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State of Alaska
Flag of Alaska State seal of Alaska
Flag Seal
Nickname(s): The Last Frontier
Motto(s): North to the Future
before statehood, known as
the Alaska Territory
Map with Alaska highlighted
Official language(s) None[1][2]
Spoken language(s) English 89.7%,
Native North American 5.2%,
Spanish 2.9%
Demonym Alaskan
Capital Juneau
Largest city Anchorage
Area  Ranked 1st in the US
 - Total 663,268 sq mi
(1,717,854 km2)
 - Width 2,261 miles (3,639 km)
 - Length 1,420 miles (2,285 km)
 - % water 13.77
 - Latitude 51°20'N to 71°50'N
 - Longitude 130°W to 172°E
Population  Ranked 47th in the US
 - Total 698,473 (2009 est.)[3]
626,932 (2000)
 - Density 1.03/sq mi  (0.4/km2)
Ranked 50th in the US
 - Median income  US$64,333 (4th)
Elevation  
 - Highest point Mount McKinley[4]
20,320 ft  (6,193.7 m)
 - Mean 1900 ft  (580 m)
 - Lowest point Pacific Ocean[4]
0 ft  (0 m)
Admission to Union  January 3, 1959 (49th)
Governor Sean Parnell (R)
Lieutenant Governor Craig Campbell (R)
U.S. Senators Lisa Murkowski (R)
Mark Begich (D)
U.S. House delegation Don Young (R) (list)
Time zones  
 - east of 169° 30' Alaska: UTC-9/DST-8
 - west of 169° 30' Aleutian: UTC-10/DST-9
Abbreviations AK US-AK
Website http://www.alaska.gov
Alaska State Symbols
Flag of Alaska.svg
The Flag of Alaska.

Animate insignia
Bird(s) Willow Ptarmigan
Fish King Salmon
Flower(s) Forget-me-not
Insect Four-spotted Skimmer Dragonfly
Mammal(s) Moose, Bowhead whale
Tree Sitka Spruce

Inanimate insignia
Fossil Woolly mammoth
Mineral Gold
Rock Jade
Slogan(s) Beyond Your Dreams, Within Your Reach
Soil Tanana
Song(s) Alaska's Flag
Sport Mushing

Route marker(s)
Alaska Route Marker

State Quarter
Quarter of Alaska
Released in 2008

Lists of United States state insignia
Alaska (Listeni /əˈlæskə/) is the largest state of the United States by area; it is situated in the northwest extremity of the North American continent, with Canada to the east, the Arctic Ocean to the north, and the Pacific Ocean to the west and south, with Russia further west across the Bering Strait. Approximately half of Alaska's 698,473 residents live within the Anchorage metropolitan area. As of 2009, Alaska remains the least densely populated state of the U.S.[5]
The U.S. Senate approved the purchase of Alaska from the Russian Empire on March 30, 1867, for $7.2 million at about two cents per acre ($4.74/km2). The land went through several administrative changes before becoming an organized territory on May 11, 1912, and the 49th state of the U.S. on January 3, 1959. The name "Alaska" (Аляска) was already introduced in the Russian colonial time, when it was used only for the peninsula and is derived from the Aleut alaxsxaq, meaning "the mainland" or more literally, "the object towards which the action of the sea is directed".[6] It is also known as Alyeska, the "great land", an Aleut word derived from the same root.

Contents

Geography

Alaska's size compared with the 48 contiguous states.
Alaska has a longer coastline than all the other U.S. states combined.[7] It is the only non-contiguous U.S. state on continental North America; about 500 miles (800 km) of British Columbia (Canada) separate Alaska from Washington state. Alaska is thus an exclave of the United States. It is technically part of the continental U.S., but is often not included in colloquial use; Alaska is not part of the contiguous U.S., often called "the Lower 48."[8] The capital city, Juneau, is situated on the mainland of the North American continent, but is not connected by road to the rest of the North American highway system.
The state is bordered by the Yukon Territory and British Columbia in Canada, to the east, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the south, the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, and Chukchi Sea to the west and the Arctic Ocean to the north. Alaska's territorial waters touch Russia's territorial waters in the Bering Strait, as the Russian and Alaskan islands are only 3 miles (4.8 km) apart. As it extends into the eastern hemisphere, it is technically both the westernmost and easternmost state in the United States, as well as also being the northernmost.
Alaska is the largest state in the United States in land area at 586,412 square miles (1,518,800 km2), over twice the size of Texas, the next largest state. Alaska is larger than all but 18 sovereign countries.
Counting territorial waters, Alaska is larger than the combined area of the next three largest states: Texas, California, and Montana. It is also larger than the combined area of the 22 smallest U.S. states.
The regions:[9]
The International Date Line was drawn west of 180° to keep the whole state, and thus the entire North American continent, within the same legal day.

Natural features

With its myriad islands, Alaska has nearly 34,000 miles (54,720 km) of tidal shoreline. The Aleutian Islands chain extends west from the southern tip of the Alaska Peninsula. Many active volcanoes are found in the Aleutians. Unimak Island, for example, is home to Mount Shishaldin, which is an occasionally smoldering volcano that rises to 10,000 feet (3,000 m) above the North Pacific. It is the most perfect volcanic cone on Earth, even more symmetrical than Japan's Mount Fuji. The chain of volcanoes extends to Mount Spurr, west of Anchorage on the mainland. Alaska has more volcanoes than any other state.[10] Geologists have identified Alaska as part of Wrangellia, a large region consisting of multiple states and Canadian provinces in the Pacific Northwest which is actively undergoing continent building.
One of the world's largest tides occurs in Turnagain Arm, just south of Anchorage – tidal differences can be more than 35 feet (10.7 m). (Many sources say Turnagain has the second-greatest tides in North America, but several areas in Canada have larger tides.)[11]
Alaska has more than three million lakes.[12][13] Marshlands and wetland permafrost cover 188,320 square miles (487,747 km2) (mostly in northern, western and southwest flatlands). Glacier ice covers some 16,000 square miles (41,440 km2) of land and 1,200 square miles (3,110 km2) of tidal zone. The Bering Glacier complex near the southeastern border with Yukon covers 2,250 square miles (5,827 km2) alone. With over 100,000 of them, Alaska has half of the world's glaciers.

Land ownership

Alaska has more acres of public land owned by the federal government than any other state.[14]
According to an October 1998 report by the United States Bureau of Land Management, approximately 65% of Alaska is owned and managed by the U.S. federal government as public lands, including a multitude of national forests, national parks, and national wildlife refuges. Of these, the Bureau of Land Management manages 87 million acres (350,000 km²), or 23.8% of the state. The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge is managed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service. It is the world's largest wildlife refuge, comprising 16 million acres (65,000 km2).
Of the remaining land area, the State of Alaska owns 101 million acres (410,000 km2); another 44 million acres (180,000 km2) are owned by 12 regional and dozens of local Native corporations created under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act. Thus, indirectly, the 84,000 Eskimo, Aleut and American Indian inhabitants of Alaska own one-ninth of the state. Various private interests own the remaining land, totaling about one percent of the state.

Climate

The climate in Juneau and the southeast panhandle is a mid-latitude oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb) in the southern sections and a subarctic oceanic climate (Köppen Cfc) in the northern parts. On an annual basis, the panhandle is both the wettest and warmest part of Alaska with milder temperatures in the winter and high precipitation throughout the year. .Juneau averages over 50 inches (1,270 mm) of precipitation a year, while other areas receive over 275 inches (6,990 mm).^ Seward and the Kenai Fjords National Park receive the most rain in our walk area averaging 68 inches of rain per year.
  • Alaska - Remote Trails and perpetual daylight - USA - The Wayfarers 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thewayfarers.com [Source type: General]

[15] .This is also the only region in Alaska in which the average daytime high temperature is above freezing during the winter months.^ During the winter months, sleepy Alaska is awaken to a spectacular light show that is truly unforgettable.

^ The area generally enjoys mild temperatures, even in the winter, because of the influence of the Japanese current that flows through the Gulf of Alaska.
  • Alaska - Remote Trails and perpetual daylight - USA - The Wayfarers 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thewayfarers.com [Source type: General]

^ Communication is open during the summer season only; in winter, transportation is carried on with the aid of dog-teams.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Alaska 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

The climate of Anchorage and south central Alaska is mild by Alaskan standards due to the region's proximity to the seacoast. While the area gets less rain than southeast Alaska, it gets more snow, and days tend to be clearer. .On average, Anchorage receives 16 inches (406 mm) of precipitation a year, with around 75 inches (1,905 mm) of snow, although there are areas in the south central which receive far more snow.^ Though the majority of these geese are Snow Geese just passing through the Anchorage area, there is one Canada Goose that has chosen to tag along with this group.
  • Alaska gifts, totem poles, mukluks, Gold, Ivory & Jade, dream catchers, spirit masks, Ulu knives, dolls, Alaskan made. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alaskaguide.com [Source type: General]

^ Seward and the Kenai Fjords National Park receive the most rain in our walk area averaging 68 inches of rain per year.
  • Alaska - Remote Trails and perpetual daylight - USA - The Wayfarers 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thewayfarers.com [Source type: General]

It is a subarctic climate (Köppen Dfc) due to its brief, cool summers.
Barrow, Alaska is the northernmost city in the United States.
The climate of Western Alaska is determined in large part by the Bering Sea and the Gulf of Alaska. It is a subarctic oceanic climate in the southwest and a continental subarctic climate farther north. The temperature is somewhat moderate considering how far north the area is. This area has a tremendous amount of variety in precipitation. .The northern side of the Seward Peninsula is technically a desert with less than 10 inches (250 mm) of precipitation annually, while some locations between Dillingham and Bethel average around 100 inches (2,540 mm) of precipitation.^ Stories should be on 8.5-x-11 size paper, double spaced, 1-inch margins, no less than size 10 font.

^ The fiction pieces must be between 250 and 5,000 words and contain some lesbian content.

^ The short story must be between 250 and 5,000 words and contain some lesbian content.

[15]
The climate of the interior of Alaska is subarctic. Some of the highest and lowest temperatures in Alaska occur around the area near Fairbanks. The summers may have temperatures reaching into the 90s°F (the low to mid 30s °C), while in the winter, the temperature can fall below −60 °F (-52 °C). Precipitation is sparse in the Interior, often less than 10 inches (250 mm) a year, but what precipitation falls in the winter tends to stay the entire winter.
The highest and lowest recorded temperatures in Alaska are both in the Interior. The highest is 100 °F (38 °C) in Fort Yukon (which is just 8 miles (13 km) inside the arctic circle) on June 27, 1915,[16][17] tied with Pahala, Hawaii as the lowest high temperature in the United States.[18][19] The lowest official Alaska temperature is −80 °F (-62 °C) in Prospect Creek on January 23, 1971,[16][17] one degree above the lowest temperature recorded in continental North America (in Snag, Yukon, Canada).[20]
The climate in the extreme north of Alaska is Arctic (Köppen ET) with long, very cold winters and short, cool summers. Even in July, the average low temperature in Barrow is 34 °F (1 °C).[21] Precipitation is light in this part of Alaska, with many places averaging less than 10 inches (250 mm) per year, mostly as snow which stays on the ground almost the entire year.

History

Miners and prospectors climb the Chilkoot Trail during the Klondike Gold Rush.
The first European contact with Alaska occurred in 1741, when Vitus Bering led an expedition for the Russian Navy aboard the St. Peter. After his crew returned to Russia bearing sea otter pelts judged to be the finest fur in the world, small associations of fur traders began to sail from the shores of Siberia towards the Aleutian islands. The first permanent European settlement was founded in 1784, and the Russian-American Company carried out an expanded colonization program during the early to mid-1800s. New Archangel on Kodiak Island was Alaska's first capital, but for a century under both Russia and the U.S. Sitka was the capital. The Russians never fully colonized Alaska, and the colony was never very profitable. William H. Seward, the U.S. Secretary of State, negotiated the Alaskan purchase with the Russians in 1867 for $7.2 million. Alaska was loosely governed by the military initially, and was unofficially a territory of the United States from 1884 on.
In the 1890s, gold rushes in Alaska and the nearby Yukon Territory brought thousands of miners and settlers to Alaska. Alaska was granted official territorial status in 1912. At this time the capital was moved to Juneau.
During World War II, the Aleutian Islands Campaign focused on the three outer Aleutian Islands – Attu, Agattu and Kiska[22] – that were invaded by Japanese troops and occupied between June 1942 and August 1943. Unalaska/Dutch Harbor became a significant base for the U.S. Army Air Corps and Navy submariners.
The U.S. Lend-Lease program involved the flying of American warplanes through Canada to Fairbanks and thence Nome; Soviet pilots took possession of these aircraft, ferrying them to fight the German invasion of the Soviet Union. The construction of military bases contributed to the population growth of some Alaskan cities.
Statehood was approved on July 7, 1958. Alaska was officially proclaimed a state on January 3, 1959.
In 1964, the massive "Good Friday Earthquake" killed 131 people and destroyed several villages, mainly by the resultant tsunamis. It was the third most powerful earthquake in the recorded history of the world, with a moment magnitude of 9.2. It was over one thousand times more powerful than the 1989 San Francisco earthquake. Luckily, the epicenter was in an unpopulated area or thousands more would have been killed.
The 1968 discovery of oil at Prudhoe Bay and the 1977 completion of the Trans-Alaska Pipeline led to an oil boom. In 1989, the Exxon Valdez hit a reef in the Prince William Sound, spilling over 11 million gallons of crude oil over 1,100 miles (1,600 km) of coastline. Today, the battle between philosophies of development and conservation is seen in the contentious debate over oil drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.

Demographics

Historical populations
Census Pop.  %±
1880 33,426
1890 32,052 −4.1%
1900 63,592 98.4%
1910 64,356 1.2%
1920 55,036 −14.5%
1930 59,278 7.7%
1940 72,524 22.3%
1950 128,643 77.4%
1960 226,167 75.8%
1970 300,382 32.8%
1980 401,851 33.8%
1990 550,043 36.9%
2000 626,932 14.0%
Est. 2009[3] 698,473 11.4%
1930 and 1940 censuses taken in preceding autumn
The United States Census Bureau, as of July 1, 2008, estimated Alaska's population at 686,293,[3] which represents an increase of 59,361, or 9.5%, since the last census in 2000.[23] This includes a natural increase since the last census of 60,994 people (that is 86,062 births minus 25,068 deaths) and a decrease due to net migration of 5,469 people out of the state.[23] Immigration from outside the U.S. resulted in a net increase of 4,418 people, and migration within the country produced a net loss of 9,887 people.[23] In 2000 Alaska ranked the 48th state by population, ahead of Vermont and Wyoming (and Washington D.C.).[24] Alaska is the least densely populated state, and one of the most sparsely populated areas in the world, at 1.0 person per square mile (0.42/km²), with the next state, Wyoming, at 5.1 per square mile (1.97/km²). Alaska is the largest U.S. state by area, and the sixth wealthiest (per capita income).

Race and ancestry

According to the 2000 U.S. Census, White Americans made up 69.3% of Alaska's population. African Americans made up 3.5% of Alaska's population. In addition, American Indians and Alaska Natives were the largest minority group; they made up 15.6% of Alaska's population. Asian Americans made up 4.0% of Alaska's population. Pacific Islander Americans made up 0.5% of Alaska's population. Individuals from some other race made up 1.6% of Alaska's population while individuals from two or more races made up 5.4% of the state's population. In addition, Hispanics and Latinos made up 4.1% of Alaska's population.[25]
In terms of ancestry, German Americans were the largest single ethnic group in Alaska; they made up 16.6% of Alaska's population and they were the only ethnic group in the state to number over 100,000 members. Irish Americans made up 10.8% of Alaska's population while English Americans made up 9.6% of the state's population. Norwegian Americans made up 4.2% of Alaska's population and French Americans made up 3.2% of the state's population.[26]
As of the 2005–2007 American Community Survey conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau, White Americans made up 68.5% of Alaska's population. Blacks or African Americans made up 3.8% of Alaska's population. American Indians and Alaska Natives made up 13.4% of Alaska's population; still remaining the largest minority group. Asian Americans made up 4.6% of Alaska's population. Pacific Islander Americans remained at 0.5% of the state's population. Individuals from some other race made up 1.9% of Alaska's population while individuals from two or more races made up 7.2% of the state's population. Hispanics or Latinos made up 5.5% of Alaska's population.[27]
In terms of ancestry, German Americans remained the largest single ethnic group in Alaska; they made up 19.3% of Alaska's population and were still the only ethnic group in the state with over 100,000 members. Irish Americans made up 12.5% of Alaska's population while English Americans made up 10.8% of the state's population. Norwegian Americans remained at 4.2% of Alaska's population and French Americans made up 3.6% of the state's population.[28]

Languages

St. Michael's Russian Orthodox Cathedral in Sitka, Alaska
According to the 2005–2007 American Community Survey, 84.7% of people over the age of five speak only English at home. About 3.5% speak Spanish at home. About 2.2% speak another Indo-European language at home and about 4.3% speak an Asian language at home. And about 5.3% speak other languages at home.[29]
A total of 5.2% of Alaskans speak one of the state's 22 indigenous languages, known locally as "native languages". These languages belong to two major language families: Eskimo-Aleut and Na-Dene. As the homeland of these two major language families of North America, Alaska has been described as the crossroads of the continent, providing evidence for the recent settlement of North America by way of the Bering land bridge.

Religion

Alaska has been identified, along with Pacific Northwest states Washington and Oregon, as being the least religious in the U.S.[30][31] According to statistics collected by the Association of Religion Data Archives, about 39% of Alaska residents were members of religious congregations. Evangelical Protestants had 78,070 members, Roman Catholics had 54,359, and mainline Protestants had 37,156.[32] After Catholicism, the largest single denominations are The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints (Mormons/LDS) with 29,460, Southern Baptists with 22,959, and Orthodox with 20,000. The large Eastern Orthodox (with 49 parishes and up to 50,000 followers)[33] population is a result of early Russian colonization and missionary work among Alaska Natives.[34] In 1795, the First Russian Orthodox Church was established in Kodiak. Intermarriage with Alaskan Natives helped the Russian immigrants integrate into society. As a result, an increasing number of Russian Orthodox churches[35] gradually became established within Alaska. Alaska also has the largest Quaker population (by percentage) of any state.[36] In 2003 there were 3,000 Jews in Alaska (for whom observance of the mitzvah may pose special problems).[37] Estimates for the number of Alaskan Muslims range from 2,000[38][39] to 5,000.[40] Alaskan Hindus often share venues and celebrations with members of other religious communities including Sikhs and Jains.[41][42][43]

Economy

The Trans-Alaska Pipeline transports oil, Alaska's most important export, from the North Slope to Valdez. Pertinent are the heat pipes in the column mounts.
Alaska ranks 5th nationally in craft breweries per capita.[44]
The 2007 gross state product was $44.9 billion, 45th in the nation. Its per capita personal income for 2007 was $40,042, ranking 15th in the nation. The oil and gas industry dominates the Alaskan economy, with more than 80% of the state's revenues derived from petroleum extraction. Alaska's main export product (excluding oil and natural gas) is seafood, primarily salmon, cod, Pollock and crab. Agriculture represents only a fraction of the Alaskan economy. Agricultural production is primarily for consumption within the state and includes nursery stock, dairy products, vegetables, and livestock. Manufacturing is limited, with most foodstuffs and general goods imported from elsewhere. Employment is primarily in government and industries such as natural resource extraction, shipping, and transportation. Military bases are a significant component of the economy in both Fairbanks and Anchorage. Federal subsidies are also an important part of the economy, allowing the state to keep taxes low. Its industrial outputs are crude petroleum, natural gas, coal, gold, precious metals, zinc and other mining, seafood processing, timber and wood products. There is also a growing service and tourism sector. Tourists have contributed to the economy by supporting local lodging.

Energy

Alaska oil reserves peaked in 1978 and have declined 60% thereafter
Alaska has vast energy resources. Major oil and gas reserves are found in the Alaska North Slope (ANS) and Cook Inlet basins. According to the Energy Information Administration, Alaska ranks second in the nation in crude oil production. Prudhoe Bay on Alaska's North Slope is the highest yielding oil field in the United States and on North America, typically producing about 400,000 barrels per day (64,000 m3/d). The Trans-Alaska Pipeline can pump up to 2.1 million barrels (330,000 m3) of crude oil per day, more than any other crude oil pipeline in the United States. Additionally, substantial coal deposits are found in Alaska's bituminous, sub-bituminous, and lignite coal basins. The United States Geological Survey estimates that there are 85.4 trillion cubic feet (2,420 km3) of undiscovered, technically recoverable gas from natural gas hydrates on the Alaskan North Slope.[45] Alaska also offers some of the highest hydroelectric power potential in the country from its numerous rivers. Large swaths of the Alaskan coastline offer wind and geothermal energy potential as well.[46]
Alaska oil production peaked in 1988 and has declined 65% since.
Alaska's economy depends heavily on increasingly expensive diesel fuel for heating, transportation, electric power and light. Though wind and hydroelectric power are abundant and underdeveloped, proposals for state-wide energy systems (e.g. with special low-cost electric interties) were judged uneconomical (at the time of the report, 2001) due to low (<$0.50/Gal) fuel prices, long distances and low population.[47] The cost of a gallon of gas in urban Alaska today is usually $0.30-$0.60 higher than the national average; prices in rural areas are generally significantly higher but vary widely depending on transportation costs, seasonal usage peaks, nearby petroleum development infrastructure and many other factors.
Alaska accounts for one-fifth (20 percent) of domestically produced United States oil production. Prudhoe Bay (North America's largest oil field) alone accounts for 8% of the U.S. domestic oil production.

Permanent Fund

The Alaska Permanent Fund is a legislatively controlled appropriation established in 1976 to manage a surplus in state petroleum revenues from the recently constructed Trans-Alaska Pipeline System. From its initial principal of $734,000, the fund has grown to $40 billion as a result of oil royalties and capital investment programs.[48] Starting in 1982, dividends from the fund's annual growth have been paid out each year to eligible Alaskans, ranging from $331.29 in 1984 to $3,269.00 in 2008 (which included a one-time $1200 "Resource Rebate"). Every year, the state legislature takes out 8 percent from the earnings, puts 3 percent back into the principal for inflation proofing, and the remaining 5 percent is distributed to all qualifying Alaskans. To qualify for the Alaska State Permanent Fund one must have lived in the state for a minimum of 12 months, and maintain constant residency.[49]

Cost of living

.The cost of goods in Alaska has long been higher than in the contiguous 48 states.^ An interconnected grid exists in the populated areas from Fairbanks to south of Anchorage; however, that grid is isolated from those in Canada and the 48 contiguous States.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alaska’s electricity infrastructure differs from the lower 48 States in that most consumers are not linked to large interconnected grids through transmission and distribution lines.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This has changed for the most part in Anchorage and to a lesser extent in Fairbanks, where the cost of living has dropped somewhat in the past five years. Federal government employees, particularly United States Postal Service (USPS) workers and active-duty military members, receive a Cost of Living Allowance usually set at 25% of base pay because, while the cost of living has gone down, it is still one of the highest in the country.
The introduction of big-box stores in Anchorage, Fairbanks (Wal-Mart in March 2004), and Juneau also did much to lower prices. .However, rural Alaska suffers from extremely high prices for food and consumer goods, compared to the rest of the country due to the relatively limited transportation infrastructure.^ Although Alaska has a low absolute energy demand compared to the U.S. average, its per capita energy consumption is the highest in the country – more than three times the U.S. average.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Many rural residents come into these cities and purchase food and goods in bulk from warehouse clubs like Costco and Sam's Club. Some have embraced the free shipping offers[50] of some online retailers to purchase items much more cheaply than they could in their own communities, if they are available at all.

Agriculture

Due to the northern climate and steep terrain, relatively little farming occurs in Alaska. Most farms are in either the Matanuska Valley, about 40 miles (64 km) northeast of Anchorage, or on the Kenai Peninsula, about 60 miles (97 km) southwest of Anchorage. The short 100-day growing season limits the crops that can be grown, but the long sunny summer days make for productive growing seasons. The primary crops are potatoes, carrots, lettuce, and cabbage. Farmers exhibit produce at the Alaska State Fair. "Alaska Grown" is used as an agricultural slogan.
Alaska has an abundance of seafood, with the primary fisheries in the Bering Sea and the North Pacific, and seafood is one of the few food items that is often cheaper within the state than outside it. Many Alaskans fish the rivers during salmon season to gather significant quantities of their household diet while fishing for subsistence, sport, or both.
Hunting for subsistence, primarily caribou, moose, and Dall sheep is still common in the state, particularly in remote Bush communities. An example of a traditional native food is Akutaq, the Eskimo ice cream, which can consist of reindeer fat, seal oil, dried fish meat and local berries.
Most food in Alaska is transported into the state from "outside", and shipping costs make food in the cities relatively expensive. In rural areas, subsistence hunting and gathering is an essential activity because imported food is prohibitively expensive. The cost of importing food to villages begins at 7¢ per pound (15¢/kg) and rises rapidly to 50¢ per pound ($1.10/kg) or more. The cost of delivering a seven-pound gallon of milk is about $3.50 in many villages where per capita income can be $20,000 or less. Fuel for snow machines and boats that consume a couple of gallons per hour can exceed $8.00 per gallon.

Transportation

Roads

Alaska has few road connections compared to the rest of the U.S. The state's road system covers a relatively small area of the state, linking the central population centers and the Alaska Highway, the principal route out of the state through Canada. The state capital, Juneau, is not accessible by road, only a car ferry, which has spurred several debates over the decades about moving the capital to a city on the road system, or building a road connection from Haines. The western part of Alaska has no road system connecting the communities with the rest of Alaska.
The Susitna River bridge on the Denali Highway is 1,036 feet (316 m) long.
One unique feature of the Alaska Highway system is the Anton Anderson Memorial Tunnel, an active Alaska Railroad tunnel recently upgraded to provide a paved roadway link with the isolated community of Whittier on Prince William Sound to the Seward Highway about 50 miles (80 km) southeast of Anchorage. At 2.5 miles (4.0 km) the tunnel was the longest road tunnel in North America until 2007.[51] The tunnel is the longest combination road and rail tunnel in North America.

Rail

Alaska Railroad "Glacier Discovery" train
Built around 1915, the Alaska Railroad (ARR) played a key role in the development of Alaska through the 20th century. It links north Pacific shipping through providing critical infrastructure with tracks that run from Seward to Interior Alaska by way of South Central Alaska, passing through Anchorage, Eklutna, Wasilla, Talkeetna, Denali, and Fairbanks, with spurs to Whittier, Palmer and North Pole. The cities, towns, villages, and region served by ARR tracks are known statewide as "The Railbelt". In recent years, the ever-improving paved highway system began to eclipse the railroad's importance in Alaska's economy.
The railroad, though famed for its summertime tour passenger service, played a vital role in Alaska's development, moving freight into Alaska while transporting natural resources southward (i.e., coal from the Usibelli coal mine near Healy to Seward and gravel from the Matanuska Valley to Anchorage).
The Alaska Railroad was one of the last railroads in North America to use cabooses in regular service and still uses them on some gravel trains. It continues to offer one of the last flag stop routes in the country. A stretch of about 60 miles (100 km) of track along an area north of Talkeetna remains inaccessible by road; the railroad provides the only transportation to rural homes and cabins in the area; until construction of the Parks Highway in the 1970s, the railroad provided the only land access to most of the region along its entire route.
In northern Southeast Alaska, the White Pass and Yukon Route also partly runs through the State from Skagway northwards into Canada (British Columbia and Yukon Territory), crossing the border at White Pass Summit. This line is now mainly used by tourists, often arriving by cruise liner at Skagway. It featured in the 1983 BBC television series Great Little Railways.

Marine transport

Most cities, towns and villages in the state do not have road or highway access; the only modes of access involve travel by air, river, or the sea.
Alaska's well-developed state-owned ferry system (known as the Alaska Marine Highway) serves the cities of Alaska Panhandle, the Gulf Coast and the Alaska Peninsula. The system also operates a ferry service from Bellingham, Washington and Prince Rupert, British Columbia in Canada through the Inside Passage to Skagway. The Inter-Island Ferry Authority also serves as an important marine link for many communities in the Prince of Wales Island region of Southeast and works in concert with the Alaska Marine Highway.
In recent years, large cruise ships began creating a summertime tourism market, mainly connecting the Pacific Northwest to Southeast Alaska and, to a lesser degree, towns along the north gulf coast. Several times each summer, the population of Ketchikan sharply rises for a few hours when two ships dock to debark more than a thousand passengers each while four other ships lie at anchor nearby, waiting their turn at the dock.

Air transport

Cities not served by road, sea, or river can be reached only by air, foot, dogsled, or snowmachine accounting for Alaska's extremely well-developed bush air services—an Alaskan novelty. Anchorage itself, and to a lesser extent Fairbanks, are served by many major airlines. Because of limited highway access, air travel remains the most efficient form of transportation in and out of the state. Anchorage recently completed extensive remodeling and construction at Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport to help accommodate the upsurge in tourism (in 2000–2001, the latest year for which data is available, 2.4 million total arrivals to Alaska were counted, 1.7 million by air travel; 1.4 million were visitors).[52][53]
Regular flights to most villages and towns within the state that are commercially viable are challenging to provide, so they are heavily subsidized by the federal government through the Essential Air Service program. Alaska Airlines is the only major airline offering in-state travel with jet service (sometimes in combination cargo and passenger Boeing 737-400s) from Anchorage and Fairbanks to regional hubs like Bethel, Nome, Kotzebue, Dillingham, Kodiak, and other larger communities as well as to major Southeast and Alaska Peninsula communities. The bulk of remaining commercial flight offerings come from small regional commuter airlines such as Era Aviation, PenAir, and Frontier Flying Service. The smallest towns and villages must rely on scheduled or chartered bush flying services using general aviation aircraft such as the Cessna Caravan, the most popular aircraft in use in the state. Much of this service can be attributed to the Alaska bypass mail program which subsidizes bulk mail delivery to Alaskan rural communities. .The program requires 70% of that subsidy to go to carriers who offer passenger service to the communities.^ To access the Service Level archive, please go to Login-> MyAccount-> Downloads-> Community Previews.

^ Please go to Login-> MyAccount-> Downloads-> Community Previews to access the Service Level archive.

Many communities have small air taxi services, such as Hudson's Air Service, Kantishna Air Taxi, and Talkeetna Air Taxi. These operations, though now catering primarily to tourists, originated from the demand for customized transport to remote areas. Perhaps the most quintessentially Alaskan plane is the bush seaplane. The world's busiest seaplane base is Lake Hood, located next to Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport, where flights bound for remote villages without an airstrip carry passengers, cargo, and many items from stores and warehouse clubs. Alaska has the highest number of pilots per capita of any U.S. state: out of the estimated 663,661 residents, 8,550 are pilots, or about one in 78.[54]

Other transport

Another Alaskan transportation method is the dogsled. In modern times (that is, any time after the mid-late 1920s), dog mushing is more of a sport than a true means of transportation. Various races are held around the state, but the best known is the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race, a 1150-mile (1850 km) trail from Anchorage to Nome (although the mileage varies from year to year, the official distance is set at 1049 miles). The race commemorates the famous 1925 serum run to Nome in which mushers and dogs like Togo and Balto took much-needed medicine to the diphtheria-stricken community of Nome when all other means of transportation had failed. Mushers from all over the world come to Anchorage each March to compete for cash, prizes, and prestige. The "Serum Run" is another sled dog race that more accurately follows the route of the famous 1925 relay, leaving from the community of Nenana (southwest of Fairbanks) to Nome.[55]
In areas not served by road or rail, primary transportation in summer is by all-terrain vehicle and in winter by snowmobile or "snow machine," as it is commonly referred to in Alaska.

Law and government

State government

Like all other U.S. states, Alaska is governed as a republic, with three branches of government: an executive branch consisting of the Governor of Alaska and the other independently elected constitutional officers; a legislative branch consisting of the Alaska House of Representatives and Alaska Senate; and a judicial branch consisting of the Alaska Supreme Court and lower courts.
The State of Alaska employs approximately 15,000 employees statewide.[56]
The Alaska Legislature consists of a 40-member House of Representatives and a 20-member Senate. Senators serve four year terms and House members two. The Governor of Alaska serves four-year terms. The lieutenant governor runs separately from the governor in the primaries, but during the general election, the nominee for governor and nominee for lieutenant governor run together on the same ticket.
Alaska's court system has four levels: the Alaska Supreme Court, the court of appeals, the superior courts and the district courts.[57] The superior and district courts are trial courts. Superior courts are courts of general jurisdiction, while district courts only hear certain types of cases, including misdemeanor criminal cases and civil cases valued up to $100,000.[57] The Supreme Court and the Court Of Appeals are appellate courts. The Court Of Appeals is required to hear appeals from certain lower-court decisions, including those regarding criminal prosecutions, juvenile delinquency, and habeas corpus.[57] The Supreme Court hears civil appeals and may in its discretion hear criminal appeals.[57]

State politics

Although Alaska entered the union as a Democratic state, since the early 1970s Alaska has been characterized as a Republican-leaning state.[58] Local political communities have often worked on issues related to land use development, fishing, tourism, and individual rights. Alaska Natives, while organized in and around their communities, have been active within the Native corporations. These have been given ownership over large tracts of land, which require stewardship.
Alaska is the only state in which possession of one ounce or less of marijuana in one's home is completely legal under state law, though the federal law remains in force.[59]
The state has an independence movement favoring a vote on secession from the United States, with the Alaska Independence Party labeled as one of "the most significant state-level third parties operating in the 20th century".[60]
Six Republicans and four Democrats have served as governor of Alaska. In addition, Republican Governor Wally Hickel was elected to the office for a second term in 1990 after leaving the Republican party and briefly joining the Alaskan Independence Party ticket just long enough to be reelected. He subsequently officially rejoined the Republican party in 1994.

Taxes

To finance state government operations, Alaska depends primarily on petroleum revenues and federal subsidies. This allows it to have the lowest individual tax burden in the United States,[61] and be one of only five states with no state sales tax, one of seven states that do not levy an individual income tax, and one of two states that has neither. The Department of Revenue Tax Division[62] reports regularly on the state's revenue sources. The Department also issues an annual summary of its operations, including new state laws that directly affect the tax division.
While Alaska has no state sales tax, 89 municipalities collect a local sales tax, from 1–7.5%, typically 3–5%. Other local taxes levied include raw fish taxes, hotel, motel, and bed-and-breakfast 'bed' taxes, severance taxes, liquor and tobacco taxes, gaming (pull tabs) taxes, tire taxes and fuel transfer taxes. A part of the revenue collected from certain state taxes and license fees (such as petroleum, aviation motor fuel, telephone cooperative) is shared with municipalities in Alaska.
Fairbanks has one of the highest property taxes in the state as no sales or income taxes are assessed in the Fairbanks North Star Borough (FNSB). A sales tax for the FNSB has been voted on many times, but has yet to be approved, leading law makers to increase taxes dramatically on other goods such as liquor and tobacco.
In 2008 the Tax Foundation ranked Alaska as having the 4th most "business friendly" tax policy. More "friendly" states were Wyoming, Nevada, and South Dakota.[63]

Federal politics

Presidential elections results
Year Republican Democratic
2008 59.49% 192,631 37.83% 122,485
2004 61.07% 190,889 35.52% 111,025
2000 58.62% 167,398 27.67% 79,004
1996 50.80% 122,746 33.27% 80,380
1992 39.46% 102,000 30.29% 78,294
1988 59.59% 119,251 36.27% 72,584
1984 66.65% 138,377 29.87% 62,007
1980 54.35% 86,112 26.41% 41,842
1976 57.90% 71,555 35.65% 44,058
1972 58.13% 55,349 34.62% 32,967
1968 45.28% 37,600 42.65% 35,411
1964 34.09% 22,930 65.91% 44,329
1960 50.94% 30,953 49.06% 29,809
In presidential elections, the state's electoral college votes have been won by the Republican nominee in every election since statehood, except for 1964. No state has voted for a Democratic presidential candidate fewer times. Alaska supported Democratic nominee Lyndon B. Johnson in the landslide year of 1964, although the 1960 and 1968 elections were close. Republican John McCain defeated Democrat Barack Obama in Alaska, 59.49% to 37.83%. McCain's running mate was Sarah Palin, the state's governor and the first Alaskan on a major party ticket. The Alaska Bush, the city of Juneau and midtown and downtown Anchorage have been strongholds of the Democratic party. Matanuska-Susitna Borough and South Anchorage typically have the strongest Republican showing. As of 2004, well over half of all registered voters have chosen "Non-Partisan" or "Undeclared" as their affiliation,[64] despite recent attempts to close primaries.
Because of its population relative to other U.S. states, Alaska has only one member in the U.S. House of Representatives. This seat is currently being held by Republican Don Young, who was re-elected to his 19th consecutive term in 2008.
On November 19, 2008, Democrat Mark Begich, mayor of Anchorage, defeated long-time Republican senator Ted Stevens. Stevens had been convicted on seven felony counts of failing to report gifts on Senate financial discloser forms one week before the election. The conviction was set aside in April 2009 after evidence of prosecutorial misconduct emerged.
Republican Frank Murkowski held the state's other senatorial position. After being elected governor in 2002, he resigned from the Senate and appointed his daughter, State Representative Lisa Murkowski as his successor. In response to a subsequent ballot initiative, the state legislature attempted to amend the law to limit the length of gubernatorial appointments. She won a full six-year term in 2004. In 2006 Frank Murkowski was defeated in the Republican primary by Sarah Palin, who in 2008 became the Republican nominee for Vice President of the United States.

Cities, towns and boroughs

Anchorage, Alaska's largest city
Fairbanks
Alaska's capital city, Juneau
Alaska is not divided into counties, as most of the other U.S. states, but it is divided into boroughs. Many of the more densely populated parts of the state are part of Alaska's sixteen boroughs, which function somewhat similarly to counties in other states. However, unlike county-equivalents in the other 49 states, the boroughs do not cover the entire land area of the state. The area not part of any borough is referred to as the Unorganized Borough. The Unorganized Borough has no government of its own, but the U.S. Census Bureau in cooperation with the state divided the Unorganized Borough into 11 census areas solely for the purposes of statistical analysis and presentation. A recording district is a mechanism for administration of the public record in Alaska. The state is divided into 34 recording districts which are centrally administered under a State Recorder. All recording districts use the same acceptance criteria, fee schedule, etc., for accepting documents into the public record.
Whereas many U.S. states use a three-tiered system of decentralization—state/county/township—most of Alaska uses only two tiers—state/borough. Owing to the low population density, most of the land is located in the Unorganized Borough which, as the name implies, has no intermediate borough government of its own, but is administered directly by the state government. .Currently (2000 census) 57.71% of Alaska's area has this status, with 13.05% of the population.^ The area generally enjoys mild temperatures, even in the winter, because of the influence of the Japanese current that flows through the Gulf of Alaska.
  • Alaska - Remote Trails and perpetual daylight - USA - The Wayfarers 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thewayfarers.com [Source type: General]

^ November's Alaska Economic Trends articles included: Employment in Alaska's Seafood Industry Bethel Census Area .
  • Workforce Info, Home, HOME 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC laborstats.alaska.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alaska’s July 1, 2008 estimated population was 679,720 more data by area...
  • Workforce Info, Home, HOME 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC laborstats.alaska.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

For statistical purposes the United States Census Bureau divides this territory into census areas. Anchorage merged the city government with the Greater Anchorage Area Borough in 1975 to form the Municipality of Anchorage, containing the city proper and the communities of Eagle River, Chugiak, Peters Creek, Girdwood, Bird, and Indian. Fairbanks has a separate borough (the Fairbanks North Star Borough) and municipality (the City of Fairbanks).
The state's most populous city is Anchorage, home to 278,700 people in 2006, 225,744 of whom live in the urbanized area. The richest location in Alaska by per capita income is Halibut Cove ($89,895). Yakutat City, Sitka, Juneau, and Anchorage are the four largest cities in the U.S. by area.
Cities of 100,000 or more people
Towns of 10,000–100,000 people
Towns of 1,000–10,000 people
 
 
Smaller towns
Alaska has many smaller towns, especially in the Alaska Bush. These latter are generally inaccessible by road.

Education

The Alaska Department of Education and Early Development administers many school districts in Alaska. In addition, the state operates a boarding school, Mt. Edgecumbe High School in Sitka; and provides partial funding for other boarding schools including, Nenana Student Living Center in Nenana, and The Galena Interior Learning Academy in Galena.[65]
There are more than a dozen colleges and universities in Alaska. Accredited universities in Alaska include the University of Alaska Anchorage, University of Alaska Fairbanks, University of Alaska Southeast, and Alaska Pacific University.[66] 43% of the population attends or attended college.[citation needed]
Alaska has had a problem with a "brain drain". Many of its young people, including most of the highest academic achievers, leave the state after high school graduation and do not return. The University of Alaska has attempted to combat this by offering partial four-year scholarships to the top 10% of Alaska high school graduates, via the Alaska Scholars Program.[67]

Public health and public safety

Alaska residents have long had a problem with alcohol use and abuse.[citation needed] Many rural communities in Alaska have outlawed its import.[68] This problem directly relates to Alaska's high rate of Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) as well as contributing to the high rate of suicides and teenage pregnancies.[citation needed] Suicide rates for rural residents are higher than urban.[69]
Domestic abuse and other violent crimes are also at high levels in the state; this is in part linked to alcohol abuse.[70]

Culture

See also List of artists and writers from Alaska
Some of Alaska's popular annual events are the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race that starts in Anchorage and ends in Nome, World Ice Art Championships in Fairbanks, the Alaska Hummingbird Festival in Ketchikan, the Sitka Whale Fest, and the Stikine River Garnet Fest in Wrangell. The Stikine River features the largest springtime concentration of American Bald Eagles in the world.
The Alaska Native Heritage Center celebrates the rich heritage of Alaska's 11 cultural groups. Their purpose is to enhance self-esteem among Native people and to encourage cross-cultural exchanges among all people. The Alaska Native Arts Foundation promotes and markets Native art from all regions and cultures in the State, both on the internet; at its gallery in Anchorage, 500 West Sixth Avenue, and at the Alaska House New York, 109 Mercer Street in SoHo.[71]
Alaska Natives – Inuit, Inupiaq or Yupik drummers and dancers – give informal performances in the lobby of the Alaska Native Medical Center in Anchorage on weekday evenings.

Libraries

The four main libraries in the state are the Alaska State Library in Juneau, the Elmer E. Rasmuson Library in Fairbanks, the Z. J. Loussac Library in Anchorage, and the UAA/APU Consortium Library, also in Anchorage. Alaska is one of three states (the others are Delaware and Rhode Island) that does not have a Carnegie library.

Music

Influences on music in Alaska include the traditional music of Alaska Natives as well as folk music brought by later immigrants from Russia and Europe. Prominent musicians from Alaska include singer Jewel, traditional Aleut flautist Mary Youngblood, folk singer-songwriter Libby Roderick, Christian music singer/songwriter Lincoln Brewster, metal/post hardcore band 36 Crazyfists and the groups Pamyua and Portugal. The Man.
There are many established music festivals in Alaska, including the Alaska Folk Festival, the Fairbanks Summer Arts Festival the Anchorage Folk Festival, the Athabascan Old-Time Fiddling Festival, the Sitka Jazz Festival, and the Sitka Summer Music Festival. The most prominent symphony in Alaska is the Anchorage Symphony Orchestra, though the Fairbanks Symphony Orchestra and Juneau Symphony are also notable. The Anchorage Opera is currently the state's only professional opera company, though there are several volunteer and semi-professional organizations in the state as well.
The official state song of Alaska is "Alaska's Flag", which was adopted in 1955; it celebrates the flag of Alaska.

Movies filmed in Alaska

Alaska's first independent picture all made on place was in the silent years. The Chechahcos, was released in 1924 by the Alaska Moving Picture Corp. It was the only film the company made.
One of the most prominent movies filmed in Alaska is MGM's Academy Award winning classic Eskimo/Mala The Magnificent starring Alaska's own Ray Mala. In 1932 an expedition set out from MGM's studios in Hollywood to Alaska to film what was then billed as "The Biggest Picture Ever Made." Upon arriving in Alaska, they set up "Camp Hollywood" in Northwest Alaska, where they lived during the duration of the filming. Louis B. Mayer spared no expense in making sure they had everything they needed during their stay—he even sent the famous chef from the Hotel Roosevelt on Hollywood Blvd (the site of the first Oscars) with them to Alaska to cook for them. When Eskimo premiered at the famed Astor Theatre in Times Square, New York, the studio received the largest amount of feedback in the history of the studio up to that time. Eskimo was critically acclaimed and released worldwide; as a result Inupiat Eskimo actor Ray Mala became an international movie star. Eskimo is significant for the following: winning the very first Oscar for Best Film Editing at the Academy Awards, for forever preserving Inupiat culture on film, and for being the first motion picture to be filmed in an all native language (Inupiat).
The psychological thriller Insomnia, starring Al Pacino and Robin Williams was shot in Canada, but was set in Alaska. The 2007 horror feature 30 Days of Night is set in Barrow, Alaska but was filmed in New Zealand. Most films and television shows set in Alaska are not filmed there; for example, Northern Exposure, set in the fictional town of Cicely, Alaska, was actually filmed in Roslyn, Washington.
The 1983 Disney movie Never Cry Wolf was at least partially shot in Alaska. The 1991 film White Fang, starring Ethan Hawke, was filmed in and around Haines, Alaska. The 1999 John Sayles film Limbo, starring David Strathairn, Mary Elizabeth Mastrantonio and Kris Kristofferson, was filmed in Juneau.
The 2007 film directed by Sean Penn, Into The Wild was partially filmed and set in Alaska. The film, which is based on the novel of the same name, follows the adventures of Christopher McCandless, who died in a remote abandoned bus in Alaska in 1992.

State symbols

  • State Motto: North to the Future
  • Nicknames: "The Last Frontier" or "Land of the Midnight Sun" or "Seward's Icebox"
  • State bird: Willow Ptarmigan, adopted by the Territorial Legislature in 1955. It is a small (15–17 inches) Arctic grouse that lives among willows and on open tundra and muskeg. Plumage is brown in summer, changing to white in winter. The Willow Ptarmigan is common in much of Alaska.
  • State fish: King Salmon, adopted 1962.
  • State flower: wild/native Forget-Me-Not, adopted by the Territorial Legislature in 1917.[72] It is a perennial that is found throughout Alaska, from Hyder to the Arctic Coast, and west to the Aleutians.
  • State fossil: Woolly Mammoth, adopted 1986.
  • State gem: Jade, adopted 1968.
  • State insect: Four-spot skimmer dragonfly, adopted 1995.
  • State land mammal: Moose, adopted 1998.
  • State marine mammal: Bowhead Whale, adopted 1983.
  • State mineral: Gold, adopted 1968.
  • State song: "Alaska's Flag"
  • State sport: Dog Mushing, adopted 1972.
  • State tree: Sitka Spruce, adopted 1962.
  • State soil: Estelle, adopted unknown.

Notable residents

See also

References

  1. ^ CompuServe.com
  2. ^ RCN - Digital Cable TV, High-Speed Internet Service & Phone in Boston, Chicago, New York City, Philadelphia, Washington, D.C. and the Lehigh Valley.
  3. ^ a b c Census Bureau "Annual Estimates of the Resident Population for the United States, Regions, States, and Puerto Rico: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008". United States Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/popest/states/tables/NST-EST2008-01.csv Census Bureau. Retrieved 2009-02-06. 
  4. ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". U.S Geological Survey. April 29, 2005. http://erg.usgs.gov/isb/pubs/booklets/elvadist/elvadist.html#Highest. Retrieved 2006-11-03. 
  5. ^ Census Bureau
  6. '^ Ransom, J. Ellis. 1940. Derivation of the Word 'Alaska. American Anthropologist n.s., 42: pp. 550–551
  7. ^ Benson, Carl (1998-09-02). "Alaska's Size in Perspective". Geophysical Institute, University of Alaska Fairbanks. http://www.gi.alaska.edu/ScienceForum/ASF14/1404.html. Retrieved 2007-11-19. 
  8. ^ The other three exclaves of the United States are the Northwest Angle of Minnesota, Point Roberts, Washington and Alburgh, Vermont.
  9. ^ Alaska.com
  10. ^ Decker, Robert; Decker, Barbara (2001). Volcanoes In America's National Parks. New York: WW Norton & Company Inc.. p. 115. ISBN 9622176771. 
  11. ^ Porco, Peter (June 23, 2003). "Long said to be second to Fundy, city tides aren't even close". Anchorage Daily News: A1. 
  12. ^ "Alaska Hydrology Survey". Division of Mining, Land, and Water; Alaska Department of Natural Resources. http://www.dnr.state.ak.us/mlw/water/hydro/. 
  13. ^ Alaska Facts
  14. ^ Western States Data Public Land Acreage
  15. ^ a b Mean Annual Precipitation in Alaska-Yukon. Oregon Climate Service at Oregon State University. Last accessed October 23, 2006.
  16. ^ a b "NOAA Weather Radio All Hazards Information — Alaska Weather Interesting Facts and Records" (PDF). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. http://www.arh.noaa.gov/docs/AKWXfacts.pdf. Retrieved 2007-01-03. 
  17. ^ a b "State Extremes". Western Regional Climate Center, Desert Research Institute. http://www.wrcc.dri.edu/htmlfiles/state.extremes.html. Retrieved 2007-01-03. 
  18. ^ NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration "SD Weather History and Trivia for May: May 1". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. http://www.crh.noaa.gov/fsd/?n=fsdtrivia05 NOAA - National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved 2007-01-03. 
  19. ^ University of Alaska "FAQ ALASKA — Frequently Asked Questions About Alaska: Weather". Statewide Library Electronic Doorway, University of Alaska Fairbanks. 2005-01-17. http://sled.alaska.edu/akfaq/aksuper.html#wea University of Alaska. Retrieved 2007-01-03. 
  20. ^ Ned Rozell (2003-01-23). "The Coldest Place in North America". Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska Fairbanks. http://www.gi.alaska.edu/ScienceForum/ASF16/1630.html. Retrieved 2007-01-03. 
  21. ^ History for Barrow, Alaska. Monthly Summary for July 2006. Weather Underground. Last accessed October 23, 2006.
  22. ^ these three Aleutian outer islands are about 460 miles (740 km) away from continental USSR, 920 miles (1,480 km) from continental Alaska (U.S.), 950 miles (1,530 km) from Japan.
  23. ^ a b c U. S. Census Bureau (2008-12-15). "Cumulative Estimates of the Components of Population Change for the United States, Regions and States: April 1, 2000 to July 1, 2008 (NST-EST2008-04)" (CSV). http://www.census.gov/popest/states/tables/NST-EST2008-04.csv. Retrieved 2009-01-16. 
  24. ^ Census Bureau
  25. ^ Census Bureau
  26. ^ Census Bureau
  27. ^ Census Bureau
  28. ^ Census Bureau
  29. ^ Census Bureau
  30. ^ Adherents.com
  31. ^ "Believe it or not, Alaska's one of nation's least religious states" Anchorage Daily News, 2008 July 13.
  32. ^ "Religious Affiliations 2000". Alaska State Membership Report. Association of Religion Data Archives. http://www.thearda.com/mapsReports/reports/state/02_2000.asp. Retrieved 2008-03-31. 
  33. ^ Religious legacy lives on in Alaska, BBC News
  34. ^ Welcome to SLED: FAQ Alaska
  35. ^ An early Russian Orthodox Church
  36. ^ Association of Religion Data Archive
  37. ^ 76 - Christian Church Adherents, 2000, and Jewish Population, 2004 - States [Excel 27k]
  38. ^ First Muslim cemetery opens in Alaska
  39. ^ Engaging Muslim: Religion, Culture, Politics
  40. ^ Alaskan Muslims Avoid Conflict
  41. ^ Shri Ganesha Mandir of Alaska
  42. ^ Hindu Temples in USA - Hindu Mandirs in USA
  43. ^ Holi & Baisakhi celebrated by Alaskan Hindus and Sikhs
  44. ^ Craft Brewing Industry Statistics
  45. ^ Gas Hydrates on Alaska's North Slope.
  46. ^ "EIA State Energy Profiles: Alaska". 2008-06-12. http://tonto.eia.doe.gov/state/state_energy_profiles.cfm?sid=AK. Retrieved 2008-06-24. 
  47. ^ Screening Report for Alaska Rural Energy Plan, April, 2001
  48. ^ Alaska Permanent Fund Corporation
  49. ^ State of Alaska Permanent Fund Division
  50. ^ FreeShipping.org for examples of companies offering free shipping to Alaska
  51. ^ completion of the 3.5 mile (5.6 km) Interstate 93 tunnel as part of the "Big Dig" project in Boston, Massachusetts.
  52. ^ State of Alaska Office of Economic Development. Alaska Visitor Arrivals and Profile-Summer 2001. November, 2002; retrieved September 11, 2006.
  53. ^ State of Alaska Office of Economic Development. Alaska Visitor Arrivals and Profile-Fall/Winter 2001. November, 2002; retrieved September 11, 2006.
  54. ^ Federal Aviation Administration. 2005 U.S. Civil Airman Statistics
  55. ^ Norman Vaughan Serum Run
  56. ^ State of Alaska
  57. ^ a b c d About the Alaska Court System
  58. ^ National Journal Alaska State Profile
  59. ^ Volz, Matt (2006-07-11). ""Judge rules against Alaska marijuana law"". The Seattle Times. Frank A. Blethen. http://seattletimes.nwsource.com/html/localnews/2003118645_webpot10.html. Retrieved 2008-05-22. 
  60. ^ Doughtery, J. (2001, February 25). Alaska party stumps for independence. World Net Daily. Retrieved from A Free Press for a Free People
  61. ^ CNN Money (2005). "How tax friendly is your state?" Retrieved from CNN website.
  62. ^ Department of Revenue Tax Division
  63. ^ The Tax Foundation - Educating Taxpayers Since 1937
  64. ^ State of Alaska
  65. ^ Alaska ICE
  66. ^ These are the only three universities in the state ranked by US News and World Report.[1]
  67. ^ "UA Scholars Program - Frequently Asked Questions". Archived from the original on 2008-03-09. http://web.archive.org/web/20080309023826/http://www.alaska.edu/scholars/faq.xml. Retrieved 2009-12-28. 
  68. ^ AK Dept. of Public Safety Alcoholic Beverage Control Board
  69. ^ State of Alaska
  70. ^ Alaska State Troopers FY 2008 Byrne Grant Application
  71. ^ www.alaskanativearts.org
  72. ^ Alaska Conservation Foundation - State Symbols
  73. ^ Marty Beckerman | America's Luscious Beacon of Truth

External links

State Government
U.S. Government
Other
Preceded by
Arizona
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on January 3, 1959 (49th)
Succeeded by
Hawaii

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Quotations about Alaska

Sourced


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Aurora Borealis over Bear Lake, Alaska
Aurora Borealis over Bear Lake, Alaska
Alaska [1] is the 49th and largest state in the United States of America. Separated from the rest of the country, (the "lower 48"), by Canada, Alaska lies on the Arctic Circle. It is still the least densely populated state in the union and for a long time was home to the lowest population. America's final frontier is the size of California, Texas and Montana combined, making it huge in comparison to the rest of the states! Alaska is also home to the highest point in North America and all of the top ten highest mountains in the USA. Across the Bering Strait lies the country of Russia and the continent of Asia.
Southeastern Alaska
Panhandle & Inland Passage
Southcentral Alaska
Anchorage & Kenai Peninsula
Southwestern Alaska
Alaskan Peninsula & Aleutian & other islands
Interior Alaska
Fairbanks
Arctic Alaska
Barrow, Nome, Kotzebue
  • Juneau – State capital and third largest city.
  • Barrow – Northernmost city in the United States
  • Deadhorse – Alaska's oil center, the production facilities can only be accessed by tours
  • Homer – Halibut Fishing Capital of the World, Kachemak Bay State Park, Katmai National Park
  • Ketchikan – Alaska's southernmost city and the first Alaska port for northbound cruise-ship travelers.
  • Cape Krusenstern National Monument – North of the Arctic Circle, Cape Krusenstern National Monument stretches 70 miles along the Chukchi Sea shoreline. Beach ridges provide evidence of 5000 years of human activity.
  • Denali National Park – Whether climbing or admiring, the crowning jewel of North America’s highest peak is the awe inspiring 20,320-foot Mount McKinley
  • Glacier Bay National Park - marine wilderness of Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve includes tidewater glaciers, snow-capped mountain ranges, ocean coastlines, deep fjords, and freshwater rivers and lakes.
  • Katmai National Park - famous for volcanoes, brown bears, pristine waterways with abundant fish, remote wilderness, and a rugged coastline
  • Kenai Fjords National Park - a land where the ice age still lingers where glaciers, earthquakes, and ocean storms are the architects.
  • Wrangell-St. Elias National Park and Preserve - Chugach, Wrangell, and Saint Elias mountain ranges converge here in what is often referred to as the "mountain kingdom of North America." It has the continent's largest assemblage of glaciers and greatest collection of peaks above 16,000 feet.
  • Lake Clark National Park and Preserve - The Park was created to protect scenic beauty (volcanoes, glaciers, wild rivers and waterfalls), populations of fish and wildlife, watersheds essential for red salmon, and the traditional lifestyle of local residents. Lake Clark's spectacular scenery provides a true wilderness experience for those who visit.
Federal and Indian lands in Alaska
Federal and Indian lands in Alaska
In 1867, the territory of Alaska was purchased from the Russians for $7.2 million (or about 2 cents an acre). For many years people referred to the acquisition as "Seward's Folly", named for Secretary of State William H. Seward (1801-1872) who made the deal. They viewed Alaska as a frozen wasteland, not realizing it would turn out to be one of the United States' richest resources for gold and oil. It took until 1959 for the territory to become a State of the Union.

Get in

By plane

Anchorage, and to a lesser extent Fairbanks, are serviced by most major airlines. Ketchikan, Wrangell, Petersburg, and Juneau are also served by daily jet service through Alaska Airlines flights originating in Seattle and terminating in Anchorage. Other communities within the state are served by an extensive system of regional and local air services connecting to Anchorage, Fairbanks, Juneau, and Ketchikan, the state's four largest urban areas. Air travel is the cheapest and most efficient form of transportation in and out of the state. Anchorage recently completed extensive remodeling and construction at Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport to help accommodate the upsurge in tourism (unofficial sources have estimated the numbers for 2004 at some four million tourists arriving in Alaska between May and September).

By car

Alaska is connected to the contiguous U.S. (known in Alaska as the "Lower 48") through Canada via the Alaska Highway. The highway is paved and maintained year-round. Sometimes it can seem a little over-maintained, creating a uniquely Alaskan and Canadian situation: at any given time in the summer, you're bound to hit at least several dozen (and sometimes hundreds of!) miles of road construction. Since the roads in construction zones usually have only one working lane and, due to the scarcity of roads in the rural areas, there are not always alternate routes available, the construction companies operate "pilot cars" (usually pick-up trucks with yellow rotating beacons and large signs that say "Follow me"). They drive back and forth between the two ends of the construction zone and lead the vehicles safely to the other end. Depending on the length of the construction zone, the wait can be anywhere from 10 minutes to several hours. Since there's only one main road, you can't really drive around the construction.
If you're planning to drive to or around Alaska, make sure to pick up a copy of The Milepost [2], which is widely regarded as the premier road guide for western Canada and Alaska. Most roads in these regions have small white posts every mile or so indicating the number of miles from the start of the road. The Milepost has extremely detailed route descriptions of all of the roads, pointing out everything from scenic viewpoints and campgrounds down to the names of small creeks the roads pass over. If you're flying in to Anchorage and then driving around the state, pick up a copy of The Milepost at one of the local Costcos or WalMarts - the price there is around half of list price.
Some rental car companies may offer one-way rentals in and out of the state in the shoulders of the tourist season (one-way into the state before summer and one-way out of the state after summer). Check with each agency for details. Also, it is possible (albeit expensive) to rent a vehicle one-way from Skagway to Anchorage with Avis [3], which is an option to pair with ferry service from Washington to Alaska (see below).
If an immigration issue prevents you from entering Canada, you may not enter Alaska by car from the contiguous US. Note that Canadian customs regulations state that Canadian residents may not rent a vehicle in the United States (including Alaska) and drive it into Canada.

By boat

The Alaska Marine Highway System [4] (also see [5]) operates a ferry service from Bellingham, Washington up the beautiful Inside Passage to Haines. Plan your travel early as this service tends to fill up fast. A connecting ferry can take you to Whittier (although this service is much less frequent--suggest you call for details) from which the Alaska Railroad [6] connects to Anchorage. Some private companies operate shuttle vans between Whittier and Anchorage [7] as well, and the combination rail/highway tunnel allows road traffic in alternating directions every half hour. There is only one rental company in Whittier, Avis [8], which operates seasonally and with a limited number of cars. If you're arriving by ship without a car and want to drive to Anchorage, make reservations well in advance for one-way rentals and be prepared to pay an extremely high rate and a substantial one-way drop fee. Unless you've got five people and tons of luggage, it's usually better to make alternate arrangements (train or bus) to Anchorage and rent a vehicle there.
As mentioned above, Avis also offers one-way rentals from Skagway to the rest of Alaska (note that the only road from Skagway to the rest of Alaska travels through Canada).
Various cruise lines sail up the Inside Passage as well, typically ending in Seward or Whittier (these cruise lines usually--but not always, so check--provide transportation to Anchorage and may even include package tours or your return air travel out of the state). Cruises depart from cities such as Seattle, Vancouver, and even San Francisco.

By bus

Greyhound Canada provides service to Whitehorse, YT from points in Canada. The Alaska Direct Bus Line [9] provides service from Whitehorse to Anchorage, Fairbanks and Dawson City.
Some of the cruise lines also offer bus transfers from Skagway and/or Haines to Anchorage.

Get around

Most cities and villages in the state are accessible only by sea or air. The Alaska Marine Highway System[10] also serves the cities of Southeast and the Alaska Peninsula. Cities not served by road or sea can only be reached by air, accounting for Alaska's extremely well-developed Bush air services—an Alaskan novelty.

By plane

Although Anchorage itself is accessible via most major domestic carriers and some international carriers, Alaska Airlines [11] has a virtual monopoly on jet air travel within the state, meaning prices are extremely high. The airline offers frequent jet service (sometimes in unique Boeing 737-400 "combi" aircraft, where the front half of the aircraft is configured as a cargo hold and the rear half is configured for passenger use) from Anchorage and Fairbanks to regional hubs like Bethel, Nome, Kotzebue, Dillingham, Kodiak, and other larger communities as well as to major Southeast and Alaska Peninsula communities. Smaller communities are served by the three main regional jet and turboprop commuter airlines: ERA Aviation [12], PenAir [13], and Frontier Flying Service [14]. The smallest towns and villages must rely on scheduled or chartered Bush flying services using general aviation aircraft such as the Cessna Caravan, the Piper Navajo, or the smaller Cessna 207, the most popular aircraft in use in the state. But perhaps the most quintessentially Alaskan plane is the seaplane. The world's busiest seaplane base is Lake Hood, located next to Ted Stevens airport in Anchorage, where flights bound for remote areas carry passengers, cargo, and lots of items from Costco and Sam's Club.

By train

The Alaska Railroad [15] runs from Seward through Anchorage, Denali, and Fairbanks to North Pole, with spurs to Whittier and Palmer. The railroad is famous for its summertime passenger services but also plays a vital part in moving Alaska's natural resources--primarily coal--to ports in Anchorage, Whittier and Seward as well as fuel and gravel for use in Anchorage. The Alaska Railroad is the only remaining railroad in North America to use cabooses on its freight trains. The route between Talkeetna and Hurricane (between Talkeetna and Denali) features the last remaining flag stop train service in North America. A stretch of the track along an area inaccessible by road serves as the only transportation to cabins in the area. Residents board the train in Talkeetna and tell the conductor where they want to get off. When they want to come to town, they wait by the side of the tracks and "flag" the train, giving it its name.

By car

Alaska is arguably the least-connected state in terms of road transportation. The state's road system covers a relatively small area of the state, linking the central population centers and the Alaska Highway, the principal route out of the state through Canada. The state capital, Juneau, is not accessible by road, which has spurred several debates over the decades about moving the capital to a city on the road system. One unique feature of the road system is the Anton Anderson Memorial Tunnel, which links the Seward Highway south of Anchorage with the relatively isolated community of Whittier. The tunnel is the longest road tunnel in North America at nearly 2.5 miles and combines a one-lane roadway and train tracks in the same housing. Consequently, eastbound traffic, westbound traffic, and the Alaska Railroad must share the tunnel, resulting in waits up to 45 minutes (or more) to enter; for specific times, see the schedule at [16].
Anchorage and Fairbanks are served by all of the major national rental car chains as well as a number of independents. Some smaller towns around the state may also have a national chain company presence. Be advised that renting a car in Alaska can be more expensive than pretty much anywhere else in the United States, ranging up to (and occasionally even over) $200 per day for a large vehicle sufficient to carry multiple passengers and outdoor gear during the peak season. In the dead of winter, however, you can sometimes grab a vehicle for under $10 per day.
Be aware that renting at the Anchorage and Fairbanks airport incurs a 10-12% additional airport surcharge (plus an additional $4.81 per day in Anchorage). If you're renting for more than a few days, it might be worth the hassle to rent your vehicle at an off-airport location, which usually involves taxi rides or shuffling between hotel and rental car courtesy shuttles. Check with each agency or search off-airport rental cars using an online travel agency to see what cost savings may be available.

By bus

There are several bus and shuttle services that can take you between cities on the road system. You will see many tour buses from major tour lines, although their tickets are usually only sold in a package tour. There are other companies that do sell individual tickets. The Alaska Park Connection [17] sells tickets between Seward, Anchorage, Talkeetna, and Denali. Denali Motorcoach [18] operates daily schedule between Anchorage, and Denali.Alaska Direct Bus Line [19] travels from Whittier to Anchorage, north to Tok and Fairbanks, and also to Whitehorse. Alaska/Yukon Trails [20] has lines from Anchorage to Denali to Fairbanks, and they also have routes from Dawson City, Whitehorse, and other smaller towns. Homer Stage Line [21] has busses from Anchorage south to the Kenai Peninsula, stopping in cities like Cooper Landing, Homer, Kenai, Seward, and Soldotna. Seward Bus Lines [22] has routes from Anchorage (incl. the airport) directly to Seward.

By boat

One of the best ways to see Alaska is by cruise ship. Cruise ships bring you wonderfully close to glaciers, whales and rocky coasts. Larger boats offering more amenities, while small ships and yachts carrying 12-100 passengers go where the big ships can't, getting you up close to Alaska's nature and wildlife. Many vessels include naturalist guided hikes and sea kayaking right from the ship, perfect for active, casual travelers.
Cruise ships have 2 main itineraries: The Inside Passage Route going roundtrip from either Seattle, Washington or Vancouver, Canada and the Gulf Route running Northbound and Southbound cruises between Seattle/Vancouver and Seward/Whittier.
Companies offering cruises in Alaska include:
  • Holland America[23]. The Glacier Discovery Cruise offered by Holland America Line, runs between Seward and Vancouver, BC.
  • Princess Cruises, [24], offers both Inside Passage and Glacier Bay routes as well as roundtrips from San Francisco.
  • Adventure Life Voyages, [25], offer small-ship cruising exclusively, working with vessels in Alaska ranging from 32 to 138 passengers.
  • Norwegian Cruise Line, [26], offers only roundtrips in Seattle and Vancouver.
  • Carnival Cruises, [27], has only one ship deployed in Alaska annually doing mainly Northbound and Southbound cruises.
  • Cruise West, [28], has over 60 years experience exploring rugged Alaska coastline.
  • AdventureSmith Explorations, [29]. Specializes in small ship and yacht cruising in Alaska with over 25 years experience.
  • Regent Seven Seas Cruises, [30], luxury cruise line with all inclusive cruises to Alaska.
  • Cruise 118 [31], Cruise 118 Holiday Cruises from Southampton to the Mediterranean, Alaska and the Caribbean.
Ferry
  • Alaska Marine Highway System, Phone: 1-800-526-6731, [32]. Alaska's Marine Highway consists of over 8000 miles of coastal ocean routes connecting 31 port communities throughout Southeast, Southcentral and Southwest Alaska. Two additional ports are located outside of Alaska - one in British Columbia and the other in the state of Washington. It forms an essential method of transportation for many local residents in towns to which there is no road access. The Marine Highway system also allows walk-on travelers, bicycles and commercial vehicles. You can arrange your own cabin on the ferry, pitch a tent, or roll out a sleeping bag on the upper decks. Naturalists sometimes on board to give commentary on sights and wildlife.
Of course, after you get off the boat, you'll want to stay and explore Alaska's inland destinations. Don't get straight on an airplane and head home--you'll miss out on some of the best Alaska has to offer!

See

Alaska is huge. It actually spans what once were five time zones! So big in fact you probably won't scratch the surface of what it has to offer in terms of geography, wildlife, local flavor, or Alaska native culture.
You might visit a couple of the regions of the state during your visit. It is quite possible to experience the ancient rainforest of Southeast Alaska, camp in Denali National Park, and kayak among icebergs in Prince William Sound on the same trip.
Another option is to focus on a smaller (still huge) region of the state and spend enough time for a better look and then plan a return trip to explore a different region. Alaska does not have to be a once in a lifetime destination.
Three weeks in the Inside Passage, traveling from town to town by ferry, is likely to leave you wanting more time if you enjoy hiking, sea kayaking, fishing, wildlife watching, scenery, Native culture, biking, ... Online resources for planning include: SEAtrails, a non-profit promoting human powered outdoor recreation opportunities throughout the region (www.seatrails.org); the Alaska Inside Passage Wildlife Viewing Trail, a collection of wildlife viewing sites throughout the region (wildlifeviewing.alaska.gov and select viewing trails); and the U.S. Forest Service Naturewatch website (www.fs.fed.us/r10/ro/naturewatch/southeast/se_map.html).
The Kenai Peninsula, south of Anchorage, is another region worthy of an extended stay and is easily accessed from Anchorage (www.kenaipeninsua.org for lots of trip planning information). Alaska's Kenai Peninsula Wildlife Viewing Trail includes 65 carefully selected wildlife viewing sites on the Kenai. Explore them all and you'll need at least two weeks. The full guide is online at www.kenaipeninsula.org/kenai_guide/index.htm or search for purchase options. Plenty of public campgrounds make this an extremely affordable do-it-yourself destination if you have a few folks to share the cost of a rental car.
An Anchorage, Denali, Fairbanks, Valdez driving loop also offers plenty to see and do for two weeks or more and can be quite affordable with camping and a shared rental car.

Do

There are many things to do when traveling to Alaska. If you are the adventurous type then Alaska will be a great place to go. You can go hiking, biking, kayaking, fishing, and expeditions to see the wildlife of Alaska like wolves, whales, moose, and bears. There are also month-long expeditions to the top of Mt. McKinley.
  • A journey on the Dalton Highway provides a very unique experience. The highway crosses mountains and tundra, the Arctic Circle, and 414 miles of pristine wilderness.
  • Alaska Bear Mountain Lodge (Alaska Bear Viewing Tours), Chinitna Bay, Lake Clark National Park and Preserve (40 min flight from Soldotna, 60 air miles from Homer), 907-776-8613, [33]. Modern Brown Bear viewing Lodge and tours across from Homer, Alaska at Chinitna Bay, Lake Clark National Park. Daily guided Bear Viewing tours, Overnight bear viewing trips, Scenic nature, Modern Lodging and Private Cabins. A Bear Viewing adventure you will always remember! $550-$900. (59.8870,-153.0030) edit
  • Stay up late to see the midnight sun, it's fasinating to watch in the summer when daytime seems endless.

Buy

In Alaska cruise ports (especially Ketchikan, Juneau and Skagway) the tourist shopping experience is dominated by jewelry, tee shirts, and trinkets that could be purchased at any major cruise port in the world (perhaps from the same chain shop). Yes, there are good buys occasionally (especially at the end of the season), but local products can be difficult to find.
If you are on a cruiseship, don't be afraid to visit stores not listed on the "preferred business'" list provided by the cruiseline. Those businesses paid a premium to be listed and don't necessarily represent higher quality or better selection.
Local Alaskan artists are found in co-op and locally-owned galleries. There are many books, from fiction to photos to nonfiction to children's, by Alaska writers, photographers and illustrators.

Eat

Alaskans love their food, fresh or otherwise you need good feed to keep up with daily life here. The portions in this state are huge. Almost every little town will have a local diner where one can get a filling breakfast and lots of hot coffee. Try the reindeer sausage with your eggs and hash in the morning and you'll feel like a true Alaskan.
Some foods indigenous to this area are fireweed honey (distinctive and quite uniquely delicious), and spruce tip syrup made from the Sitka spruce which grows very commonly throughout Alaska; and of course there is perhaps the most well known of all Alaskan produce: seafood. Alaska’s fishing grounds are among some of the richest in the world and feature among other delicacies King and Snow crab which are exported the world over. Many local restaurants close to the shore serve fresh halibut and salmon daily, right off the boats. Unfortunately, most of the fish is served deep fried, and asking for a simple piece of grilled fish will usually result in an overcooked, dried out disappointment. Restaurant prices also tend to be rather high.

Drink

Beer is a big deal in Alaska with 4 breweries in Anchorage alone. Alaska Brewing Company [34] in Juneau is the best known brewery in the state and their Alaskan Amber leads beer sales. Other towns with local Breweries include Homer, Haines, Kodiak, Fox (near Fairbanks), and Wasilla. In January there is the Great Alaska Beer and Barleywine event. It is the third largest in the United States and may be the largest event highlighting barleywine in the US.

Respect

When you are hiking or visiting a natural area, do not pick flowers or collect natural features, particularly in a national park or forest. These are protected areas, and if everyone took something away, it would spoil it for everyone else. Picking flowers takes away nectar that is vital for insects.

Stay safe

Alaska enjoys a comparatively low crime rate and is generally a safe place to travel. Keep in mind that while Alaska is wild and beautiful, it does not tolerate fools easily. It is quite possible to get lost, cold, wet, and even die, all within sight of downtown Anchorage. The state's populace varies between extremely friendly to tourists to openly hostile. A common bumper sticker says: "If it's tourist season, why can't we shoot 'em?" Many Alaskans are understandably tired of those people from the "lower 48" who head North to live out ill-conceived — and sometimes fatal — fantasies of living off the land.
The remote parts of the state are its jewels, but be prepared for the trip you plan. Do your homework, and plan on being self-sufficient. Consider using a guide, or checking out local conditions with locals before jumping in the kayak, and heading for yonder point that looked so nice on the map. The water in Alaska is so cold, falling overboard can be fatal within minutes. More importantly, self-rescue becomes impossible often within seconds, especially around glacier-fed rivers. Treatment for hypothermia is required reading before doing any water sports, even during warm weather.
Bears live in many areas of the state and are best avoided. Moose are equally common and just as dangerous, and attack humans more frequently than bears. See wilderness backpacking for more information about staying safe in areas of known bear activity.
  • Yukon - Canada's Yukon shares most of Alaska's eastern border.
  • British Columbia - Portions of British Columbia share a border with the Alaska Panhandle.
  • Washington - While not connected to Alaska, Washington is the departure point for many visitors to the state.
  • Russian Far East - Located just 53 miles (85 km) across the Bering Strait, Alaska's neighbor to the west has greatly influenced the state's history and culture, despite being, in fact, just out of viewing distance.
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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

ALASKA, formerly called Russian America, a district of the United States of America, occupying the extreme northwestern part of North America and the adjacent islands. The name is a corruption of a native word possibly meaning " mainland " or " peninsula." The district of Alaska comprises, first, all that part of the continent W. of the 141st meridian of W. longitude from Greenwich; secondly, the eastern Diomede island in Bering Strait, and all islands in Bering Sea and the Aleutian chain lying E. of a line drawn from the Diomedes to pass midway between Copper Island, off Kamchatka, and Attu Island of the Aleutians; thirdly, a narrow strip of coast and adjacent islands N. of a line drawn from Cape Muzon, in lat. 54 0 40' N., E. and N. up Portland Canal to its head, and thence, as defined in the treaty of cession to the United States, quoting a boundary treaty of 1825 between Great Britain and Russia, following " the summit of the mountains situated parallel to the coast " to the 141st meridian, provided that when such line runs more than ten marine leagues from the ocean the limit " shall be formed by a line parallel to the windings of the coast and which shall never exceed the distance of ten marine leagues therefrom." The international disputes connected with this description are referred to below.
Table of contents

Physical Features

Alaska is bounded on the N. by the Arctic Ocean, on the W. by the Arctic Ocean and Bering Strait, on the S. and S.W. by the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean, and on the E. by Yukon Territory and British Columbia. It consists of a compact central mass and two straggling appendages running from its S.W. and S.E. corners, and sweeping in a vast arc over 6 degrees of latitude and 58 degrees of longitude. These three parts will be referred to hereafter respectively, as Continental Alaska, Aleutian Alaska and the " Panhandle." The range of latitude from Point Barrow in the Arctic Ocean to Cape Muzon is almost 17 degrees - as great as from New Orleans to Duluth; the range of longitude from Attu Island to the head of Portland Canal is 58 degrees - considerably greater than from New York to San Francisco. The total area is about 586,400 sq. m. The general ocean-coast line is about 4750 m., and, including the islands, bays, inlets and rivers to the head of tide water, is about 26,000 m. in length (U.S. Coast Survey 1889). The entire southern coast is very irregular in outline; it is precipitous, with only very slight stretches of beach or plain. Its elevation gradually decreases as one travels W. toward the Aleutians. A great submarine platform extends throughout a large part of Bering Sea. The western and northern coasts are regular in outline with long straight beaches; and shallows are common in the seas that wash them. On the Arctic there is a broad coastal plain. Of the islands of Alaska the more important are: at the S.E. extremity and lying close inland, the Alexander Archipelago, whose principal islands from N.W. to S.E. are Chicagof, Baranof, Admiralty, Kupreanof, Kuiu, Prince of Wales (the largest of the archipelago and of all the islands about Alaska, measuring about 140 m. in length and 40 m. in width), Etolin and Revillagigedo; S.W. of the mainland, two groups - (1) Kodiak, whose largest island, of the same name, is 40 m. by 100 m., and may be considered a continuation of the Kenai Peninsula, and whose W. continuation, S. of Alaska Peninsula, consists of the Semidi, Shumagin and Sannak clusters; (2) the Aleutian Islands sweeping 1200 m. W.S.W. from the end of Alaska Peninsula, W. of the mainland, in Bering Sea, the Pribilof Islands, about 500 m. S. of Cape Prince of Wales, the small Hall and St Matthew Islands, about 170 m. S.W. of the same cape, St Lawrence Island (loo m. and 10 to 30 m. wide), which is about half way between the last mentioned pair of islets and Cape Prince of Wales and Nunivak Island, near the mainland and due E. of St Matthew; and in the middle of Bering Strait the Diomede Islands, which belong in part to Russia.
Very little was known about Alaska previous to 1896, when the gold discoveries in the Klondike stimulated public interest regarding it. Since 1895, however, the explorations of the United States Geological Survey and the Department of War, and other departments of the government, have fully established the main features of its physiography. It has mountains, plateaus and lowlands on a grand scale. " In a broad way, the larger features of topography correspond with those of the western states. There is a Pacific Mountain system, a Central Plateau region, a Rocky Mountain system, and a Great Plains region. These four divisions are well marked, and show the close geographic relation of this area to the southern part of the continent." The orographic features of the Pacific Mountain system trend parallel to the coast-line of the Gulf of Alaska, changing with this at the great bend beyond the N., and of the Panhandle from S.E. and N.W. to N.E. and S.W. and running through the Alaska Peninsula. The Pacific Mountain system includes four ranges. The Coast Range of the Panhandle attains a width of loo m., but has no well-defined crest line. The range is characterized by the uniformity of summit levels between 5000 and 6000 ft. Continuing the Coast Range, with 180° ; I en, , 6 , e-:1 � e 64' " a6 A a, . ....1 .
2
A 176° B A f? 172° C GS° D C T E C Barrow Pearl B. Pt. Barrow Tangent Pt. I tlalkett C. H. .48° '44° K N 4)� N 128° 0 14 e ach.Aoi v 0 C E 10,250,000 English Miles, sp 4 45 p P .
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- Peninsula Continuation West, half scale 56° 4 5 ' 68° 1 2 which it is closely associated - the Chilkat river lies between them - is the St Elias Range (a term now used to include not only the mountains between Cross Sound and Mt. St Elias, but the Chugach, Kenai, Skolai and Nutzotin mountains); among its peaks are: Mt. Crillon (15,900 ft.), Mt. Fairweather (15,290 ft.), Mt. Vancouver (15,666 ft.), Mt. Wrangell (17,500 ft., an active volcano) in the Nutzotin Mountains, Mt. St Elias (18,024 ft.) and, in Canadian territory, Mt. Logan (19,539 ft.). The Aleutian Range, of whose crest the Aleutian Islands are remnants, fills out the system near the coast. The Alaskan Range, connecting with the Nutzotin and Skolai branches of the St Elias Range, lies a little farther inland; it is splendidly marked by many snowy peaks, including Mt. Foraker (17,000 ft.) and Mt. McKinley. The latter, which on the W. rises abruptly out of a marshy country, offers the obstacles of magnificent, inaccessible granite cliffs and large glaciers to the mountaineer; it is the loftiest peak in North America (ca. 20,300 ft.). In the Alaskan Range and the Aleutian Range there are more than a dozen live volcanoes, several of them remarkable; the latter range is composed largely of volcanic material. Evidences of very recent volcanic activity are abundant about Cook Inlet. The Rocky Mountain system extends from Canada (the Yukon territory) into N.E. Alaska, which it crosses near the Arctic coast in a broad belt composed of several ranges about 6000 ft. in altitude. There is no well-defined crest line; the axis of the system is roughly parallel to the Pacific Mountain system, but runs more nearly E. and W. in Alaska. Between the Pacific Mountain and the Rocky Mountain systems lies the vast Central Plateau region, or Yukon plateau. Finally, between the Rocky Mountains and the Arctic Ocean is the Arctic Slope region, a sloping plain corresponding to the interior plains of the United States.

First Physiographic Region

The Panhandle is remarkably picturesque. The maze of islands, hundreds in number, of the Alexander Archipelago (area about 13,000 sq. m.) are remnants of a submerged mountain system; the islands rise 3000 to s000 ft. above the sea, with luxuriantly wooded tops and bald, sheer sides scarred with marks of glacial action; the beachless coast is only a narrow ledge between the mountains and the sea, and unlike the coast of Norway, to which in outline it is not dissimilar, is bold, steep and craggy. Through the inner channels, sheltered from the Pacific by the island rampart, runs the " inland passage," the tourist route northward from Seattle, Washington. The inter-insular straits are carried up into the shore as fjords heading in rivers and glaciers. Thus the Stikine river continues Sumner Strait and the Taku continues Cross Sound. The Stikine, Taku and Alsek rivers all cross the mountains in deepcut canyons. Everywhere the evidences of glacial action abound. Most remarkable are the inlets known as Portland Canal and Lynn Canal (continuing Chatham Strait). The first is very deep, with precipitous shores and bordering mountains 5000 to 6000 ft. high; the second is a noble fjord loo m. long and on an average 6 m. wide, with magnificent Alpine scenery. It is subject in winter to storms of extraordinary violence, but is never closed by ice. Both Portland Canal and Lynn Canal are of historical importance, as the question of the true location of the first and the commercial importance to Canada or to the United States of the possession of / the second, were the crucial contentions in the disputes over the Alaska-Canadian boundary. At the head of Lynn Canal, the only place on the whole extent of the south-eastern Alaskan coast where a clear-cut waterparting is exhibited between the sea-board and interior drainage, the summits of the highest peaks in the Coast Range are 8000 to 9000 ft. above the sea. White Pass (2888 ft.) and Chilkoot Pass (3500 ft.), at the head of the Lynn Canal, are the gateway to the mining country of the Klondike and Upper Yukon. They are the highest points that one meets in travelling from Skagway along the course of the Yukon to Bering Sea.
Prior to the opening (in August woo) of the railway between Skagway and White Horse, Canada (110 m.), by way of the White Pass, all transportation to the interior was effected by men and pack-animals (and for a time by a system of telpherage) over these passes and the Chilkat or Dalton trail; the building of the railway reduced carriage rates to less than a tenth of their former value, and the Chilkat and Chilkoot Passes were no longer used. The coast region above the Panhandle shows on a smaller and diminishing scale the same characteristic features, gradually running into those of the Aleutians. Out of the Alaska and Nutzotin mountains two great rivers flow southward: the Copper, practically unnavigable except for small boats, because of its turbulence and the discharge of glaciers into its waters; and the Susitna, also practically unnavigable. Both of these rivers have their sources in lofty mountain masses, and are swift and powerful streams carrying with them much silt; their passes over the water-parting N. of the Kenai Peninsula are through gorges from 4000 to 10,000 ft. in depth. The Copper, the Susitna and its tributary, the Yentna, as well as the Skwentna, a tributary of the Yentna from the west, all run through picturesque canyons, and their upper courses are characterized by glacial and torrential feeders. Their valleys are well timbered.
The glaciers of the Panhandle and throughout the rest of the Pacific region are most remarkable - extraordinary alike for their number and their size. They lie mainly between 56° and 61° N. lat., in a belt loon m. long, of which the central part, some 350 or Soo m. long and 80 m. to ioo m. wide, has been described as one great confluent neve field. Thousands of Alpine glaciers from one to fifteen miles long fill the upper valleys and canyons of the mountains. More than a hundred almost reach the sea, from which they are separated by detrital lowland or terminal moraines. Other glaciers are of the Piedmont type. Greatest of these and of Alaskan glaciers is the Malaspina, a vast elevated plateau of wasting ice, 150o sq. m. in area (nearly a tenth the area of all Switzerland), touching the sea at only one point, though fronting it for 50 m. behind a fringing foreland of glacial debris. It is fed by Alpine glaciers, among them one of the grandest in Alaska, the Seward, which descends from Mt. Logan. It is more than So m. long, and more than 3 m. broad at its narrowest point, and several times in its course flows over cascades, falling hundreds of feet. Of tide-water glaciers the most remarkable is probably the Muir. It has an area of 350 sq. m.; the main trunk, which is 30 to 40 m. broad, is fed by 26 tributaries, 20 of which are each greater than the!Mer de Glace, and pushes its bergs into the sea from ice cliffs almost 2 m. wide, standing ioo to 200 ft. above the water, and extending probably 700 to moo ft. beneath its surface. It has been calculated that the average daily discharge of the Muir in summer is 30,000,000 cubic ft. Its course, which is only about 13 m., has a slope of 100 ft. per mile, and the main current moves 7 ft. daily. The character of the Muir was greatly altered by an earthquake in 1899. There are some 30 tide-water glaciers - a considerable number of them very noteworthy. The Valdez is 30 m. long and 5000 ft. in altitude. Most of the Alaskan glaciers are receding, but not all of them; and at times there is a general advance. The Muir receded 1�6 m. from 1879-1890, the Childs about 600 yards in 17 years; others over 4, 7 or 10 m. in 20 years.
The Aleutian Islands, like the Alexander Archipelago, are remnants of a submerged mountain system. Their only remarkable features are the volcanoes on the easterly islands, already mentioned.
Continental Alaska. - Continental Alaska in the interior is essentially a vast plateau. " The traveller between the main drainage areas of the interior is struck by the uniform elevation of the interfluminal areas. Rounded hills, level meads and persistent flat-topped ridges, composed of rocks of varying structure, rise to about the same level and give the impression that they are the remnants of a former continuous surface. Occasional limited areas of rugged mountains rise above this level, and innumerable stream valleys have been incised below it; but from the northern base of the St Elias and Alaskan ranges to the southern foothills of the Rocky Mountain system, and throughout their length, the remnants of this ancient level are to be seen. In height it varies from about s000 ft, close to the bases of the mountain systems to less than 3000 f t. in the vicinity of the main lines of drainage, and slopes gradually towards the north." The Seward Peninsula is particularly rugged. This great plateau drains westward through broad, gently flowing streams, the network of whose tributary waters penetrates every corner of the interior and offers easy means of communication. Both the main streams and the smaller tributaries often flow through deep canyons. The Yukon is one of the great drainage systems of the world. The Yukon itself has a length of more than 2000 m. and bisects the country from E. to W. Behind the bluffs that form in large part its immediate border its basin is a rolling country, at times sinking into great dead levels like the Yukon flats between Circle City and the Lower Ramparts, some 30,000 sq. m. in area. Of the two great affluents of the Yukon, the Tanana is for the most part unnavigable, while the Koyukuk is navigable for more than 450 m. by river steamers, and for more than Soo m. above its mouth shows no appreciable diminution in volume. A low water-parting divides the Yukon valley from the Kuskokwim, the second river of Alaska in size, navigable by steamers for 600 m. Torrential near its source, it is already a broad, sluggish stream at its confluence with the East Kuskokwim. The tides rise 5 o ft. near its mouth and the tide-head is zoo m. above the mouth.

Rocky Mountains

The Rocky Mountain system in Alaska is higher and more complex than in Canada. About 100 m. wide at the international boundary, where the peaks of the British Mountains on the N. and of the Davidson Mountains on the S. are 7000 to 8000 ft. high, the system runs W.S.W. as the Endicott Mountains, two contiguous ranges of about 5000 to 6000 ft., and as these ranges separate, the northern becomes the De Long, the southern the Baird Mountains, whose elevation rapidly decreases toward the coast-line. The system is sharply defined on the north and less so on the south.

Arctic Slope Region

The Arctic Slope region is divided into the Anuktuvuk Plateau about 80 m. wide, with a maximum altitude to the S. of 2500 ft., and between the plateau and the Arctic Ocean the Coastal Plain. Very little is known of either part of the region.

Climate

From the foregoing description of the country it is evident that the range of climate must be considerable. That of the coast and that of the Yukon plateau are quite distinct. The Panhandle, along with the lisiere (foreland), westward to Cook Inlet might be called temperate Alaska, its climate being similar to that of the N.W. coast of the United States; while to the westward and northward the winters become longer and more severe. The cause of the mild climate of the Panhandle, formerly supposed to be the Japanese current, or Kuro Shiwo, is now held to be the general eastward drift of the waters of the North Pacific in the direction of the prevalent winds. To the warmth and moisture brought by this means the coastal region owes its high equable temperature, its heavy rainfall (80-110 in.) and its superb vegetation. The mean annual temperature is from 54° to 60° F. Winter sets in about the 1st of December and the snow is gone save in the mountains by the 1st of May. The thermometer rarely registers below zero F. or above 75° F.; the difference between the midwinter and midsummer averages is seldom more than 25°. The summer is relatively dry, the autumn and winter wet. The vapour-laden sea air blowing landward against the girdle of snow and glaciers on the mountain barriers a few miles inland drains its moisture in excessive rain and snow upon the lisiere, shrouding it in well-nigh unbroken fog and cloud-bank. Only some 60 to loo days in the year are clear. In passing from the Sitkan district westward toward Kodiak and the Aleutians the climate becomes even more equable, the temperature a little lower and the rainfall somewhat less; 1 the fogs at first less dense, especially near Cook Inlet, where the climate is extremely local, but more and more persistent along the Aleutians. The clear days of a year at Unalaska can be counted on the fingers; five days in seven it actually rains or snows. Bering Sea is covered with almost eternal fog. Along 1 At Kodiak, the monthly means range from 28° to 55° with a total range from -10° to 82° F., as against -3° to 87° F. at Sitka; the average temperature is 40.6° F., rainfall 59 in.
the coast N. of Alaska Peninsula the rainfall diminishes to io in. or less within the Arctic circle; the summer temperature is quite endurable but the winters are exceedingly rigorous.2 East of the mountains in south-eastern Alaska the atmosphere is dry and bracing, the temperature ranging from -14° to 92° F. In the farther interior, in the valleys of the Yukon, the Tanana, the Copper and the Sushitna the summers are much the same in character, the winters much more severe. On the Yukon at the international boundary the mean of the warmest month is higher than that of the warmest month at Sitka, 500 m. southward. At some points in the Upper Yukon valley the range of extreme temperatures is as great as from -75° to 90° F.3 The mean heat of summer in the upper valley is about 60° to 70° F., and at some points in the middle and lower valley even higher. 4 By the middle of September snow flurries have announced the imminence of winter, the smaller streams congeal, the earth freezes, the miner perforce abandons his diggings, and navigation ceases even on the Yukon in October. All winter snows fall heavily. The air is dry and quiet, and the cold relatively uniform. In midwinter in the upper valley the sun rises only a few degrees above the horizon for from four to six hours a day, though very often quite obscured. In December, January, February and March the thermometer often registers lower than -50° F., and the mean temperature is -20°. In May the rivers open, the cleared land thaws out, and by June the miner is again at work. Summer is quickly in full ascendancy. In May and June the sun shines from eighteen to twenty hours and diffused twilight fills the rest of the day. The rainfall is light, from io to 25 in. according to the year or the locality. Dull weather is unknown. All nature responds in rich and rapid growth to the garish light and intense heat of the long, splendid days. But the Alaska summer is the uncertain season; at times the nights are cold into July, at times snow falls and there are frosts in mid-August; sometimes rain is heavy, or again there is a veritable drought. In the great river valleys S. of the Yukon basin climatic conditions are much less uniform.
==Fauna and Flora== The fauna of Alaska is very rich and surprisingly varied. The lists of insects, birds and mammals are especially noteworthy.' Of these three classes, and of other than purely zoological interest, are mosquitoes, which swarm in summer in the interior in vast numbers; sea fowl, which are remarkably abundant near the Aleutians; moose, and especially caribou, which in the past were very numerous in the interior and of extreme economic importance to the natives. The destruction of the wild caribou has threatened to expose the Indians to wholesale starvation, hence the effort which the United States government has made to stock the country with domestic reindeer from Siberia. This effort made under the direction of the Bureau of Education has been eminently successful, and in the future the reindeer seems certain to contribute very greatly to the food, clothing, means of shelter and miscellaneous industries of the natives; and not less to the solution of the problems of communication and transportation throughout the interior. It is, however, the fish and the fur-bearing animals of its rivers and surrounding seas that are economically most distinctive of and important to Alaska. The fishing grounds extend along the coast from the extreme south-east past the Aleutians into Bristol Bay. Herring are abundant, and cod especially so. There are probably more than 10o,000 sq. m. of cod-banks from 22 to 90 2 At St Michael the mean annual temperature is about 26°, the monthly means run from about -2° to 54°, and the extreme recorded temperatures from about -55° to 77° F.; at Port Clarence the annual mean is 22°, monthly means -7° to 53° F.; extreme range of temperature, -38° to 77° F.; at Point Barrow the annual mean is 7.7° F., monthly means -18.6° to 38.1°F., extreme range of temperature -55° to 65° F.
The mean annual temperature on the Yukon at the international line is about 21° F., the monthly means run from -17° to 60° F., the range of extreme temperatures from -80° to 90° F.
4 At Fort Yukon five years' records showed mean seasonal temperatures of 14°, 60°, 17°, and -23.8° F. for spring, summer, autumn and winter respectively; at Holy Cross Mission 20°, 59°, 36° and 0.95°, at Nulato 29°, 60°, 36° and -14°.
The Harriman expedition collected in two months 1000 species of insects, of which 344 species (and 6 genera) were new to science.
fathoms deep in Bering Sea and E. of the Alaska Peninsula. Salmon are to be found in almost incredible numbers. Of marine mammals, whales are hunted far to the N. in Bering Sea and the Arctic Ocean, but are much less common than formerly, as are also the walrus, the sea otter and the fur seal. All these are disappearing before commercial greed. The walrus is now found mainly far N.; the sea otter, once fairly common throughout the Aleutian district, is now rarely found even on the remoter islands; the fur seal, whose habitat is the Pribilof Islands in Bering Sea, ha .s been considerably reduced in numbers by pelagic hunting. There are half-a-dozen species of hair seals and sea-lions. The number of fur-bearing land animals is equally large. Sables, ermine, wolverines, minks, land otters, beavers and musk-rats have always been important items in the fur trade. There are black, grizzly and polar bears, and also two exclusively Alaskan species, the Kodiak and the glacier bear. The grey wolf is common; it is the basal stock of the Alaskan sledge-dog. The red fox is widely distributed, and the white or Arctic fox is very common along the eastern coast of Bering Sea; a blue fox, once wild, is now domesticated on Kodiak and the Aleutians, and on the southern continental coast, and a black fox, very rare, occurs in south-eastern Alaska; the silver fox is very rare.
The Alaskan flora is less varied than the fauna. The forests of the coastal region eastward from Cook Inlet, and particularly in south-eastern Alaska, are of fair variety, and of great richness and value. The balsam fir and in the south the red cedar occur in scant quantities; more widely distributed, but growing only under marked local conditions, is the yellow or Alaska cedar, a very hard and durable wood of fine grain and pleasant odour. The Oregon alder is fairly common. Far the most abundant are coast and Alpine hemlocks and the tide-land or Sitka spruce. The last is not confined to this part of Alaska, but is the characteristic and universal tree. It is of primary economic importance to the natives, who use it for the most various purposes. On the islands of the Alexander Archipelago and on Prince William Sound it grows to gigantic size; even on the Koyukuk and the middle Yukon it attains in places a diameter of 2 ft. In 1902 a forest reservation comprising the largest part of the Alexander Archipelago was created by the United States government. The separation of the coast and interior floras is almost complete; only along the mountain passes and river valleys, and rarely there, is there an exchange of species. Timber, however, is fairly abundant along the entire course of the Yukon above Anvik (about 400 m. from the mouth), along the great tributaries of the Yukon, and, so far as explorations have revealed, along every stream in central Alaska; and the woods of the interior consist almost entirely of spruce. On the Yukon flats it grows in a vast forest impenetrably dense.' The timber line, which in the Panhandle and along the southern coast of the continental mass runs from 1800 to 2400 ft., frequently rises in the interior plateau even to 4000 ft. Next in importance after spruce, in the interior, is birch, and then balsam poplar. Thickets of alders and willows in wet places and new-made land, aspens and large cottonwoods west of the characteristic spruce area (as on Seward Peninsula), are also common. Toward the Arctic circle, the timber becomes, of course, sparse, low, gnarled and distorted. The willows in the Arctic drainage basin shrink to shrubs scarcely knee-high. Bushes are common in western Alaska, but undergrowth is very scanty in the forests. Grasses grow luxuriantly in the river bottoms and wherever the tundra moss is destroyed to give them footing. Most distinctive is the ubiquitous carpeting of mosses, varying in colours from the pure white and cream of the reindeer moss to the deep green and brown of the peat moss, all conspicuously spangled in the brief summer with bright flowers of the higher orders, heavy blossoms on stunted stalks. The thick peat moss or tundra of the undrained lowlands covers probably at least a quarter of Alaska; the ' The trees here grow as large as 10 in. in diameter and 40 or 50 ft. high; the branches do not spread, even where there is room, so that the tallest tree has a top only four or five feet broad; the roots, which cannot penetrate the shaded and frozen soil, spread over the ice or shallowly into the tundra carpeting, and often only by their matted network prevent the fall of the trees.
reindeer moss grows both on the lowlands and the hills. 2 Sedges available for forage grow in the tundra. In August berries are fairly abundant over the interior; one of them, the salmon or cloud berry, preserved in seal oil for the winter, is an important food of the natives. The grasses are killed by the frosts in September. The western timber limit is on Kodiak Island. The Aleutian Islands are almost destitute of trees, but are covered with a luxuriant growth of herbage. Climatic differences cannot account for the treeless condition of the country W. of this point, and the true explanation lies probably in the fact that in winter, when the seeds of the coastal forests ripen and are released, the prevalent winds W. of Kodiak are damp and blow from the S. and S.W., while the spread of the seeds requires dry winds blowing from the N. and N.W. Such favourable conditions occur only rarely.
The Soil of Alaska seems to be in itself rich, and quite capable of agricultural development; the great impediment to this is in the briefness of the summer. Contrary, however, to the once universal belief, the experiments of the department of agriculture of the United States have definitely proved that hardy vegetables in great variety can readily be produced in the coastal region and at various stations in the Yukon valley; and presumably, therefore, all over the interior S. of the Arctic circle, save along Bering Sea; also that there is little doubt of the practicability of successfully cultivating buckwheat, barley and oats, and possibly also rye and wheat; that grasses for grazing grow generally and often in abundance; and in general that the possibilities of interior Alaska as a live-stock country are very considerable. It is calculated that a twentieth of south-eastern Alaska is available for agriculture, and that of the entire country 100,000 sq. m. are pasturable or tillable.

Industry

The fur and fish resources of Alaska have until recently held first place in her industries. Herrings furnish oil and guano, and the young fish are packed as " sardines " at Juneau. Cod can be taken with comparatively little danger or hardship. During the Russian occupation a small amount was shipped to California and the Sandwich Islands. The take since 1879 has been practically constant. The take of halibut is increasing steadily. The salmon industry dates from 1878. The total output (in 1901, 100,000,000 lb; in 1906, about 72,000,000 lb), which since 1900 has been more than half the total salmon product of the United States, is more than ten times the product of all other fish. 3 On the Karluk river, Kodiak Island, is the greatest salmon fishery in the world. More than 3,000,000 salmon have been canned here in one season. The second salmon stream is the Nushagak, flowing into Bristol Bay; this bay is the richest fishing field of Alaska, furnishing in 1901, 35% of the total production. The recklessly wasteful manner in which these fisheries are conducted, and the inadequate measures taken by the United States government for their protection, threaten the entire industry with destruction. From 1867 to 1902 the value of the total fishery product was estimated at $60,000,000. The fur-seal industry has been better protected but still unavailingly. (See Seal Fisheries and Bering Sea Arbitration.) The value of the fur seals taken from 1868 to 1902 was estimated at $35,000,000 and that of other furs at $17,000,000. The walrus, hunted for its ivory tusks, and the sea otter, rarest and most valuable of Alaskan fur animals, are near extermination; the blue fox is now bred for its pelt on the Aleutians and the southern continental coast; the skins of the black and silver fox are extremely rare, and in general the whole fur industry is discouragingly decadent. The whale fishery also has greatly fallen off; there is no profit on the oil and the whales are sought for the baleen alone; they are much less numerous too than they once were, and have to be sought farther and farther north.

Minerals

The timber resources of Alaska are untouched 2 280 species of mosses proper, of which 46 were new to science, and 16 varieties of peat moss (Sphagnum) were listed by the Harriman expedition; and 74 species or varieties of ferns.
The value of the total product of Alaska's fish canneries was in 1905 $7,735,7 82, or 29.3% of the total for the United States; in 1900 it was 17.4% of the country's total.
and the serious exploitation of her thinerals is very recent. As early as 1861 gold discoveries were made on the Stikine river; repeated discoveries, culminating in the Cassiar district "boom," were made in British Columbia from 1857 to 1874; colourings along the Yukon were reported in 1866-1867 and systematic prospecting of the upper river began about 1873. Juneau was founded in 1880; the same year the opposition of the Indians was withdrawn that had prevented the crossing of the mountain passes to the interior, and after 1880 repeated and scattered discoveries were made on the Lewes, Pelly, Stewart and other streams of the Upper Yukon country in Canada. As early as 1883-1885 there was a considerable mining excitement due to these discoveries, and a much greater one in 1887 after the discovery of coarse gold on Forty Mile Creek in American territory; but these were as nothing to the picturesque and feverish rush that followed the location of the first Klondike claim in Canadian territory in August 1896. (SEE Klondike.) The mines in American territory were temporarily deserted for the new diggings. Other gold districts are scattered over the whole interior of Alaska. Nome was the scene of a great gold mining stampede in 1900. The quartz mines near Juneau are among the greatest stamp mills of the world (SEE Juneau). The product of gold and silver (of the latter some 1.3% of the total) from 1895 to 1901 was more than $32,000,000 from Alaska proper (not including that from the Canadian Yukon fields) as against a production of $5,000,000 in 1880-1896. The gold product of the Canadian Yukon territory from 1896-1903 was about $96,000,000, as estimated by the Canadian Geological Survey. In 1905 the product of gold from Alaska was valued at $15,630,000 (mines report); and from 1880 to 1906 the production of gold, according to the estimate of A. H. Brooks, was more than $100,000,000. The gravest problem of mining in the interior country, even graver than that presented by the climate, is transportation; in 1900 the Tanana fields, for example, were provisioned from Circle City, about 125 m. distant, at the rate of a cent per lb mile (i.e. $2000 for moving a ton loo m.). Even higher rates prevailed in the copper country in 1902. Various other minerals in addition to gold have been discovered, and several of them, notably copper and silver (the latter appearing with the gold deposits), may probably be profitably exploited. In 1905 the product of copper was valued at $759,634, that of silver at $80,165 (mines report). Coal, and in much larger quantities lignite, have been found in many parts of Alaska. Most important, because of their location, are deposits along the Alaska Peninsula and between Circle City and Dawson. The latter furnishes fuel to the river steamboats, and it is hoped may eventually supply the surrounding mining region. There are valuable deposits of gypsum on Chicagof Island, and marble quarries are being developed on Prince of Wales Island.
As against $7,200,000 paid for Alaska in 1867, the revenues returned to the United States in the years 1867-1903 totalled $9,555,9 0 9 (namely, rental for the Fox and Pribilof Islands, $999, 200; special revenue tax on seal-skins, $7,597,351; Alaskan customs, $528,558; public lands, $28,928; other sources $401,872). It has been estimated that in the same period the United States drew from Alaska fish, furs and gold to the value of about $150,000,000; that up to 1903 the imports from the states aggregated $100,000,000; and that $25,000,000 of United States capital was invested in Alaska.
Since 1896 communication with the outer world has been greatly increased. Alaskan mails leave the states daily, many post-offices are maintained, mail is regularly delivered beyond the Arctic circle, all the more important towns have telegraphic communication with the states,' there is one railway in the interior through Canadian territory from Skagway, and other railways are planned. The total mileage in 1906 was 136 m. In that year the Alaskan Central Railroad (from Seward to Fairbanks, 463 m.) was chartered; 45 m. of this road were in 1 Seattle, Sitka and Valdez are connected by cable; telegraph lines run from the Panhandle inland to the Yukon and down its valley to Fort St Michael.
operation in 1905. One long military road as an "All American route from Valdez has long been built.

Population

The population in 1867 at the time of the cession from Russia is estimated at 30,000, of which two-thirds were Eskimo and other Indians. Population returned in 1880, 33,4 26; in 1890, 32,052; in 1900, 63,592, of whom approximately 48% were whites, 46% natives and 6% Japanese and Chinese (with a few negroes). The Asiatics are employed in the salmon canneries. The natives of Alaska fall under four ethnologic races: the Eskimo or Innuit - of these the Aleuts are an offshoot; the Haidas or Kaigani, found principally on Prince of Wales Island and thereabouts; the Thlinkits, rather widely distributed in the " Panhandle "; and the Tinnehs or Athapascans, the stock race of the great interior country. In 1890 the pure-blooded natives numbered 23,531, of whom 6000 were Haidas, Thlinkits or other natives of the coastal region, 1000 Aleuts, 3400 Athapascans and 13,100 Eskimo. The natives have adopted many customs of white civilization, and on the Aleutians, and in coastal Alaska, and in scattered regions in the interior acknowledge Christianity under the forms of the Orthodox Greek or other churches. The rapid exhaustion in late years of the caribou, seals and other animals, once the food or stockin-trade of the Aleuts and other races, threatens more and more the swift depletion of the natives. They have also felt the fatal influence of the liquor traffic. From 1893 to 1895 the United States expended $55,000 to support the natives of the Fur Seal Islands. This policy threatens to become a continued necessity throughout much of Alaska. There is a small government Indian reservation on Afognak Island, near Kodiak. The white population is extremely mobile, and few towns have an assured or definite future. The prosperity of the mining towns of the interior is dependent on the fickle fortune of the gold-fields, for which they are the distributing points. Sitka, Juneau (the capital) and Douglas, both centres of a rich mining district, Skagway, shipping point for freight for the Klondike country (see these titles), and St Michael, the ocean port for freighting up the Yukon, are the only towns apparently assured of a prosperous future. Wrangell (formerly Fort St Dionysius, Fort Stikine and Fort Wrangell), founded in 1833, is a dilapidated and torpid little village, of some interest in Alaskan history, and of temporary importance from 1874 to 1877 as the gateway to the Cassiar mines. in British Columbia. Its inhabitants are chiefly Thlinkit Indians. Government. - Alaska, by an act of Congress approved the 7th of May 1906, received the power to elect a delegate to Congress. Before this act and the elections of August 1906 Alaska was a governmental district of the United States without a delegate in Congress. Its administration rests in the hands of the various executive departments, and is partly exercised by a governor and other resident officials appointed by the president. It is a military district, a customs district (since 1868), is organized into a land district, and constitutes three judicial divisions. In 1867-1877 the government was in the hands of the department of war, although the customs were from the beginning collected by the department of the treasury, with which the effective control rested from 1877 until the passage of the socalled Organic Act of 17th May 1884. This act extended over Alaska the laws of the state of Oregon so far as they should be applicable, created the judicial district and a land district, put in force the mining laws of the United States, and in general gave the administrative system the organization it retained up to the reforms of 1899-1900. The history of government and political agitation has centred since then in the demand for general land legislation and for an adequate civil and criminal law, in protests against the enforcement of a liquor prohibition law, and in agitation for an efficiently centralized administration. As the general land laws of the United States were not extended to Alaska in 1884, there was no means, generally speaking, of gaining title to any land other than a mining claim, and so far as any method did exist its cost was absolutely prohibitive. After partial and inadequate legislation in 1891 and 1898, the regular system of land surveys was made applicable to Alaska in 1899, and a generous homestead law was provided in 1903. An adequate code of civil and criminal law and provisions for civil government under improved conditions were provided by Congress in 1899 and 1900. The agitation over prohibition dates from 1868; the act of that year organizing a customs district forbade the importation and sale of firearms, ammunition and distilled spirits; the Organic Act of 1884 extended this prohibition to all intoxicating liquors. The coast of Alaska offers exceptional facilities for smuggling, and liquor has always been very plentiful; juries have steadily refused to convict offenders, and treasury officials have regularly collected revenue from saloons existing in defiance of law. The prohibition law is still upon the statute-books. The chief weaknesses in the colonial administration of the territory, particularly prior to 1900 - but only to a slightly less extent since - have been decentralization and a lax civil service. The concomitants of these have been irresponsibility and inefficiency. The governor has represented the president without possessing much power; the department of war has had ill-defined duties; the department of justice has, in theory, had charge of the general law; the department of the interior has administered the land law; the agents of the bureau of education have superintended the stocking of Alaska with reindeer; the United States Fish Commission has investigated the condition of marine life without having powers to protect it. The treasury department has chartered the coasts, sought to enforce the prohibition law, controlled and protected the fur seals and fisheries, and incidentally collected the customs. Since the creation of the department of commerce and labour (1903), it has taken over from other departments some of these scattered functions. All in all, the government has proved itself without power to protect the most valuable industries of the district, and for many years there has been talk of a regular territorial government. The paucity of permanent residents and the poverty of the local treasury seem to make such a solution an impossible one.

History

The region now known as Alaska was first explored by the Russian officers Captain Vitus Bering and Chirikov in 1741. They visited parts of the coast between Dixon Entrance and Cape St Elias, and returned along the line of the Aleutians. Their expedition was followed by many private vessels manned by traders and trappers. Kodiak was discovered in 1763 and a settlement effected in 1784. Spanish expeditions in 1774 and 1775 visited the south-eastern coast and laid a foundation for subsequent territorial claims, one incident of which were the Nootka Sound seizures of 1789. Captain James Cook in 1778 made surveys from which the first approximately accurate chart of the coast was published; but it was reserved for Vancouver in 1793-1794 to make the first charts in the modern sense of the intricate south-eastern coast, which only in recent years have been superseded by new surveys. Owing to excesses committed by private traders and companies, who robbed, massacred and hideously abused the native Indians, the trade and regulation of the Russian possessions were in 1799 confided to a semi-official corporation called the Russian-American Company for a term of twenty years, afterwards twice renewed for similar periods. A monopoly of the American trade had previously been granted in 1788 to another private company, the Sholikof. Alexander Baranov (1747-1819); chief resident director of the American companies (1790-1819), one of the early administrators of the new company, became famous through the successes he achieved as governor. He founded Sitka in 1804 after the massacre by the natives of the inhabitants of an earlier settlement (1799) at an adjacent point. The headquarters of the company were at Kodiak until 1805, and thereafter at Sitka. In 1821 Russia attempted by ukase to exclude navigators from Bering Sea and the Pacific coast of her possessions, which led to immediate protest from the United States and Great Britain. This led to a treaty with the United States in 1824 and one with Great Britain in 1825, by which the excessive demands of Russia were relinquished and the boundaries of the Russian possessions were permanently fixed. The last charter of the Russian-American Company expired on the 31st of December 1861, and Prince Maksutov, an imperial governor, was appointed to administer the affairs of the territory. In 1864 authority was granted to an American company to make explorations for a proposed Russo-American company's telegraph line overland from the Amur river in Siberia to Bering Strait, and through Alaska to British Columbia. Work was begun on this scheme in 1865 and continued for nearly three years, when the success of the Atlantic cable rendered the construction of the line unnecessary and it was given up, but not until important explorations had been made. In 1854 a Californian company began importing ice from Alaska. Very soon thereafter the first official overtures by the United States for the purchase of Russian America were made during the presidency of James Buchanan. In 1867, by a treaty signed on the 30th of March, the purchase was consummated for the sum of $7,200,000, and on the 18th of October 1867 the formal transfer of the territory was made at Sitka.
Since its acquisition by the United States the history of Alaska has been mainly that of the evolution of its administrative system described above, and the varying fortunes of its fisheries and sealing industries. Since the gold discoveries a wonderful advance has been made in the exploration of the country. A military reservation has been created with Fort Michael as a centre. The two events of greatest general interest have been the Fur Seal Arbitration of 1893 (see Bering Sea Arbitration), and the Alaska-Canadian boundary dispute, settled by an international tribunal of British and American jurists in London in 1903. The boundary dispute involved the interpretation of the words, quoted above, in the treaties of 1825 and 1867 defining the boundary of the Russian (later American) possessions, and also the determining of the location of Portland Canal, and the question whether the coastal girdle should cross or pass around the heads of the fjords of the coast. The tribunal was an adjudication board and not an actual court of arbitration, since its function was not to decide the boundary but to settle the meaning of the Anglo-Russian treaty, which provided for an ideal (and not a physical) boundary. This boundary did not fit in with geographical facts; hence the adjudication was based upon the motive of the treaty and not upon the literal interpretation of such elastic terms as " ocean," " shore " and " coast-line." The award of the tribunal made in October 1 9 03 was arrived at by the favourable vote of the three commissioners of the United States and of Lord Alverstone, whose action was bitterly resented by the two Canadian commissioners; it sustained in the main the claims of the United States.
Authorities.-W. H. Dall and M. Baker, " List of Charts, Maps, and Publications relating to Alaska," in United States Pacific Coast Pilot, 1879; Monthly Catalogue United States Public Documents, No. 37 (1898), and Bulletin 227, United States Geological Survey (1904), for official documents; H. H. Bancroft, Alaska 1730-1885, pp. 59560 9; and various other bibliographies in titles mentioned below, especially in Brooke's The Geography and Geology of Alaska. General. - United States Monthly Summary of Commerce and Finance, July 1903, "Commercial Alaska, 1867-1903. Area, Population, Productions, Commerce. .. "; W. H. Dall, Alaska and its Resources (Boston, 1870); C. Summer, Speech on "Cession of RussianAmerica to the United States," in Works, vol. xi. (Boston, 18 75); C. H. Merriam, editor, Harriman Alaska Expedition (New York, 1901-1904, 3 vols.).

Physiography and Climate

United States Department of War, Explorations in Alaska, 1869-1900 (Washington, 1901); United States Geological Survey, Annual Reports since 1897 - " The Geography and Geology of Alaska: A Summary of Existing Knowledge," by Alfred H. Brooks (Washington, 1906; Professional Paper, No. 45), with various maps (see National Geographic Mag., May 1904, for a map embodying all knowledge then known); " Altitudes in Alaska " (Bulletin 169, by H. Gannett); " Geographic Dictionary of Alaksa " (Bulletin 299, Washington, 1906), by M. Baker; United States Post Office, " Map of Alaska " (1901); United States Coast and Geodetic Survey, Bulletins and maps; Bulletin American Geographical Society, February 1902, F. S. Schrader, " Work of the United States Geological Survey in Alaska "; Journal of Franklin Institute, October and November 1904, W. R. Abercrombie - " The Copper River Country of Alaska "; I. C. Russell, Glaciers of North America. Industries. - United States Census, 1880, Ivan Petroff, Report on the Population, Industries and Resources of Alaska; United States Census, 1890 and 190o; on reindeer, Fifteenth Annual Report on Introduction of Domestic Reindeer into Alaska, by Sheldon Jackson (Washington, 1906); on agriculture, United States Department of Agriculture, Experiment Stations, Bulletin Nos. 48, 62, 82. .. (1898-1900); Seal and Salmon Fisheries and General Industries of Alaska, 1868-1895 (Washington, 1898) (United States Treasury, also 55 Congress, i Session, House Document 92, vols. vi.-x.), 4 vols.; D. S. Jordan et al., The Fur Seals and Fur Seal Islands (or Report of the Fur Seal Investigation, 1896-1897 (Washington, 1898), 4 vols.; also many special reports on the seals published by the United States Treasury; for Report of British seal experts, Great Britain, Foreign Office Correspondence, United States, No. 3 (1897), No. 1 (1898).

History and Government

H. H. Bancroft, Alaska, 1730-1885 (San Francisco, 1886); W. H. Dall, " Alaska as it was and is, 1865-1895," in Bulletin of the Philadelphia Society of Washington, xiii.; Governor of Alaska, Annual Report to the Secretary of the Interior; Fur Seal Arbitration, Proceedings (Washington, 1895, 16 vols.); also Great Britain, Foreign Office Correspondence, United States, Nos. 6, 7, 8 (1893), No. 1 (1895); Alaskan Boundary Tribunal, Cases, Counter-cases, Arguments, Atlases of United States and Great Britain (Washington, 1903 seq.); and a rich periodical literature.

Population, Natives

United States National Museum, Ann. Report (1896); W. Hough, " Lamp of the Eskimo " (long, and of 'general interest); F. Knapp and R. L. Childe, The Thlinkeets of South-Eastern Alaska (Chicago, 1896).


Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Map of US highlighting Alaska in red

Contents

English

Wikipedia-logo.png
Wikipedia has an article on:

Etymology

From Aleut alaxsxaq.

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Alaska
Plural
-
Alaska
  1. The 49th state of the United States of America. Postal code: AK, capital: Juneau, largest city: Anchorage.

Derived terms

Translations

See also


German

Wikipedia-logo.png
German Wikipedia has an article on:
Alaska
Wikipedia de

Proper noun

Alaska n.
  1. Alaska

Icelandic

Etymology

From English Alaska, from Aleut alaxsxaq.

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /ˈaːlaska/

Proper noun

Alaska n.
  1. Alaska

Declension

Derived terms

  • alaskaepli
  • alaskalúpína
  • alaskasýprus
  • alaskavíðir
  • alaskayllir
  • alaskaösp

Polish

Wikipedia-logo.png
Polish Wikipedia has an article on:
Alaska
Wikipedia pl

Proper noun

Alaska f.
  1. Alaska (one state of the USA)
    Mieszkam na Alasce. – I live in Alaska.

Declension

Singular only
Nominative Alaska
Genitive Alaski
Dative Alasce
Accusative Alaskę
Instrumental Alaską
Locative Alasce
Vocative Alasko

Derived terms

  • Alaskanin m., Alaskanka f.
  • (rare: Alaskijczyk, Alaskijka)
  • adjective: alaski (rare: alaskijski)

Vietnamese

Proper noun

Alaska
  1. Alaska

Genealogy

Up to date as of February 01, 2010

From Familypedia

State of Alaska
Flag of Alaska State seal of Alaska
Flag of Alaska SealImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Nickname(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: The Last Frontier
Motto(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif: "North to the Future"
Map with Alasaka highlighted
Official language(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif none
Spoken language(s)Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif English 85.7%,
Native North American 5.2%,
Spanish 2.9%
CapitalImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Juneau
Largest cityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Anchorage
AreaImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 1stImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total 663,267 sq miImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
(1,717,855 km²Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Width 808 miles (1,300 kmImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif)
 - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)
 - % water 13.77
 - Latitude 51°20'N to 71°50'N
 - Longitude 130°W to 172°E
PopulationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  Ranked 47thImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
 - Total (2000Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif) 626,932
 - DensityImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif 1.09/sq mi 
0.42/km² (50th)
 - Median incomeImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  $54,627 (6th)
ElevationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  
 - Highest point Mount McKinley[1]
20,320 ft  (6,193.7 m)
 - Mean 1900 ft  (580 m)
 - Lowest point Pacific Ocean[1]
0 ft  (0 m)
Admission to UnionImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  January 3, 1959 (49th)
GovernorImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Sarah Palin (R)
U.S. SenatorsImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Ted Stevens (R)
Lisa Murkowski (R)
Congressional DelegationImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif ListImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Time zonesImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif  
 - east of 169° 30' Alaska: UTC-9/DST-8
 - west of 169° 30' Aleutian: UTC-10/DST-9
Abbreviations AKImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif Image:Wp_globe_tiny.gif US-AKImage:Wp_globe_tiny.gif
Web site www.alaska.gov
.Alaska (IPA: /əˈlæskə/, Russian: Аляска) is a state in the United States of America, in the extreme northwest portion of the North American continent.^ Negotiations had begun with the United States , which ended in the purchase of Alaska in 1867, for $7,200,000.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Alaska 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There's still a paycheck in old standbys" "Mining crab in a merciless sea" "Gone fishing: Rugged job can pay" Q: I am not a United States citizen, can I still get a job in Alaska?
  • Alaska Jobs FAQ | Alaska Job Finder 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alaskajobfinder.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alaskalocated in the far northwestern corner of the North American continent and separated from the contiguous 48 states by Canadawas admitted to the Union as the 49th state in 1959.

.It is the largest U.S. state by area (by a substantial margin), and one of the wealthiest and most racially diverse.^ It's the biggest, wildest state in the union, home to the tallest mountain , largest rain forest, and most extensive wilderness .
  • Alaska Travel Guides, Hotel and Restaurant Reviews, Photos and Videos on Concierge.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.concierge.com [Source type: General]

^ For information regarding this website or adopting one of the above listed Boroughs/Census Areas, please contact the State Coordinator .
  • Alaska GenWeb Project - Home Page 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC akgenweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The most populated area of state is divided into three regions on a map of Alaska including: Inside Passage, Southcentral and the Interior.
  • Alaska TourSaver -- Coupons for Alaska travel vacations, Alaska deals and discounts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.toursaver.com [Source type: General]

[2]
.The area that became Alaska was purchased from Russian interests on March 30, 1867.^ Negotiations had begun with the United States , which ended in the purchase of Alaska in 1867, for $7,200,000.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Alaska 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The tremendous land mass of Alaska—equal to one-fifth of the continental U.S.—was unexplored in 1867 when Secretary of State William Seward arranged for its purchase from the Russians for $7,200,000.
  • http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0108178.html 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.infoplease.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On March 30, 1867, the United States agreed to purchase Alaska from Russia for $7.2 million dollars, about two cents an acre; "Seward's Folly" many called it, after Secretary of State William H. Seward.
  • The State of Alaska - An Introduction to the Last Frontier from NETSTATE.COM 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.netstate.com [Source type: Original source]

.The land went through several administrative changes before becoming an organized territory in 1912 and the 49th state of the U.S. on January 3, 1959.^ On January 3, 1959, Alaska, with a land mass larger than Texas, California and Montana combined, became the 49th state in the union.
  • The State of Alaska - An Introduction to the Last Frontier from NETSTATE.COM 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.netstate.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Alaskalocated in the far northwestern corner of the North American continent and separated from the contiguous 48 states by Canadawas admitted to the Union as the 49th state in 1959.

^ On January 3, 1959, Alaska became the 49th state to be admitted into the Union.
  • The State of Alaska - An Introduction to the Last Frontier from NETSTATE.COM 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.netstate.com [Source type: Original source]

The name "Alaska" is derived from the Aleut alaxsxaq, meaning "the mainland", or more literally "the object towards which the action of the sea is directed".[3]

Contents

Geography

.Alaska is one of two U.S. states not bordered by another state, Hawaii being the other.^ State of Alaska There is more designated wilderness area in the state of Alaska than any other of the 49 and with over 570,000 squares miles its land area is twice that of Texas.
  • Alaska TourSaver -- Coupons for Alaska travel vacations, Alaska deals and discounts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.toursaver.com [Source type: General]

^ Homer is one of the Top Fishing Destinations in Alaska, and is the Premium Destination by which other communities try to compare themselves !
  • Alaska Halibut Fishing, Homer Alaska Fishing Halibut Charters, Halibut Guides and Alaska Salmon Fishing 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC alaska-halibut-fishing-charters.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The DAV Camping Pass, which is valid in all developed Alaska State Park campgrounds, is good for two years.

.Alaska has more coastline then all the other US states combined.^ State of Alaska There is more designated wilderness area in the state of Alaska than any other of the 49 and with over 570,000 squares miles its land area is twice that of Texas.
  • Alaska TourSaver -- Coupons for Alaska travel vacations, Alaska deals and discounts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.toursaver.com [Source type: General]

^ The State of Alaska 1998 Affirmative Action Plan affords all present and prospective state employees in the executive branch an equal opportunity for employment regardless of their veterans status - among many other factors.

^ The state of Alaska has 34,000 miles of coastline and 3.5 million lakes, active volcanoes and the highest tides in the world.
  • Alaska TourSaver -- Coupons for Alaska travel vacations, Alaska deals and discounts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.toursaver.com [Source type: General]

.It is the only non-contiguous state in North America; about 500 miles (800 km) of Canadian territory separate Alaska from Washington State.^ According to the Washington Post : "The total area proposed for critical habitat designation would cover about 200,541 square miles — about half in the Chukchi Sea off Alaska's northwest coast.
  • Alaska Coalition 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC alaskacoalition.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This remote and rugged perception is evidenced by the fact that only about 1/3 of the state has been organized into political units; 13 boroughs (similar to counties) are defined.
  • The State of Alaska - An Introduction to the Last Frontier from NETSTATE.COM 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.netstate.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Alaskalocated in the far northwestern corner of the North American continent and separated from the contiguous 48 states by Canadawas admitted to the Union as the 49th state in 1959.

.Alaska is thus an exclave of the United States, part of the continental U.S. but is not part of the contiguous U.S.[4] Alaska is the only state whose capital city is inaccessible by land - no roads connect Juneau to the rest of the state.^ Looking for something to do in Alaska , United States ?
  • Alaska Tourism, Travel Information: WorldWeb.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alaska.worldweb.com [Source type: General]

^ Negotiations had begun with the United States , which ended in the purchase of Alaska in 1867, for $7,200,000.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Alaska 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The low ceiling prevented Japanese retaliation, thus giving Alaska no opportunity to put into practice her rigorous antiaircraft training as she guarded the carriers.

.The state is bordered by Yukon and British Columbia, Canada to the east, the Gulf of Alaska and the Pacific Ocean to the south, the Bering Sea, Bering Strait, and Chukchi Sea to the west, and the Beaufort Sea and the Arctic Ocean to the north.^ View of the Arctic Ocean north of Barrow .
  • Alaska Webcams (Web Cams) List 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.akmining.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ North Pacific Ocean (eastern part) Bering Sea Continuation .
  • Alaskan NOAA Nautical Charts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.charts.noaa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A belt of Eskimo hems them in on the northeast and south and separates them completely from the ocean except at one point near Cook's Inlet on the North Pacific; the Thlinkets, or Koloshes, as the Russians call them, who people the islands and coasts of southeastern Alaska; and the Eskimo , or Inuits, who are scattered along the coastline from Alaska to Labrador.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Alaska 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Alaska is the largest state in the United States in terms of land area at 570,380 square miles (1,477,277 km2), over twice as large as Texas, the next largest state.^ Looking for something to do in Alaska , United States ?
  • Alaska Tourism, Travel Information: WorldWeb.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alaska.worldweb.com [Source type: General]

^ Negotiations had begun with the United States , which ended in the purchase of Alaska in 1867, for $7,200,000.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Alaska 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There's still a paycheck in old standbys" "Mining crab in a merciless sea" "Gone fishing: Rugged job can pay" Q: I am not a United States citizen, can I still get a job in Alaska?
  • Alaska Jobs FAQ | Alaska Job Finder 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alaskajobfinder.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If the state's westernmost point were superimposed on San Francisco, its easternmost point would be in Jacksonville.^ From Seattle to Skagway is a distance of about 1,000 miles, a little more than from New York to Chicago ; and from Seattle to the most distant point of Alaska is about the distance from New York to San Francisco.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Alaska 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Sailing for the United States on 14 November, Alaska stopped briefly at Pearl Harbor before proceeding on to San Francisco.

It is larger than all but 18 sovereign nations.
Near Little Port Walter in Southeast Alaska.
One scheme for describing the state's geography is by labeling the regions:
.
  • South Central Alaska is the southern coastal region and contains most of the state's population.^ An interconnected grid exists in the populated areas from Fairbanks to south of Anchorage; however, that grid is isolated from those in Canada and the 48 contiguous States.
    • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Southeastern division, or "Panhandle" region, had by far the largest population and began to wonder if perhaps it could become a state separate from the other three less-populated divisions.

    ^ Weather in South-central Alaska is difficult to predict and can change rapidly.
    • Alaska - Remote Trails and perpetual daylight - USA - The Wayfarers 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thewayfarers.com [Source type: General]

    .Anchorage and many growing towns, such as Palmer, and Wasilla, lie within this area.^ Other areas nearby to Wasilla: Anchorage .
    • Alaska Vacation Rentals by Owner, Alaska VRBO®, Alaska Vacation Rentals, Alaska Lodging 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.vrbo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Sure, Alaska, the state once known as Seward's Folly, now has many modern cities such as Juneau, Anchorage, and Fairbanks, but most of the state is still a wilderness.
    • Alaska Fishing Jobs | Seafood Industry Employment Guide - JobMonkey 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.jobmonkey.com [Source type: News]

    ^ Wasilla Area - The Eagle's Nest Cam, north of Anchorage, view south towards Chugach Mountains .
    • Alaska Webcams (Web Cams) List 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.akmining.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Petroleum industrial plants, transportation, tourism, and two military bases form the core of the economy here.
  • The Alaska Panhandle, also known as Southeast Alaska, is home to many of Alaska's larger towns including the state capital Juneau, tidewater glaciers and extensive forests.^ The history of Alaska's transportation including dog sleds and early aviation relics, as well as mining tools are just some of the fun things to experience.
    • Historical Museums of Alaska - A History Guide 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.censusfinder.com [Source type: General]

    ^ In addition to the glaciers of the Inside Passage that are so familiar to cruise ship passengers, Juneau and the Southeast Panhandle is home to Sitka National Historic Park and its many recreational activities, as well as the town of Skagway , staging point for the Klondike Gold Rush.
    • Alaska Tourism, Travel Information: WorldWeb.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alaska.worldweb.com [Source type: General]

    ^ He has done many public art projects including the Alaska Marine Highway building in Juneau, AK, the Haines School, the Haines Public Library, and the ferry M/V Kennecott.
    • Schedule ::: Alaska Bald Eagle Festival 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC baldeaglefestival.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Tourism, fishing, forestry and state government anchor the economy.
  • Southwest Alaska is largely coastal, bordered by both the Pacific Ocean and the Bering Sea.^ North Pacific Ocean (eastern part) Bering Sea Continuation .
    • Alaskan NOAA Nautical Charts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.charts.noaa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Al Kookesh will fight a fishing citation issued by an Alaska State Trooper wildlife officer, on Admiralty Island, Alaska...
    • Alaska - LeftyBlogs.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.leftyblogs.com [Source type: General]

    ^ There's still a paycheck in old standbys" "Mining crab in a merciless sea" "Gone fishing: Rugged job can pay" Q: I am not a United States citizen, can I still get a job in Alaska?
    • Alaska Jobs FAQ | Alaska Job Finder 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alaskajobfinder.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .It is sparsely populated, and unconnected to the road system, but incredibly important to the fishing industry.^ But, to maximize your earning potential it is important to understand the fishing industry.
    • Alaska Jobs FAQ | Alaska Job Finder 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alaskajobfinder.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Half of all fish caught in the western U.S. come from the Bering Sea, and Bristol Bay has the world's largest sockeye salmon fishery.^ Meandering west towards Bristol Bay and the Bering Sea, the Alagnak traverses the beautiful Alaska Peninsula, providing an unparalleled opportunity to experience the unique wilderness, wildlife, and cultural heritage of southwest Alaska.
    • Alaska 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Fly fishing for a healthy resident population of Rainbows, Char, Grayling and Lake Trout round out this truly world-class fishery and are available all season.

    ^ The Sea Wolf continues to Inner Dundas Bay, where you’ll see the largest spruce trees in the world and paddle in the Great Brady Ice Field with its massive sheet of ice.

    .Southwest Alaska includes Katmai and Lake Clark national parks as well as numerous wildlife refuges.^ Alaska National Parks - 2010 .
    • Alaska Tours : Huge Discounts on Alaska Vacations, Alaska Travel 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.affordabletours.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Visit the fascinating, isolated Aleutian Islands and the communities of King Salmon and Katmai National Park and Preserve on the Alaska Peninsula .
    • Alaska Tourism, Travel Information: WorldWeb.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alaska.worldweb.com [Source type: General]

    ^ We hope you enjoy this site and use it to plan your national park adventures in the state of Alaska.

    .The region comprises western Cook Inlet, Bristol Bay and its watersheds, the Alaska Peninsula and the Aleutian Islands.^ We divide up the territory into five distinct fishery regions, each with its own peak season and living and working opportunities: Southeast Alaska, Prince William Sound and Kenai Peninsula, Kodiak Island, Alaska Peninsula and Aleutian Islands, and the Bristol Bay area.
    • Alaska Jobs FAQ | Alaska Job Finder 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alaskajobfinder.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Visit the fascinating, isolated Aleutian Islands and the communities of King Salmon and Katmai National Park and Preserve on the Alaska Peninsula .
    • Alaska Tourism, Travel Information: WorldWeb.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alaska.worldweb.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Meandering west towards Bristol Bay and the Bering Sea, the Alagnak traverses the beautiful Alaska Peninsula, providing an unparalleled opportunity to experience the unique wilderness, wildlife, and cultural heritage of southwest Alaska.
    • Alaska 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .It is known for wet and stormy weather, tundra landscapes, and large populations of salmon, brown bears, caribou, birds, and marine mammals.
  • The Alaska Interior is home to Fairbanks.^ Retreat and thinning of sea ice, with associated stress on marine mammal and polar bear populations and increased open-water roughness, have made hunting more difficult, more dangerous, and less productive.
    • US National Assessment of Climate Change.  Overview: Alaska 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.usgcrp.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Bordering the Katmai National Park and Preserve, the Alagnak River offers to the angler true world class fishing for bountiful populations of Alaska's native trout and salmon.  It also is home to a bold assortment of wildlife including grizzly bear, moose, caribou and bald eagles offering unending spectacular wildlife photographic and viewing opportunities throughout your stay.

    ^ What’s more, Denali encompasses a complete sub-arctic eco-system, home to large mammals such as grizzly bears, wolves, Dall sheep, caribou and moose.

    The geography is marked by large braided rivers, such as the Yukon River and the Kuskokwim River, as well as Arctic tundra lands and shorelines.
  • The Alaskan Bush is the remote, less crowded part of the state, encompassing 380 native villages and small towns such as Nome, Bethel, Kotzebue and, most famously, Barrow, the northernmost town in the United States, as well as the northern most town on the contiguous North American continent (cities in Greenland, the North West Terrirories, and Nunavut that are farther north are on islands).
.The northeast corner of Alaska is covered by the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, which covers 19,049,236 acres (77,090 km2).^ However, experts believe that large oil and gas reserves in the State remain untapped, and some have called for the Federal government to open more public lands, including the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge, for oil exploration and drilling.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He says he will steer a different course from other Democrats in Washington on many issues including favoring drilling for oil in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge.
  • Alaska - Election Results 2008 - The New York Times 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC elections.nytimes.com [Source type: News]

^ Alaska Outdoors, LLC operates under permit from the following land management agencies: National Park Service, Alaska State Parks, Chugach National Forest, Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, and Bureau of Land Management .
  • Alaska Adventure Travel Packages and Camping Tour Vacations With Alaska Outdoors 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC travelalaskaoutdoors.com [Source type: General]

.Much of the northwest is covered by the larger National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska, which covers around 23,000,000 acres (93,100 km2) million acres.^ Or experience Denali National Park, six million acres of wildlands crowned by North America’s highest peak, 20,320 foot Mount McKinley.

^ Alaska's 117,000 rural residents collect about 43 million pounds of wild food annually, equivalent to 375 pounds per person each year.
  • US National Assessment of Climate Change.  Overview: Alaska 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.usgcrp.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For National Guard Member up to 100 percent tuition assistance at the University of Alaska School and tuition reimbursement for in state, non-UA schools.

.The Arctic is Alaska's most remote wilderness.^ Sure, Alaska, the state once known as Seward's Folly, now has many modern cities such as Juneau, Anchorage, and Fairbanks, but most of the state is still a wilderness.
  • Alaska Fishing Jobs | Seafood Industry Employment Guide - JobMonkey 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.jobmonkey.com [Source type: News]

^ If you are interested in seeing Alaskan Alagnak wildlife in a true wilderness setting while experiencing some of the most remote fishing for 10 species of fish, then this is the place for you.

A location in the National Petroleum Reserve–Alaska is 120 miles (190 km) miles from any town or village, the geographic point most remote from permanent habitation in the USA.
.With its numerous islands, Alaska has nearly 34,000 miles (54,720 km) of tidal shoreline.^ From Seattle to Skagway is a distance of about 1,000 miles, a little more than from New York to Chicago ; and from Seattle to the most distant point of Alaska is about the distance from New York to San Francisco.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Alaska 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Kenai Peninsula and Denali National Park Known as Alaska’s Playground, Kenai Peninsula is 15,000 square miles of remote, unspoiled natural beauty and adventure!

^ According to the census of 1900, Alaska embraces, inclusive of the islands, 590,804 square miles.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Alaska 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.The island chain extending west from the southern tip of the Alaska Peninsula is called the Aleutian Islands.^ Homer, Alaska is a unique little fishing village situated on the tip of the Kenai Peninsula at the end of the road from Anchorage.
  • Alaska Halibut Fishing, Homer Alaska Fishing Halibut Charters, Halibut Guides and Alaska Salmon Fishing 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC alaska-halibut-fishing-charters.com [Source type: Original source]

^ These figures represent all of the North American continent west of the 141st meridian of western longitude, with a narrow fringe of land between the Pacific and British territory, all the islands along the coast, and the Aleutian chain.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Alaska 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Visit the fascinating, isolated Aleutian Islands and the communities of King Salmon and Katmai National Park and Preserve on the Alaska Peninsula .
  • Alaska Tourism, Travel Information: WorldWeb.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alaska.worldweb.com [Source type: General]

Many active volcanoes are found in the Aleutians. For example, Unimak Island is home to Mount Shishaldin, a moderately active volcano that rises to 9,980 feet (3,042 m) above sea level. The chain of volcanoes extends to Mount Spurr, west of Anchorage on the mainland.
.One of North America's largest tides occurs in Turnagain Arm, just south of Anchorage - tidal differences can be more than 35 feet (10.7 m).^ Pickling - more than just cucumbers .
  • Where to find pick your own farms / orchards in Alaska for fruit, vegetable, pumpkin and Christmas trees 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.pickyourown.org [Source type: General]

^ As one of the largest auto dealerships in the Northwest, we’ve been connected to our communities for more than seventy years as a local, family-owned business.
  • Kendall Auto Group - Auto Dealer Anchorage Alaska and Wasilla Alaska Area New & Used Ford, Land Rover, Lexus, Scion, and Toyota Dealership 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.kendallautoalaska.com [Source type: News]

^ I don’t want to bring politics in here, but I only say this because Alaska is so much more than just its (in)famous governor.
  • Alaska Travel Information and Travel Guide - USA - Lonely Planet 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.lonelyplanet.com [Source type: General]

(Many sources say Turnagain has the second-greatest tides in North America, but several areas in Canada have larger tides.[5])
.Alaska has 3.5 million lakes of 20 acres (8 ha) or larger [6].^ Its 6 million acres of wilderness have unparalleled wildlife viewing opportunities, spectacular scenery, and as its centerpiece, some of the highest peaks in the Alaska Range.
  • Travel Alaska with Maps, Businesses, Alaska Wildlife, Native Art, Gold Rush History, and Alaska Vacation Information. Featuring Anchorage, Denali, Fairbanks and the Kenai. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC alaska101.com [Source type: General]

Marshlands and wetland permafrost cover 188,320 square miles (487,747 km2) (mostly in northern, western and southwest flatlands). .Frozen water, in the form of glacier ice, covers some 16,000 square miles (41,440 km2) of land and 1,200 square miles (3,110 km2) of tidal zone.^ Or their excitement when they see giant icebergs, some as large as a house, slough off Margerie Glacier’s 200 foot high face, one of the most active ice flows in Glacier Bay.

^ Few citizens of the U. S. could fathom what possible use or interest the 586,000 square miles of land would have for their country.

^ Kenai Peninsula and Denali National Park Known as Alaska’s Playground, Kenai Peninsula is 15,000 square miles of remote, unspoiled natural beauty and adventure!

The Bering Glacier complex near the southeastern border with Yukon, Canada, covers 2,250 square miles (5,827 km2) alone.
.The Aleutian Islands cross longitude 180°, so Alaska can be considered the easternmost state as well as the westernmost.^ Visit the fascinating, isolated Aleutian Islands and the communities of King Salmon and Katmai National Park and Preserve on the Alaska Peninsula .
  • Alaska Tourism, Travel Information: WorldWeb.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alaska.worldweb.com [Source type: General]

^ The following brief history of Alaska statehood considers the region in the political and imaginative contexts of (contiguous) United States history and emphasizes certain themes revealed in this effort.

^ Billions of dollars in defense spending came into the state in the construction of the Alaska Highway, the capture and eventual fortification of the Aleutian islands, and the construction of military bases throughout the state.

.Alaska, and especially the Aleutians, are one of the extreme points of the United States.^ Looking for something to do in Alaska , United States ?
  • Alaska Tourism, Travel Information: WorldWeb.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alaska.worldweb.com [Source type: General]

^ Negotiations had begun with the United States , which ended in the purchase of Alaska in 1867, for $7,200,000.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Alaska 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ There's still a paycheck in old standbys" "Mining crab in a merciless sea" "Gone fishing: Rugged job can pay" Q: I am not a United States citizen, can I still get a job in Alaska?
  • Alaska Jobs FAQ | Alaska Job Finder 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alaskajobfinder.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The International Date Line jogs west of 180° to keep the whole state, and thus the entire continental United States, within the same legal day.^ Prudhoe Bay on Alaska’s North Slope is the highest yielding oil field in the United States, producing approximately 264,000 barrels per day.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to an October 1998 report by the United States Bureau of Land Management, approximately 65% of Alaska is owned and managed by the U.S. federal government as national forests, national parks, and national wildlife refuges.^ Arctic National Wildlife Refuge rafting .
  • Alaska Travel Guides, Vacation Packages & Deals - Travel - LATimes.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC travel.latimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Alaska's parks, forest and refuges are rich and varied.
  • Alaska 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alaska's oldest federally designated park was established in 1910 to commemorate the 1804 Battle of Sitka.
  • Alaska 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Of these, the Bureau of Land Management manages 87 million acres (350,000 km²), or 23.8% of the state.^ Alaska Outdoors, LLC operates under permit from the following land management agencies: National Park Service, Alaska State Parks, Chugach National Forest, Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, and Bureau of Land Management .
  • Alaska Adventure Travel Packages and Camping Tour Vacations With Alaska Outdoors 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC travelalaskaoutdoors.com [Source type: General]

.The Arctic National Wildlife Refuge is managed by the United States Fish and Wildlife Service.^ Alaska Outdoors, LLC operates under permit from the following land management agencies: National Park Service, Alaska State Parks, Chugach National Forest, Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, and Bureau of Land Management .
  • Alaska Adventure Travel Packages and Camping Tour Vacations With Alaska Outdoors 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC travelalaskaoutdoors.com [Source type: General]

^ Visit the original and recently renovated Kenai Riverside Lodge, the wilderness of the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, and an in-depth deluxe camping adventure in Denali National Park.

^ Explore Denali National Park and the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge on this Alaska adventure travel tour.

.Of the remaining land area, the State of Alaska owns 24.5%; another 10% is managed by 13 regional and dozens of local Native corporations created under the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act.^ After graduating in 1992, I returned to Alaska and have since traveled throughout the state as a tour guide, naturalist, and manager for several Alaska adventure tour companies.
  • Alaska Adventure Travel Packages and Camping Tour Vacations With Alaska Outdoors 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC travelalaskaoutdoors.com [Source type: General]

^ In urban areas, you will find students from white, Native Alaskan, Asian, Hispanic, African-American, and dozens of other world cultures.
  • EED - Frequently Asked Questions 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.eed.state.ak.us [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Recorder's office maintains 14 District offices throughout the state, overseeing 34 recording districts that record, index, and archive all of the documents that create the Official Public Record of the state of Alaska.

Various private interests own the remaining land, totaling less than 1%.
File:National-atlas-alaska.png
Map of Alaska - PDF
Alaska is administratively divided into "boroughs", as opposed to "counties." The function is the same, but whereas some states use a three-tiered system of decentralization — state/county/township — most of Alaska uses only two tiers — state/borough. .Owing to the low population density, most of the land is located in the Unorganized Borough which, as the name implies, has no intermediate borough government of its own, but is administered directly by the state government.^ It has no legislature and no territorial form of government, but is governed directly by Congress, and locally administered by a governor, assisted by a secretary, and a surveyor-general, United States marshals, and attorneys, appointed by the President, subject to the approval of the Senate.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Alaska 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The state's population density is only one person per square mile, compared to 71 people per square mile in the rest of the U.S. .
  • Alaska Fishing Jobs | Seafood Industry Employment Guide - JobMonkey 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.jobmonkey.com [Source type: News]

^ From 1879-1884, the Navy governed Alaska, as most of its inhabitants were located in the coastal southeastern "panhandle" of the state.

.Currently (2000 census) 57.71% of Alaska's area has this status, with 13.05% of the population.^ The area generally enjoys mild temperatures, even in the winter, because of the influence of the Japanese current that flows through the Gulf of Alaska.
  • Alaska - Remote Trails and perpetual daylight - USA - The Wayfarers 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thewayfarers.com [Source type: General]

^ November's Alaska Economic Trends articles included: Employment in Alaska's Seafood Industry Bethel Census Area .
  • Workforce Info, Home, HOME 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC laborstats.alaska.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alaska’s July 1, 2008 estimated population was 679,720 more data by area...
  • Workforce Info, Home, HOME 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC laborstats.alaska.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For statistical purposes the United States Census Bureau divides this territory into census areas.^ Alaska" (embodied in the United States Census Report for 1880), describes the Shamanistic ceremonies of initiation, incantations, etc.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Alaska 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The agreement, widely referred to as "Seward's Folly" (and "Seward's Icebox") ceded possession of the vast territory of Alaska to the United States for the sum of $7.2 million.

^ Prior to the cession of Alaska to the United States , no Catholic priest had sojourned in the territory.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Alaska 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Anchorage merged the city government with the Greater Anchorage Area Borough in 1971 to form the Municipality of Anchorage, containing the city proper and the bedroom communities of Eagle River, Chugiak, Peters Creek, Girdwood, Bird, and Indian.^ Other areas nearby to Eagle River: Anchorage .
  • Alaska Vacation Rentals by Owner, Alaska VRBO®, Alaska Vacation Rentals, Alaska Lodging 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.vrbo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other areas nearby to Girdwood: Anchorage .
  • Alaska Vacation Rentals by Owner, Alaska VRBO®, Alaska Vacation Rentals, Alaska Lodging 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.vrbo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rosay signs Municipality of Anchorage Tri-borough Anti-Gang and Youth Violence Policy Team agreement 2/2//09.

.Fairbanks has a separate borough (the Fairbanks North Star Borough) and municipality (the City of Fairbanks).^ Fairbanks North Star Borough (MSA) .
  • Workforce Info, Home, HOME 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC laborstats.alaska.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Climate

The climate in Juneau and the southeast panhandle is best described as a cooler version of Seattle. It is a mid-latitude oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb) in the southern sections and a subarctic oceanic climate (Köppen Cfc) in the northern parts. .On an annual basis, this is both the wettest and warmest part of Alaska with milder temperatures in the winter and high precipitation throughout the year.^ The area generally enjoys mild temperatures, even in the winter, because of the influence of the Japanese current that flows through the Gulf of Alaska.
  • Alaska - Remote Trails and perpetual daylight - USA - The Wayfarers 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thewayfarers.com [Source type: General]

.Juneau averages over 50 inches (1,270 mm) of precipitation a year, while other areas receive over 275 inches (6,990 mm).^ Seward and the Kenai Fjords National Park receive the most rain in our walk area averaging 68 inches of rain per year.
  • Alaska - Remote Trails and perpetual daylight - USA - The Wayfarers 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thewayfarers.com [Source type: General]

[7] .This is also the only region in Alaska in which the average daytime high temperature is above freezing during the winter months.^ During the winter months, sleepy Alaska is awaken to a spectacular light show that is truly unforgettable.

^ The area generally enjoys mild temperatures, even in the winter, because of the influence of the Japanese current that flows through the Gulf of Alaska.
  • Alaska - Remote Trails and perpetual daylight - USA - The Wayfarers 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thewayfarers.com [Source type: General]

^ Communication is open during the summer season only; in winter, transportation is carried on with the aid of dog-teams.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Alaska 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.The climate in south central Alaska, with Anchorage as a typical city, is mild by Alaskan standards.^ Sure, Alaska, the state once known as Seward's Folly, now has many modern cities such as Juneau, Anchorage, and Fairbanks, but most of the state is still a wilderness.
  • Alaska Fishing Jobs | Seafood Industry Employment Guide - JobMonkey 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.jobmonkey.com [Source type: News]

^ Weather in South-central Alaska is difficult to predict and can change rapidly.
  • Alaska - Remote Trails and perpetual daylight - USA - The Wayfarers 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thewayfarers.com [Source type: General]

^ Location is on Seward Highway about one hour south of Anchorage, Alaska.
  • Historical Museums of Alaska - A History Guide 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.censusfinder.com [Source type: General]

This is due in large part to its proximity to the coast. .While it does not get nearly as much rain as the southeast of Alaska, it does get more snow, although days tend to be clearer here.^ See more ivory carvings from this and other Alaskan Artists carvings of Alaska press here.
  • Alaska gifts, totem poles, mukluks, Gold, Ivory & Jade, dream catchers, spirit masks, Ulu knives, dolls, Alaskan made. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alaskaguide.com [Source type: General]

^ Shipping: 7 - 10 days Read more about the Iditarod press here .
  • Alaska gifts, totem poles, mukluks, Gold, Ivory & Jade, dream catchers, spirit masks, Ulu knives, dolls, Alaskan made. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alaskaguide.com [Source type: General]

^ Raingear is mandatory and a comfortable rain jacket can make a rainy day much more bearable.

.On average, Anchorage receives 16 inches (406 mm) of precipitation a year, with around 75 inches (1,905 mm) of snow, although there are areas in the south central which receive far more snow.^ Though the majority of these geese are Snow Geese just passing through the Anchorage area, there is one Canada Goose that has chosen to tag along with this group.
  • Alaska gifts, totem poles, mukluks, Gold, Ivory & Jade, dream catchers, spirit masks, Ulu knives, dolls, Alaskan made. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alaskaguide.com [Source type: General]

^ Seward and the Kenai Fjords National Park receive the most rain in our walk area averaging 68 inches of rain per year.
  • Alaska - Remote Trails and perpetual daylight - USA - The Wayfarers 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thewayfarers.com [Source type: General]

It is a subarctic climate (Köppen Dfc) due to its short, cool summers though.
Barrow, Alaska is the northernmost city in the United States.
.The climate of Western Alaska is determined in large part by the Bering Sea and the Gulf of Alaska.^ Bering Sea-eastern part;St.
  • Alaskan NOAA Nautical Charts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.charts.noaa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ North Pacific Ocean (eastern part) Bering Sea Continuation .
  • Alaskan NOAA Nautical Charts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.charts.noaa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bering Sea Northern Part .
  • Alaskan NOAA Nautical Charts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.charts.noaa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is a subarctic oceanic climate in the southwest and a continental subarctic climate farther north. The temperature is somewhat moderate considering how far north the area is. .This area has a tremendous amount of variety, especially when considering precipitation.^ Driven by 1.400++ postings from the Xbase++ community, SL1 provides a tremendous amount of value in various areas.

.The northern side of the Seward Peninsula is technically a desert with less than 10 inches (250 mm) of precipitation annually, while some locations between Dillingham and Bethel average around 100 inches (2,540 mm) of precipitation.^ Stories should be on 8.5-x-11 size paper, double spaced, 1-inch margins, no less than size 10 font.

^ The fiction pieces must be between 250 and 5,000 words and contain some lesbian content.

^ The short story must be between 250 and 5,000 words and contain some lesbian content.

[7]
The climate of the interior of Alaska is best described as extreme and is the best example of a true subarctic climate. .Some of the hottest and coldest temperatures in Alaska occur around the area near Fairbanks.^ The area generally enjoys mild temperatures, even in the winter, because of the influence of the Japanese current that flows through the Gulf of Alaska.
  • Alaska - Remote Trails and perpetual daylight - USA - The Wayfarers 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thewayfarers.com [Source type: General]

^ Federal regulators have approved a plan to extend the Alaska Railroad 80 miles from Fairbanks to provide year-around freight access to military training grounds near Delta Junction.
  • Alaska News | adn.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.adn.com [Source type: News]

^ Around 1,000 colonists were selected from some 15,000 applicants, largely from Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota--on the assumption that the similar climate of these areas to Alaska would best suit settlers for life in the North.

.The summers can have temperatures reaching into the 80s°F (near 30 °C), while in the winter, the temperature can fall below −60 °F (-52 °C).^ In general, the changes of climate in the north are rapid and extreme, the mean summer temperature being from 60°-70° Fahrenheit, while the winter cold registers as low as 50° and 60° below zero, and near the Arctic Circle still greater extremes are met with, the thermometer reaching 70x below zero.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Alaska 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.Precipitation is not much in the Interior, often less than 10 inches (250 mm) a year, but what precipitation falls in the winter tends to stay the entire winter.^ Stories should be on 8.5-x-11 size paper, double spaced, 1-inch margins, no less than size 10 font.

The highest and lowest recorded temperatures in Alaska are both in the Interior. The highest is 100 °F (38 °C) in Fort Yukon on June 27, 1915,[8]
.The climate in the extreme north of Alaska is as expected for an area north of the Arctic Circle.^ Around 1,000 colonists were selected from some 15,000 applicants, largely from Michigan, Wisconsin, and Minnesota--on the assumption that the similar climate of these areas to Alaska would best suit settlers for life in the North.

.It is an Arctic climate (Köppen ET) with long, very cold winters and short, cool summers.^ In general, the changes of climate in the north are rapid and extreme, the mean summer temperature being from 60°-70° Fahrenheit, while the winter cold registers as low as 50° and 60° below zero, and near the Arctic Circle still greater extremes are met with, the thermometer reaching 70x below zero.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Alaska 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The winter in the Yukon and Seward peninsula is rigorous and long; the summer warm and brief.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Alaska 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

Even in July, the average low temperature is barely above freezing in Barrow, at 34 °F (2 °C).Cite error: .Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag Alaska is the least densely populated state, at 0.42 people per square kilometer (1.1 per square mile), with the next state, Wyoming, at 1.97 (5.1 per square mile), and the most densely populated, New Jersey, at 437.6 people per square kilometer (1,134.4 per square mile).^ Alaska State Museums The Alaska State Museum was established on June 6, 1900, and provides its customers knowledge of the history of the state, its people, and its resources.
  • Historical Museums of Alaska - A History Guide 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.censusfinder.com [Source type: General]

^ The Hope/Sunrise area was one of the most heavily populated areas of Alaska in the late 1800s – about 5,000 people lived here in the mining heyday, which is hard to believe when you see what’s left.
  • Alaska - Remote Trails and perpetual daylight - USA - The Wayfarers 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thewayfarers.com [Source type: General]

^ From Seattle to Skagway is a distance of about 1,000 miles, a little more than from New York to Chicago ; and from Seattle to the most distant point of Alaska is about the distance from New York to San Francisco.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Alaska 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

Race and ancestry

.According to the 2000 U.S. Census, 75% of Alaska residents are white.^ In 1940, about 1,000 of Alaska's 75,000 residents were military.

^ According to the census of 1900, Alaska embraces, inclusive of the islands, 590,804 square miles.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Alaska 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.19% are American Indian or Alaska Native, the largest proportion of any state.^ American Indian Inaugural Ball - The 2009 American Indian Inaugural Ball brings together Native leaders, organizations, artists, musicians, and professionals from across the country.
  • Tlingit National Anthem, Alaska Natives, Native Americans online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC cooday8.tripod.com [Source type: General]

^ Alaska Native subsistence rights delayed until April in State Court .
  • Tlingit National Anthem, Alaska Natives, Native Americans online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC cooday8.tripod.com [Source type: General]

^ We stand with Alaska State Senator Albert Kookesh and all our Native fishermen on this.
  • Tlingit National Anthem, Alaska Natives, Native Americans online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC cooday8.tripod.com [Source type: General]

.Multiracial/Mixed-Race people are the third largest group of people in the state, totaling 6.9% of the population.^ The Southeastern division, or "Panhandle" region, had by far the largest population and began to wonder if perhaps it could become a state separate from the other three less-populated divisions.

^ A total of thirteen officials were made responsible for a population of 32,000 people, of which only 430 were white settlers.

^ The total population is about 72,000 of which about 15,000 are Catholics , one third of these being natives.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Alaska 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

.The largest self-reported ancestry groups in the state are German (16.6%), Alaska Native or American Indian (15.6%), Irish (10.8%), British (9.6%), American (5.7%), and Norwegian (4.2%).^ The output of gold in American Alaska in the fiscal year 1905 was about $10,000,000.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Alaska 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Alaska" (embodied in the United States Census Report for 1880), describes the Shamanistic ceremonies of initiation, incantations, etc.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Alaska 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Along the way, meet people of Native American, Russian and Scandinavian ancestries.

.The vast sparsely-populated regions of northern and western Alaska are primarily inhabited by Alaska Natives, who are also numerous in the southeast.^ The museum is focused on the early exploration of the Northwest, the early culture and history of northern Alaska and the arts of her native peoples.
  • Historical Museums of Alaska - A History Guide 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.censusfinder.com [Source type: General]

^ This is especially true of the Hydah branch of the Thlinkets, who, ethnologically, are the most interesting branch of the Alaska natives.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Alaska 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But Alaska (like Hawaii and Puerto Rico) was non-contiguous and sparsely populated.

.Anchorage, Fairbanks, and other parts of south-central and southeast Alaska have many whites of northern and western European ancestry.^ Alaska is a great place, too bad it's so flat near Fairbanks, but there are many animals to see.
  • Climbing in Alaska 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.gdargaud.net [Source type: General]

^ I went to Alaska in early '95 to work at the Geophysical Institute of the University of Fairbanks, in central Alaska.
  • Climbing in Alaska 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.gdargaud.net [Source type: General]

^ Many settlers came to Alaska with the expectation that the territory would follow the path of the Western states to official state status.

The Wrangell-Petersburg area has many residents of Scandinavian ancestry and the Aleutians contain a large Filipino population. Most of the state's black population lives in Anchorage. Fairbanks also has a sizable black population.

Languages

Russian Orthodox church in Sitka, Alaska.
.According to the 2000 U.S. Census, 85.7% of Alaska residents aged 5 and older speak English at home.^ According to the census of 1900, Alaska embraces, inclusive of the islands, 590,804 square miles.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Alaska 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ CENSUS HOME Census Records Historical Societies Alaska Maps Genealogy News Spotlite Links Link to us!
  • Historical Museums of Alaska - A History Guide 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.censusfinder.com [Source type: General]

The next most common languages are Spanish (2.88%), Yupik (2.87%), Tagalog (1.54%), and Iñupiaq (1.06%).[9] .A total of 5.2% of Alaskans speak one of the state's 22 indigenous languages, known locally as Native languages.^ The total population is about 72,000 of which about 15,000 are Catholics , one third of these being natives.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Alaska 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The total wealth accruing to the United States from its Alaskan possessions between 1867 and 1905 is calculated at nearly $160,000,000.
  • CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Alaska 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.newadvent.org [Source type: Original source]

Religion

Eighty-two percent of Alaskans are Christians. Of these, 76% are Protestant, 10% are Eastern Orthodox, 9% are Catholic, 5% are Mormon, and 1% are Episcopalian. .The large Eastern Orthodox population is a result of early Russian colonization and missionary work among Alaska Natives.^ Russian Orthodox Missionaries converted the Natives to the orthodoxy in 1840s.
  • Alaska - Remote Trails and perpetual daylight - USA - The Wayfarers 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thewayfarers.com [Source type: General]

^ The museum is focused on the early exploration of the Northwest, the early culture and history of northern Alaska and the arts of her native peoples.
  • Historical Museums of Alaska - A History Guide 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.censusfinder.com [Source type: General]

^ Isabel Miller Museum Russian Bishop's House Virtual Tour ] Sheldon Jackson Museum Said to be the oldest museum in Alaska, the museum features early Native American artifacts, including items made by the Eskimos, Tlingits, Athabaskans, and Aleuts.
  • Historical Museums of Alaska - A History Guide 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.censusfinder.com [Source type: General]

Alaska also has the largest Quaker population (by percentage) of any state. In 1994 there were 3,060 Jews in Alaska.

Economy

The Trans-Alaska Pipeline transports oil, Alaska's most important export, from the North Slope to Valdez
The 2005 gross state product was $39.9 billion. Its per-capita GSP for 2005 was $60,079, 3rd in the nation. .Alaska's economy relies heavily on petroleum extraction, with more than 80% of the state's revenues derived from this industry.^ Today, Alaska Software has made available for download a series of Hotfix Rollups, covering more than 25 PDRs related to Xbase++.

^ More than 50 hydroelectric power plants supply Alaskan communities, and three of those plants are among the ten largest generators in the State.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Up until now, we have more than 10 months invested into the upcoming release", so Mr. Steffen F. Pirsig, Project Lead at Alaska Software.

.Alaska's main export product (excluding oil and natural gas) is seafood, primarily salmon, cod, pollock and crab.^ Excluding Federal offshore production, Alaska ranks second in the Nation in crude oil production.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, the Kenai liquefied natural gas (LNG) terminal in the Cook Inlet exports LNG, primarily to Japan.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Most of Alaska’s marketed natural gas is consumed at the production site as lease fuel or plant fuel.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Agriculture represents only a fraction of the Alaska economy. Agricultural production is primarily for consumption within the state and includes nursery stock, dairy products, vegetables, and livestock. Manufacturing is limited, with most foodstuffs and general goods imported from elsewhere. Employment is primarily in government and industries such as natural resource extraction, shipping, and transportation. Military bases are a significant component of the economy in both Fairbanks and Anchorage. Its industrial outputs are crude petroleum, natural gas, coal, gold, precious metals, zinc and other mining, seafood processing, timber and wood products. There is also a growing service and tourism sector. Tourists have contributed to the economy by supporting local lodging.
Alaska's economy is heavily dependent on increasingly expensive diesel fuel for heating, transportation, electric power and light. .Though wind and hydroelectric power are abundant and underutilized, proposals for state-wide energy systems (e.g.^ State Energy Data System (SEDS) tables that display comprehensive State data from as early as 1960 to the present .
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than 50 hydroelectric power plants supply Alaskan communities, and three of those plants are among the ten largest generators in the State.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alaska’s numerous rivers offer some of the highest hydroelectric power potential in the Nation, and large swaths of the Alaskan coastline offer wind and geothermal energy potential.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

with special low-cost electric interties) were judged uneconomical (at the time of the report, 2001) due to low (<$0.50/Gal) fuel prices, long distances and low population.[10] .The cost of a gallon of gas in urban Alaska today is usually $0.30-$0.60 higher than the national average; prices in rural areas are generally significantly higher but vary widely depending on transportation costs, seasonal usage peaks, nearby petroleum development infrastructure and many other factors.^ You'll find black bears, grizzly bears, moose, mountain goats, dall sheep, wolves, and more, in urban as well as rural areas.
  • Travel Alaska with Maps, Businesses, Alaska Wildlife, Native Art, Gold Rush History, and Alaska Vacation Information. Featuring Anchorage, Denali, Fairbanks and the Kenai. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC alaska101.com [Source type: General]

^ The area generally enjoys mild temperatures, even in the winter, because of the influence of the Japanese current that flows through the Gulf of Alaska.
  • Alaska - Remote Trails and perpetual daylight - USA - The Wayfarers 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thewayfarers.com [Source type: General]

^ The price decrease of 2.2 percent was the biggest in two decades but it was much smaller than the U.S. average.
  • Alaska News | adn.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.adn.com [Source type: News]

Permanent Fund

.The Alaska Permanent Fund is a legislatively-controlled appropriation established in 1976 to manage a surplus in state petroleum revenues from the recently constructed Trans-Alaska Pipeline System.^ Childhood photo of Latseen Benson with his mother Diane who worked on the on the Trans-Alaska Pipeline.
  • Tlingit National Anthem, Alaska Natives, Native Americans online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC cooday8.tripod.com [Source type: General]

^ "We need to challenge the state of Alaska coming in the back door trying to manage subsistence on federal lands," Kookesh told the Associated Press.
  • Tlingit National Anthem, Alaska Natives, Native Americans online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC cooday8.tripod.com [Source type: General]

From its initial principal of $734,000, the fund has grown to $38 billion as a result of oil royalties and capital investment programs. Starting in 1982, dividends from the fund's annual growth have been paid out each year to eligible Alaskans, ranging from $331.29 in 1984 to $1963.86 in 2000.[11]

Cost of living

.The cost of goods in Alaska has long been higher than in the contiguous 48 states.^ An interconnected grid exists in the populated areas from Fairbanks to south of Anchorage; however, that grid is isolated from those in Canada and the 48 contiguous States.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alaska’s electricity infrastructure differs from the lower 48 States in that most consumers are not linked to large interconnected grids through transmission and distribution lines.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This has changed for the most part in Anchorage and to a lesser extent in Fairbanks, where the cost of living has dropped somewhat in the past five years.^ In years past, the 26 Glacier Cruise has dropped me off deep in the Sound to film and photograph.
  • Alaskan Living 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC bob.alaska.org [Source type: General]

.Federal Government employees, particularly United States Postal Service (USPS) workers and active-duty military members, receive a Cost Of Living Allowance usually set at 25% of base pay because, while the cost of living has gone down, it is still one of the highest in the country.^ It's set against one of Anchorage's larger parks, has a creek running through the front lawn, is in a good neighborhood, and yet has the feel of "country living" (and comes with its own moose, as you can see in the photo.
  • Alaskan Living 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC bob.alaska.org [Source type: General]

The introduction of big-box stores in Anchorage, Fairbanks (Wal-Mart in March of 2004), and Juneau also did much to lower prices. .However, rural Alaska suffers from extremely high prices for food and consumer goods, compared to the rest of the country due to the relatively limited transportation infrastructure.^ Although Alaska has a low absolute energy demand compared to the U.S. average, its per capita energy consumption is the highest in the country – more than three times the U.S. average.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many rural residents come in to these cities and purchase food and goods in bulk from warehouse clubs like Costco and Sam's Club.^ Demonstrations of the many arts of these Native Americans are also on display and items may be purchased.
  • Historical Museums of Alaska - A History Guide 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.censusfinder.com [Source type: General]

.Some have embraced the free shipping offers of some online retailers to purchase items much more cheaply than they could in their own communities, if they are available at all.^ To get all the details about Speakers present, Topics spoken about, Add-On-Vendors being on site and much more.

^ Hence the average transaction time got reduced by more than 30%, and our Web applications handle now a much larger amount of simultanous transactions.

^ Hotfix Rollups are available to all customers who have an active subscription or have purchased Xbase++ within the last 12 months.

Taxes

.Alaska has the lowest individual tax burden in the US[12], and is one of only six states with no state sales tax and one of seven states that do not levy an individual income tax.^ Oe of our favorite wide-ranging probes, the one into corruption in Alaska state government, grinds relentlessly on.

^ Max of 12 fishermen $4800 per boat - Max of 6 fishermen plus sales tax .
  • Alaska Halibut Fishing, Homer Alaska Fishing Halibut Charters, Halibut Guides and Alaska Salmon Fishing 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC alaska-halibut-fishing-charters.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It’s a small town (10 or 12 buildings) so we wouldn’t need much energy, but it’s a chance for us to see “the real Alaska” that has been touched by very little tourism.
  • Alaska - Remote Trails and perpetual daylight - USA - The Wayfarers 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thewayfarers.com [Source type: General]

.To finance state government operations, Alaska depends primarily on petroleum revenues.^ Oe of our favorite wide-ranging probes, the one into corruption in Alaska state government, grinds relentlessly on.

The Department of Revenue Tax Division reports regularly on the state's revenue sources. The Department also issues an annual overview of its operations, including new state laws that directly affect the tax division.
While Alaska has no state sales tax, 89 municipalities collect a local sales tax, from 1% to 7%, typically 3% to 5%. Other local taxes levied include raw fish taxes, hotel, motel, and B&B “bed” taxes, severance taxes, liquor and tobacco taxes, gaming (pull tabs) taxes, tire taxes and fuel transfer taxes. A percentage of revenue collected from certain state taxes and license fees (such as petroleum, aviation motor fuel, telephone cooperative) is shared with municipalities in Alaska.
Property taxes are relatively low, with only 25 of 161 incorporated municipalities or boroughs in the state assessing property taxes. .Fairbanks has one of the highest property taxes in the state as no sales or income taxes are assessed in the Fairbanks North Star Borough (FNSB).^ D enali (the Great One , aka McKinley ) is the highest summit in North America at 6192m.
  • Climbing in Alaska 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.gdargaud.net [Source type: General]

A sales tax for the FNSB has been voted on many times, but has yet to be approved, leading law makers to increase taxes dramatically on other goods such as liquor and tobacco. The average per capita property tax paid in all municipalities, excluding oil and gas properties, was US$999 (2003 data).

Transportation

Roads

See also: List of Alaska Routes
Alaska is arguably the least-connected state in terms of road transportation. .The state's road system covers a relatively small area of the state, linking the central population centers and the Alaska Highway, the principal route out of the state through Canada.^ Though the majority of these geese are Snow Geese just passing through the Anchorage area, there is one Canada Goose that has chosen to tag along with this group.
  • Alaska gifts, totem poles, mukluks, Gold, Ivory & Jade, dream catchers, spirit masks, Ulu knives, dolls, Alaskan made. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alaskaguide.com [Source type: General]

^ An interconnected grid exists in the populated areas from Fairbanks to south of Anchorage; however, that grid is isolated from those in Canada and the 48 contiguous States.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alaska’s electricity infrastructure differs from that of the lower 48 States because most Alaskan consumers are not linked to large, interconnected grids through transmission and distribution lines.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The state capital, Juneau, is not accessible by road, which has spurred several debates over the decades about moving the capital to a city on the road system. .One unique feature of the road system is the Anton Anderson Memorial Tunnel, which links the Seward Highway south of Anchorage with the relatively isolated community of Whittier.^ An interconnected grid exists in the populated areas from Fairbanks to south of Anchorage; however, that grid is isolated from those in Canada and the 48 contiguous States.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Portage Glacier Road: from Seward Highway Milepost 0 to Whittier Access Road Turnoff; End of Portage Glacier Road driving conditions are fair, ice glaze, fog, calm last updated today at 7:01 AM .
  • Alaska Road Traveler Information Service 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC 511.alaska.gov [Source type: News]

^ Hope Road: from Seward Highway Milepost 0 to End of Hope Road Milepost 17.8 driving conditions are fair, icy patches, fog last updated today at 6:47 AM .
  • Alaska Road Traveler Information Service 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC 511.alaska.gov [Source type: News]

At nearly 2.5 miles [4 km] the tunnel was the longest road tunnel in North America until completion of the 3.5 mile (5.6 km) Interstate 93 tunnel as part of the "Big Dig" project in Boston. The tunnel is the longest combination road and rail tunnel in North America.

Rail

.The Alaska Railroad runs from Seward through Anchorage, Denali, and Fairbanks to North Pole, with spurs to Whittier and Palmer (locally known as "The Railbelt").^ Featuring Anchorage, Denali, Fairbanks and the Kenai.
  • Travel Alaska with Maps, Businesses, Alaska Wildlife, Native Art, Gold Rush History, and Alaska Vacation Information. Featuring Anchorage, Denali, Fairbanks and the Kenai. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC alaska101.com [Source type: General]

^ Nenana         Nikiski         Ninilchik         North Pole         Paxson         Palmer         Parks Hwy Jct         Portage Glacier         Seward         Slana         Soldotna         Sterling         Steese Hwy         Talkeetna         Tok         Trapper Creek         Turnagain Arm         Valdez         Wasilla         Whittier         Willow         Wrangell St-Elias Park .
  • Travel Alaska with Maps, Businesses, Alaska Wildlife, Native Art, Gold Rush History, and Alaska Vacation Information. Featuring Anchorage, Denali, Fairbanks and the Kenai. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC alaska101.com [Source type: General]

.The railroad is famous for its summertime passenger services and also plays a vital part in moving Alaska's natural resources, such as coal and gravel, to ports in Anchorage, Whittier and Seward.^ Alaskan dog teams played a vital role linking Alaskan villages as the primary mode of transportation of both people and the famous Penicillin run of 1914 from Anchorage to Nome.
  • Alaska gifts, totem poles, mukluks, Gold, Ivory & Jade, dream catchers, spirit masks, Ulu knives, dolls, Alaskan made. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alaskaguide.com [Source type: General]

^ This affordable Alaska cruise is perfect for travelers seeking to combine wilderness cruising with visits to popular ports such as Juneau, Sitka and Petersburg.

.The Alaska Railroad is one of the few remaining railroads in North America to use cabooses in regular service and offers one of the last flag stop routes in the country.^ D enali (the Great One , aka McKinley ) is the highest summit in North America at 6192m.
  • Climbing in Alaska 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.gdargaud.net [Source type: General]

^ One more day of downclimbing and rappelling that long ridge where I have to fiercely defend my few remaining powerbars from two hungry aussies.
  • Climbing in Alaska 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.gdargaud.net [Source type: General]

A stretch of about 60 miles of track along an area inaccessible by road is the only transportation to cabins in the area.

Marine transport

Most cities and villages in the state are accessible only by sea or air. .Alaska has a well-developed ferry system, known as the Alaska Marine Highway, which serves the cities of Southeast and the Alaska Peninsula.^ He has done many public art projects including the Alaska Marine Highway building in Juneau, AK, the Haines School, the Haines Public Library, and the ferry M/V Kennecott.
  • Schedule ::: Alaska Bald Eagle Festival 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC baldeaglefestival.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The system also operates a ferry service from Bellingham, Washington up the Inside Passage to Skagway.^ In addition to general corrections and enhancements, the Service Level contains a number of changes related to the Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 operating systems.

^ Cruise Alaska's Inside Passage up close your own pace aboard the Schooner yacht Sundance.

^ Inside Passage: Washington, British Columbia & Alaska .

.In the Prince of Wales Island region of Southeast, the Inter-Island Ferry Authority also serves as an important marine link for many communities, and works in concert with the Alaska Marine Highway.^ Prince William Sound region of Alaska .
  • Recent Earthquakes 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.aeic.alaska.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Andreanof Islands region of Alaska .
  • Recent Earthquakes 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.aeic.alaska.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Unimak Island region of Alaska .
  • Recent Earthquakes 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.aeic.alaska.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Tourist sea travel is also popular on Alaska cruises.^ Cruise 15 days from Seattle, Washington to Juneau, Alaska on cruises that go where the big ships can't, bringing adventurous travelers closer to the bears, whales, and tidewater glaciers.

^ This affordable Alaska cruise is perfect for travelers seeking to combine wilderness cruising with visits to popular ports such as Juneau, Sitka and Petersburg.

^ Travel in the company of lifelong Alaskans with over 45 years experience cruising Alaska.

Air transport

.Cities not served by road or sea can be reached only by air, accounting for Alaska's extremely well-developed Bush air services—an Alaskan novelty.^ An avid mountaineer, sea kayaker and backcountry skier, Rob believes that spending time in wild country is the only way to accurately portray the beauty of Alaska.
  • Schedule ::: Alaska Bald Eagle Festival 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC baldeaglefestival.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Cruise Alaska with Alaskans aboard the Discovery - a 65' classic working yacht accommodating only 12 guests.

^ To download Service Level #1, log onto your individual customer account at www.alaska-software.com.

Anchorage itself, and to a lesser extent Fairbanks, are serviced by many major airlines. Air travel is the cheapest and most efficient form of transportation in and out of the state. .Anchorage recently completed extensive remodeling and construction at Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport to help accommodate the upsurge in tourism (in 2000-2001, the latest year for which data are available, 2.4 million total arrivals to Alaska were counted, 1.7 million via air travel; 1.4 million were visitors[13][14]).^ Ted Stevens of Alaska, NPR has learned.

^ The judge in the Ted Stevens case has granted the government's motion to drop the charges against the former Alaska senator -- but not before slamming the government prosecutors on the case.

^ Earlier this week, Judge Emmet Sullivan formally dropped the charges against former Alaska senator Ted Stevens, thanks to prosecutorial misconduct.

Regular flights to most villages and towns within the state are commercially challenging to provide. .Alaska Airlines is the only major airline offering in-state travel with jet service (sometimes in combination cargo and passenger Boeing 737-200s) from Anchorage and Fairbanks to regional hubs like Bethel, Nome, Kotzebue, Dillingham, Kodiak, and other larger communities as well as to major Southeast and Alaska Peninsula communities.^ I began by flying an Alaska Airlines jet from Anchorage to Juneau.
  • Alaskan Living 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC bob.alaska.org [Source type: General]

^ Left : Before the mountain pictures, here are a few typical Alaska pictures, like the Fairbanks ice carving festival held every year.
  • Climbing in Alaska 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.gdargaud.net [Source type: General]

^ There aren't any good climbing spots near Fairbanks, only a couple tiny rocks like the Tors.
  • Climbing in Alaska 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.gdargaud.net [Source type: General]

The bulk of remaining commercial flight offerings come from small regional commuter airlines like: Era Aviation, PenAir, and Frontier Flying Service. The smallest towns and villages must rely on scheduled or chartered Bush flying services using general aviation aircraft such as the Cessna Caravan, the most popular aircraft in use in the state. Much of this service can be attributed to the Alaska bypass mail program which subsidizes bulk mail delivery to Alaskan rural communities. .The program requires 70% of that subsidy to go to carriers who offer passenger service to the communities.^ To access the Service Level archive, please go to Login-> MyAccount-> Downloads-> Community Previews.

^ Please go to Login-> MyAccount-> Downloads-> Community Previews to access the Service Level archive.

But perhaps the most quintessentially Alaskan plane is the Bush seaplane. .The world's busiest seaplane base is Lake Hood, located next to Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport, where flights bound for remote villages without an airstrip carry passengers, cargo, and lots of items from stores and warehouse clubs.^ RECOMMEND RECOMMEND ( 1 ) Topics: Alaska , Anchorage Daily News , Bill Allen , Justice Department , Oil , Ted Stevens , Veco Corp.

Alaska has the highest number of pilots per capita of any U.S. state: out of the estimated 663,661 residents, 8,550 are pilots, or about one in 78.[15]
Alaska has the longest runway in the world, as the entire length of the Richardson Highway is designated an emergency landing strip.

Other transport

Another Alaskan transportation method is the dogsled. .In modern times, dog mushing is more of a sport than a true means of transportation.^ Hence the average transaction time got reduced by more than 30%, and our Web applications handle now a much larger amount of simultanous transactions.

.Various races are held around the state, but the best known is the Iditarod Trail Sled Dog Race, a 1150-mile (1850 km) trail from Anchorage to Nome.^ Experienced Dog Mushers race over 1000 miles across Alaska's frozen wilderness from Anchorage to Nome each March, this year the race starts March 1st.
  • Alaska gifts, totem poles, mukluks, Gold, Ivory & Jade, dream catchers, spirit masks, Ulu knives, dolls, Alaskan made. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alaskaguide.com [Source type: General]

^ Alaskan Dog Team by Alaskan Carver, L. Savage, Athabascan of Holy Cross, AK Champions of the Trail This beautiful piece reflects Alaska's greatest adventure...A team of fast paced dogs and sled racing across Alaska's wilderness.
  • Alaska gifts, totem poles, mukluks, Gold, Ivory & Jade, dream catchers, spirit masks, Ulu knives, dolls, Alaskan made. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alaskaguide.com [Source type: General]

.The race commemorates the famous 1925 serum run to Nome in which mushers and dogs like Balto took much-needed medicine to the diphtheria-stricken community of Nome when all other means of transportation had failed.^ Alaskan dog teams played a vital role linking Alaskan villages as the primary mode of transportation of both people and the famous Penicillin run of 1914 from Anchorage to Nome.
  • Alaska gifts, totem poles, mukluks, Gold, Ivory & Jade, dream catchers, spirit masks, Ulu knives, dolls, Alaskan made. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alaskaguide.com [Source type: General]

^ Experienced Dog Mushers race over 1000 miles across Alaska's frozen wilderness from Anchorage to Nome each March, this year the race starts March 1st.
  • Alaska gifts, totem poles, mukluks, Gold, Ivory & Jade, dream catchers, spirit masks, Ulu knives, dolls, Alaskan made. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alaskaguide.com [Source type: General]

^ During the Visual FoxPro Developer Conference 2008, which took place in November in Frankfurt, we got so much feedback and response from the FoxPro Community which we would like to express all participants our sincerest thanks for.

.Mushers from all over the world come to Anchorage each March to compete for cash prizes and prestige.^ Experienced Dog Mushers race over 1000 miles across Alaska's frozen wilderness from Anchorage to Nome each March, this year the race starts March 1st.
  • Alaska gifts, totem poles, mukluks, Gold, Ivory & Jade, dream catchers, spirit masks, Ulu knives, dolls, Alaskan made. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alaskaguide.com [Source type: General]

^ Geographically speaking, Xbase ++ applications are deployed all over the world: ranging from Anchorage to Auckland, and from Upsala to Ushuaia.

In areas not served by road or rail, primary transportation in summer is by all-terrain vehicle and in winter by snowmobile or "snow machine," as it is commonly referred to in Alaska.

Law and government

Main article: Government of Alaska

Political leanings

.Alaska is often described as a Republican-leaning state with strong Libertarian tendencies.^ Majority Leader Harry Reid (D-NV) has already said that "a convicted felon is not going to be able to serve in the United States Senate" shortly after the Alaska Republican's conviction.

In presidential elections, the state's electoral college votes have been almost always won by a Republican nominee. Only once has Alaska supported a Democratic nominee, when it supported Lyndon B. Johnson in the landslide year of 1964, although the 1960 and 1968 elections were close. No state has voted for a Democratic presidential candidate fewer times. President George W. Bush won the state's electoral votes in 2004 by a margin of 25 percentage points with 61.1% of the vote. The city of Juneau is a stronghold of the Democratic party. .As of 2004, well over half of all registered voters choose "Non-Partisan" or "Undeclared" as their affiliation [16], despite recent attempts to close primaries.^ Eligible for downloading this BETA-Drop for free are all registered Xbase ++ Version 1.82 customers, as well as all our Professional and Foundation subscription customers.

^ Release Candidate of Xbase++ 1.9 Service Level #1 to all recent Xbase++ as well as all active subscription customers.

Alaska possesses a pervasively strong independence movement favoring secession from the US, with the Alaska Independence Party labeled one of the "the most significant state-level third parties operating in the 20th century". [17]

State government

.December 4 2006, Sarah Palin was sworn in as the first woman and youngest Governor of Alaska.^ RECOMMEND RECOMMEND ( 26 ) Topics: Alaska , Sarah Palin , Talis Colberg , Trooper-Gate , subpoena .

^ The Alaska State Personnel Board's Trooper-Gate report has been released, and it clears Sarah Palin of any wrong-doing.

^ Looks like Sarah Palin agrees with the Alaska GOP: .

.Her running mate was Lieutenant Governor Sean Parnell.^ And Lieutenant Governor Sean Parnell, who'll soon replace Palin as governor, had given that line over the weekend, saying on Fox News that Palin had talked to him about the toll the complaints had taken.

.Palin is the former two-term mayor of Wasilla, Alaska.^ Former Alaska Gov. Sarah Palin Further details have emerged about the banning of undesirable reporters from the Sarah Palin book tour event in Palin's hometown of Wasilla, after Alaska-based photojournalist and videographer Dennis Zaki found himself on the list.

^ RECOMMEND RECOMMEND ( 8 ) Topics: Alaska , Dennis Zaki , Going Rogue , Jesse Griffin , Sarah Palin , Wasilla .

^ RECOMMEND RECOMMEND ( 13 ) Topics: Alaska , Dennis Zaki , Sarah Palin , Todd Palin , Wasilla .

.The Alaska Legislature consists of a 20-member Senate, whose members serve four-year terms, and 40-member House of Representatives, who serve two-year terms.^ On a four-person "banned list" -- yes, that term was actually used by police -- were a blogger, a videographer, a local radio host, and another person who hasn't been identified.

^ The woman who once called on the press to "quit makin' things up" took it a step further yesterday by allegedly banning four members of the media from a book event in Wasilla, Alaska.

^ Majority Leader Harry Reid (D-NV) has already said that "a convicted felon is not going to be able to serve in the United States Senate" shortly after the Alaska Republican's conviction.

It has been dominated by conservatives, generally Republicans. .Recent state governors have been mostly conservatives, although not always elected under the official Republican banner.^ Under Alaska state law, the current governor--perhaps you remember her--would appoint a temporary replacement.

Republican Wally Hickel was elected to the office for a second term in 1990 after jumping the Republican ship and briefly joining the Alaskan Independence Party ticket just long enough to be reelected. He subsequently officially rejoined the Republican fold in 1994.
Alaska's court system has four levels: the Alaska Supreme Court, the court of appeals, the superior courts and the district courts.[18] The superior and district courts are trial courts. Superior courts are courts of general jurisdiction, while district courts only hear certain types of cases, including misdemeanor criminal cases and civil cases valued up to $100,000.[18] The supreme court and the court of appeals are appellate courts. The court of appeals is required to hear appeals from certain lower-court decisions, including those regarding criminal prosecutions, juvenile delinquency, and habeas corpus.[18] The supreme court hears civil appeals and may in its discretion hear criminal appeals.[18]
.Local political communities often work on issues related to land use development, fishing, tourism, and individual rights.^ Furthermore we like to encourage everyone to attend this event to get in touch with the Xbase ++ community and of course make use of the opportunity to discuss personally your individual requirements with the Speakers and members of the development team of Alaska Software!

Alaska Natives, while organized in and around their communities, are often active within the Native corporations which have been given ownership over large tracts of land, and thus need to deliberate resource conservation and development issues.

Representation in the U.S. Congress

U.S. Senator Ted Stevens
Alaska's members of the U.S. Congress are all Republican. U.S. Senator Ted Stevens was appointed to the position following the death of U.S. Senator Bob Bartlett in December 1968, and has not lost a re-election campaign since. .As the longest-serving Republican in the Senate (sometimes nicknamed "Senator-For-Life"), Stevens has been a crucial force in gaining federal money for his state.^ Stevens the Republican former Alaska senator, was convicted last fall of failing to report gifts on his Senate disclosure form.

^ Majority Leader Harry Reid (D-NV) has already said that "a convicted felon is not going to be able to serve in the United States Senate" shortly after the Alaska Republican's conviction.

^ Then a special election would be held to choose a senator to serve out the remainder of Stevens' six-year term.

.Until his resignation from the U.S. Senate after being elected governor in 2002, Republican Frank Murkowski held the state's other senatorial position and, as governor, appointed his daughter, State Representative Lisa Murkowski as his successor (under massive public pressure, the State legislature amended the constitution to eliminate gubernatorial appointments in the future).^ Remember that second Trooper-Gate investigation, conducted by the state personnel board -- whose members, of course, are appointed by the governor?

^ Under Alaska state law, the current governor--perhaps you remember her--would appoint a temporary replacement.

^ Alaska voters approved an initiative that stripped the governor from the power to appoint a replacement to the U.S. Senate, and which conflicts with current state law.

She won a full six-year term on her own in 2004.
.Alaska's sole U.S. Representative, Don Young, was re-elected to his 17th consecutive term, also in 2004. His seniority in House makes him one of the most influential Republican House members.^ Alaska is one of the most diverse places.
  • ThinkRentals.com - Alaska Rentals in AK - Think Rentals 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thinkrentals.com [Source type: General]

^ Here, you can find out how to make your vacation the most memorable one with Alaska cabins.
  • ThinkRentals.com - Alaska Rentals in AK - Think Rentals 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thinkrentals.com [Source type: General]

^ RECOMMEND RECOMMEND ( 3 ) Topics: Alaska , Bill Allen , Don Young , Ted Stevens , Veco .

Important cities and towns

See also: List of cities in Alaska by population and Alaska locations by per capita income
.Alaska's most populous city is Anchorage, home to 260,283 people in 2000, 225,744 of whom live in the urbanized area.^ Proper comparisons will definitely bag you some of the most ostensible deals of Alaska vacation homes.
  • ThinkRentals.com - Alaska Rentals in AK - Think Rentals 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thinkrentals.com [Source type: General]

^ His woeful appearance belies the fact that Alaska mosquitoes are not nearly as bad as most people think.
  • Alaskan Living 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC bob.alaska.org [Source type: General]

The richest location in Alaska by per capita income is Halibut Cove ($89,895). Sitka, Juneau, and Anchorage are the three largest cities in the U.S. by area.
Also notable is the rapid growth of towns in the Mat-Su Valley. Wasilla and Palmer are projected to experience over 100% population growth between 2000 and 2010.
Anchorage is the largest city in Alaska.
Cities of 100,000 or more people
Towns of 10,000-100,000 people
Towns of 1,000-10,000 people
   
Smaller towns
Alaska has many smaller towns, especially in the Alaska Bush, the portion of the state that is inaccessible by road.

Education

The Alaska Department of Education and Early Development administers many school districts in Alaska. In addition, the state operates several boarding schools, including Mt. Edgecumbe High School in Sitka, Nenana Living Center in Nenana, and Galena High School in Galena.[19]
.There are more than a dozen colleges and universities in Alaska.^ There have been more than 100 issues resolved since the RC-1 drop, hence the release of Xbase ++ 1.9 is coming closer and closer.

^ Today, Alaska Software has made available for download a series of Hotfix Rollups, covering more than 25 PDRs related to Xbase++.

^ Up until now, we have more than 10 months invested into the upcoming release", so Mr. Steffen F. Pirsig, Project Lead at Alaska Software.

Accredited universities in Alaska include the University of Alaska Anchorage, University of Alaska Fairbanks, University of Alaska Southeast, Sheldon Jackson College and Alaska Pacific University.Cite error: Closing </ref> missing for <ref> tag

Culture

See also List of artists and writers from Alaska
.Some of Alaska's popular annual events are the World Ice Art Championships in Fairbanks, the Alaska Hummingbird Festival in Ketchikan, the Sitka Whale Fest, and the Stikine River Garnet Fest in Wrangell.^ While Alaska does not currently produce energy from nuclear sources, plans are being considered for small nuclear reactors near Fairbanks and in Galena, a village on the Yukon River.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ALASKA RIVER WRANGELL ...
  • Travel Alaska with Maps, Businesses, Alaska Wildlife, Native Art, Gold Rush History, and Alaska Vacation Information. Featuring Anchorage, Denali, Fairbanks and the Kenai. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC alaska101.com [Source type: General]

^ Some of the best nominal deals of Alaska cabins can be easily traced via World Wide Web.
  • ThinkRentals.com - Alaska Rentals in AK - Think Rentals 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thinkrentals.com [Source type: General]

.The Stikine River features the largest springtime concentration of American Bald Eagles in the world.^ World-Class fishermen, the Grizzly is most commonly found at the river pulling in the largest salmon.
  • Alaska gifts, totem poles, mukluks, Gold, Ivory & Jade, dream catchers, spirit masks, Ulu knives, dolls, Alaskan made. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alaskaguide.com [Source type: General]

The Alaska Native Heritage Center celebrates the rich heritage of Alaska's 11 cultural groups. Their purpose is to enhance self-esteem among Native people and to encourage cross-cultural exchanges among all people.

Libraries

.The four main libraries in the state are the Alaska State Library in Juneau, the Elmer E. Rasmuson Library in Fairbanks, the Z. J. Loussac Library in Anchorage, and the UAA/APU Consortium Library, also in Anchorage.^ I began by flying an Alaska Airlines jet from Anchorage to Juneau.
  • Alaskan Living 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC bob.alaska.org [Source type: General]

^ An interconnected grid exists in the populated areas from Fairbanks to south of Anchorage; however, that grid is isolated from those in Canada and the 48 contiguous States.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Alaska is one of three states (the others are Delaware and Rhode Island) that does not have a Carnegie library.^ Oe of our favorite wide-ranging probes, the one into corruption in Alaska state government, grinds relentlessly on.

^ Natural gas fuels almost three-fifths of Alaska’s electricity generation, and hydroelectric power supplies about one-fifth.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He said in a statement: I determined that it was in the best interest of the state of Alaska to move on and pursue other opportunities.

Food

Due to the northern climate and steep terrain, relatively little farming occurs in Alaska. .Most farms are in either the Mat-Su Valley near Anchorage, or on the Kenai Peninsula.^ Anchorage, Mat-Su Valley, Kenai Peninsula ALASKA'S NEWSPAPER .
  • Alaska News, Jobs and Advertising from the Anchorage Daily News | Anchorage, Mat-Su Valley, Kenai Peninsula 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.adn.com [Source type: News]

The short summer limits the types of crops that can be grown - primary crops are potatoes, carrots, lettuce, and cabbage. But the long days of summer can allow these vegetables to reach record size. Alaska has an abundance of seafood, with the primary fisheries in the Bering Sea, and seafood is one of the few food items that is often cheaper within the state than outside it. Hunting for subsistence, primarily caribou, moose, and sheep is still fairly common in the state, particularly in remote Bush communities. An example of a traditional native food is Akutaq, the Eskimo ice cream, consisting of reindeer fat and seal oil and some berries.
.Most food in Alaska is transported into the state from outside, and is relatively expensive due to the high shipping costs.^ Oe of our favorite wide-ranging probes, the one into corruption in Alaska state government, grinds relentlessly on.

^ Due to harsh weather conditions that persist throughout most of the year, Alaska’s oil infrastructure is particularly vulnerable to weather-related accidents and disruptions.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alaska’s electricity infrastructure differs from the lower 48 States in that most consumers are not linked to large interconnected grids through transmission and distribution lines.
  • Energy Information Administration (EIA) | State/Territory Energy Profiles | Energy Data, Information, and Maps 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC tonto.eia.doe.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Music

Main article: Music of Alaska
Influences on music in Alaska include the traditional music of Alaska Natives as well as folk music brought by later immigrants from Russia and Europe. Prominent musicians from Alaska include singer Jewel, traditional Aleut flautist Mary Youngblood, folk singer-songwriter Libby Roderick, the group Pamyua, and the metal band 36 Crazyfists.
There are many established music festivals in Alaska, including the Alaska Folk Festival, the Fairbanks Winter Music Fest the Anchorage Folk Festival, the Athabascan Old-Time Fiddling Festival, and the Sitka Summer Music Festival. .The most prominent symphony in Alaska is the Anchorage Symphony Orchestra, though the Juneau Symphony is also notable.^ I began by flying an Alaska Airlines jet from Anchorage to Juneau.
  • Alaskan Living 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC bob.alaska.org [Source type: General]

The Anchorage Opera is currently the state's only professional opera company, though there are several volunteer and semi-professional organizations in the state as well.
The official state song of Alaska is "Alaska's Flag", which was adopted in 1955; it celebrates the flag of Alaska.

Movies filmed in Alaska

.One of the most prominent movies filmed in Alaska was MGM's Academy Award winning classic "Eskimo/Mala The Magnificent" starring Alaska's own Ray Mala.^ We arrived in Gustavus--which has to be one of the most charming towns in Alaska.
  • Alaskan Living 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC bob.alaska.org [Source type: General]

^ I'm pretty sure the Kichatnas are one of the most beautiful places in Alaska.
  • Alaskan Living 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC bob.alaska.org [Source type: General]

.In 1932 an expedition set out from MGM's studios in Hollywood to Alaska to film what was then billed as "The Biggest Picture Ever Made". Upon arriving in Alaska, they set up "Camp Hollywood" in Northwest Alaska where they lived during the duration of the filming.^ Due to the constantly growing traffic on our news server (news.alaska-software.com), a larger dedicated server system will be set up over this weekend, i.e.

^ The meeting will be initially set up by Alaska Software and Boris Borzic, author of Xb2.NET and SQLExpress.

.Louis B. Mayer spared no expense in making sure they had everything they needed during their stay-he even sent the famous chef from the Hotel Roosevelt on Hollywood Blvd (the site of the first Oscars) with them to Alaska to cook for them!^ Make sure you will be sitting in the first row during number .

^ Alaska Gas Prices reserves the right to make changes to any of the site content at any time without notice.
  • Alaska Gas Prices - Find Cheap Gas Prices in Alaska 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC alaskagasprices.com [Source type: General]

When "Eskimo" premiered at the famed Astor Theatre in Times Square, New York, the studio received the largest amount of feedback in the history of the studio up to that time. "Eskimo" was critically acclaimed and released worldwide; as a result Inupiat Eskimo actor Ray Mala became an international movie star. "Eskimo" is significant for the following: winning the very first Oscar for Best Film Editing at the Academy Awards, for forever preserving Inupiat culture on film, and for being the first motion picture to be filmed in an all native language (Inupiat).

State symbols

  • State bird: Willow Ptarmigan, adopted by the Territorial Legislature in 1955. It is a small (15-17 inches) Arctic grouse that lives among willows and on open tundra and muskeg. Plumage is brown in summer, changing to white in winter. The Willow Ptarmigan is common in much of Alaska.
  • State fish: King Salmon, adopted 1962.
  • State flower: wild/native Forget-Me-Not, adopted by the Territorial Legislature in 1917.[20] It is a perennial that is found throughout Alaska, from Hyder to the Arctic Coast, and west to the Aleutians.
  • State fossil: Woolly Mammoth, adopted 1986.
  • State gem: Jade, adopted 1968.
  • State insect: Four-spot skimmer dragonfly, adopted 1995.
  • State land mammal: Moose, adopted 1998.
  • State marine mammal: Bowhead Whale, adopted 1983.
  • State mineral: Gold, adopted 1968.
  • State song: "Alaska's Flag"
  • State sport: Dog Mushing, adopted 1972.
  • State tree: Sitka Spruce, adopted 1962.

References

  1. ^ a b Elevations and Distances in the United States. U.S Geological Survey (29 April 2005). Retrieved on 3 November, 2006.
  2. ^ Vallano, Elissa: Cruising America's 'Last Frontier', Retrieved on May 24, 2007
  3. ^ Ransom, J. Ellis. 1940. Derivation of the Word ‘Alaska’. American Anthropologist n.s., 42: pp. 550-551
  4. ^ The other three exclaves of the United States are the Northwest Angle.
  5. ^ {{cite journal | author = Porco, Peter|date = June 23, 2003 | title = Long said to be second to Fundy, city tides aren't even close | journal = Anchorage Daily News
  6. ^ http://www.knls.org/English/akfact.htm
  7. ^ a b Mean Annual Precipitation in Alaska-Yukon. Oregon Climate Service at Oregon State University. Last accessed 23 October 2006.
  8. ^ {{cite web | title = NOAA Weather Radio All Hazards Information - Alaska Weather Interesting Facts and Records | publisher = National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
  9. ^ http://www.mla.org/map_data_results&state_id=2&county_id=&mode=state_tops&zip=&place_id=&cty_id=&a=&ea=&order=&ll=all
  10. ^ Screening Report for Alaska Rural Energy Plan, April, 2001
  11. ^ http://www.apfc.org/alaska/dividendprgrm.cfm
  12. ^ CNN Money (2005). How tax friendly is your state? Retrieved from http://money.cnn.com/pf/features/lists/taxesbystate2005/index.html
  13. ^ State of Alaska Office of Economic Development. Alaska Visitor Arrivals and Profile-Summer 2001. November, 2002; retrieved September 11, 2006.
  14. ^ State of Alaska Office of Economic Development. Alaska Visitor Arrivals and Profile-Fall/Winter 2001. November, 2002; retrieved September 11, 2006.
  15. ^ Federal Aviation Administration. 2005 U.S. Civil Airman Statistics
  16. ^ http://www.gov.state.ak.us/ltgov/elections/regbypty.htm
  17. ^ Doughtery, J. (February 25 2001 ). Alaska party stumps for independence. World Net Daily. Retrieved from http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=21840
  18. ^ a b c d http://www.state.ak.us/courts/ctinfo.htm
  19. ^ http://www.alaskaice.org/material.php?matID=138
  20. ^ http://www.akcf.org/_pages/about_ACF/about_alaska/state_symbols.php

See also

External links

All wikimedia projects
Articles on this topic in other Wikimedia projects can be found at: Alaska
Preceded by
Arizona
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on January 3, 1959 (49th)
Succeeded by
Hawaii
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This page uses content from the English language Wikipedia. The original content was at Alaska. The list of authors can be seen in the page history. As with this Familypedia wiki, the content of Wikipedia is available under the Creative Commons License.
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This article uses material from the "Alaska" article on the Genealogy wiki at Wikia and is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike License.

Simple English

State of Alaska
File:Flag of [[File:|100px|State seal of Alaska]]
Flag of Alaska Seal of Alaska
Also called: The Last Frontier,
The Land of the Midnight Sun
Saying(s): North to the Future
Official language(s) English
Capital Juneau
Largest city Anchorage
Area  Ranked 1st
 - Total 663,267 sq mi
(1,717,854 km²)
 - Width 808 miles (1,300 km)
 - Length 1,479 miles (2,380 km)
 - % water 13.77
 - Latitude 51°20'N to 71°50'N
 - Longitude 130°W to 173°E
Number of people  Ranked 48th
 - Total (2010) 670,035[1]
 - Density 1.2/sq mi 
0.45/km² (52nd)
 - Average income  $54,627 (6th)
Height above sea level  
 - Highest point Mount McKinley
20,321 ft  (6,194 m)
 - Average 10,039 ft  (3,060 m)
 - Lowest point 0 ft  (0 m)
Became part of the U.S.  January 3, 1959 (49th)
Governor Sean Parnell (R)
U.S. Senators Lisa Murkowski (R)
Mark Begich (D)
Time zones  
 - east of 169° 30' Alaska: UTC-9/DST-8
 - west of 169° 30' Aleutian: UTC-10/DST-9
Abbreviations AK US-AK
Web site www.state.ak.us

The State of Alaska is one of the states of the United States. It is one of two states that does not touch another state. The other is Hawaii. It was purchased from Imperial Russia in 1867 for $7.2 million.

Geography

File:Alaska area compared to conterminous
Map showing how big Alaska is compared to the other states

The capital city is Juneau, but the biggest city is Anchorage. Alaska is the biggest state in the United States, but it almost has the least people. Alaska has almost 20% of all the land in the U.S., but only about 0.2% of the people. It is not connected to any other states by American land, but it is connected to Canada.

Alaska has many glaciers, some of which are can be seen from passing cruise ships. Some are coastal, and others are not by the ocean. It is a popular tourist destination, as there is a very rich culture along with beautiful scenery. There are many wild animals in Alaska. Some of them are the brown bear, the moose, and the wolf.

There are some important industries in Alaska, like oil, fishing, mining, and forestry. Oil is the biggest industry in Alaska. Most of the oil is very far north in the Alaskan arctic. A very long pipeline starts at the northern coast of Alaska and runs to the southern coast. It is over 800 miles long. There were many gold rushes in Alaska.

References

Other websites

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frr:Alaska


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 04, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Alaska, which are similar to those in the above article.








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