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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This page is about the tree described by Antonio Durazzini. John Gilbert Baker used the same scientific name to refer to Prain's Albizia kalkora, the Mimosa kalkora of William Roxburgh.
Persian Silk Tree
Habitus
Conservation status
Not evaluated (IUCN 3.1)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Subclass: Rosidae
(unranked): Eurosids I
Order: Fabales
Family: Fabaceae
Subfamily: Mimosoideae
Tribe: Ingeae
Genus: Albizia
Species: A. julibrissin
Binomial name
Albizia julibrissin
Durazz.
Synonyms

Many, see text

Persian Silk Tree foliage and flowers

Albizia julibrissin is a species of legume in the genus Albizia, native to southern and eastern Asia, from Iran east to China and Korea.

The genus is named after the Italian nobleman Filippo del Albizzi, who introduced it to Europe in the mid-18th century, and it is sometimes incorrectly spelled Albizzia. The specific name julibrissin is a corruption of the Persian word gul-i abrisham (گل ابریشم) which means "silk flower" (from gul گل "flower" + abrisham ابریشم "silk").

Contents

Names

Albizia julibrissin is known by a wide variety of common names, such as Persian silk tree or pink siris. It is also called Lenkoran acacia or bastard tamarind, though it is not too closely related to acacias (Acacieae), let alone tamarinds (Caesalpinioideae). The species is usually called "silk tree" or "mimosa" in the United States, which is misleading - the former name can refer to any species of Albizia which is most common in any one locale. And although once included in Mimosa, it is neither very close to the Mimoseae. To add to the confusion, several species of Acacia, notably Acacia baileyana and Acacia dealbata, are also known as "mimosa" (especially in floristry), and many Fabaceae trees with highly divided leaves are called thus in horticulture.

Its leaves slowly close during the night and during periods of rain, the leaflets bowing downward as if the tree were sleeping: its modern Persian name shabkhosb (شب‌خسب) means "night sleeper" (from shab شب‌ "night" and -khosb خسب "sleeper"). In Japan its common names are nemunoki, nemurinoki and nenenoki which all mean "sleeping tree". Nemu tree is a partial translation of nemunoki.

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Synonyms

A number of now-invalid scientific names (junior synonyms) are known for this plant:[1]

  • Acacia julibrissin (Durazz.) Willd.
  • Acacia nemu Willd.
  • Albizia nemu (Willd.) Benth.
  • Albizzia julibrissin Durazz. (orth.var.)
  • Feuilleea julibrissin (Durazz.) Kuntze
  • Mimosa julibrissin (Durazz.) Scop.
  • Mimosa speciosa Thunb.
Mimosa speciosa Jacq. is Albizia lebbeck
  • Sericandra julibrissin (Durazz.) Raf.

Additionally, the Albizia julibrissin of John Gilbert Baker and authors referring to him is actually Albizia kalkora (Roxb.) Prain.[1]

Description

Albizia julibrissin is a small deciduous tree growing to 5–12 m tall, with a broad crown of level or arching branches. The bark is dark greenish grey in colour and striped vertically as it gets older. The leaves are bipinnate, 20–45 cm long and 12–25 cm broad, divided into 6–12 pairs of pinnae, each with 20–30 pairs of leaflets; the leaflets are oblong, 1–1.5 cm long and 2–4 mm broad. The flowers are produced throughout the summer in dense inflorescences, the individual flowers with no petals but a tight cluster of stamens 2–3 cm long, white or pink with a white base, looking like silky threads. They have been observed to be attractive to bees, butterflies and hummingbirds. The fruit is a flat brown pod 10–20 cm long and 2–2.5 cm broad, containing several seeds inside.

There are two varieties:

  • Albizia julibrissin var. julibrissin. The typical variety, described above.
  • Albizia julibrissin var. mollis. Differs in the shoots being densely hairy.

There is also a form, Albizia julibrissin f. rosea which has, in the past, been classed either as a variety or as a cultivar. This is a smaller tree, only growing to 5–7 m tall, with the flowers always pink. Native to the northeast of the species' range in Korea and northern China, it is more cold-tolerant than the typical form, surviving temperatures down to at least -25 °C.

Cultivation and uses

Persian silk tree is widely planted as an ornamental plant, grown for the leaf texture and flowers. The broad crown of a mature tree makes it useful for providing dappled shade.

In the wild, the tree tends to grow in dry plains, sandy valleys, and uplands. It has become an invasive species in Japan and the United States, in the latter widely spread from southern New York, New Jersey, and Connecticut west to Missouri and Illinois and south to Florida and Texas; it is also cultivated in California and Oregon but is not invasive there. It also grows in Europe, for example, in Crimea. Breeding work is currently under way in the United States to produce ornamental plants which will not set seed and can therefore be planted without risk. However, in the eastern United States it is generally a short-lived tree as this species is highly susceptible to mimosa vascular wilt, a fungal disease caused by a species of Fusarium, though the disease does not seem to have seriously impacted its populations. Because of its invasive tendencies and disease susceptibility, it is rarely recommended as an ornamental plant in the US, though it is still widely planted in parts of Europe.

The flower colour of Albizia julibrissin varies from white, in A. julibrissin f. alba, to rich red-tipped flowers; cream- or pale yellow-flowered variants are also reported. Seedlings vary: those with darker pink flowers than the normal A. julibrissin are classed as A. julibrissin f. rosea, but some may be paler than others; the selected cultivar A. julibrissin 'Ernest Wilson' (also known as 'E.H.Wilson' or 'Rosea') is a cold-tolerant tree with deep pink flower colour. Other cultivars are becoming available: A. julibrissin 'Summer Chocolate' has red foliage ageing to dark bronze, with pale pink flowers; A. julibrissin 'Ishii Weeping' (or 'Pendula') has a drooping growth habit.

In Japan, Albizia julibrissin f. rosea is often used for non-traditional bonsai. The name nemunoki*(Jap. ねむの木, Kanji: 合歓木) and its variants represent the summer in haiku.

The bark or cortex is used to cure bruises and as a vermicide. The seeds are used as a food for livestock and wildlife, and the sweetly-scented flowers are a good nectar source for honeybees.

Gallery

Footnotes

  1. ^ a b ILDIS (2005)

References

External links


Wikispecies

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Albizia julibrissin

Taxonavigation

Classification System: APG II (down to family level)

Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Regnum: Plantae
Cladus: Angiospermae
Cladus: Eudicots
Cladus: core eudicots
Cladus: Rosids
Cladus: Eurosids I
Ordo: Fabales
Familia: Fabaceae
Subfamilia: Mimosoideae
Tribus: Ingeae
Genus: Albizia
Species: Albizia julibrissin

Name

Albizia julibrissin Durazz.

References

  • Magazzino Toscano. Florence [Firenze] 3(4):11. 1772
  • USDA, ARS, National Genetic Resources Program. Germplasm Resources Information Network - (GRIN) [Online Database]. [1]

Vernacular names

English: Silk Tree
Français: Arbre de soie
Galego: Acacia de Constantinopla
Italiano: Gaggia di Costantinopoli
Türkçe: Gülibrişim
Wikimedia Commons For more multimedia, look at Albizia julibrissin on Wikimedia Commons.

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