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Republic of Albania
Republika e Shqipërisë
Flag Coat of arms
MottoFeja e Shqiptarit është Shqiptaria
(The faith of Albanians is Albanism)[1] (national)
Ti, Shqipëri, më jep nder, më jep emrin Shqiptar
(You Albania give me honor, you give me the name Albanian) (traditional)
AnthemHimni i Flamurit
("The Banner Hymn")
Location of  Albania  (green)

on the European continent  (dark grey)  —  [Legend]

Capital
(and largest city)
Tirana
41°20′N 19°48′E / 41.333°N 19.8°E / 41.333; 19.8
Official language(s) Albanian1
Demonym Albanian
Government Parliamentary republic
 -  President Bamir Topi
 -  Prime Minister Sali Berisha
Formation
 -  Independence from the Ottoman Empire 28 November 1912 
 -  Current Constitution 28 November 1998 
Area
 -  Total 28,748 km2 (139th)
11,100 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) 4.7
Population
 -  2009 estimate 3,639,453[2] (129th)
 -  Density 126.6/km2 (63)
327.8/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $21.864 billion[3] (110th)
 -  Per capita $7,018[3] (95th)
GDP (nominal) 2008 estimate
 -  Total $12.964 billion[3] (113th)
 -  Per capita $4,089[3] (94th)
Gini (2005) 26.7 (low
HDI (2007) 0.818 (high) (70th)
Currency Lek (ALL)
Time zone CET (UTC+01)
 -  Summer (DST) CEST (UTC+02) (UTC{{{utc_offset_DST}}})
Drives on the right
Internet TLD .al
Calling code 355
1 .Greek, Macedonian and other regional languages are government-recognized minority languages.^ The government maintains that the Egyptians did not meet some criteria, such as a distinct language and traditions, and instead considered them a community – rather than a distinct minority.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Albania : Albania Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The diferences between North and South (where there is a large Greek minority) has again come to the fore with the attempt by Berisha (a northener by origin) to play off the two regions against each other.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Three minorities are officially recognized in Albania as national minorities – Greeks, Macedonians and Montenegrins.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Albania : Albania Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Albania en-us-Albania.ogg /ælˈbeɪniə/ al-BAY-nee-ə (Albanian: Shqipëri/Shqipëria, Gheg Albanian: Shqipnia or Shqypnia), officially the Republic of Albania (Albanian: Republika e Shqipërisë, pronounced [ɾɛpuˈblika ɛ ʃcipəˈɾiːs]), is a country in South Eastern Europe.^ Albania is probably the poorest and least developed country in the whole of Europe.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Criminal Procedure Code of the Republic of Albania , translated by American Bar Association Europe and Eurasia Program (CEELI) (as of 29 January 1999).
  • Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Albania is the only country in Europe without an air pollution monitoring system in place.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.It is bordered by Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo[a] to the northeast, the Republic of Macedonia to the east and Greece to the south and southeast.^ It is bordered by Greece to the south, Macedonia to the east and the republics of Serbia and Montenegro to the north.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Albania : Albania Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The result was only half a state, because almost half the population and its territories were left beyond the frontiers, in Kosovo, in present-day Macedonia, and in the northern part of Greece.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Under circumstances which are disputed, the Albanians spread eastwards into Kosovo, western Macedonia and Greece.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Albania : Albania Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It has a coast on the Adriatic Sea to the west, and on the Ionian Sea to the southwest.^ To the west, there is a 420 km coastline with the Adriatic Sea.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Albania : Albania Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It is less than 72 km (45 mi) from Italy, across the Strait of Otranto which links the Adriatic Sea to the Ionian Sea.
.Albania is a member of the United Nations, NATO, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, Council of Europe, World Trade Organisation, Organisation of the Islamic Conference and one of the founding members of the Union for the Mediterranean.^ The monk seal, which is practically extinct in the Mediterranean, except for some isolated parts of the Aegean and Adriatic, is found in Albania.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some partial programs are developed with the assistance of the UNDP, EU PHARE, the Council of Europe, USAID, several Islamic organizations and so on.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ A number of donors have expressed interest to co-operate with UNDP. Albania has demonstrated an interest in articulating and pursuing a strategy for sustainable development.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Albania has been a potential candidate for accession to the European Union since January 2003, and it formally applied for EU membership on 28 April 2009.[4]
.Albania is a parliamentary democracy and a transition economy.^ However, political turbulence and a transition to a market economy have created unstable conditions in Albania in recent years.
  • Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.stopvaw.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Albanian capital, Tirana, is home to approximately 727,000 of the country's 3.6 million people, and it is also the financial capital of the country.^ On January 19th, some 3,000 people, led by opposition politicians, broke through police cordons to demonstrate in Tirana's main Skanderbeg Square.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ It has been estimated that in 1992, almost 200,000 people left the country.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In the aftermath, more than 20,000 Albanians left the country with ill-constructed boats, bound for Italy.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

[5] .Free-market reforms have opened the country to foreign investment, especially in the development of energy and transportation infrastructure.^ Following the opening of the country to the western world, associated to the free movement of people, Albania experienced the onset of the first cases of AIDS in its population.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Nevertheless, especially in the last two years, the country has achieved enormous progress towards reforming the agricultural sector.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Other structural measures to promote private sector development have included land reform, the privatization of many small and medium-sized enterprises, exchange and trade liberalization, and the enactment of a relatively liberal new foreign investment law.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

[6][7][8]

Contents

Etymology

Albania is the Medieval Latin name of the country which is called Shqipëri by its inhabitants. In Medieval Greek, the country's name is Albania (Greek: Αλβανία) besides variants Albanitia, Arbanitia.[9]
The name may be derived from the Illyrian tribe of the Albani recorded by Ptolemy, the geographer and astronomer from Alexandria who drafted a map in 150 AD[10] that shows the city of Albanopolis[11] (located northeast of Durrës).
The name may have a continuation in the name of a medieval settlement called Albanon and Arbanon, although it is not certain this was the same place.[12] In his History written in 1079–1080, Byzantine historian Michael Attaliates was the first to refer to Albanoi as having taken part in a revolt against Constantinople in 1043 and to the Arbanitai as subjects of the Duke of Dyrrachium.[13] During the Middle Ages, the Albanians called their country Arbër or Arbën and referred to themselves as Arbëresh or Arbnesh.[14][15]
.As early as the 16th century, a new name for their home evolved among Albanian people: Shqipëria, popularly interpreted as "Land of the Eagles" or "Land of the Mountain Eagle" hence the two-headed bird on the national flag,[16] though most likely the origin lies in Skanderbeg's use of the Byzantine double-headed eagle on his seals.^ The Albanian people have been fighting foreign occupation for centuries and will not accept submission without a fierce struggle.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ This means that they will be prepared to do the dirty work begun by Berisha, preparing a new nightmare for the Albanian people.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Precisely because of this conspiracy of silence, the Albanian explosion caught most people by surprise.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

[17][18]
.Under the Ottoman Empire Albania was referred to officially as Arnavutluk and its inhabitants as arnaut.^ Under the Ottoman empire from 1467 to 1912, the Albanian relationship with the Turkish rulers was somewhat different to other Balkan peoples.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Albania was the last nation in the Balkans to win its independence from the Ottoman Empire and to establish itself as a nominally independent state, in 1912, as a result of the second Balkan war.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

[19]

History

Antiquity

Butrint, UNESCO World Heritage Site.
.The first recorded inhabitants in the territory of Albania were the Illyrians,[20] an Indo-European people that inhabited the area corresponding to northern and central Albania.^ Albanian constitutes a separate branch of the Indo-European language group, spoken by some five million people in Albania, the former Yugoslavia, Greece, and elsewhere.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ In fact, they are the descendants of the ancient Illyrians, one of several non-Greek peoples who inhabited the Balkans to the North of Greece long before the historic records began.
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^ Regional/International Cooperation: Albania participates in the Central European Initiative, the South East European Initiative, the Black See Initiative, etc.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

[21] .The Illyrian tribes that resided in the region of modern Albania were the Taulantii[22] the Parthini, the Abri, the Caviii, the Enchelei,[23] and several others.^ In several other areas in the southern region road blocks set up.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.In the westernmost parts of the territory of Albania there lived the Bryges,[24] a Phrygian people, and in the south were the Greek Chaonians.^ Their propaganda about the Greek minority in the south of Albania does not cut any ice, because the Albanian Greeks have been in the vanguard of the uprising, something Berisha has tried (also unsuccessfully) to exploit.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ There have been persistent reports in the Western press that sections of the Greek ruling class is preparing for an armed intervention in Albania: .
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The avalanche of propaganda accusing the insurgents of being criminals and Mafiosi, the Greek propaganda about the need to defend the Greek minority in the south of Albania (Epiros) is part of an attempt to psychologically prepare public opinion for a possible military intervention.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

Beginning in the 8th century BC, Greek colonies were established on the Illyrian coast. The most important were Apollonia, Avlona (modern-day Vlorë), Epidamnos (modern-day Durrës), and Lissus (modern-day Lezhë). The rediscovered Greek city of Buthrotum (modern-day Butrint), a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is probably more significant today than it was when Julius Caesar used it as a provisions depot for his troops during his campaigns in the 1st century BC. At that time, it was considered an unimportant outpost, overshadowed by Apollonia and Epidamnos.[25]
Route of the Via Egnatia
In the 4th century BC, the Illyrian king Bardyllis united several Illyrian tribes and engaged in conflict with Macedon to the southeast, but was defeated. Bardyllis was succeeded by Grabos,[26] then by Bardyllis II,[27] and then by Cleitus the Illyrian,[27] who was defeated by Alexander the Great. .Later on, in 229 BC, Queen Teuta[28] of the Ardiaei clashed with the Romans and initiated the Illyrian Wars, which resulted in defeat and in the end of Illyrian independence by 168 B.C., when King Gentius was defeated by a Roman army.^ Albania was the last nation in the Balkans to win its independence from the Ottoman Empire and to establish itself as a nominally independent state, in 1912, as a result of the second Balkan war.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The lands comprising modern-day Albania were incorporated into the Roman empire as part of the province of Illyricum above the river Drin, and Roman Macedonia (specifically as Epirus Nova) below it.^ Modern Albania dates from 29th July 1913, when the former Albanian provinces of the Turkish Empire were constituted a neutral autonomous principality under a foreign king imposed by the European powers, Prince William of Wied.
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^ But after the defeat of Nazism, Stalin agreed to allow Tito to incorporate Albania into Yugoslavia.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.The western part of the Via Egnatia ran inside modern Albania, ending at Dyrrachium.^ During the Middle Ages, modern-day Albania formed successively parts of the Byzantine, Bulgarian, Serbian and Angevin-Norman empires.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Albania : Albania Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Illyricum was later divided into the provinces of Dalmatia and Pannonia.
.When the Roman Empire was divided into East and West in 395, the territories of modern Albania became part of the Byzantine Empire.^ Although Albania was nominally part of the Byzantine and later the Ottoman (Turkish) Empire, its mountain tribes always remained fiercely independent and central rule was never completely effective.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

Beginning in the first decades of Byzantine rule (until 461), the region suffered devastating raids by Visigoths, Huns, and Ostrogoths. In the 6th and 7th centuries, the region was overrun by the Slavs.
.The territory of Albania would remain under Byzantine and Bulgarian rule until the 14th century, when the Ottoman Turks began to make incursions into the Empire.^ Although Albania was nominally part of the Byzantine and later the Ottoman (Turkish) Empire, its mountain tribes always remained fiercely independent and central rule was never completely effective.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ But when China began to make overtures to Yugoslavia in 1978, Tirana was compelled to break with Beijing and retire into almost complete isolation, with disastrous consequences.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Under these circumstances, union with Yugoslavia would have meant the subordination of Albania to the ruling bureaucratic caste in Belgrade.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

The Ottomans captured Constantinople in 1453, and by 1460 most former Byzantine territories were in the hands of the Turks.

Byzantine era

.The new administrative system of the themes, or military provinces created by the Byzantine Empire, contributed to the eventual rise of feudalism in Albania, as peasant soldiers who served military lords became serfs on their landed estates.^ The uprising of workers, soldiers, peasants and students in Albania is an inspiration for the working class and youth all over the world.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

Among the leading families of the Albanian feudal nobility were the Thopia, Shpata, Muzaka, Dukagjini and Kastrioti. .The first three of these rose to become rulers of principalities were vassals of Byzantium, and Albania mostly neglected by their Greek masters at Constantinople.^ These documents constituted the first effort in bringing together development and environment in Albania.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.Many Albanians converted to the Roman Catholic Church at this time.^ The Albanian lands lay at the meeting point of Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christianity.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Albania : Albania Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the Byzantine Era the powerful Serbs had occupied almost all of Northern Albania and Kosovo, and the Venetians had gained control and colonized the coastal regions of Albania.^ During the Middle Ages, modern-day Albania formed successively parts of the Byzantine, Bulgarian, Serbian and Angevin-Norman empires.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Albania : Albania Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These names are probably quite frequent as well in Albania, in Kosovo and other regions where Albanians live.

^ All are now under the control of the rebels, whose gunboats patrol the coast, and whose militias dominate virtually the whole of southern Albania."
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

Ottoman era

Durrës in 1573
.In the Middle Ages, the name Arberia (see Origin and history of the name Albania) began to be increasingly applied to the region now comprising the nation of Albania.^ On the basis of the NEAP, several environmental projects and programmes are now being undertaken with the assistance of international donors such as the Environment Programme for Albania- PHARE, the National Water Strategy- PHARE, Water treatment systems in different regions.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Regional/International Cooperation: A National Waste Management Plan, carried out with the financial support of the PHARE 1993 Environment Programme for Albania.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.Beginning in the late-14th century, the Ottoman Turks expanded their empire from Anatolia to the Balkans (Rumelia).^ Under the Ottoman empire from 1467 to 1912, the Albanian relationship with the Turkish rulers was somewhat different to other Balkan peoples.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the Albanian lands were overrun by the Ottoman Turks.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Albania : Albania Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Albania was the last nation in the Balkans to win its independence from the Ottoman Empire and to establish itself as a nominally independent state, in 1912, as a result of the second Balkan war.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

By the 15th century, the Ottomans ruled all of the Balkan Peninsula. Many Albanians had been recruited into the Janissary, including the feudal heir Gjergj Kastrioti who was renamed Skanderbeg (Iskandar Bey) by his Turkish trainers at Edrine. After some Ottoman defeats at the hands of the Serbs, Skanderbeg deserted and began a rebellion against the Ottoman Empire[29].
.After deserting, Gjergj Kastrioti Skanderbeg re-converted to Roman Catholicism and declared a holy war against the Ottoman Empire[29], which he led from 1443 to 1468. Under a red flag bearing Skanderbeg's heraldic emblem, an Albanian force of about 30,000 men at Krujë held off Ottoman campaigns against their lands for twenty-four years.^ Under the Ottoman empire from 1467 to 1912, the Albanian relationship with the Turkish rulers was somewhat different to other Balkan peoples.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ If the sexual intercourse is committed by force with the collusion of others, or repeatedly, or if serious consequences to health have been caused to the injured child, it is punishable by ten to twenty years of imprisonment.
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^ From a hidden tax system of forced reduced consumption under the previous regime, Albanians now face an open system taxation.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Thrice the Albanians overcame sieges of Krujë (see Siege of Krujë) led by many Ottoman commanders, including the influential Iljaz Hoxha and his Albanian Janissary led by Hamza Kastrioti. However, Skanderbeg was unable to receive any of the help which had been promised him by the popes. He later abandoned Christianity and died in 1468, leaving no worthy successor. After his death the rebellion continued, but without its former success. The loyalties and alliances created and nurtured by Skanderbeg faltered and fell apart, and the Ottomans reconquered the territory of Albania in 1478. Shortly after the fall of Kruje's castle, some Albanians fled to neighboring Italy, giving rise to the modern Arbëreshë communities.
Ottoman volley gun with 9 barrels, early 16th century.
After the defeat of Skanderbeg, Albania completely transformed under Ottoman rule, and its culture and society closely resembled that of neighboring Bosnia. The Ottomans had urbanized the landscape creating new cities, Bazaars, garrisons and Mosques throughout the Albanian regions. .The majority of the remaining Albanian population converted to Islam, with many joining the Sufi Order of the Bektashi.^ The majority of the Albanian population (more than 2/3) has settled in the Western flatland side of the country, the area of Korca and Delvina and along the river valleys.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Converting from Christianity to Islam brought considerable advantages, including access to Ottoman trade networks, bureaucratic positions and the army. As a result many Albanians came to serve in the elite Janissary and the administrative Devşirme system. Among these were important historical figures, including Iljaz Hoxha, Hamza Kastrioti, Köprülü Mehmed Pasha (head of the Köprülü family of Grand Viziers), the Bushati family, Sulejman Pasha, Ethem Pasha, Nezim Frakulla, Ali Pasha of Tepelena, Hasan Zyko Kamberi, Ali-paša Šabanagić, and Mehmet Ali ruler of Egypt.[30] and Emin Pasha.
Ottoman guns, 1750–1800.
.Many Albanians gained prominent positions in the Ottoman government, Albanians highly active during the Ottoman Era and leaders such as Ali Pasha of Tepelena is known to have aided the Bosnian Hero Husein Gradaščević on various occasions, no fewer than 42 Grand Viziers of the Empire were Albanian in origin, including Mehmet Akif Ersoy (1873–1936) an Albanian from Peć who composed the Turkish National Anthem in 1921, "İstiklâl Marşı" (The Independence March).^ The Albanian government itself noted these problems, and so developed a National Strategy on Gender Equality and Domestic Violence for 2007-2010.
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^ A 2004 Human Rights Watch Report observed that the Albanian government still has many obstacles to implementing its anti-trafficking strategy.
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^ The Department of State says this is because the Albanian government failed to make increased efforts toward protecting victims, or at least failed to provide evidence of such efforts.
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As Hupchik states, "Albanians had little cause of unrest" and "if anything, grew important in Ottoman internal affairs", and sometimes persecuted Christians harshly on behalf of their Turkish allies.
.Albania became pivotal for the Ottomans in the Balkans, although Albanians never rested, always having small rebellions wchich were put down by the Ottomans.^ Although Albanian women have some rights before the law, these rights are not always enforced.
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As a cosequene of the continuous rebellions, the Albanians got the nickname "Arnauts" by the Ottomans, which meant "stubborn". Anyway, this period saw the rising of semi-autonomous Albanian ruled Pashaliks, and Albanians were also an important part of the Ottoman army and Ottoman administration like the case of Köprülü family. Albania would remain a part of the Ottoman Empire as the provinces of Shkodra, Manastir and Yanya until 1912.

20th century

1913 to 1928

After five hundred years of Ottoman domination, an independent Albania was proclaimed on November 28, 1912.
.The initial sparks of the first Balkan War in 1912 were ignited by the Albanian uprising between 1908 and 1910 [31] which were directed at opposing the Young Turk policies of consolidation of the Ottoman Empire.^ In the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, the Albanian lands were overrun by the Ottoman Turks.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Albania : Albania Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Following the eventual weakening of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkans, Serbia, Greece and Bulgaria declared war and sought to aggrandize their respective boundaries on the remaining territories of the Empire. .Albania was thus invaded by Serbia in the north and Greece in the south, restricting the country to only a patch of land around the southern coastal city of Vlora.^ Actually, Albania is the only European country with a positive population growth rate.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Albania is the only country in Europe without an air pollution monitoring system in place.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ STATUS REPORT: Albania is a country where forests cover 1,0447 million ha (about 36% of the total land resources of the country).
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

In 1912 Albania, still under foreign occupation declared its independence and with the aid of Austria-Hungary, the Great Powers drew its present borders leaving more than half of the Albanian population outside the new country.
The border between Albania and its neighbours was delineated in 1913 following the dissolution of most of the Ottoman Empire's territories in the Balkans. .The delineation of the new state's borders left a significant number of Albanian communities outside Albania.^ In its Albania 2008 Progress Report , the Commission of the European Communities said that domestic violence was “significant and increasing” due to lack of enforcement.
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^ For example, there has been a significant Bektashi community in Albania.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Albania : Albania Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is presently estimated that two-thirds as many Albanians live in neighbouring states as in Albania itself.
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.This population was largely divided between Montenegro and Serbia (which then included what is now the Republic of Macedonia).^ It is bordered by Greece to the south, Macedonia to the east and the republics of Serbia and Montenegro to the north.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Albania : Albania Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

A substantial number of Albanians thus found themselves under Serbian rule. At the same time, an uprising in the country's south by local Greeks, led to the formation of an autonomous region inside its borders (1914). After a period of political instability caused during World War I, the country adopted a republican form of government in 1920.[32]

1928 to 1946

Starting in 1928, but especially during the Great Depression, the government of King Zog, which brought law and order to the country, began to cede Albania's sovereignty to Italy. Despite some strong resistance, especially at Durrës, Italy invaded Albania on 7 April 1939 and took control of the country, with the Italian Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini proclaiming Italy's figurehead King Victor Emmanuel III of Italy as King of Albania. The nation thus became one of the first to be occupied by the Axis Powers in World War II.[33] As Hitler began his aggressions, Mussolini decided to occupy Albania as a means to compete with Hitler's territorial gains. .Mussolini and the Italian Fascists saw Albania as a historical part of the Roman Empire, and the occupation was intended to fulfill Mussolini's dream of creating an Italian Empire.^ During the Middle Ages, modern-day Albania formed successively parts of the Byzantine, Bulgarian, Serbian and Angevin-Norman empires.
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During the Italian occupation, Albania's population was subject to a policy of forced Italianisation by the kingdom's Italian governors, in which the use of the Albanian language was discouraged in schools while the Italian language was promoted. At the same time, the colonization of Albania by Italians was encouraged.
Mussolini, in October 1940, used his Albanian base to launch an attack on Greece, which led to the defeat of the Italian forces and the Greek occupation of Southern Albania in what was seen by the Greeks as the liberation of Northern Epirus. While preparing for the Invasion of Russia, Hitler decided to attack Greece in December 1940 to prevent a British attack on his southern flank.[34]
.During World War II, the Party of Labour was created on 8 November 1941. With the intention of organizing a partisan resistance, they called a general conference in Pezë on 16 September 1942 where the Albanian National Liberation Front was set up.^ NATIONAL PRIORITY: Selectively determining the national needs for bioproducts and setting up a related environmentally sound biotechnology.
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^ Promoting training A separate fund, entitled the Training, Employment, and Enterprise Fund (TEEF), has been set up to provide funding for organizations which provide job training and support the development of small enterprises.
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^ On the other hand, post-communist Albanian society lacked the social preconditions for the creation and consolidation of a liberal democracy.
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The Front included nationalist groups, but it was dominated by communist partisans.
.In December 1942, more Albanian nationalist groups were organized under Visar Kola.^ Major Groups: The Government, the Albanian Development Fund, NGOs, the Institute of Social Services under the central government (Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs).
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.Albanians fought against the Italians while, during Nazi German occupation, Balli Kombëtar allied itself with the Germans and clashed with Albanian communists, which continued their fight against Germans and Balli Kombëtar at the same time.^ Sara German, Italian, Spanish, Scandinavian, Albanian (#44 in US popularity) (#11 in Switzerland 1997) .

^ Leonora German, Italian, Albanian (#307 in Switzerland 1997) .

.With the collapse of the Mussolini government in line with the Allied invasion of Italy, Germany occupied Albania in September 1943, dropping paratroopers into Tirana before the Albanian guerrillas could take the capital.^ Decision-Making Structure: Government-Line ministries: Ministry of Agriculture and Food, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs, Albanian Institute of Statistics, DEDAC. 2.
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^ Finance: From the Albanian Government, IDA, IFAD, Italy, Germany, Austria.
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^ Finance: From the Albanian Government; the EU/PHARE Programme, USAID, WB, FAO, IFAD, Islamic Development Bank; the Governments of Italy, Germany, the Netherlands, Austria, France.
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The German Army soon drove the guerrillas into the hills and to the south. .The Nazi German government subsequently announced it would recognize the independence of a neutral Albania and set about organizing a new government, police and armed forces.^ STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL ENDOGENOUS CAPACITY BUILDING: In Albania, environmental management is as new as many other areas of the Government's activities.
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^ Recognizing the need for monitoring and policy development capability at the local level, the Government established Regional Environmental Agencies (REAs) in each of 12 prefectures in Albania.
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^ Home About us Contact us News Updates Advanced search ›› Directory › Europe › Albania › Albania Overview Quick search ›› .
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Many Balli Kombëtar units cooperated with the Germans against the communists and several Balli Kombëtar leaders held positions in the German-sponsored regime. .The partisans entirely liberated Albania from German occupation on 28 November 1944. The Albanian partisans also liberated Kosovo, part of Montenegro, and southern Bosnia and Herzegovina.^ Emigration has mainly affected the southern parts of Albania.
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By November 1944, they had thrown out the Germans, one of the few East European nations to do so without any assistance from Soviet troops. Enver Hoxha became the leader of the country by virtue of his position as Secretary General of the Albanian Communist Party.
.Albania was one of the European countries occupied by the Axis powers that ended World War II with a larger Jewish population than before the war.^ Albania is a country of a high density population.
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^ Actually, Albania is the only European country with a positive population growth rate.
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^ The independent Albania established on the eve of the First World War did not, however, include Kosovo and western Macedonia, which then had a combined population of about 800,000 Albanians.
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[35][36][37][38] .Some 1,200 Jewish residents and refugees from other Balkan countries were hidden by Albanian families during World War II, according to official records.^ Aspirations for a state which united the Albanian people were briefly realized under the aegis of the Italians and Germans during the Second World War.
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^ Another project is expected to start ("Waste management in 6 Albanian municipalities; a model to be implemented in other developing countries") with the support of the LIFE Programme of the European Union.
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[39]

Communist state

The former Enver Hoxha Museum in Tirana
Tirana's Skanderbeg Square in 1988
Albania became an ally of the Soviet Union, but this came to an end in 1960 over the advent of de-Stalinization. .A strong political alliance with China followed, leading to several billion dollars in aid, which was curtailed after 1974. China cut off aid in 1978 when Albania attacked its policies after the death of the Chinese ruler Mao Zedong.^ STATUS REPORT: Following a sharp decline after the collapse of the centralised agricultural production system, Albania became dependant on food aid imports.
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^ Following the opening of the country to the western world, associated to the free movement of people, Albania experienced the onset of the first cases of AIDS in its population.
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Large-scale purges of officials occurred during the 1970s.
.Enver Hoxha, a dictator who ruled Albania for four decades with an iron fist, died on 11 April 1985. Eventually the new regime introduced some liberalization, and granting the freedom to travel abroad in 1990. The new government made efforts to improve ties with the outside world.^ STATUS REPORT ON NATIONAL ENDOGENOUS CAPACITY BUILDING: In Albania, environmental management is as new as many other areas of the Government's activities.
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The elections of March 1991 left the former Communists in power, but a general strike and urban opposition led to the formation of a coalition cabinet that included non-Communists.[40]

Recent history – 1992 to present

.Albania's former Communists were routed in elections March 1992, causing economic collapse and social unrest.^ Multi-party elections held in March 1991 resulted in a victory for the communists, who subsequently renamed themselves the Socialist Party of Albania.
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^ The resignation of Albania's last communist government in June 1992 was accompanied by economic and political chaos, and it was only following the election of a new government in early 1992 that an attempt at comprehensive economic reform began.
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.The blood feud has returned in rural areas after more than 40 years of being abolished by Albanian communists,[41] with nearly 10,000 Albanians being killed due to blood feuds since 1991.[42] Sali Berisha was elected as the first non-Communist president since World War II. The next crisis occurred in 1997, during his presidency, as riots ravaged the country.^ Therefore, according to an interim basic law that replaced the old communist-era constitution in 1991, Albania is a parliamentary republic with a unicameral legislature (the People's Assembly) elected by popular vote every four years, whereas, the Prime Minister is appointed by the President.
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^ On a horizontal approach which considers settlements from the administrative point of view, it is estimated that of the population as a whole is settled in 1/10 of the country's surface (coastal regions), whereas 1/5 of the population is settled in more than 1/3 of the territory.
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^ The income tax for 1996 is planned to increase by 4% with those earning less than 10,000 lek per month (approx.100 US$) exempted.
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The state institutions collapsed and an EU military mission led by Italy was sent to stabilize the country. In summer 1997, Berisha was defeated in elections, winning just 25 seats out of a total of 156. His return to power in the elections of 3 July 2005 ended eight years of Socialist Party rule. In 2009, Albania – along with Croatia – joined NATO.

Government, politics and armed forces

Albania

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Albania


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Albania's Prime Minister Sali Berisha with then U.S. President George W. Bush in Tirana, June 2007.
The Albanian republic is a parliamentary democracy established under a constitution renewed in 1998. Elections are now held every four years to a unicameral 140-seat chamber, the People's Assembly. In June 2002, a compromise candidate, Alfred Moisiu, former Army General, was elected to succeed President Rexhep Meidani. .Parliamentary elections in July 2005 brought Sali Berisha, as leader of the Democratic Party, back to power.^ New elections held in spring 1992 led to the formation of a coalition government headed by the opposition Democratic Party.
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^ At the last elections in July 2005 it won two seats in parliament.
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^ In the July 2005 elections there were no Roma candidates for mayor for a single municipality or commune, although the main parties did include some Roma candidates in their lists for the local councils.
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The Euro-Atlantic integration of Albania has been the ultimate goal of the post-communist governments. Albania's EU membership bid has been set as a priority by the European Commission.
Albania, along with Croatia, joined NATO on 1 April 2009 becoming the 27th and 28th members of the alliance.[43]
The workforce of Albania has continued to migrate to Greece, Italy, Germany, other parts of Europe, and North America. However, the migration flux is slowly decreasing, as more and more opportunities are emerging in Albania itself as its economy steadily develops.

Executive branch

The head of state in Albania is the President of the Republic. The President is elected to a 5-year term by the Assembly of the Republic of Albania by secret ballot, requiring a 50%+1 majority of the votes of all deputies. The next election will run in 2012. The current President of the Republic is Bamir Topi.
.The President has the power to guarantee observation of the constitution and all laws, act as commander in chief of the armed forces, exercise the duties of the Assembly of the Republic of Albania when the Assembly is not in session, and appoint the Chairman of the Council of Ministers (prime minister).^ Therefore, according to an interim basic law that replaced the old communist-era constitution in 1991, Albania is a parliamentary republic with a unicameral legislature (the People's Assembly) elected by popular vote every four years, whereas, the Prime Minister is appointed by the President.
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Executive power rests with the Council of Ministers (cabinet). The Chairman of the Council (prime minister) is appointed by the president; ministers are nominated by the president on the basis of the prime minister's recommendation. The People's Assembly must give final approval of the composition of the Council. The Council is responsible for carrying out both foreign and domestic policies. It directs and controls the activities of the ministries and other state organs.
President Bamir Topi PD 20 July 2007
Prime Minister Sali Berisha PD 9 September 2009

Legislative branch

The Assembly of the Republic of Albania (Kuvendi i Republikës së Shqipërisë) is the lawmaking body in Albania. There are 140 deputies in the Assembly, which are elected through a party-list proportional representation system. The President of the Assembly (or Speaker) has two deputies and chairs the Assembly. There are 15 permanent commissions, or committees. Parliamentary elections are held at least every four years.
.The Assembly has the power to decide the direction of domestic and foreign policy; approve or amend the constitution; declare war on another state; ratify or annul international treaties; elect the President of the Republic, the Supreme Court and the Attorney General and his or her deputies; and control the activity of state radio and television, state news agency and other official information media.^ Therefore, according to an interim basic law that replaced the old communist-era constitution in 1991, Albania is a parliamentary republic with a unicameral legislature (the People's Assembly) elected by popular vote every four years, whereas, the Prime Minister is appointed by the President.
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^ A centralized state policy is followed regarding the prevention and control of outbreaks of transmissible diseases.
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^ International cooperation to accelerate sustainable development in developing countries and related domestic policies 3.
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Armed forces

Albanian Navy warship Iliria
.The Albanian Armed Forces (Forcat e Armatosura të Shqipërisë) first formed after independence in 1912. Albania reduced the number of active troops from a 1988 number of 65,000[44] to a 2009 number of 14,500[45] with a small fleet of aircraft and sea vessels.^ The independent Albania established on the eve of the First World War did not, however, include Kosovo and western Macedonia, which then had a combined population of about 800,000 Albanians.
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^ The total number of unemployed, who are mainly in urban areas, numbered around 19.5% of the domestic labor force in 1994, and 14% in 1995.
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^ From a hidden tax system of forced reduced consumption under the previous regime, Albanians now face an open system taxation.
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In the 1990s, the country scrapped enormous amount of obsolete hardware, such as tanks and SAM systems from China.
Today, it consists of the General Staff Headquarters, the Albanian Joint Forces Command, the Albanian Support Command and the Albanian Training and Doctrine Command. .Increasing the military budget was one of the most important conditions for NATO integration.^ The free trade policy brought about a new geographical distribution of trading partners with Italy, Greece, Germany and Turkey becoming the most important ones.
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.Military spending accounted for about 2.7% of GDP in 2008. Since February 2008, Albania participates officially in NATO's Operation Active Endeavor in the Mediterranean Sea.^ Agriculture and associated rural economic activities presently account for over 50% of GDP and employment in Albania.
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^ Since the plan was developed at a very early stage in Albania's democratic transition, it lacks reliability with respect to data and participation of the main sectors in the Albania of today.
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[46] and received a NATO membership invitation on 3 April 2008.[47] Albania became a full member of NATO on 1 April, 2009.

Geography

Satellite image of Albania.
Coastline in Himarë
Ksamil, little islands
.Albania has a total area of 28,748 square kilometers.^ Other data Albania covers 28,748 km2 (34.8% constituting of forests, 15% of pasture, 24.3% of agricultural land and 4% of lakes) .
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Its coastline is 362 kilometers long and extends along the Adriatic and Ionian Seas. .The lowlands of the west face the Adriatic Sea.^ To the west, there is a 420 km coastline with the Adriatic Sea.
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The 70% of the country that is mountainous is rugged and often inaccessible from the outside. The highest mountain is Korab situated in the district of Dibër, reaching up to 2,753 metres (9,032 ft). The climate on the coast is typically Mediterranean with mild, wet winters and warm, sunny, and rather dry summers. Inland conditions vary depending on altitude but the higher areas above 1,500 m/5,000 ft are rather cold and frequently snowy in winter; here cold conditions with lying snow may linger into spring. .Besides the capital city of Tirana, which has 800,000 inhabitants, the principal cities are Durrës, Korçë, Elbasan, Shkodër, Gjirokastër, Vlorë and Kukës.^ Tirana, its capital, is one of the most densely populated cities in Europe (5,000 inhabitants/km2 )and a high land use intensity.
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.In Albanian grammar, a word can have indefinite and definite forms, and this also applies to city names: both Tiranë and Tirana, Shkodër and Shkodra are used.^ Tirana, its capital, is one of the most densely populated cities in Europe (5,000 inhabitants/km2 )and a high land use intensity.
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The three largest and deepest tectonic lakes of the Balkan Peninsula are partly located in Albania. Lake Shkodër in the country's northwest has a surface which can vary between 370 km2 (140 sq mi) and 530 km2, out of which one third belongs to Albania and rest to Montenegro. The Albanian shoreline of the lake is 57 km (35 mi). Ohrid Lake is situated in the country's southeast and is shared between Albania and Republic of Macedonia. .It has a maximal depth of 289 meters and a variety of unique flora and fauna can be found there, including "living fossils" and many endemic species.^ The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora has not been signed.
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Because of its natural and historical value, Ohrid Lake is under the protection of UNESCO.
.Over a third of the territory of Albania – about 10,000 square kilometers (2.5 million acres) – is forested and the country was very rich in flora.^ In this regard, forests play a very important role in the protection of soil throughout the country.
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^ Albania is a water-rich country, and much of its economic activity is dependent on the utilization of water resources.
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^ The western flatland side of the country which constitutes 21% of the territory, holds 53% of the entire population of Albania.
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About 3.000 different species of plants grow in Albania, many of which are used for medicinal purposes. .Phytogeographically, Albania belongs to the Boreal Kingdom and is shared between the Adriatic and East Mediterranean provinces of the Mediterranean Region and the Illyrian province of the Circumboreal Region.^ The monk seal, which is practically extinct in the Mediterranean, except for some isolated parts of the Aegean and Adriatic, is found in Albania.
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.According to the World Wide Fund for Nature and Digital Map of European Ecological Regions by the European Environment Agency, the territory of Albania can be subdivided into three ecoregions: the Illyrian deciduous forests, Pindus Mountains mixed forests and Dinaric Alpine mixed forests.^ The mountain alpine forest ecosystems are also rich in biodiversity.
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^ Regional/International Cooperation: A National Waste Management Plan, carried out with the financial support of the PHARE 1993 Environment Programme for Albania.
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^ Recognizing the need for monitoring and policy development capability at the local level, the Government established Regional Environmental Agencies (REAs) in each of 12 prefectures in Albania.
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The forests are home to a wide range of mammals, including wolves, bears, wild boars and chamois. Lynx, wildcats, pine martens and polecats are rare, but survive in some parts of the country.

Climate

Coastline near Sarandë
Albanian landscape
Korab chains
.With its coastline facing the Adriatic and Ionian seas, its highlands backed upon the elevated Balkan landmass, and the entire country lying at a latitude subject to a variety of weather patterns during the winter and summer seasons, Albania has a high number of climatic regions for so small an area.^ Albania is a country of a high density population.
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^ The number of abortions in the country is still very high and many mothers lose their lives following the complications from abortion or during labour.
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^ Migration is particularly high in the mountainous northern regions of the country, where the pressure to search for arable land is particularly high.
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The coastal lowlands have typically Mediterranean weather; the highlands have a Mediterranean continental climate. In both the lowlands and the interior, the weather varies markedly from north to south.
The lowlands have mild winters, averaging about 7 °C (45 °F). Summer temperatures average 24 °C (75 °F). In the southern lowlands, temperatures average about 5 °C (9 °F) higher throughout the year. The difference is greater than 5 °C (9 °F) during the summer and somewhat less during the winter.
.Inland temperatures are affected more by differences in elevation than by latitude or any other factor.^ OVERVIEW The demise of communism was later and more disorderly in Albania than in other post communist European countries.
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Low winter temperatures in the mountains are caused by the continental air mass that dominates the weather in Eastern Europe and the Balkans. Northerly and northeasterly winds blow much of the time. Average summer temperatures are lower than in the coastal areas and much lower at higher elevations, but daily fluctuations are greater. .Daytime maximum temperatures in the interior basins and river valleys are very high, but the nights are almost always cool.^ The hilly zones and the river valleys at the Western flatland side are home to almost 1/3 of the entire population, while the mountainous zones hold only 2% of the population as a whole.
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Average precipitation is heavy, a result of the convergence of the prevailing airflow from the Mediterranean Sea and the continental air mass. Because they usually meet at the point where the terrain rises, the heaviest rain falls in the central uplands. Vertical currents initiated when the Mediterranean air is uplifted also cause frequent thunderstorms. Many of these storms are accompanied by high local winds and torrential downpours.
When the continental air mass is weak, Mediterranean winds drop their moisture farther inland. When there is a dominant continental air mass, cold air spills onto the lowland areas, which occurs most frequently in the winter. Because the season's lower temperatures damage olive trees and citrus fruits, groves and orchards are restricted to sheltered places with southern and western exposures, even in areas with high average winter temperatures.
Lowland rainfall averages from 1,000 millimeters to more than 1,500 millimeters annually, with the higher levels in the north. Nearly 95% of the rain falls in the winter.
Rainfall in the upland mountain ranges is heavier. .Adequate records are not available, and estimates vary widely, but annual averages are probably about 1,800 millimeters and are as high as 2,550 millimeters in some northern areas.^ It is estimated that the privatisation of state farm and co-operatives has resulted in about 500,000 farms of an average size of 1,4 ha.
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^ Correspondingly, there is some provision of schools and classes for the Greek and Macedonian national minorities, where education in minority language is available, to varying degrees.
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.The western Albanian Alps (valley of Boga) are among the most wet areas in Europe, receiving some 3,100 mm (122.05 in) of rain annually[48].^ The majority of the Albanian population (more than 2/3) has settled in the Western flatland side of the country, the area of Korca and Delvina and along the river valleys.
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The seasonal variation is not quite as great in the coastal area.
The higher inland mountains receive less precipitation than the intermediate uplands. Terrain differences cause wide local variations, but the seasonal distribution is the most consistent of any area.

Flora and Fauna

The lynx still survives in Albania
Golden eagle – the national symbol of Albania
.Although a small country, Albania is distinguished for its rich biological diversity.^ The rivers of Albania are short in length and have small hydrographical basins because of the meridional position of the country.
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^ Albania is a water-rich country, and much of its economic activity is dependent on the utilization of water resources.
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^ Additional comments relevant to this chapter Considering the small size of the country, Albania is rich in biodiversity.
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.The variation of geomorphology, climate and terrain create favorable conditions for a number of endemic and sub-endemic species with 27 endemic and 160 subendemic vascular plants present in the country.^ The higher areas are dominated by beech and pine forests and preserve a large number of endemic and sub-endemic plant species.
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The total number of plants is over 3250 species, approximately 30% of the entire flora species found in Europe. Coastal regions and lowlands have typical Mediterranean macchia vegetation, whereas oak forests and vegetation are found on higher altitudes. .Vast forests of black pine, beech and fir are found on higher mountains and alpine grasslands grow at altitudes above 1800 meters a.s.l.^ The mountain alpine forest ecosystems are also rich in biodiversity.
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^ The higher areas are dominated by beech and pine forests and preserve a large number of endemic and sub-endemic plant species.
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[49]
There are around 760 vertebrate species found so far in Albania. Among these there are over 350 bird species, 330 freshwater and marine fish and 80 mammal species. .There are some 91 globally threatened species found within the country, among which the Dalmatian pelican, Pygmy cormorant, and the European sea sturgeon.^ Consequently, there may be some minor inconsistencies among the formats of the different country profiles.
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^ The Dalmatian Pelican is a threatened species which has its only nesting site in the Karavasta Lagoon.
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.Rocky coastal regions in the south provide good habitats for the endangered Mediterranean monk seal.^ The monk seal, which is practically extinct in the Mediterranean, except for some isolated parts of the Aegean and Adriatic, is found in Albania.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Some of the most significant bird species found in the country include the golden eagle – known as the national symbol of Albania – vulture species, capercaillie and numerous waterfowl. The Albanian forests still maintain significant communities of large mammals such as the brown bear, gray wolf, chamois and wild boar.[49] .The north and eastern mountains of the country are home to the last remaining Balkan lynx – a critically endangered population of the Eurasian lynx.^ On the other hand, the central mountainous region of the country which constitutes 48% of the entire territory, holds almost 26% of the population as a whole.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The hilly zones and the river valleys at the Western flatland side are home to almost 1/3 of the entire population, while the mountainous zones hold only 2% of the population as a whole.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Illegal construction due to migration from the North-Eastern parts of the country became very common in the years of transition to the market economy.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

[50]

Economy

.Albania remains a poor country by Western European standards.^ Actually, Albania is the only European country with a positive population growth rate.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Following the opening of the country to the western world, associated to the free movement of people, Albania experienced the onset of the first cases of AIDS in its population.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ OVERVIEW The demise of communism was later and more disorderly in Albania than in other post communist European countries.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

[51] .Its GDP per capita (expressed in PPS—Purchasing Power Standards) stood at 25 percent of the EU average in 2008.[52] Still, Albania has shown potential for economic growth, as more and more businesses relocate there and consumer goods are becoming available from emerging market traders as part of the current massive global cost-cutting exercise.^ GDP per capita (current US$) .
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Albania's main challenge is to preserve its hard-won success in macro-economic stabilization while turning it into sustainable growth.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The average waste generated per capita per day is reported to be 0,4 kg.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.Albania and Cyprus are the only countries in Europe that recorded economic growth in the first quarter of 2009. In its latest report, the International Monetary Fund (IMF) said Albania and Cyprus recorded increases of 0.4% and 0.3%, respectively.^ Actually, Albania is the only European country with a positive population growth rate.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Following the opening of the country to the western world, associated to the free movement of people, Albania experienced the onset of the first cases of AIDS in its population.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ STATUS REPORT: Following the postwar period, the population of Albania has increased at a rate of more than 2% annually which has been incompatible with the natural resources and economic development of the country.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

[53][54] .However, the country is still of low interest for major foreign investors due to frequent power shortages, occasional lack of water supplies and ubiquitous illegal activities.^ Although electrification of the whole country was completed since 1970, power shortages are very frequent.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ However, the inadequate and poorly maintained infrastructure in each of the water-using sectors and the absence of institutional co-ordination has resulted in the lack of water supplies becoming a key constraint to many economic activities and to satisfying basic social needs.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

[55]
Oil pumps near Mallakastra
.Albania and Croatia have discussed the possibility of jointly building a nuclear power plant at Lake Shkoder, close to the border with Montenegro, a plan that has gathered criticism from the latter due to seismicity in the area.^ Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: The University of Tirana, the Faculty of Natural Sciences, the Institute of Nuclear Research Tirana, Albania.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

[56] .In addition, there is some doubt whether Albania would be able to finance a project of such a scale with a total national budget of less than $ 5 billion.^ Egyptians are not recognized as either a national or a linguistic minority – although they would like their status to be acknowledged as such.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Albania : Albania Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Initially, there were no small contractors in Albanias rural areas, especially the mountainous project area, and sub-projects were carried out by communes.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some members of the Roma and Vlach/Aromanian minorities would like to be considered national rather than linguistic minorities.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Albania : Albania Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[57] However, in February 2009 Italian company Enel announced plans to build an 800 MW coal-fired power plant in Albania, to diversify electricity sources.[58] Nearly 100% of the electricity is generated by ageing hydroelectric power plants, which are becoming more ineffective due to increasing droughts.[58]
The country has some deposits of petroleum and natural gas, but produces only 6,425 barrels of oil per day.[59] .Natural gas production, estimated at about 30 million cubic meters, is sufficient to meet consumer demands.^ According to approximate calculations, foreign investments in the end of 1995, were estimated to have reached 210 million US$, excluding investment in oil exploration estimated to be about 200 million US$.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

[57] Other natural resources include coal, bauxite, copper and iron ore.
.Agriculture is the most significant sector, employing some 58% of the labor force and generating about 21% of GDP. Albania produces significant amounts of wheat, corn, tobacco, figs (13th largest producer in the world)[60] and olives.^ Other data Public sector investment has increased from about 7.1% of GDP of 1993, to about 8.6% of 1995 GDP. This increase was accompanied by an increase in public investment.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Agriculture and associated rural economic activities presently account for over 50% of GDP and employment in Albania.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ About 50% of the labour force is employed in agriculture and forestry (705,000 people in primary production and additional 100,000 in related sectors) and two thirds of the population live in rural areas.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Transport

In the early 1990s, the rock-strewn roadways, unstable rail lines and obsolete telephone network crisscrossing Albania represented the remnants of the marked improvements that were made after World War II. Enver Hoxha's xenophobia and lust for control had kept Albania isolated, however, as the communications revolution transformed the wider world into a global village. Even internal travel amounted to something of a luxury for many Albanians during communism's ascendancy.

Highways

SH 2 Highway (TiranaDurrës)
SH 2—Tirana's overpass from Durrës
Currently the major cities of the country are linked with first class national roads. There is a four lane highway connecting the city of Durrës with Tirana and the city of Durrës with the city of Lushnje. Albania is partaking in the construction of what it sees as three major corridors of transportation.
The major priority as of present is the full completion of the four lane Durrës-Pristina highway which will link Kosovo with Albania's Adriatic coast. .The portion of the highway which links Albania's north east border with Kosovo was completed in June 2009,[61] as a result, cutting the time it takes to get from Kosovo to Durrës from six hours to two.^ It is bordered by Greece to the south, Macedonia to the east and the republics of Serbia and Montenegro to the north.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Albania : Albania Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Indeed the roads in northwestern Albania remain in poor condition as of summer 2009. It takes approximately 1h 30' to drive the 35 km (22 mi) from the border of Montenegro to Shkodër.[citation needed]
There has been much discussion, debate, and interest in the 170 km (106 mi) Durrës–Kukës–Morinë Highway Albanian highway to Kosovo, which is intended to create a new, super-fast connection between Durrës on the Adriatic coast to Morinë at the border of Kosovo. The current drive time between Kukës and Durrës is now 2 hours. The whole will be around 250 km (155 mi), when completed to Pristina. The objective for constructing the road, according to the transport ministry, is to reduce transport costs and accidents, and improve traffic flow. It is the biggest, most expensive infrastructure project ever undertaken in Albania. The cost of the highway appears to have breached EUR800 million, although the exact cost for the total highway has yet to be confirmed by the government. Currently there is a display in Tirana's centre on Bvld Dëshmorët e Kombit.
.The second priority is the construction of European corridor 8 linking Albania with the Republic of Macedonia and Greece.^ It is bordered by Greece to the south, Macedonia to the east and the republics of Serbia and Montenegro to the north.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Albania : Albania Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The third priority for the government is the construction of the north-south axis of the country; it is sometimes referred to as the Adriatic–Ionian motorway as it is part of a larger regional highway connecting Croatia with Greece along the Adriatic and Ionian coasts.^ The loggerhead turtle has been found along the Ionian coasts where the narrow virgin beaches are suitable sites for laying eggs.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Illegal construction due to migration from the North-Eastern parts of the country became very common in the years of transition to the market economy.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

By the end of the decade it is expected that the majority of the sections of these three corridors will have been built.[citation needed] When all three corridors are completed Albania will have an estimated 759 kilometers of highway linking it with its neighbors.

Aviation

.The civil air transport in Albania marked its beginnings in November 1924, when the Republic of Albania signed a Governmental Agreement with German Air Company Lufthansa.^ Cooperation at regional level in air transport and civil aviation .
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

On the basis of a ten-year concession agreement, the Albanian Airlines with the name Adria Aero Lloyd Company was established.[citation needed] In the spring of 1925, the first domestic flights from Tirana to Shkoder and Vlora began.[citation needed]
.In August 1927, the office of Civil Aviation of Air Traffic Ministry of Italy purchased Adria Aero Lloyd.^ Cooperation at regional level in air transport and civil aviation .
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.The company, now in Italian hands, expanded its flights to other cities, such as Elbasan, Korça, Kukësi, Peshkopia and Gjirokastra, and opened up international lines to Rome, Milan, Thessaloniki, Sofia, Belgrade, and Podgorica.^ Smaller scale biotechnology lines were also installed in other institutions such as the Institute of Potatoes and Vegetables, Biomass Station, etc.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.The construction of a more modern airport construction in present Lapraka) started in 1934 and was completed by the end of 1935. This new airport, which was later officially named "Airport of Tirana", was constructed in conformity with optimal technological parameters of that time, with reinforced concrete runway of 1200 400 m (1,312.34 ft), and complemented with technical equipment and appropriate buildings.^ A new problem has recently been raised by construction wastes which are left at the site after the completion of buildings.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Developing countries: You may wish to describe any new national mechanisms for capacity building - and any changes in technical cooperation.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Research needs focus on: 1) updating the scientific information; 2) installation of new equipment; 3) development of appropriate technical and practical skills by research staffs.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

During 1955–1957, the Rinasi Airport was constructed for military purposes. Later, its administration was shifted to the Ministry of Transport. .On 25 January 1957 the State-owned Enterprise of International Air Transport (Albtransport) established its headquarters in Tirana.^ In some cases, the State was unable to properly manage the biotechnology production lines which resulted in their privatization such as the case of the Antibiotic Enterprise in Tirana.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Access to international training for air transport sector .
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ N TABLE VI. RATING OF ACTIVITIES IN THE AIR AND MARITIME TRANSPORT SECTORS IN THE SMALL ISLANDS DEVELOPING STATES (SIDS) .
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Aeroflot, Jat, Malev, Tarom and Interflug were the air companies that started to have flights with Albania until 1960.
During 1960–1978, several airlines ceased to operate in Albania due to the impact of the politics, resulting to a decrease of influx of flights and passengers. In 1977 Albania's government signed an agreement with Greece to open the country's first air links with non-communist Europe. As a result, Olympic Airways was the first non-communist airline to commercially fly into Albania after WWII. By 1991 Albania had air links with many major European cities, including Paris, Rome, Zürich, Vienna and Budapest, but no regular domestic air service.
A French-Albanian joint venture Ada Air, was launched in Albania's as the first private airline, in 1991. The company offered flights in a thirty-six-passenger airplane four days each week between Tirana and Bari, Italy and a charter service for domestic and international destinations.
.From 1989 to 1991, because of political changes in the Eastern European countries, Albania adhered to the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), opened its air space to international flights, and had its duties of Air Traffic Control defined.^ Actually, Albania is the only European country with a positive population growth rate.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Following the opening of the country to the western world, associated to the free movement of people, Albania experienced the onset of the first cases of AIDS in its population.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ OVERVIEW The demise of communism was later and more disorderly in Albania than in other post communist European countries.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.As premises of these developments, conditions were created to separate the activities of air traffic control from Albtransport.^ These activities include job creation for women, and access to opportunities for obtaining financial support and the collection and analysis of data specific to women.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ N TABLE VI. RATING OF ACTIVITIES IN THE AIR AND MARITIME TRANSPORT SECTORS IN THE SMALL ISLANDS DEVELOPING STATES (SIDS) .
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Instead, the National Agency of Air Traffic (NATA) was established as an independent enterprise. .In addition, during these years, governmental agreements of civil air transport were established with Bulgaria, Germany, Slovenia, Italy, Russia, Austria, England, Macedonia, etc.^ Cooperation at regional level in air transport and civil aviation .
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These have been co-financed by the World Bank, EU/PHARE, Italy and Germany.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The major bilateral donors are Italy, Germany, Japan, Switzerland, Austria, the Netherlands and the Kuwait Fund.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

The Directory General of Civil Aviation (DGCA) was established on 3 February 1991, to cope with the development required by the time.
.As of 2007 Albania has one international airport: Tirana International Airport Nënë Tereza.^ The only international airport is located in Tirana.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

The airport is linked to 29 destinations by 14 airlines. It has seen a dramatic rise in terms of passenger numbers and aircraft movements since the early 1990s. .The data for 2009 is 1.3 million passengers served and an average of 44 landings and takeoffs per day.^ The average waste generated per capita per day is reported to be 0,4 kg.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Train on the Durrës to Tiranë railway line

Railways

.The railway system was extensively promoted by the totalitarian regime of Enver Hoxha, during which time the use of private transport was effectively prohibited.^ STATUS REPORT: During the former regime, agriculture in particular made considerable use of toxic chemicals mainly fertilizers, herbicides and insecticides.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ STATUS REPORT: During the communist regime in the country, the totalitarian State pursued the policy of producing everything relying on its "own efforts".
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.Since the collapse of the former regime, there has been a considerable increase in car ownership and bus usage.^ STATUS REPORT: During the former regime, agriculture in particular made considerable use of toxic chemicals mainly fertilizers, herbicides and insecticides.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.Whilst some of the country's roads are still in a very poor condition, there have been other developments (such as the construction of a motorway between Tirana and Durrës) which have taken much traffic away from the railways.^ Road infrastructure is still very poor, old and not well maintained.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The number of abortions in the country is still very high and many mothers lose their lives following the complications from abortion or during labour.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Another project is expected to start ("Waste management in 6 Albanian municipalities; a model to be implemented in other developing countries") with the support of the LIFE Programme of the European Union.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

The railways in Albania are administered by the national railway company Hekurudha Shqiptare (HSH) (which means Albanian Railways). It operates a 1,435 mm (4 ft 8+12 in) gauge (standard gauge) rail system in Albania. All trains are hauled by Czech-built ČKD diesel-electric locomotives.

Demographics

Regions with a traditional presence of ethnic or linguistic groups other than Albanian.
Tirana, Albania's capital and largest city.
.The Albanian population is considered a very young population, with an average age of 28.9 years.^ The average life expectancy of the population is 71.4 years.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Almost one third of the population is under 14 years of age.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

[62] .After 1990 the Albanian population has faced new phenomena like migration, which greatly affected the distribution by districts and prefectures.^ Migration abroad started only in 1990 following the reduction of the control on population movement.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Districts in the North have seen a decreasing population, while Tirana and Durrës districts have increased their population.[citation needed] Albania's population was 3,152,600 on 1 January 2007 and 3,170,048 on 1 January 2008.[2] Alternative sources estimate the population in July 2009 at 3,639,453 with an annual growth rate of 0.546%.[63] .Albania is a largely ethnically homogeneous country with only small minorities.^ Actually, Albania is the only European country with a positive population growth rate.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The rivers of Albania are short in length and have small hydrographical basins because of the meridional position of the country.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Additional comments relevant to this chapter Considering the small size of the country, Albania is rich in biodiversity.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

[64] .The vast majority of the population is ethnically Albanian (98.6%).^ The majority of the Albanian population (more than 2/3) has settled in the Western flatland side of the country, the area of Korca and Delvina and along the river valleys.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.Minorities include Greeks 1.17% and others 0.23% (Vlachs, Macedonians, Serbs, Bulgarians, Balkan Egyptians, Roma and former Yugoslavians).^ Other minorities, in particular Roma and Egyptians, appear to be outside the system.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Albania : Albania Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Albania OVERVIEW Country Data MINORITIES Egyptians Greeks Macedonians Roma RESOURCES Minority Based & Advocacy Organizations Sources and Further Reading top of page powered by the webbler © MRG 2005 :: Contact us :: Sitemap :: Accessibility .
  • Minority Rights Group International : Albania : Albania Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Minority groups include Greeks 59,000, Macedonians 4,700 (1989 Census; the 2001 Census had no question concerning ethnicity), Roma, Vlachs/Aromanians, Macedonians, Egyptians, Serbs and Montenegrins.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Albania : Albania Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[65] The size of the Greek minority is contentious, with the Albanian government claiming it is only 60,000, while the Greek government is claiming 300,000. Most Western sources put the size of the Greek minority at around 200,000, or ~6% of the population,[66][67] while the CIA Factbook estimates the Greek minority at 3% of the total population. .The dominant language is Albanian, with two main dialects, Gheg and Tosk.^ Main languages: Albanian, Greek, Romani, Aromanian, Macedonian .
  • Minority Rights Group International : Albania : Albania Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Many Albanians are also fluent in English, Italian, Greek, etc.

Religion

Church of Virgin Mary. It was built in the 10th century
.Estimates of the religious allegiance of the population of Albania vary, with some sources suggesting that the majority do not follow any religion.^ Following the opening of the country to the western world, associated to the free movement of people, Albania experienced the onset of the first cases of AIDS in its population.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ STATUS REPORT: Following the postwar period, the population of Albania has increased at a rate of more than 2% annually which has been incompatible with the natural resources and economic development of the country.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

[68] .A second study of religion in Albania under the International Religious Freedom Report 2009, performed by the Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor of the United States's State Department, found that a majority of Albania's population is nonreligious.^ Emigration was forbidden, whereas the population movement from the rural to urban regions was under state control and very much restricted.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ STATUS REPORT: Following the postwar period, the population of Albania has increased at a rate of more than 2% annually which has been incompatible with the natural resources and economic development of the country.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

[69]
A recent study by the Pew Research Center puts the percentage of Muslims in Albania at 79.9%,[70] with the remaining 20% consisting of Christians. The CIA World Factbook gives a distribution of 70% Muslims, 20% Eastern Orthodox, and 10% Roman Catholics.[71] According to the World Christian Encyclopedia, roughly 39% of Albanians are Muslim, and 35% Christian[72]
The Albanians first appear in the historical record in Byzantine sources of the late-11th century. At this point, they are already fully Christianised. .Christianity was later overshadowed by Islam, which kept the scepter of the major religion during the period of Ottoman Turkish rule from the 15th century until year 1912. After independence (1912) from the Ottoman Empire, the Albanian republican, monarchic and later communist regimes followed a systematic policy of separating religion from official functions and cultural life.^ Capacity-Building/Technology Issues: During the 1996-98 period, the Ministry of Agriculture and Food's agricultural policy, analysis and programme management capacities will continue to be strengthened.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ D. Prior environmental impact assessment, systematic observation and follow-up of major projects, including systematic incorporation of results in decision-making.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ STATUS REPORT: During the communist regime in the country, the totalitarian State pursued the policy of producing everything relying on its "own efforts".
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Albania never had an official state religion either as a republic or as a kingdom. .In the 20th century, the clergy of all faiths was weakened under the monarchy, and ultimately eradicated during the 1940s and 1950s, under the state policy of obliterating all organised religion from Albanian territories.^ STATUS REPORT: During the communist regime in the country, the totalitarian State pursued the policy of producing everything relying on its "own efforts".
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.The Communist regime that took control of Albania after World War II suppressed religious observance and institutions and entirely banned religion to the point where Albania was officially declared to be the world's first atheist state.^ Following the opening of the country to the western world, associated to the free movement of people, Albania experienced the onset of the first cases of AIDS in its population.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The respective campaigns for the control and the eradication of these infections were organized by the Ministry of Health and Environment Protection through the Institute of Public Health and the technical assistance of the World Health Organization.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ STATUS REPORT: During the communist regime in the country, the totalitarian State pursued the policy of producing everything relying on its "own efforts".
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.Religious freedom has returned to Albania since the regime's change in 1992. Albanian Muslim populations (mainly secular and of the Sunni rite) are found throughout the country whereas Orthodox Christians are concentrated in the south and Roman Catholics are found in the north of the country.^ Main religions: Islam (mainly Sunni) Eastern Orthodox Christianity, Roman Catholicism .
  • Minority Rights Group International : Albania : Albania Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Albanian lands lay at the meeting point of Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Christianity.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Albania : Albania Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soil erosion, deforestation, and pollution from fertilizers and pesticides runoff are notable throughout large portions of the country, and are economically significant since approx.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.No reliable data are available on active participation in formal religious services, and estimates range from 25% to 40%.^ In fact, no accurate data regarding migration is available, but the massive "exodus" from the rural areas is a virtual certainty.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Since the plan was developed at a very early stage in Albania's democratic transition, it lacks reliability with respect to data and participation of the main sectors in the Albania of today.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

[73]
There are about 4,000 active Jehovah's witnesses in Albania.[74] .Among other religious organizations making inroads into this nation is The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS or 'Mormons').^ NATIONAL PRIORITY: Transformation of the Committee of Environmental Protection into an independent body of the same importance as the other ministries dealing with different development issues .
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.The Church's involvement in Albania began with Humanitarian Aid during the 1990s.^ During the transition period, the Health Care System inherited considerable deficiencies from the former system and initially relied almost completely on medical supplies from humanitarian aid.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

The first missionaries were sent in 1992 with the Albania Tirana Mission being opened in 1996. As of 2008, there were nearly 2,000 members of the Church in Albania, spread throughout ten branches with two purpose-built Chapels and one Family History Center.[75]

Culture

Music and folklore

A traditional male folk group from Skrapar
Albanian folk music falls into three sylistic groups, with other important music areas around Shkodër and Tirana; the major groupings are the Ghegs of the north and southern Labs and Tosks. The northern and southern traditions are contrasted by the "rugged and heroic" tone of the north and the "relaxed, gentle and exceptionally beautiful" form of the south. These disparate styles are unified by "the intensity that both performers and listeners give to their music as a medium for patriotic expression and as a vehicle carrying the narrative of oral history", as well as certain characteristics like the use of obscure rhythms such as 3/8, 5/8 and 10/8.[76] The first compilation of Albanian folk music was made by Pjetër Dungu in 1940.
Albanian folk songs can be divided into major groups, the heroic epics of the north, and the sweetly melodic lullabies, love songs, wedding music, work songs and other kinds of song. The music of various festivals and holidays is also an important part of Albanian folk song, especially those that celebrate St. Lazarus Day (the llazore), which inaugurates the springtime. Lullabies and laments are very important kinds of Albanian folk song, and are generally performed by solo women.[77]

Albanian language and literature

Albanian was proven to be an Indo-European language in 1854 by the German philologist Franz Bopp. The Albanian language comprises its own branch of the Indo-European language family.
Some scholars believe that Albanian derives from Illyrian[78] while others,[79] claim that it derives from Daco-Thracian. (Illyrian and Daco-Thracian, however, might have been closely related languages; see Thraco-Illyrian.)
Establishing longer relations, Albanian is often compared to Balto-Slavic on the one hand and Germanic on the other, both of which share a number of isoglosses with Albanian. Moreover, Albanian has undergone a vowel shift in which stressed, long o has fallen to a, much like in the former and opposite the latter. Likewise, Albanian has taken the old relative jos and innovatively used it exclusively to qualify adjectives, much in the way Balto-Slavic has used this word to provide the definite ending of adjectives.
The cultural resistance was first of all expressed through the elaboration of the Albanian language in the area of church texts and publications, mainly of the Catholic confessional region in the North, but also of the Orthodox in the South. The Protestant reforms invigorated hopes for the development of the local language and literary tradition when cleric Gjon Buzuku brought into the Albanian language the Catholic liturgy, trying to do for the Albanian language what Luther did for German.
Excerpt from Meshari by Gjon Buzuku
Meshari (The Missal) by Gjon Buzuku, published by him in 1555, is considered to date as the first literary work of written Albanian. The refined level of the language and the stabilised orthography must be a result of an earlier tradition of writing Albanian, a tradition that is not known. .But there are some fragmented evidence, dating earlier than Buzuku, which indicate that Albanian was written at least since 14th century AD. The first known evidence dates from 1332 AD and deals with the French Dominican Guillelmus Adae, Archbishop of Antivari, who in a report in Latin writes that Albanians use Latin letters in their books although their language is quite different from Latin.^ For the first time (1995) since the transition, Albanians did not consume as much as they produced.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The involvement of Albanian women in decision-making in both politics and management is generally low, although 1995 saw a slight improvement in some indicators.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Consequently, there may be some minor inconsistencies among the formats of the different country profiles.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Of special importance in supporting this are: a baptizing formula (Unte paghesont premenit Atit et Birit et spertit senit) of 1462, written in Albanian within a text in Latin by the Bishop of Durrës, Pal Engjëlli; a glossary with Albanian words of 1497 by Arnold von Harff, a German who had travelled through Albania, and a 15th century fragment from the Bible from the Gospel of Matthew, also in Albanian, but in Greek letters.
The National Museum of Albania features exhibits from Illyrian times to World War II.
Albanian writings of these centuries must not have been religious texts only, but historical chronicles too. They are mentioned by the humanist Marin Barleti, who, in his book Rrethimi i Shkodrës (The Siege of Shkodër) (1504), confirms that he leafed through such chronicles written in the language of the people (in vernacula lingua). Despite the obstacles generated by the Counter-Reformation which was opposed to the development of national languages in Christian liturgy[citation needed], this process went on uninterrupted. .During the 16th to 17th centuries, the catechism E mbësuame krishterë (Christian Teachings) (1592) by Lekë Matrënga, Doktrina e krishterë (The Christian Doctrine) (1618) and Rituale romanum (1621) by Pjetër Budi, the first writer of original Albanian prose and poetry, an apology for George Castriot (1636) by Frang Bardhi, who also published a dictionary and folklore creations, the theological-philosophical treaty Cuneus Prophetarum (The Band of Prophets) (1685) by Pjetër Bogdani, the most universal personality of Albanian Middle Ages, were published in Albanian.^ During the Middle Ages, modern-day Albania formed successively parts of the Byzantine, Bulgarian, Serbian and Angevin-Norman empires.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Albania : Albania Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Albanians are most probably the descendants of the ancient Illyrians who were colonized after the seventh century BCE by the Greeks and subsequently by the Romans.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Albania : Albania Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The most famous Albanian writer is probably Ismail Kadare.

Education

Before the Communist regime, Albania's illiteracy rate was as high as 85%. Schools were scarce between World War I and World War II. When the Communist regime over took the country in 1944, the regime wanted to wipe out illiteracy. The regulations became so strict that anyone between the ages of 12 and 40 who could not read or write was mandated to attend classes to learn. Since these times of struggle the country's literacy rate has improved remarkably.[80] Today the overall literacy rate in Albania is 98.7%, the male literacy rate is 99.2% and female literacy rate is 98.3%.[63] Since the rather large population movements in the 1990s to urban areas, education has moved as well. Thousands of teachers moved to urban areas to follow students. The University of Tirana is the first university in Albania and was founded in October 1957.

Administrative divisions

Counties of Albania
Albania is divided into 12 administrative divisions called (Albanian: official qark/qarku, but often prefekturë/prefektura) Counties, 36 districts and 351 municipalities. .Each region has its Regional Council and is composed of a number of Municipalities and Communes, which are the first level of local governance responsible for local needs and law enforcement.^ E. The Government supports the establishment and improvement of local, national, subregional and regional, as necessary, regulatory and monitoring programmes to control effluent discharge.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The power of the district governments was reduced in early 1993 through a reorganization which created 12 prefectures above the district level and also devoted power to 47 municipalities and 32 communes.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The secretariat is responsible for preparing legislation for structures and functioning of the local government, for determining relations with national government and advocating the interest of municipalities at the national level.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

County Capital Districts Municipalities Cities Towns
1 Berat Berat Berat
Kuçovë
Skrapar
12
2
10
2
1
2
122
17
103
2 Dibër Peshkopi Bulqizë
Dibër
Mat
8
15
12
2
1
3
103
141
76
3 Durrës Durrës Durrës
Krujë
10
7
4
2
61
43
4 Elbasan Elbasan Elbasan
Gramsh
Librazhd
Peqin
24
10
10
6
2
1
2
1
176
95
75
49
5 Fier Fier Fier
Lushnjë
Mallakastër
17
16
9
3
2
1
117
121
40
6 Gjirokastër Gjirokastër Gjirokastër
Përmet
Tepelenë
13
9
10
2
2
2
95
97
77
7 Korçë Korçë Devoll
Kolonjë
Korçë
Pogradec
5
8
17
8
1
2
2
1
44
76
155
72
8 Kukës Kukës Has
Kukës
Tropojë
4
15
8
1
1
3
30
90
68
9 Lezhë Lezhë Kurbin
Lezhë
Mirditë
4
10
7
3
2
4
28
63
70
10 Shkodër Shkodër Malësi e Madhe
Pukë
Shkodër
6
10
18
2
2
2
56
75
139
11 Tirana Tirana Kavajë
Tirana
10
18
2
3
65
155
12 Vlorë Vlorë Delvinë
Sarandë
Vlorë
4
9
13
1
2
4
38
62
99

Sport

Football (soccer) is the most popular sport in Albania, both at a participatory and spectator level. The sport is governed by the Football Association of Albania (Albanian: Federata Shqiptare e Futbollit, F.SH.F.).

Entertainment

Radio Televizioni Shqiptar, (RTSH), is Albania's leading television network. RTSH runs a national television station TVSH, (standing for Televizioni Shqiptar), and two national radio stations, using the name Radio Tirana. An international service broadcasts radio programmes in Albanian and seven other languages via medium wave (AM) and short wave (SW).[81] The international service has used the theme from the song "Keputa një gjethe dafine" as its signature tune. Since 1999, RTSH has been a member of the European Broadcasting Union. .Since 1993, RTSH has also run an international television service via satellite, aimed at Albanian language communities in Kosovo, Macedonia, Montenegro and Greece, plus the Albanian diaspora in the rest of Europe.^ It is bordered by Greece to the south, Macedonia to the east and the republics of Serbia and Montenegro to the north.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Albania : Albania Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Under circumstances which are disputed, the Albanians spread eastwards into Kosovo, western Macedonia and Greece.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Albania : Albania Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

According the National Council of Radio and Television Albania has an estimated 257 media outlets, including 66 radio stations and 65 television stations, with three national and 62 local stations.

Health

.Health care has been in a steep decline after the collapse of socialism in the country, but a process of modernization has been taking place since 2000.[82] As of the early 2000s, there were 51 hospitals in the country, including a military hospital and specialist facilities.^ In spring 1997 Albania descended into anarchy following the collapse of widespread pyramid saving schemes and the country remained unstable for some years until the early 2000s.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Albania : Albania Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[82] Albania has successfully removed diseases such as malaria.
Life expectancy is estimated at 77.43 years, ranking 51st worldwide, and outperforming a number of European Union countries, such as Hungary and the Czech Republic.[83] The most common causes of death are circulatory disease followed by cancerous illnesses.
The medical school, Faculty of Medicine at Tirana University, is in Tirana. There are also nursing schools in many other cities.

Cuisine

The cuisine of Albania – as with most Mediterranean and Balkan nations – is strongly influenced by its long history. At different times, the territory which is now Albania has been claimed or occupied by Greece, Italy and the Ottoman Turks and each group has left its mark on Albanian cuisine. The main meal of the Albanians is lunch, and it is usually accompanied by a salad of fresh vegetables, such as tomatoes, cucumbers, green peppers and olives with olive oil, vinegar and salt. Lunch also includes a main dish of vegetables and meat. Seafood specialties are also common in the coastal areas of Durrës, Vlorë and Sarandë.

Human rights in Albania

LGBT rights in Albania

International rankings

Demographic

Economic

Environmental

Globalization

Geographic

Peace

Political

See also

Notes and references

Notes:
a.   ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Serbia and the self-proclaimed Republic of Kosovo. The Assembly of Kosovo unilaterally declared its independence on 17 February 2008, a move that is recognised by 65 of the 192 UN member states and the Republic of China (Taiwan), but not by other UN member states. Serbia claims it as part of its own sovereign territory.
References:
  1. ^ Understanding the war in Kosovo Authors Florian Bieber, Židas Daskalovski Editors Florian Bieber, Židas Daskalovski Publisher Routledge, 2003 ISBN 0714653918, 9780714653914 page 188 link [1]
  2. ^ a b "Albania National Institute of Statistics official web site". http://www.instat.gov.al/. 
  3. ^ a b c d "Albania". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=914&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=71&pr.y=12. Retrieved 1 October 2009. 
  4. ^ Albania applies for EU membership, BBC News, 28 April 2009. Retrieved on 29 April 2009
  5. ^ Population stats from tirana.gov.al (Albanian)
  6. ^ Reports: Poverty Decreases In Albania After Years Of Growth.Dow Jones Newswires, 201-938-5500.http://www.nasdaq.com/aspx/stock-market-news-story.aspx?storyid=200904231403dowjonesdjonline000935&title=reports-poverty-decreases-in-albania-after-years-of-growth
  7. ^ Albania plans to build three hydropower plants.People's Daily
  8. ^ Strong GDP growth reduces poverty in Albania-study.Reuters.http://www.forbes.com/feeds/afx/2009/04/23/afx6330798.html
  9. ^ OED
  10. ^ Madrugearu A, Gordon M. The wars of the Balkan Peninsula. Rowman & Littlefield, 2007. p.146
  11. ^ Richard Talbert, Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World, (ISBN 0-691-03169-X), Map 49 & notes.
  12. ^ The Illyrians by J. J. Wilkes, 1992, ISBN 0631198075, page 279,"We cannot be certain that the Arbanon of Anna Comnena is the same as Albanopolis of the Albani, a place located on the map of Ptolemy (3.12)"
  13. ^ Robert Elsei. The Albanian lexicon of Arnold von Harff, Earliest reference to the existence of the Albanian language, pp. 113–122.
  14. ^ http://www.pinocacozza.it/ (Italian)(Albanian)
  15. ^ http://www.radio-arberesh.eu/ (Italian)
  16. ^ Kristo Frasheri. History of Albania (A Brief Overview). Tirana, 1964.
  17. ^ "Flags Of The World, Albania". http://www.fotw.us/flags/al.html#ori. 
  18. ^ Albanian Etymological Dictionary by Vladimir E. Orel, Brill 1998
  19. ^ Arnaut at the Free Dictionary
  20. ^ "Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs September 2007". http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/3235.htm. 
  21. ^ "Encyclopedia Britannica – Messapic language". http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9052237/Messapic-language. 
  22. ^ Appian, The Foreign Wars, III, 1.2
  23. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0631198075, Page 96,"... 25 Enchelei
  24. ^ The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes,1996, ISBN-9780631198079, page 111.
  25. ^ An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis by Mogens Herman, ISBN 0198140991, 2004, page 343, "Bouthroton (Bouthrotios)"
  26. ^ Harding, p. 93. Grabos became the most powerful Illyrian king after the death of Bardylis in 358.
  27. ^ a b "The Journal of Hellenic Studies by Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies (London, England)", 1973, p. 79. Cleitus was evidently the son of Bardylis II the grandson of the very old Bardylis who had fallen in battle against Phillip II in 385 BC.
  28. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, p. 120, ISBN 0631198075,page 129,"... mainly because no coins are known to have been issued by Illyrian rulers of a later period such as Agron, Teuta, Scerdilaidas, etc. ...
  29. ^ a b Library of Congress Country Study <http://lcweb2.loc.gov/frd/cs/altoc.html> of Albania
  30. ^ Research Institute for European and American Studies. The Balkan Muslim Presence
  31. ^ The Balkans (Nationalism, War and the Great Powers, 1804–1999) – by Misha Glenny
  32. ^ Young, Antonia (1997). Albania. Clio Press. ISBN 1851092609. 
  33. ^ The Balkans by Misha Glenny page 418
  34. ^ Creveld, Martin van (July–October 1972). In the Shadow of Barbarossa: Germany and Albania, January–March 1941. 7. pp. 22–230. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0022-0094(197207%2F10)7%3A3%2F4%3C221%3AITSOBG%3E2.0.CO%3B2-E. Retrieved 12 September 2007. 
  35. ^ Sarner. Rescue in Albania: One Hundred Percent of Jews in Albania Rescued from the Holocaust, 1997.
  36. ^ "Muslim Family Who Hid 26 Jews in Albania from the Nazis Honored by ADL" Anti-Defamation League
  37. ^ Escape Through the Balkans: the Autobiography of Irene Grunbaum (University of Nebraska Press, 1996)
  38. ^ Shoah Research Center – Albania.
  39. ^ Israeli Historians Study How Albanian Jews Escaped Holocaust http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,356717,00.html
  40. ^ Albania. World Almanac & Book of Facts, 2008, pp467–545, (AN 28820955)
  41. ^ "Thousands fear as blood feuds sweep Albania". Telegraph.co.uk. 3 June 2007.
  42. ^ "In Albanian Feuds, Isolation Engulfs Families ". The New York Times. 10 July 2008.
  43. ^ BBC News. "Nato welcomes Albania and Croatia", "BBC News", 2 April 2009. Retrieved on 2 April 2009.
  44. ^ Albania sells off its military hardware, BBC News, 2002
  45. ^ "Albania to abolish conscription by 2010". SETimes.com. 21 August 2008. http://www.setimes.com/cocoon/setimes/xhtml/en_GB/features/setimes/features/2008/08/21/feature-03. Retrieved 29 December 2009. 
  46. ^ NATO, [2]
  47. ^ "Albania membership Nato". NATO. http://www.nato.int/issues/nato_albania/evolution.html. 
  48. ^ http://qendrim.forumotion.net/gjeografia-f61/tiparet-e-pergjithshme-te-klimes-t3725.htm
  49. ^ a b http://www.cbd.int/doc/world/al/al-nbsap-01-p1-en.pdf
  50. ^ "The Balkan Lynx Conservation Compendium". Catsg.org. http://www.catsg.org/balkanlynx/20_blx-compendium/index.htm. Retrieved 29 December 2009. 
  51. ^ Albania Country Brief. Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (Australia), 1 August 2008. Retrieved 15 August 2009.
  52. ^ "Albania's GDP per capita in PPS (2008)" (PDF). Eurostat. http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/cache/ITY_PUBLIC/2-25062009-BP/EN/2-25062009-BP-EN.PDF. Retrieved 25 June 2009. 
  53. ^ Business: Albania, Cyprus register economic growth http://www.setimes.com/cocoon/setimes/xhtml/en_GB/features/setimes/roundup/2009/05/15/roundup-bs-03
  54. ^ Strong economic growth potential puts Albania and Panama top of long term investment list http://www.propertywire.com/news/related-stories/albania-panama-long-term-investment-200807201344.html
  55. ^ Albania's Economy shakes off it's shackles, 23 January 2003, BBC News.
  56. ^ Albania, Croatia plan nuclear power plant.
  57. ^ a b CIA – The World Factbook
  58. ^ a b Enel Albanian Joint Venture Introduces Coal In Albania's Power Mix, Business Monitor Online, 24 February 2009
  59. ^ CIA The World Factbook: Oil producers
  60. ^ Albania Country Profile, FAO
  61. ^ Wynne, Alexandra. "Albania highway: Making the first move | Features | New Civil Engineer". Nce.co.uk. http://www.nce.co.uk/news/transport/albania-motorway-making-the-first-move/5203302.article#. Retrieved 29 December 2009. 
  62. ^ Women, Men and shefit's in Albania 2006, Instat, Tirana, 2007
  63. ^ a b CIA World Factbook: Albania
  64. ^ Kosta Barjarba. "Migration and Ethnicity in Albania: Synergies and Interdependencies" (PDF). http://www.watsoninstitute.org/bjwa/archive/11.1/Essays/Barjarba.pdf. 
  65. ^ Albania, U.S. Department of State Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs, Background Note November 2008. Retrieved on 14 May 2009
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  84. ^ Institute for Economics and Peace 2009 Global Peace Index page 11

External links

Government
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Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : Balkans : Albania
View over Tirana
Location
noframe
Flag
Image:al-flag.png
Quick Facts
Capital Tirana
Government Developing Democracy
Currency Lek (ALL)
Area 28,748 sq km
Population 3,600,523 (July 2007 est.)
Language Albanian (Tosk is the official dialect)
Religion Albanians are mostly atheist or do not follow any religion. All mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances were prohibited; in 1990, Albania began allowing private religious practices again. According to an official US Government .Report: "No data are available on active participation in formal religious services, but estimates indicate that "only 30 to 40 percent of the population practices a religion."^ Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10% note: percentages are estimates; there are no available current statistics on religious affiliation; all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, no accurate data regarding migration is available, but the massive "exodus" from the rural areas is a virtual certainty.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In 1997, investment pyramid schemes damaged the savings of more than 30 percent of the population.
  • Albanian Americans - History, The first albanians in america, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Electricity 230V/50Hz (European plug)
Calling Code +355
Internet TLD .al
Time Zone UTC +1
.Albania [1] (Albanian: Shqipëria) is a small country in the Balkans.^ The rivers of Albania are short in length and have small hydrographical basins because of the meridional position of the country.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ More than two million Albanians live in neighboring Balkan countries (e.g., Kosovo Region in Yugoslavia, Macedonia, and Turkey) as well as in other countries.
  • Albanian Americans - History, The first albanians in america, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Additional comments relevant to this chapter Considering the small size of the country, Albania is rich in biodiversity.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.It shares borders with Greece, the Republic of Macedonia, Kosovo, and Montenegro.^ GEOGRAPHY Albania shares a border with Greece to the south/southeast, Macedonia to the east, Kosovo to the northeast, and Montenegro to the northwest.
  • Albania (06/09) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The result was only half a state, because almost half the population and its territories were left beyond the frontiers, in Kosovo, in present-day Macedonia, and in the northern part of Greece.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ It is located in southeastern Europe and borders Montenegro, Serbia, and Macedonia on the north and east, Greece in the south and southeast, and the Adriatic Sea on the west.
  • Albanian Americans - History, The first albanians in america, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Albania is an extremely poor country by European standards.^ Albania was the last of the central and eastern European countries to embark upon democratic and free market reforms.
  • Albania (06/09) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Albania's civil law system is similar to that of other European countries.
  • Albania (06/09) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the case of Albania, the theory of socialism in one country assumed extreme forms because the ruling elite in Tirana was obsessed with isolating the country from Serbia and Greece.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

[2]
  • Tiranë - the capital. Trees and mountains surround the city. Mt. .Dajt is a popular tourist site for a great view of the city.
  • Durrës - One of the oldest cities in Albania.^ However, such "protection" inevitably meant that Albania was constantly at the mercy of one great power or another.
    • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

    Flooded three times during its history. The current city is built on the ruins of two previous ones. It has the largest amphitheater in the Balkans. It is currently the largest port of Albania and has the longest shoreline.
  • Shkodër - the biggest town in Northern Albania. The Rozafa Castle is a major tourist attraction here.
  • Fier - About eight miles outside the modern city of Fier are the early Greek and Roman ruins of the ancient city of Apollonia. .Much of this ancient city still remains buried under the hills.
  • Berat - Thought to be one of the oldest towns in Albania, it is a new member of the UNESCO world heritage list.^ Under this new Law, the BS remained the supervisor of the commercial banks (and 'foundations', etc.
    • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Today, Albanian is spoken in two major dialects (with many subdialects) in Albania and in neighboring Kosova— Tosk (about two-thirds of the population) and Gheg (the remaining one-third).
    • Albanian Americans - History, The first albanians in america, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Berat has long been known as the "city of 1000 windows" because of its unique Ottoman/Albanian architecture. It has a well preserved castle with residents still living inside its protective walls.
  • Gjirokastër - another UNESCO city, located in the south is known for its unique Ottoman period architecture. There is a large castle on the hill in the middle of the city which served as a jail for many generations. A Military Museum and Art Gallery are now located inside. .Gjirokastër is also the birthplace of former communist Leader, Enver Hoxha, as well as Albania's most internationally famous author, Ismail Kadare, their homes now serve as museums.
  • Sarandë - a city in southern Albania known for its unforgettable beaches and colorful spring blooms.
  • Vlorë - Lively seaside city, nice beaches south of town.^ In 1939, Albania was invaded and occupied by Italy; it regained independence after World War II, but under a Communist regime (led by Enver Hoxha, 1908–1985), which outlawed religion and suppressed the people.
    • Albanian Americans - History, The first albanians in america, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Given the deep social crisis in southern Italy, it is quite likely that the example of Albania will give ideas to the workers of the South.
    • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

    ^ From Saturday onwards a general strike was declared in the city and in most of the south of the country.
    • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

    .Passenger ferries to and from Italy dock here.
  • Lezhe - Lezhë is still a small city, with new hotels constantly being built.
  • Pogradec - Overshadowed by its glitzy neighbors on the Macedonian side of the lake, the town of Pogradec has been experiencing a revival recently.
  • Krujë - ancient city of the national hero Skanderbeg.^ Telephones are still missing in most Albanian homes, though efforts are being undertaken with the support of the European Union and IFIs to build a new telephone infrastructure and drastically increase the telephone network, especially in big cities.
    • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

    It consists of beautiful mountains; Skanderbeg's castle is now a museum. .Kruje also contains an old style bazaar with shops selling traditional goods amid cobblestone streets.
  • Korça- Located in southeast Albania, several miles from the Greek border, this city is Albania's cultural capital.^ It is located in southeastern Europe and borders Montenegro, Serbia, and Macedonia on the north and east, Greece in the south and southeast, and the Adriatic Sea on the west.
    • Albanian Americans - History, The first albanians in america, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Tensions occasionally arise with Greece over the treatment of the Greek minority in Albania or the Albanian community in Greece, but overall relations are good.
    • Albania (06/09) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ GEOGRAPHY Albania shares a border with Greece to the south/southeast, Macedonia to the east, Kosovo to the northeast, and Montenegro to the northwest.
    • Albania (06/09) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    It is full of life during the summer when you can find couples and families strolling through the city's main park, Parku Rinia. You can hike to the top of the beautiful mountain Moravia and view the city and its surrounding landscape. .Don't miss the Korca Brewery (famous throughout Albania) which sponsors a week long Beer Festival every August!
  • Librazhd - is a small city located in the east of Albania, perched atop the river Shkumbin.
  • Butrint - Largest archaeological site from Greek era in Albania.^ The rivers of Albania are short in length and have small hydrographical basins because of the meridional position of the country.
    • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

    It lies on the coast in the southernmost tip of the country, near the Greek border. .Minibuses are available from Saranda.
  • Bylis - second largest archaeological site from Roman era in Albania
  • Kamenica - Illyrian Culture
  • Selca - Illyrian Culture
  • Tomorr Mountain ridge in the southern part of Albania, not far from Berat.^ Emigration has mainly affected the southern parts of Albania.
    • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

    This part of the country is formed by parallel mountain ridges (up to around 2000-2500 m) separated by valleys. Although the ridges are not very long, they offer few days of hiking with enormous scenic beauty and fantastic panoramic views. .Tomorri is one of the most known ridges with a Bektash monastery and chapel on the very top.
  • Albanian Alps - This mountainous complex on the north of the country forms the border between Albania and Montenegro.^ Albania is a mountainous country, 28,748 square miles in size, slightly larger than the state of Maryland.
    • Albanian Americans - History, The first albanians in america, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It is located in southeastern Europe and borders Montenegro, Serbia, and Macedonia on the north and east, Greece in the south and southeast, and the Adriatic Sea on the west.
    • Albanian Americans - History, The first albanians in america, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ NATIONAL PRIORITY: A high proportion (most) of the country is mountainous and hilly.
    • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

    Rich on rainfalls, sheep, bare rocks and scenic views it is one of the places in Albania you should see. One of the places where you can be less than 10 km away from the nearest village and still have a day long trip there.
  • Dhërmi - one of the finest of the many beaches along the coastal road between Vlore and Saranda, perfect for camping.
Map of Albania
Map of Albania
  • National Park of Lura - a 1,280 hectare national park with high mountains, big meadows, and glacial lakes.

Understand

.While the relative majority of the people in Albania are of Muslim heritage (70-80%), Albania also has a large number of religious minorities (mainly Albanian Orthodox and Roman Catholic-the largest Christian minorities in Europe along with Bosnia and Herzegovina).^ Religions: Muslim (Sunni and Bektashi) 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, and Roman Catholic 10%.
  • Albania (06/09) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Muslim 70%, Albanian Orthodox 20%, Roman Catholic 10% note: percentages are estimates; there are no available current statistics on religious affiliation; all mosques and churches were closed in 1967 and religious observances prohibited; in November 1990, Albania began allowing private religious practice .
  • CIA - The World Factbook -- Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.umsl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Albanian Roman Catholics began coming to the United States in the 1960s and 1970s.
  • Albanian Americans - History, The first albanians in america, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Traditional Albanian culture honors the role and person of the guest.^ The organization is well known to all Albanians and has played an active political and cultural role in the community.
  • Albanian Americans - History, The first albanians in america, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In return for this place of honor, respect is expected from the guest. .Albanians enjoy the long walks the city streets, drinking coffee, and among the younger generations, partaking in nightlife activities such as cafe lounging and dancing.^ Albanians enjoy Turkish coffee or Albanian coffee ( kafe ), Albanian whiskey ( raki ) and wine.
  • Albanian Americans - History, The first albanians in america, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

History

.Following the defeat of the Axis powers at the end of World War II, a totalitarian Communist government was established, presided over by resistance leader Enver Hoxha.^ In 1939, Albania was invaded and occupied by Italy; it regained independence after World War II, but under a Communist regime (led by Enver Hoxha, 1908–1985), which outlawed religion and suppressed the people.
  • Albanian Americans - History, The first albanians in america, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During World War I, Albania became a protectorate of the Great Powers after a short period of independence in 1912.
  • Albanian Americans - History, The first albanians in america, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The peaceful transfer of power from President Meidani to President Moisiu was the result of an agreement between the parties to engage each other within established parliamentary structures.
  • Albania (06/09) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.state.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Albania became infamous for its isolation, not just from the market-run democracies of Western Europe, but from the Soviet Union, China, and even neighboring Yugoslavia.^ But when China began to make overtures to Yugoslavia in 1978, Tirana was compelled to break with Beijing and retire into almost complete isolation, with disastrous consequences.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Albania soon broke with Russia and became a satellite of China, which had the advantage of being even further away, and bitterly hostile to "Yugoslav revisionism".
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Even as the Iron Curtain came down and Communists lost power throughout Eastern Europe, Albania seemed intent on staying the course, alone.^ The President of the Council of Europe's parliamentary assembly, Leni Fischer, even went so far as to praise a much-contested law banning former collaborators with the communist-era secret service in Albania from seeking public office.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Many Albanian men considered their stay in America temporary and therefore left their wives in Albania with the intent of making enough money to return home.
  • Albanian Americans - History, The first albanians in america, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another wave immigrated after Albania came under Communist control in 1944.
  • Albanian Americans - History, The first albanians in america, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But in 1992, several years after the death of Hoxha, the Communist party finally relinquished power and Albania established a multi-party democracy with a coalition government.^ After the collapse of communism in 1991, Albania became a free and democratic country with a multi-party parliamentary system under President Sali Berisha.
  • Albanian Americans - History, The first albanians in america, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In political life, Albania has sought to develop forms of government that allow a genuine role for parliament, political parties, and a wider range of participation.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Article 7 The system of government in the Republic of Albania is based on the separation and balancing of legislative, executive and judicial powers.
  • Presidenti i Republikes se Shqiperise 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.president.al [Source type: Original source]

The transition has proven difficult, as corrupt governments have tried to deal with high unemployment, a dilapidated infrastructure, widespread gangsterism, and disruptive political opponents. .Today Albania is making progress, with EU integration as its goal; Albania signed the SAA on June 2006, thus completing the first major step towards joining.^ In 2006, Albania signed a Stabilization and Association Agreement with the EU. Theoretically, this is the first step towards membership of the EU. For the country, it crowned 16 years of – sometimes rocky – transition to democracy.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Albania : Albania Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today, Albanian is spoken in two major dialects (with many subdialects) in Albania and in neighboring Kosova— Tosk (about two-thirds of the population) and Gheg (the remaining one-third).
  • Albanian Americans - History, The first albanians in america, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In 2008 Albania received an invitation to join NATO.
Sign at the Albanian - Macedonian border crossing on the southern shore of Lake Ohrid [Photo: Rolf Palmberg]
Sign at the Albanian - Macedonian border crossing on the southern shore of Lake Ohrid [Photo: Rolf Palmberg]

Visas

.There is no longer a visa charge for any foreigners entering Albania.^ Initially, there were no small contractors in Albanias rural areas, especially the mountainous project area, and sub-projects were carried out by communes.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There was no law that could impose restrictions on the type of the chemical allowed to enter and be used in the country.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.U.S., Canadian, Australian and New Zealand nationals can enter Albania without obtaining a visa but you'll have to pay an entry fee of €1 (if you visit Albania on a daytrip it can be free, for short stays it can be €1).^ Features local and national news on Albanian community life and events and news from Albania.
  • Albanian Americans - History, The first albanians in america, Significant immigration waves, Settlement patterns, Acculturation and assimilation 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.everyculture.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Be sure to receive a receipt and keep it with you, as guards may request it upon exiting the country as proof of payment.^ Developing countries: You may wish to describe any new national mechanisms for capacity building - and any changes in technical cooperation.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

The Albania guards are very nice and do their best to help out and will, on occasion, allow fees to be paid in dollars or will forget to charge you. It's worth making sure you've got the Euros on you as the customs officers at Mother Teresa airport don't give change.
As well as paying to get in, you need to pay €1 to leave the country; although, on occasion, tourists are allowed to leave via the Macedonian border without paying. .When crossing the border with Macedonia on foot, the guards only accept €1 and €2 coins, you cannot pay with two €0.50 coins.^ Another 50,000 crossed the southern border, illegally entering Greece.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

Nationals of the European Union don't have to pay the fee since early 2009.

By plane

.Tirana's "Mother Teresa" International Airport [3] is located just 15 minutes away from the city.^ The only international airport is located in Tirana.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

It is served by numerous European flag carriers such as British Airways, Alitalia, Lufthansa, Austrian, and the low cost carrier Germanwings. A new, larger terminal opened in 2007.
At the airport exit, there are numerous taxis 24/7 that can take you to the city. The taxi fee to the city center is €25. Taxi fees to other locations are posted on a placard just outside the exit doors.
.To book a hotels around Albania is the best possibility to use this web-site www{.^ Visit the Albania in Revolt Web site .
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

}edialtour{.)com
.There is a bus that runs once an hour between the airport and Skanderberg Square in the centre of Tirana.^ Alternatively, at about 9 am there is a smaller bus-boat (take this quite literaly), that takes about four hours to cross.
  • Albania Country Guide | Guide to Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.2camels.com [Source type: News]

It costs 200 lek each way, leaves on the hour from the airport and at 25 past the hour from Skanderberg Square. It runs from about 8AM to 7PM.

By train

It is not possible to enter or leave Albania via train. There are, however, trains that operate within the country.

By bus

You can reach Tirana by coach from
There is now a daily bus link between Ulcinj in Montenegro and Skhoder. .But there are no scheduled buses from any other point in Montenegro into Albania.^ NATO spokespersons have stated that, for the time being, there is no point in intervening.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ In the Republic of Albania there is no official religion.
  • Presidenti i Republikes se Shqiperise 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.president.al [Source type: Original source]

^ Initially, there were no small contractors in Albanias rural areas, especially the mountainous project area, and sub-projects were carried out by communes.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

  • Ferries to Durrës arrive from Bari (9h, €50) and Ancona (19h, €70). A high-speed service operates from Bari (3h, €60).
  • There is also a reliable overnight ferry service operated by Skenderbeg Lines from Brindisi to Vlore Skenderbeg Lines [4].
  • Ferries from Corfu to Saranda every day.

By car

You can reach Albania by car from:
where pass the National Roads.
There is a 10-euro/person tax, which must be paid upon entering Albania. After payment of the tax to the police, the customs officer will issue a "road tax certificate", which you must keep until you leave the country. When you exit the country, you'll pay €2/day and return the certificate.
.To enter the country, ensure that your International Motor Insurance Card is valid for Albania (AL) along with the Vehicle Registration and a Power of Attorney from the owner if the car is not yours.^ All travelers will need a passport valid for at least 90 days following your departure date from Albania.
  • Albania Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Albanian Visas Online. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC albania.visahq.com [Source type: General]

^ The norms issued by an international organization have superiority, in case of conflict, over the laws of the country if the agreement ratified by the Republic of Albania for its participation in the organization expressly contemplates their direct applicability.
  • Presidenti i Republikes se Shqiperise 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.president.al [Source type: Original source]

The border guards are very strict about allowing cars through without these documents.
The road between Struga, Macedonia and Tirana (E852/SH3) is not to the levels of quality found in other parts of Europe but it is sufficient. There are a lot of slow moving vehicles along the curvy mountainous route so extra caution must be exercised especially around corners or during over-taking.
.The road between Prizren(Kosova) and Tirana (Albania) is not to the levels of quality found in other parts of Europe but it is sufficient especially Albanian part.^ The monk seal, which is practically extinct in the Mediterranean, except for some isolated parts of the Aegean and Adriatic, is found in Albania.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.Extra caution because in some parts near the Kosova border the work on the road is still going on.^ State television shows foreign TV footage of tanks on the road near Gjirokaster near the border with Greece.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

There are a lot of slow moving vehicles along the curvy mountainous route so extra caution must be exercised especially around corners or during over-taking.
.The road between Shkoder (border of Montenegro) and Tirana (E762/SH1) is of sufficient quality for driving but there are a lot of slow moving vehicles and un-controlled access points so extra caution must be exercised especially during over-taking.^ The example of an armed insurrection just across the border in Albania must have a powerful effect on the consciousness of the people of Kosovo and Macedonia, especially among Kosovo's desperate youth.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.There are two border control points in the north of Albania with Montenegro. The narrow road from Shkoder to Ulcinj, Montenegro via Muriqan, is used mainly by locals and is worth a try to avoid heavier traffic on the main road (E762/SH1) to Hani i Hoti.^ There are two distinct dialects, one spoken in the North (Gheg) and one in the south (Tosk).
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ One of their main duties consists of the control over the local economic activities, trying to ensure that they do not become risky for the environment.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In a sinister development, Berisha has warned of the break-up of Albania, and is deliberately trying to play on the division between North and South.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

Ask any police officer to point you in the right direction from Shkoder. They are helpful, courteous and friendly.

By taxi

.Albania is geographically a small country and as such it is possible to leave by taxi.^ The rivers of Albania are short in length and have small hydrographical basins because of the meridional position of the country.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Additional comments relevant to this chapter Considering the small size of the country, Albania is rich in biodiversity.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.Note, however, that the roads are not of western standard and can take several times longer than expected to traverse.^ It is expected that operationalisation of REAs in all prefectures will take additional time as some prefectures have not responded to the legal requirements posed by the central Government.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ No punishment may be given that is more severe than that which was contemplated by law at the time of commission of the criminal act.
  • Presidenti i Republikes se Shqiperise 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.president.al [Source type: Original source]

^ The extension of the term of the state of emergency may be done only with the consent of the Assembly, for each 30 days, for a period of time not longer than 90 days.
  • Presidenti i Republikes se Shqiperise 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.president.al [Source type: Original source]

Your hotel will be able to arrange a taxi to the border, where you should be able to change to a taxi at the other side. For example, a taxi from Tirana to the Macedonian border, a distance of 70 miles, will take three hours and cost about €100. A Macedonian taxi from the border onwards to Struga would cost €20 and take 20 mins, while a taxi on to Skopje would take 3 hours on much better roads and would cost about €120 (Prices January 2008). Passport control will take about 30 mins.

Get around

By bus

.Most people in Albania travel by public bus or private minibuses (called "furgons"), which depart quite frequently to destinations around Albania.^ The economic system of the Republic of Albania is based on private and public property, as well as on a market economy and on freedom of economic activity.
  • Presidenti i Republikes se Shqiperise 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.president.al [Source type: Original source]

.Furgons have no timetable (they depart when they are full) and in addition to big cities provide access to some smaller towns where busses don't frequently run.^ In another note we read the following: "In the three towns controlled by the rebels they have organised full blooded 'people's' armies with a hierarchy.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ In Vlore no one knew anything about this army manoeuvre and some said that they had been across the bridge and had not noticed any changes over the previous few days.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.Furgon stations aren't always in obvious locations, so you can ask around to find them, or keep an eye out for groups of white or red minivans gathered together.^ "Their arrival at the town's police station provoked hordes of Albanians to pour into the streets around the building, while other groups surrounded the local barracks, location of the arsenal.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

Destination place names are generally displayed on the dashboard, prices are never posted. Furgons are loosely regulated, and provide a real "Albanian" experience.
.From Tirana, many furgons a day depart to Shkoder, Durres, Elbasan, Fier and Berat.^ Albania Hotels, Tirana Hotels, Elbasan Hotels, Berat Hotels, Korca Hotels, Durres Hotels, Kukes Hotels, Shkodra Hotels, Milot Hotels & More...
  • Albania Hotels - Best Price Hotels in Albania with Instant Confirmation & Last Minute Bookings 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.southtravels.com [Source type: General]

Furgons departing to the south like Gjirokaster or Saranda tend to depart fairly early in the morning. Generally, furgons cost a little more and go a little faster, but can be uncomfortable over long distances because of the close quarters with other passangers.
Buses are more comfortable and cheaper, run on a time schedule (though it is almost impossible to find a printed schedule anywhere in the country) and are generally well regulated. Their are different bus stations in Tirane for North bound buses (Shkoder, Leizhe, Puke, etc), South bound buses (Saranda, Gjirokastër, Berat, Vlore, Fier, etc).

By train

Limited services operate between Tirana and Shkodra, Fier, Ballsh, Vlorë and Pogradec. The train route from Lezhe to Shkodra has scenic beauty. The Tirana-Durres trains (and vice versa) depart up to 8 times a day. .As of 2006, the trains in Albania are still in extremely poor condition - despite the route from Tirana to Vlore looking convenient on a map, the more wealthy Albanians never use trains and if not travelling in their own cars, use the many mini-buses.^ Dynamite fishing and the use of drift nets are still used in the territorial waters of Albania.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The chain reaction would mean that Albanians in Macedonia, still a very unstable and delicate state, would automatically ask for more rights.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Albanian roads were full of used Western cars and many houses sported satellite dishes.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

.A train ride is a must-see, as there are few such enjoyments in Europe these days.^ A few days after these interviews were published these same workers organised a 48 hour strike.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

Tickets are very cheap and the journeys are very long, but the views and the atmosphere are usually priceless. .On most stations you'll find people selling sunflower seeds, fruits, chewing gum and many other different things - very unusual in Europe.^ Under the Ottoman empire from 1467 to 1912, the Albanian relationship with the Turkish rulers was somewhat different to other Balkan peoples.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

By car

The roads between the important destinations have been recently repaved and fixed, and offer all the security measures one would expect on a highway. .There are no fees for using the highways.^ There was no law that could impose restrictions on the type of the chemical allowed to enter and be used in the country.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Beware of minor roads. Road surfaces can be poor, deeply pitted, or non-existent, and sometimes a decent paving can suddenly disappear, necessitating a U-turn and lengthy doubling-back. It seems all the expensive cars in Albania are SUVs, rather than low-slung sports cars - and for good reason. Ask the locals in advance if travelling away from a highway.
Highways have frequent changes in speed limit (sometimes with little apparent reason). And there are frequent police mobile speed checks. Police will also stop you if you have not turned on your car lights. .Ensure you travel with driving licences and insurance documents (ask your car hire company for these) to present to the police.^ We recommend that you have at least two free pages in Visas section of your passport before any international travel.
  • Albania Visa : Application, Requirements. Apply for Albanian Visas Online. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC albania.visahq.com [Source type: General]

Car-driving behaviour on the highways is not as orderly as elsewhere in Europe. Expect cars to pull out infront of you, little use of indicators, and hair-raising overtaking. Lanes on dual or triple carriageways tend to be observed.
Navigation is pretty easy although some maps of the country are out of date or contain errors.
.In the cities, and especially Tirana, many roads are being upgraded and fixed.^ This is typical for big cities, especially Tirana.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Because of that, traveling by car inside the city will be slow. Be aware that especially Tirana suffers from great traffic congestion during mornings and midday.
A very nice ride is the Vlorë-Saranda mountain road. It is a typical Mediterranean road and offers an amazing view of the sea from the mountains.
The road to the top of Dajti mountain is very bad, though does not (just about) require a 4x4.
Gypsy and beggar children may approach your car at major stop lights. Nudge slightly forward to get them off your car and if necessary go into the traffic intersection to get rid of them. The locals will understand.

By bicycle

.The potholes, driving standards and lack of places to stay in many villages and towns make Albania a challenging cycling destination, but a rewarding one.^ In the meantime, one after another, whole villages and towns have fallen into the hands of the armed demonstrators...
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

Often, asking around to see if you can stay in somebody's home / camp in their garden is the only option. Food and water are easily available in the frequent roadside cafes and bars.
It is OK to camp in all not strictly private places, and even if the places are private there should be no problems with your stay, ask if you doubt.
Be aware that it's very hard to get parts or repairs of modern bicycles.

By thumb

Hitchhiking is not very common in Albania; however, many people will pick you up if they are able.

See

There are many things to do in Albania. Because of its size, traveling around it is not difficult, allowing tourists to see many beautiful parts of the country.
  • The coastline is always a place to go, with its clear turquoise seas, and its many islands cast upon it, like in Saranda, a southern city in Albania.
Beautiful and quiet beach at Ksamili
.
Beautiful and quiet beach at Ksamili
  • Dajti mountain, a popular sight in Tirana allows you to get a whole green view of the capital.
  • A walk around southern cities like Butrint, a UNESCO world heritage site, is always ideal and memorable.^ People from these areas reach mainly the coastal regions and overpopulate the big cities like Tirana.
    • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

    Butrint is home to many ancient ruins.
  • Castles are in many cities in Albania. Their beauty reminds anyone of the ancient times of Albania, and the world. There is Petrela Castle near Tirana, Rozafa castle in Shkodra, the inhabited castle of Berat, and Skanderbeg Castle in Kruje, (named after the national hero and now a popular museum holding his belongings).

Talk

.Albanian is the official language.^ The official language in the Republic of Albania is Albanian.
  • Presidenti i Republikes se Shqiperise 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.president.al [Source type: Original source]

.Other useful languages include Italian, which is often viewed as the de facto second language because Albania was often occupied by Italy on many different occasions, the most famous being during World War II. English is understandable in Tirana, the capital the most and to a lesser extent outside frequented tourist cities.^ The capital city of the Republic of Albania is Tirana.
  • Presidenti i Republikes se Shqiperise 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.president.al [Source type: Original source]

^ This, in addition to a so-called Treaty of Defensive Alliance prepared the way for the Italian invasion on 7th April 1939, one of the events leading to the second world war.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ During the First World War Albania was overrun by seven different armies, and barely escaped partition.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

In the southernmost areas of the country, you might also encounter minority speakers of the Greek language.

Buy

The national currency is the lek (ALL). There are 130.9 lek to the euro (11 August 2009).
Notice that some Albanians write prices with an extra zero. .They are not trying to charge you 10 times the going rate; they are merely using the old currency.^ One 14-year-old rebel was quoted by The Times' correspondent on 10/3/97 as saying "When you write, do not say that we are rebels.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

Hundreds of new ATMs have been installed in most major cities. Use the MasterCard ATM Locator [5] or Visa ATM Locator [6] to find them. The ATMs accept most international VISA and Mastercard Credit/Debit cards.
.Many rural convenience stores will not accept any other method of payment other than cash (currently in Albanian lek).^ These factors weigh more heavily on the Albanians than most other peoples due to a unique combination of circumstances.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ On the other hand, the Albanian national question is neither less important nor less dangerous than the Serb, Croat, Macedonian, Bosnian or Slovene variants.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

However supermarkets, the better bookstores and the better boutique stores will accept Credit or Debit Cards. The most widely accepted cards are VISA, Mastercard, and Diner's Club.
Souvenirs: raki, alabaster bunker ashtrays
Books

Eat

Restaurants are very easy to find. Albania, like the Balkans in general, has a primarily Turkish influence in its cuisine. This influence stems from over 400 years of Ottoman rule in the region. Recent influences after the fall of communism in the early 1990's have been from Italy and Western Europe in general. .Most of what is available in neighboring countries such as Greece and Italy will be available in Albania, particularly in the larger cities.^ The country was dominated by imperialist powers, mainly Italy, but to some extent also Britain, which had interests in Greece and Cyprus connected with the defence of the Suez Canal route to India.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ From Saturday onwards a general strike was declared in the city and in most of the south of the country.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Large-scale emigration started: people emigrated particularly to neighbouring countries (Greece and Italy).
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Albania's food is very tasty and satisfying. .Many people grow fruits and vegetables around their houses, most popularly all kinds of grapes, (red, black, green), that are used to make raki.^ The people assume that most, if not all.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Protection of the oceans, all kinds of seas, including enclosed and semi-enclosed seas, and coastal areas and the protection, rational use and development of their living resources 18.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ All units that intend to make use of nuclear techniques must apply for a licence from the Radiation Safety Department and comply with the existing regulations.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.Albania is a very mountainous country, and these mountains have scattered little beautiful olive trees that influence Albanian cuisine.^ Even before, Albania was a very poor country.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ By the end of October 1994, these pesticides were taken away from Albania, avoiding a danger to the whole country.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Salads are usually made with fresh tomato and onion. .Most Albanian people make their own bread, and going out for meals is not common.^ Thus, whereas some people have made a lot of money, most have been forced to make ends meet as best they can.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ These factors weigh more heavily on the Albanians than most other peoples due to a unique combination of circumstances.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Precisely because of this conspiracy of silence, the Albanian explosion caught most people by surprise.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

Since all fruits and vegetables are grown naturally, everything you buy and pick is sweeter and pesticide-free.
Some sort of hearty stew is commonly included in Albanian dinners. These stews are easy to make, and flexible with ingredients. They include potatoes, onion, rice, etc.
  • Byrek - a type of savory pie is also common, and is made in different ways. One way is with spinach and feta cheese. Another is with ground meat and onion. .Baklava is a popular desert and is always made as a desert during New Year's Eve.^ A defence committee has been formed made up of ex-army officers purged during the last few years by Berisha.
    • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

    If going to Albania, expect lamb to be the main meat in many places. Lamb there is naturally fed, and does not have any odor like it does in North America. Two byreks and an ayran is a very common breakfast, so try it to understand why.
  • Cheese - lots of different types but mostly feta cheese. In village shops be prepared that you'll get the cheese in less hygienic way then in supermarkets but it's worth to try as it's usually delicious and in very good price (try those higher priced first).

Drink

.The preferred alcoholic hard drink is raki that is locally produced in small towns as well as in many homes in the countryside; in some instances you may run across men washing down breakfast with a few shots.^ Wealth for the few, impoverishment for the many - that was the picture in Albania, as well as the other ex-Stalinist states.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

The number of homemade beers, wines and raki is as varied as the population itself; the quality of these drinks is as varied as the quantity available. .Non-alcoholic drinks range from the well-known international and regional soft drink brands to the locally produced copies.^ Regional/International Cooperation: Bilateral cooperation with Turkey, Malaysia, Israel for housing issues; PHARE Programme has covered some of the feasibility studies and detailed design in the field of drinking and waste water as well as solid domestic waste.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.You can find any type of pop or soft drink in Albania, including all kinds of Fantas, Coca Cola, and Sprite.^ Protection of the oceans, all kinds of seas, including enclosed and semi-enclosed seas, and coastal areas and the protection, rational use and development of their living resources 18.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Natural mineral water is popular because of its healthiness. Energy drinks found everywhere in the United States are also present there, like Red Bull.
Boza [7], a popular sweet drink made from maize (corn) and wheat is a traditional Albanian drink, and Albanians have been known as the best boza makers in the world.

Sleep

Inside the cities hotels are abundant and prices per night start as low as €15. Hotels are usually clean and their staff generally speak English and/or Italian.
Outside the big cities hotels are less common. If for any reason you find nowhere to sleep, the Albanian people have always been known for their hospitality, and will treat you like royalty as you stay with them.

Stay safe

Take the usual precautions. .Foreigners are not targeted by the local crime scene and since the opening of the border, no major incidents toward tourists have been reported.^ Their only real hope is foreign intervention, which they seek to provoke by staging different incidents, all obligingly reported by the Western press as proof of "anarchy".
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

Stay healthy

It's best to drink bottled water, but potted water is usually drinkable too. The food in Albania is mostly healthy anywhere you go in the country. You can walk around to stay fit, as many people do in the capital. Be careful at the beaches because shards of glass and sea urchins are common on the sea floor. Also, pharmacies and other stores are closed from about 12PM-4PM; so, bring all necessary medicine with you. Also, many Albanians smoke cigarettes. It is a normal thing and expect it everywhere. The government has banned smoking in restaurants, however.

Respect

Albanians are very hospitable. .Even more so than the rest of the Balkans, elder males expect to be shown due respect on account of their age.^ Investment expenditure accounted for little more than a quarter of state expenditures, with public investment limited to social sectors and public services.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These factors weigh more heavily on the Albanians than most other peoples due to a unique combination of circumstances.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ The complicity of the respectable gentlemen in smart suits from the IMF seems to have gone even further than this.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

Men of the family have to be respected in particular. Shake hands with them and do not argue about topics such as religion and politics. .Certain topics are strictly taboo, although they may be fine in the United States or other countries.^ They must share the same language (other than Albanian), have documentation to prove its distinct ethnic origin or national identity, and have distinct customs and traditions or a link to a kinship state outside of the country.
  • Minority Rights Group International : Albania : Albania Overview 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.minorityrights.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A minister may not exercise any other state function nor be a director or member of the organs of for-profit companies.
  • Presidenti i Republikes se Shqiperise 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.president.al [Source type: Original source]

^ Deputies may not carry out any profit-making activity that stems from the property of the state or of local government, nor may they acquire their property.
  • Presidenti i Republikes se Shqiperise 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.president.al [Source type: Original source]

Homosexuality is one good example. Just remember that the situation changes a lot according to the location (village or city) and the people with whom you speak as well. .Of course, in the hidden north, avoid topics that go beyond local understanding, but be sure that in Tirana you will find very cosmopolitan people that are as open to new ideas as citizens in the rest of Western Europe.^ Following the opening of the country to the western world, associated to the free movement of people, Albania experienced the onset of the first cases of AIDS in its population.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.There is nothing particular to worry about; all you need to remember is to respect local people as much as you do back home.^ There is also a need to expand the programme of staff training in all aspects of the Ministry's work.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

Cope

Electricity

Officially 220V 50Hz. Outlets are the European standard CEE-7/7 or the compatible, but non-grounded, CEE-7/16 "Europlug" types. .Generally speaking, U.S. and Canadian travellers should pack an adapter for these outlets if they plan to use North American electrical equipment in Albania.^ The fundamental rights and freedoms and the duties contemplated in this Constitution are valid also for juridical persons so long as they comport with the general purposes of these persons and with the core of these rights, freedoms and duties.
  • Presidenti i Republikes se Shqiperise 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.president.al [Source type: Original source]

Be prepared for rolling blackouts in and around Tirana during the winter months, usually starting in September, and going through March and April. .All the power in the area comes from hydroelectric plants, and the high use of heaters in the wintertime places a greater stress on the water supply for the power plant.^ Protection of the oceans, all kinds of seas, including enclosed and semi-enclosed seas, and coastal areas and the protection, rational use and development of their living resources 18.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

^ If there is no revolutionary party, most likely the Socialist Party leaders will come to power, although they were not behind the insurrection and in practice did all in their power to thwart it.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ Fuelwood used to provide 90-100% of the demand for heating and cooking in all rural and urban areas.
  • Country Profile - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.un.org [Source type: Academic]

.The blackouts usually last three hours, and will either be in the morning, around 9AM, or in the afternoon around 3PM. There is no warning of the blackout, so be careful not to get stuck in an elevator.^ It asserted there were 'no credible claims of ballot-box stuffing' at last May's elections, even though the OCSE report referred to them clearly.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

^ But the first lesson of the Albanian events is that there are no more stable regimes, either in the Balkans or anywhere else in the world.
  • The meaning of the Albanian Revolution 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC easyweb.easynet.co.uk [Source type: Original source]

Contact

You can buy a local sim card for 600 Lek (Vodafone). You need to provide ID (passport) and give an address in Albania.
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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Contents

English

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Etymology 1

From Medieval Greek Αλβανία (Alvania).

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Albania
.
  1. A country in south-eastern Europe.^ European Stability Initiative (ESI) is a site where you can find reports on South Eastern Europe and European enlargement Policy.
    • Albania / Countries / Politeia - Politeia Website 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.politeia.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Albania is a country in South Eastern Europe that borders Greece and north Kosovo.
    • Albanian Language Translation, Interpreting, Transcription Services 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alsglobal.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The Republic of Albania country in south-eastern Europe, just north of Greece.
    • Holidays and Festivals - Albania 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.shagtown.com [Source type: General]

    Official name: Republic of Albania (Republika e Shqipërisë).
Translations

See also

Etymology 2

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Wikipedia has an article on:

Proper noun

Albania
  1. (historical) Caucasian Albania.

Finnish

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Finnish Wikipedia has an article on:
Albania
Wikipedia fi

Proper noun

Albania (stem Albani-*)
  1. Albania

Galician

Proper noun

Albania f.
  1. Albania

Related terms


Italian

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Italian Wikipedia has an article on:
Albania
Wikipedia it

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Albania f.
  1. Albania

Derived terms


Norwegian

Pronunciation

  • IPA: /ɑl.'bɑ.njɑ/

Proper noun

Albania
  1. Albania

Related terms


Novial

Proper noun

Albania
  1. Albania

Related terms


Polish

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Albania f.
  1. Albania

Declension

Singular Plural
Nominative Albania Albanie
Genitive Albanii Albanii
Dative Albanii Albaniom
Accusative Albanię Albanie
Instrumental Albanią Albaniami
Locative Albanii Albaniach
Vocative Albanio Albanie

Related terms


Spanish

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Spanish Wikipedia has an article on:
Albania
Wikipedia es

Proper noun

Albania f.
  1. Albania

Related terms


Tatar

Proper noun

Albania
  1. Albania

Declension


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 14, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Albania, which are similar to those in the above article.








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