^ National Park Guide. Geographic Search. National Park Service - U.S. Department of the Interior. Retrieved on 2006-09-23.
  15. ^ Alabama County (geographies ranked by total population) date= Census year 2000. Geographic Comparison Table. U.S. Census Bureau. Retrieved on 2007-05-14.
  16. ^ a b c "Wetumpka Impact Crater" Wetumpka Public Library, accessed Aug. 21, 2007.
  17. ^ "The Wetumpka Astrobleme" by John C. Hall, Alabama Heritage, Fall 1996, Number 42.
  18. ^ a b "Alabama Climate,"Encyclopedia Britannica, Retrieved May 7 2007
  19. ^ Lightning Fatalities, Injuries and Damages in the United States, 1990-2003, [1] Retrieved 8 May 2007
  20. ^ Tornadoproject.com, Fujita scale. Retrieved 3 September 2007
  21. ^ Alabama Indian Tribes. Indian Tribal Records. AccessGenealogy.com (Updated 2006). Retrieved on 2006-09-23.
  22. ^ Alabama. The New York Times Almanac 2004. The New York Times (2006-08-11). Retrieved on 2006-09-23.
  23. ^ Alabama State History. theUS50.com. Retrieved on 2006-09-23.
  24. ^ AL-Alabama. Landscapes and History by state. StateMaster.com. Retrieved on 2006-09-23.
  25. ^ a b c The Black Belt. Southern Spaces Internet Journal. Emory University (2004-04-19). Retrieved on 2006-09-23.
  26. ^ 13th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution: Abolition of Slavery (1865). Historical Documents. HistoricalDocuments.com (2005). Retrieved on 2006-09-23.
  27. ^ Voting Rights. Civil Rights: Law and History. US Department of Justice (2002-01-09). Retrieved on 2006-09-23.
  28. ^ The New South Rises, Again. Civil Rights: Law and History. Southerner.net (Spring 1999). Retrieved on 2006-09-23.
  29. ^ Alabama QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau. US Census Bureau. US Census Bureau (2006-06-08). Retrieved on 2006-09-26.
  30. ^ http://www.census.gov/geo/www/cenpop/statecenters.txt.
  31. ^ Campbell, Kirsten. "Alabama rates well in biblical literacy", Mobile Register, Advance Publications, Inc., 2007-03-25, p. A1. Retrieved on 2007-06-02. 
  32. ^ Confidence in State and Local Institutions Survey. Capital Survey Research Center.
  33. ^ White, David. "Poll says we feel good about state Trust in government, unlike some institutions, hasn't fallen", Birmingham News, Birmingham News, 2007-04-01, p. 13A. Retrieved on 2007-06-02. 
  34. ^ Gross Domestic Product (GDP) by State, 2006. Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Economic Accounts. Retrieved on 2007-10-16.
  35. ^ United States Census Bureau. State and County Quick Facts. Retrieved on 2007-05-30.
  36. ^ Alabama and CBER: 75 Years of Change. Alabama Business. Center for Business and Economic Research, Culverhouse College of Commerce, The University of Alabama (Q4 2005). Retrieved on 2006-09-23.
  37. ^ State Highlights for 2004-2005. Alabama Cooperative Extension System. USDA, NASS, Alabama Statistical Office (2005). Retrieved on 2006-09-23.
  38. ^ "ThyssenKrupp's Alabama incentive package tops $811 million", Press register, 2007-05-11. Retrieved on 2007-05-11. 
  39. ^ http://www.taxadmin.org/fta/rate/sl_sales.html Comparison of State and Local Retail Sales Taxes, July 2004 Retrieved on 25 May 2007
  40. ^ Alabama State Local Tax Burden Compared to U.S. Average (1970-2007) (PDF). Tax Foundation. Retrieved on 2007-05-30.
  41. ^ Roig-Franzia, Manuel. "Alabama Vote Opens Old Racial Wounds", The Washington Post, 2004-11-28. Retrieved on 2006-09-22. 
  42. ^ Constitution of Alabama - 1901. The Alabama Legislative Information System. Retrieved on 2006-09-22.
  43. ^ Rawls, Phillip. "Alabama offers an apology for slavery", The Virginian Pilot, Landmark Communications. Retrieved on 2007-06-02. 
  44. ^ a b Alabama Education Quick Facts 2007 (PDF). Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  45. ^ Eighty-Two Percent of Alabama Schools Make AYP While Increasing Annual Measurable Objectives (PDF). Retrieved on 2007-08-11.
  46. ^ [www.ache.state.al.us/Acadaffr/ProInv/Degreeabbr.htm Degree titles and abbreviations]. Alabama Commission on Higher Education.
  47. ^ [www.ache.state.al.us/Colleges&Universities/Accreditation/index.htm Accreditation]. Alabama Commission on Higher Education..
  48. ^ Matt Dischinger. 'God Bless America' license plate debuts in October, offers new option for drivers. Retrieved on 2006-11-09.
  49. ^ New God Bless America License Plate.
  50. ^ A history of Montgomery's mass transit system
  51. ^ Letter establishing 911 emergency number in Haleyville, AL, February 15, 1968.

Further reading

For a detailed bibliography, see the History of Alabama.
  • Atkins, Leah Rawls, Wayne Flynt, William Warren Rogers, and David Ward. Alabama: The History of a Deep South State (1994)
  • Flynt, Wayne. Alabama in the Twentieth Century (2004)
  • Owen Thomas M. History of Alabama and Dictionary of Alabama Biography 4 vols. 1921.
  • Jackson, Harvey H. Inside Alabama: A Personal History of My State (2004)
  • Mohl, Raymond A. "Latinization in the Heart of Dixie: Hispanics in Late-twentieth-century Alabama" Alabama Review 2002 55(4): 243-274. ISSN 0002-4341
  • Peirce, Neal R. The Deep South States of America: People, Politics, and Power in the Seven Deep South States (1974). Information on politics and economics 1960–72.
  • Williams, Benjamin Buford. A Literary History of Alabama: The Nineteenth Century 1979.
  • WPA. Guide to Alabama (1939)

External links

All wikimedia projects
Articles on this topic in other Wikimedia projects can be found at: Alabama



CoordinatesImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: 33° N 87° W

This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Alabama. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.
Facts about AlabamaRDF feed
Subdivision of country United States  +

This article uses material from the "Alabama" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.







Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message