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Alcatraz Island
IUCN Category V (Protected Landscape/Seascape)

Alcatraz Island in 2005
Location San Francisco Bay, California
Nearest city San Francisco, California
Coordinates 37°49′36″N 122°25′24″W / 37.826667°N 122.423333°W / 37.826667; -122.423333Coordinates: 37°49′36″N 122°25′24″W / 37.826667°N 122.423333°W / 37.826667; -122.423333
Area 22 acres (8.9 ha) [1]
Established 1934
Governing body National Park Service
.Alcatraz Island is an island located in the San Francisco Bay, 1.5 miles (2.4 km) offshore from San Francisco, California.^ Alcatraz is an island in the San Francisco Bay, in the midst of fog and ocean air!
  • Alcatraz » Comment Page 3 » Real Haunted Houses 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.realhaunts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Check out this video tour of Alcatraz and Alcatraz Island in San Francisco.
  • Alcatraz Tickets 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.mahalo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Miles Hotel located near Alcatraz Island .
  • Hotels near Alcatraz Island in San Francisco, CA - Raveable.com hotel reviews without extra baggage 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.raveable.com [Source type: General]

[1] Often referred to as The Rock, the small island early-on served as a lighthouse, a military fortification, a military prison, and a Federal Bureau of Prisons federal prison until 1963.[2] Later, in 1972, Alcatraz became a national recreation area and received landmarking designations in 1976 and 1986.
.Today, the island is a historic site operated by the National Park Service as part of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area and is open to tours.^ A year later the island was transferred to the National Park Service and it became another unit in the Golden Gate National Recreation Area.

^ Official National Park Service information .
  • Bay City Guide - San Francisco Attractions, Maps, Events, Sightseeing Tours, Restaurants, more 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.baycityguide.com [Source type: General]

^ One of the tours offered by the National Park Service is the Interpretive Programs.
  • Alcatraz Information, Tours, Prices, Local Events, Hotels, Adventures, Things to do, Prison and Sight Seeing 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.stateof-california.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Visitors can reach the island by ferry ride from Pier 33, near Fisherman's Wharf in San Francisco.^ The ferry departs from Pier 33 in Fisherman's Wharf so it is very easy to find.
  • Alcatraz plus Yosemite Park Camping Tour from San Francisco 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.incadventures.com [Source type: General]

^ Alcatraz can only be reached by ferries departing from Pier 33, along The Embarcadero in San Francisco.
  • Tour Alcatraz Island: What to See When Visiting the Infamous Prison-Turned-National Park 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC california-travel.suite101.com [Source type: News]

^ The only way to get to or from Alcatraz Island is by ferry boat from Fisherman’s Wharf .
  • Alcatraz Island Prison tours, pictures, history, photographs 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.inetours.com [Source type: General]

.In 2008 the nation's first hybrid propulsion ferry started serving the island.^ The revenue from these tourists is shared between the ferry companies that bring people to the island and the National Park Service, which manages the island.
  • SPUR | Proposition C - Alcatraz Global Peace Center 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.spur.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, few realize that it was also the site of the first American lighthouse on the West Coast and that the island served as a huge harbor defense fort during the Civil War.
  • Alcatraz History: Learn the history behind Alcatraz Island and trivia 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.visitfishermanswharf.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The dormitories will be built in future years into the cold, gray Barracks Building, which is the island’s largest building and the first structure visitors encounter when they reach the island by ferry.
  • Alcatraz considering sleepovers | San Francisco Examiner 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.sfexaminer.com [Source type: News]

[3] .Alcatraz has been featured in many movies, TV shows, cartoons, books, comics, and games.^ Alcatraz Island tours are a favorite of San Francisco visitors because of the island's colorful history and the many books and movies and TV shows that featured the famous island prison.
  • Alcatraz Island Prison tours, pictures, history, photographs 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.inetours.com [Source type: General]

^ Another good video (which features a lot of the same footage) is ALCATRAZ IS NOT AN ISLAND which often shows on PBS affiliates in the month of November, and which is available for sale on the island.
  • Alcatraz Island, a tourist attraction that exceeds all expectations - Boing Boing 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.boingboing.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Curse Of Alcatraz Trailer, Reviews, News, Cast & Discussions - Movie - SideReel Personalize Your TV Schedule - Sign up and keep track of airtimes and schedule changes for your favorite shows .
  • Curse Of Alcatraz Trailer, Reviews, News, Cast & Discussions - Movie - SideReel 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.sidereel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Contents

History

The lighthouse on Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay
.The first Spaniard to document the island was Juan Manuel de Ayala in 1775, who charted San Francisco Bay and named the island "La Isla de los Alcatraces," which translates as "The Island of the Pelicans,"[4][5][6][7][8][9] from the archaic Spanish alcatraz, "pelican", a word which was borrowed originally from Arabic: القطرس al-qaṭrās, meaning sea eagle.^ Alcatraz is an island in the San Francisco Bay, in the midst of fog and ocean air!
  • Alcatraz » Comment Page 3 » Real Haunted Houses 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.realhaunts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Check out this video tour of Alcatraz and Alcatraz Island in San Francisco.
  • Alcatraz Tickets 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.mahalo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alcatraz Island was discovered by Juan de Ayala in 1775.
  • Paranormal Tours Ltd - Haunted America: Alcatraz Island 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.paranormaltours.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10]
.The United States Census Bureau defines the island as Block 1067, Block Group 1, Census Tract 179.02 of San Francisco County, California.^ "The United States Census Bureau defines the island as Block 1067, Block Group 1, Census Tract 179.02 of San Francisco County, California."
  • Alcatraz Island | TripSay.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.tripsay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alcatraz is an island in San Francisco Bay, near San Francisco , California .
  • Alcatraz - tourism and visitor information for Alcatraz in California 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.vacation2usa.com [Source type: General]

^ The fact was Johnston was in San Francisco and not on the island.
  • Historic Posts, Camps, Stations and Airfields: Post at Alcatraz Island 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.militarymuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There was no population on the island as of the 2000 census.^ There is no food service on the island.
  • ProTrails: Alcatraz Island - Walking Audio Tour, Alcatraz Island - Main Prison Building, Bay Area - Marin Headlands - Muir Woods - Golden Gate N.R.A. 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC protrails.com [Source type: General]

^ There is no fishing on Alcatraz Island.
  • ProTrails: Alcatraz Island - Walking Audio Tour, Alcatraz Island - Main Prison Building, Bay Area - Marin Headlands - Muir Woods - Golden Gate N.R.A. 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC protrails.com [Source type: General]

^ Alcatraz Island is located just a mile from Fisherman's Wharf in San Francisco, but there is no evidence that anyone ever escaped across the cold Bay waters.
  • San Francisco: Alcatraz Island - The Prison -- Round America 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.roundamerica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11]
.It is home to the now-abandoned prison, the site of the oldest operating lighthouse on the west coast of the United States, early military fortifications, and natural features such as rock pools, a seabird colony (mostly Western Gulls, cormorants, and egrets), and unique views of the coastline.^ It has the oldest lighthouse on the west coast along with being a famous prison.
  • Alcatraz Island, SF Bay framed photographs : san francisco fine art framed photographs 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.cafepress.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It housed the first lighthouse on the West Coast.
  • Alcatraz- San Francisco, CA - VirtualTourist.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.virtualtourist.com [Source type: General]

^ Alcatraz Island is home to one of the largest western gull colonies on the west coast.

Military history

A model of Military Point Alcatraz, 1866–1868, now on display on Alcatraz Island
Alcatraz Island, 1895
.The earliest recorded owner of the island of Alcatraz is one Julian Workman, to whom it was given by Mexican governor Pio Pico in June 1846 with the understanding that the former would build a lighthouse on it.^ View of lighthouse and buildings of old prison on Alcatraz Island ...
  • Alcatraz Stock Photos and Images. 167 Alcatraz pictures and royalty free photography available to search from over 100 stock photo brands. 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Ownership was granted to Julian Workman in1846 by the Mexican Governor Pio Pico under the stipulation that he build a lighthouse.
  • Alcatraz History Facts 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.sftravel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 8 June, 1846, Mexican California Governor Pio Pico gave the land of Alcatraz to Julian Workman, the first known owner of Alcatraz.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A530641 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Julian Workman is the baptismal name of William Workman, co-owner of Rancho La Puente and personal friend of Pio Pico.^ The island was all but forgotten until June 1846, when the governor of California granted ownership of the island to a man named Julian Workman.

^ Ownership was granted to Julian Workman in1846 by the Mexican Governor Pio Pico under the stipulation that he build a lighthouse.
  • Alcatraz History Facts 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.sftravel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 8 June, 1846, Mexican California Governor Pio Pico gave the land of Alcatraz to Julian Workman, the first known owner of Alcatraz.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A530641 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Later in 1846, acting in his capacity as Military Governor of California, John C. Fremont, champion of Manifest Destiny and leader of the Bear Flag Republic, bought the island for $5000 in the name of the United States government from Francis Temple.^ Later that year, John C Fremont, a leader of the Bear Flag Revolt that freed California from Mexico, purchased the island for only 5,000 dollars under the name of the United States Government.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A530641 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later that year, John C. Fremont bought the island for $5000.
  • Alcatraz History Facts 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.sftravel.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ San fransisco california, united states.
  • WikiAnswers - What does Alcatraz mean 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]

[12][13][14] .In 1850, President Millard Fillmore ordered that Alcatraz Island be set aside specifically for military purposes based upon the U.S. acquisition of California from Mexico following the Mexican-American War.^ In 1850, a presidential order set aside the island for possible use as a United States military reservation.
  • BOP: Alcatraz 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.bop.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Alcatraz History 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.alcatraztrips.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alcatraz Island - a set on Flickr .
  • Alcatraz Island - a set on Flickr 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.flickr.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mexican-American War ends; US claims control of California.
  • Bay City Guide - San Francisco Attractions, Maps, Events, Sightseeing Tours, Restaurants, more 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.baycityguide.com [Source type: General]

[15] .Fremont had expected a large compensation for his initiative in purchasing and securing Alcatraz Island for the U.S. government, but the U.S. government later invalidated the sale and paid Fremont nothing.^ However, this ended in 1779 when the island was purchased by the British government from a local landowner.
  • Ireland set to open 'Alcatraz' tours on Cork's Spike Island | Ireland Vacations | IrishCentral 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.irishcentral.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1895 nineteen Hopi were incarcerated on Alcatraz Island by the US Army for their resistance to government policies designed to destroy their religion and language.
  • Alcatraz Cam ~live Webcam~ 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.abovephotos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another good video (which features a lot of the same footage) is ALCATRAZ IS NOT AN ISLAND which often shows on PBS affiliates in the month of November, and which is available for sale on the island.
  • Alcatraz Island, a tourist attraction that exceeds all expectations - Boing Boing 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.boingboing.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fremont and his heirs sued for compensation during protracted but unsuccessful legal battles that extended into the 1890s.^ After a legal battle, the US Government acquired the island from Fremont, as he had used the name of the United States Government in buying it.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A530641 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13][15]
.Following the acquisition of California by the United States as a result of the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848) which ended the Mexican-American War, and the onset of the California Gold Rush the following year, the U.S. Army began studying the suitability of Alcatraz Island for the positioning of coastal batteries to protect the approaches to San Francisco Bay.^ Its position in the San Francisco bay has given it great historical importance.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A530641 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alcatraz is an island in San Francisco Bay, near San Francisco , California .
  • Alcatraz - tourism and visitor information for Alcatraz in California 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.vacation2usa.com [Source type: General]

^ California became a possession of United States on February 2, 1848 in a treaty with Mexico that ended the Mexican War.
  • Alcatraz History: Learn the history behind Alcatraz Island and trivia 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.visitfishermanswharf.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1853, under the direction of Zealous B. Tower, the Corps of Engineers began fortifying the island, work which continued until 1858, eventuating in Fortress Alcatraz.^ As soon as Alcatraz was handed over work began.

^ The initial work at Alcatraz was finished in 1858.
  • Historic Posts, Camps, Stations and Airfields: Post at Alcatraz Island 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.militarymuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A part of the area's defensive system, along with Lime Point Military Reservation , intended to guard the entrance to the bay, its first fortifications were begun in 1853 under the direction of Lieutenant Zealous Bates Tower, U.S. Corps of Engineers, and consisted in the main of a brick 200 by 100 foot citadel , batteries, two barrack structures for troops, and three cell blocks First garrisoned on December 30, 1859, the post was officially designated Alcatraz Island hot was often referred to as Fort Alcatraz.
  • Historic Posts, Camps, Stations and Airfields: Post at Alcatraz Island 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.militarymuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The island's first garrison at Camp Alcatraz, numbering about 200 soldiers and 11 cannons, arrived at the end of that year.^ About Alcatraz Island elsewhere .
  • Alcatraz Island | TripSay.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.tripsay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Be the first to write a review on Alcatraz Island.
  • Alcatraz Island, San Francisco Reviews - Travel - LATimes.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC travel.latimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Be the first to talk about "Birdman of Alcatraz" !
  • Birdman of Alcatraz - Movie Reviews, Photos & Videos, Layouts & Wallpapers, Fan Club 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.flixster.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When the American Civil War broke out in 1861 the island mounted 85 cannons (increased to 105 cannons by 1866) in case mates around its perimeter, though the small size of the garrison meant only a fraction of the guns could be used at one time.^ By 1861 the fort had 85 cannon and a garrison of 130 men.
  • Historic Posts, Camps, Stations and Airfields: Post at Alcatraz Island 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.militarymuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And it could have been only one of three people.
  • Alcatraz: A Most Merry and Illustrated History 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.coopertoons.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What once used to be an isolated prison nobody could escape has now become one of the greatest attractions of the Golden Gate National Recreation Area.

.At this time it also served as the San Francisco Arsenal for storage of firearms to prevent them falling into the hands of Southern sympathizers.^ The next day, his grandfather, who is always running late, shows up to keep Alcatraz’ inheritance from falling into the hands of the evil librarians.
  • Review of Alcatraz Versus the Evil Librarians : SFFaudio 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.sffaudio.com [Source type: General]

^ Spanish explorer Lt. Juan Manuel de Ayala sailed into San Francisco Bay in 1775 and mapped prominent landmarks.
  • Alcatraz Island - The Post on Alcatraces (U.S. National Park Service) 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC home.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We descend from the bridge into Marin County, home of San Francisco's rich and famous, where you can see beautiful lawns and stately homes.

[16] .Alcatraz never fired its guns offensively, though during the war it was used to imprison Confederate sympathizers and privateers on the west coast.^ Alcatraz was first used as a prison during the Civil War.
  • Alcatraz Island Lighthouse, California at Lighthousefriends.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.lighthousefriends.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the Civil War, 1861-1865, Alcatraz played a vital role in protecting San Francisco from Confederate raiders.
  • TIME.com - America's National Parks 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.time.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After  the Civil War, confederate sympathizers caught celebrating the death of President Lincoln were sent to Alcatraz.  In 1868, the Army designated Alcatraz Island as a prison for military convicts and malcontents of society.
  • Haunted Alcatraz 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Shadowlands: Famous Hauntings 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC theshadowlands.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17]

Military prison

Due to its isolation from the outside by the cold, strong, hazardous currents of the waters of San Francisco Bay, Alcatraz was used to house Civil War prisoners as early as 1861.
.Following the war in 1866 the army determined that the fortifications and guns were being rapidly rendered obsolete by advances in military technology.^ It was not until the 1850s, following the Gold Rush, that the US Army was spurred to construct a military base and the first lighthouse on the West Coast on Alcatraz.
  • Alcatraz the Island Prison 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.chevroncars.com [Source type: General]

^ After the fort became obsolete, the U.S. Army turned the island into a grim military prison.
  • Alcatraz History: Learn the history behind Alcatraz Island and trivia 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.visitfishermanswharf.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NEW FORTIFICATIONS As the Civil War lingered on and the Union seemed likely to win, the U.S. Army was willing to devote more resources to the Pacific Coast.
  • Alcatraz Island - The Post on Alcatraces (U.S. National Park Service) 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC home.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Modernization efforts, including an ambitious plan to level the entire island and construct shell-proof underground magazines and tunnels, were undertaken between 1870 and 1876 but never completed (the so called "parade ground" on the southern tip of the island represents the extent of the flattening effort).^ In 1853, construction began on Fortress Alcatraz, which was built atop the sandstone island, and Fort Point, a traditional casemate fort built at water level after massive excavation of the bluff.
  • Alcatraz Island - The Post on Alcatraces (U.S. National Park Service) 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC home.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The trail begins near the ferryboat landing on the east side of Alcatraz Island and continues to the southern tip of the island.
  • Alcatraz Ticket & Angel Island Combination Tour 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.alcatraztickets.com [Source type: General]
  • Alcatraz Island Tours - City Tours in San Francisco 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.alcatraz.us [Source type: General]
  • Alcatraz Island Tours - City Tours in San Francisco 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.roundamerica.us [Source type: General]
  • Alcatraz Night Tours - Sightseeing Cruises After Dark 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.alcatraztickets.com [Source type: General]

^ This view dates from military prison days, was taken from new parade ground level east of the lighthouse.
  • Historic Posts, Camps, Stations and Airfields: Post at Alcatraz Island 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.militarymuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[18] .Instead the army switched the focus of its plans for Alcatraz from coastal defense to detention, a task for which it was well suited because of its isolation.^ Because of its natural isolation, surrounded by freezing waters and hazardous currents, Alcatraz would soon be considered by the U.S. Army as an ideal location for holding captives.
  • The History of Alcatraz Island 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.alcatrazhistory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The task was part of an effort to create a 20-year master plan for the Golden Gate National Recreation Area, which includes Alcatraz Island and some other Bay Area coastal regions.
  • Alcatraz considering sleepovers | San Francisco Examiner 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.sfexaminer.com [Source type: News]

^ Because of its natural isolation in the middle of a bay, surrounded by cold water and strong sea currents, Alcatraz was soon considered by the U.S. Army as an ideal location for holding captives.
  • Alcatraz Island | eAmazings 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC eamazings.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1867 a brick jailhouse was built (previously inmates had been kept in the basement of the guardhouse), and in 1868 Alcatraz was officially designated a long-term detention facility for military prisoners.^ Alcatraz was designated as the official military prison for the entire Department of the Pacific.
  • Haunted Alcatraz 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.angelfire.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • The Shadowlands: Famous Hauntings 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC theshadowlands.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1861, Alcatraz was officially designated the military prison for the Department of the Pacific.
  • Alcatraz Island - The Post on Alcatraces (U.S. National Park Service) 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC home.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This structure was built in 1929 for the Commandant back when Alcatraz was a military prison.

.Among those incarcerated at Alcatraz were some Hopi Native American men in the 1870s.^ Long before Alcatraz became home to some of the most notorious outlaws in the country, it was known as a place to be avoided by Native Americans who believed it to contain evil spirits.
  • The Long History of Alcatraz Island, California 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.legendsofamerica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1895 nineteen Hopi were incarcerated on Alcatraz Island by the US Army for their resistance to government policies designed to destroy their religion and language.
  • Alcatraz Cam  Live webcam 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.abovephotos.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1969, the island again made news when a group of Native American Indians claimed Alcatraz as Indian land with the hope of creating a Native American cultural center and education complex on the island.
  • BOP: Alcatraz 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.bop.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Alcatraz History 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.alcatraztrips.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19]
.In 1898, the Spanish-American war would increase the prison population from 26 to over 450. After the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, civilian prisoners were transferred to Alcatraz for safe confinement.^ Earthquake hits San Francisco, municipal prison damaged, prisoners transferred to Alcatraz.
  • Bay City Guide - San Francisco Attractions, Maps, Events, Sightseeing Tours, Restaurants, more 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.baycityguide.com [Source type: General]

^ Alcatraz tour & San Francisco .
  • Bay City Guide - San Francisco Attractions, Maps, Events, Sightseeing Tours, Restaurants, more 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.baycityguide.com [Source type: General]

^ Empty prison cells in Alcatraz, San Francisco, California, USA .
  • Alcatraz Stock Photos and Images. 167 Alcatraz pictures and royalty free photography available to search from over 100 stock photo brands. 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

.By 1912 there was a large cell house, and in the 1920s a large 3-story structure was nearly at full capacity.^ By 1912 a large cellhouse had been constructed on the island's central crest, and by the late 1920's, the three-story structure was nearly at full capacity.
  • The History of Alcatraz Island 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.alcatrazhistory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The distance from the dock to the cell house at the top of the island is about 1/4 mile, the elevation change is 130 feet (equivalent to a thirteen story climb).
  • Alcatraz Island Information - Alcatraz tours and tickets. 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.travelsf.com [Source type: General]

^ I’ve not had any haunting experiences there, but it’s just as possible there as any other large building that housed a number of violent people, eh?
  • Alcatraz » Comment Page 3 » Real Haunted Houses 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.realhaunts.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20] .On March 21, 1907, Alcatraz was officially designated as the Western U.S. Military Prison, later Pacific Branch, U.S. Disciplinary Barracks, 1915.[21] In 1909 construction began on the huge concrete main cell block, designed by Major Reuben Turner, which remains the island's dominant feature.^ In 1909, workers began to construct several new buildings on the island, including the main cell block, which remains standing today.

^ Alcatraz was designated as the official military prison for the entire Department of the Pacific.
  • The Shadowlands: Famous Hauntings 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC theshadowlands.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The prisoners nicknamed the long concrete walkways between the cell blocks.
  • HowStuffWorks "Life on Alcatraz Island" 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Howstuffworks "How Alcatraz Worked" 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It was completed in 1912. To accommodate the new cell block, the Citadel, a three-story barracks, was demolished down to the first floor, which was actually below ground level.^ Each cell block was three tiers high.
  • Howstuffworks "How Alcatraz Worked" 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sighted by the Europeans 1846: Lighthouse appears 1848: Acquired by the US 1858: First Army garrison completed 1868: Designated long-term facility for military prisoners 1907: Designated US Military prison 1912: Main cell block completed 1934: Graduated to Federal prison 1963: Penitentiary Closed .
  • Alcatraz@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Inmates with first or second class rankings were allowed to go anywhere about the prison grounds, except for the guards quarters on the upper levels.
  • The History of Alcatraz Island 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.alcatrazhistory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The building had been constructed in an excavated pit (creating a dry "moat") to enhance its defensive potential.^ The only access to the citadel was a drawbridge over a deep dry moat that surrounded the entire building.
  • The Long History of Alcatraz Island, California 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.legendsofamerica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soldiers entered the citadel by crossing a drawbridge over a deep dry moat that surrounded the building.
  • Alcatraz Island - The Post on Alcatraces (U.S. National Park Service) 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC home.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first floor was then incorporated as a basement to the new cell block, giving rise to the popular legend of "dungeons" below the main cell block.^ A cell in the main block .
  • Alcatraz 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.virtuar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The main cell house had four cell blocks- .
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A530641 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1909, workers began to construct several new buildings on the island, including the main cell block, which remains standing today.

.The Fortress was deactivated as a military prison in October 1933, and transferred to the Bureau of Prisons.^ When the army left the island in 1933, they turned over their 32 worst prisoners to the custody of the federal Bureau of Prisons.
  • Alcatraz Island - The Post on Alcatraces (U.S. National Park Service) 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC home.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shoemaker gets transferred to Washington, DC, where he helps found the Federal Bureau of Prisons that is supposed to create uniform rules for the governance of prisons.
  • Birdman of Alcatraz (1962) 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.prisonflicks.com [Source type: Original source]

^ "The Rock" The U.S. Army used the island for more than 80 years--from 1850 until 1933, when the island was transferred to the U.S. Department of Justice for use by the Federal Bureau of Prisons.

[21]
.During World War I the prison held conscientious objectors, including Philip Grosser, who wrote a pamphlet entitled 'Uncle Sam's Devil's Island' about his experiences.^ Alexander Berkman "Alcatraz – Uncle Sam's Devil's Island : Experiences of a Conscientious Objector in America during the First World War" by Philip Grosser ISBN-13: 9781873605240 ISBN-10: 1873605242 32 page pamphlet with portrait.
  • New pamphlet: "Alcatraz – Uncle Sam's Devil's Island" - Infoshop News 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.infoshop.org [Source type: General]

^ Conscientious objectors were kept there during World War 1.
  • Historic Posts, Camps, Stations and Airfields: Post at Alcatraz Island 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.militarymuseum.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alcatraz mostly held American convicts with a few exceptions including Alvin “Creep” Karpis, brought in by the FBI, a Canadian who did crime in the US. There was a Japanese American, Tomoya Kawakita, who was incarcerated for treason during World War II (he was caught in Japan when the war broke out and became an interpreter for the Japanese Army in POW camps where he was abusive of American prisoners.
  • Instant City » The Marina & Fisherman's Wharf » My Life On Alcatraz 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC instantcity.org [Source type: General]

[22]

Prison history

United States Penitentiary,
Alcatraz Island
The interior of a regular cell in the row known as Broadway
Location San Francisco Bay, California
Coordinates 37°49′36″N 122°25′24″W / 37.8266°N 122.4233°W / 37.8266; -122.4233
Status Closed (Museum)
Security class Maximum
Capacity 312
Opened January 1, 1934
Closed March 21, 1963
Managed by Federal Bureau of Prisons, Department of Justice
Director
Wardens[23]
James A. Johnston (1934–1948)
Edwin B. Slope (1948–1955)
Paul J. Madigan (1955–1961)
Olin G. Blackwell (1961–1963)

Federal prison

.The United States Disciplinary Barracks on Alcatraz was acquired by the United States Department of Justice on October 12, 1933, and the island became a Federal Bureau of Prisons federal prison in August 1934. During the 29 years it was in use, the jail held such notable criminals as Al Capone, Robert Franklin Stroud (the Birdman of Alcatraz), George "Machine Gun" Kelly, James "Whitey" Bulger, and Alvin Karpis (who served more time at Alcatraz than any other inmate).^ The U.S. Army rebuilt the prison just after World War I, and in 1933 the island was turned over to the U.S. Department of Justice and was converted into a federal penitentiary for high-profile criminals and "incorrigibles," such as Al Capone and "Machine Gun" Kelly.

^ Reviews Mobster Al "Scarface" Capone, "Machine Gun" Kelly, Robert Stroud aka the Birdman: only the most violent, desperate...
  • Alcatraz - Shop Smarter.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

^ Al Capone did time for tax evasion on Alcatraz.

.It also provided housing for the Bureau of Prison staff and their families.^ It also provided housing for the Bureau of Prison staff and their families.

^ There were pretty, cozy houses where the prison staff lived and an apartment house occupied by more than 50 families.

^ At the same time the Bureau of Prisons systematized the federal prison system and streamlined the creation of what were to be super-prisons to house the nation’s super criminals and the foremost of these was Alcatraz.
  • Instant City » The Marina & Fisherman's Wharf » My Life On Alcatraz 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC instantcity.org [Source type: General]

Escape attempts

Chiseled cell air vent in Alcatraz
View of San Francisco from Alcatraz Island
.During its 29 years of operation, the penitentiary claimed no prisoners had ever successfully escaped.^ During the 29 years it was in use, the jail held such notable criminals as Al Capone who did time for tax evasion.

^ Alcatraz: Encyclopedia II - Alcatraz Island - Escape attempts During its 29 years of operation, the penitentiary never logged any officially successful escapes.

^ He said Giles served 15 years of this term in the Salem prison and then escaped.
  • Alcatraz Archive 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.sfgenealogy.com [Source type: Original source]

.36 prisoners were involved in 14 attempts, two men trying twice; 23 were caught, six were shot and killed during their escape, and three were lost at sea and never found.^ During Alcatraz's tenure as a prison, 36 men attempted to escape, most failing miserably.
  • Alcatraz Island; Escape to Alcatraz - Alcatraz Island - Epinions.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.epinions.com [Source type: General]

^ The next year, three inmates attacked and killed a guard during an escape attempt.
  • Howstuffworks "How Alcatraz Worked" 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Of these, 23 were caught, 6 were shot and killed during their escape, and 2 drowned.
  • BOP: Alcatraz 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.bop.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[24] .The most violent occurred on May 2, 1946 when a failed escape attempt by six prisoners led to the so-called Battle of Alcatraz.^ During Alcatraz's tenure as a prison, 36 men attempted to escape, most failing miserably.
  • Alcatraz Island; Escape to Alcatraz - Alcatraz Island - Epinions.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.epinions.com [Source type: General]

^ While this may be the most violent escape from Alcatraz, it is by all means not the most famous.

^ During the prison's lifetime, only thirty-six attempted to escape.

.On June 11, 1962 Frank Morris, John Anglin and Clarence Anglin successfully carried out one of the most intricate escapes ever devised.^ Elaborate escape attempt made by Frank Lee Morris, Clarence and John Anglin.
  • Bay City Guide - San Francisco Attractions, Maps, Events, Sightseeing Tours, Restaurants, more 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.baycityguide.com [Source type: General]

^ Three escapees, Frank Morris and brothers John and Clarence Anglin, disappeared from their cells on June 11, 1962.

^ Clarence Anglin (unknown), John William Anglin (unknown), Frank Lee Morris (unknown) .
  • Escapes from Alcatraz Archive 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.sfgenealogy.com [Source type: General]
  • Escapes from Alcatraz Archive 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC zpub.com [Source type: General]

.Behind the prisoners' cells in Cell Block B (where the escapees were interned) was an unguarded 3-foot (0.91 m) wide utility corridor.^ Here is a picture of the utility corridor that was behind all prison cells at Alcatraz.
  • Welcome To "Sky-Chaser.com" 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.sky-chaser.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The utility corridor is a small passage right behind the cells.
  • Escape From Alcatraz And A 47-Year Manhunt : NPR 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: General]

^ Each cell block was like a prison inside a prison.
  • Howstuffworks "How Alcatraz Worked" 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The prisoners chiseled away the moisture-damaged concrete from around an air vent leading to this corridor, using tools such as a metal spoon soldered with silver from a dime and an electric drill improvised from a stolen vacuum cleaner motor.^ They used resourceful invented tools, such as an extra motor from a prison vacuum-cleaner and a chisel created from a spoon reinforced with the metal of a coin.
  • Damn Interesting • The Alcatraz Redemption 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.damninteresting.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A drill made of a spoon veneered with soldered silver running on a vacuum-cleaner motor.
  • Alcatraz@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They stole tools and kitchen spoons to chip away a hole in the back of their cells big enough to crawl through.
  • Escape From Alcatraz And A 47-Year Manhunt : NPR 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: General]

.The noise was disguised by accordions played during music hour, and their progress was concealed by false walls which, in the dark recesses of the cells, fooled the guards.^ Work was done during music hour, under the drone of accordion s.
  • Alcatraz@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Brothers Clarence and John Anglin They worked on the holes only during music hour so that the noise would not be obvious, and concealed their work behind rudimentary false walls; in the relative darkness of the cells, this was enough to deceive the prison guards.
  • Damn Interesting • The Alcatraz Redemption 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.damninteresting.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During the almost two- hour tour, we had the opportunity to listen to the recorded testimony of some former prisoners and guards.
  • Christine M. Flowers: Lessons for Philly from the Rock | Philadelphia Daily News | 12/18/2009 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.philly.com [Source type: General]
  • Christine M. Flowers: Lessons for Philly from the Rock | Philadelphia Daily News | 12/18/2009 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.philly.com [Source type: General]

.The escape route then led up through a fan vent; the fan and motor had been removed and replaced with a steel grille, leaving a shaft large enough for a prisoner to climb through.^ "That's a fairly large hole to climb through.
  • Escape From Alcatraz And A 47-Year Manhunt : NPR 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: General]

^ They accepted the opportunity to escape offered and without great difficulty sawed through the bars of their dungeon, finding entrance into the main corridor of the prison.
  • Alcatraz Archive 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC zpub.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the night of their escape, they left fake heads in their cots - going so far as to cover them with hair from the prison barber shop - and climbed through the enlarged vents, ultimately reaching the roof.
  • Alcatraz Island; Escape to Alcatraz - Alcatraz Island - Epinions.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.epinions.com [Source type: General]

.Stealing a carborundum cord from the prison workshop, the prisoners had removed the rivets from the grille and substituted dummy rivets made of soap.^ In their path, they left false walls and attachments (rivets made of soap is almost cartoonish, but true).
  • Alcatraz@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The vent included several fans, so the prisoners removed these and replaced them with false grilles carved from bars of stolen soap.
  • Damn Interesting • The Alcatraz Redemption 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.damninteresting.com [Source type: Original source]

.The escapees also constructed an inflatable raft from several stolen raincoats for the trip to the mainland.^ In 1962, the Anglin brothers led the most famous escape from the island, using inflated stolen raincoats.

^ The escape attempt was extremely complicated, over a period of two years Morris and the Anglins created a raft, lifelike dummies and had stolen a number of tools to dig with.

^ There, they constructed life vests and a raft out of raincoats they accumulated.
  • Howstuffworks "How Alcatraz Worked" 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Leaving papier-mâché dummies in their cells with stolen human hair from the Barbershop for hair, they escaped.^ They also collected hair from the barbershop to make the dummies more lifelike.

^ In preparation, the men constructed a set of papier-mâché heads using materials found around the prison, including real hair clippings collected during their visits to the inmates’ barbershop.
  • Damn Interesting • The Alcatraz Redemption 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.damninteresting.com [Source type: Original source]

^ 'Dummy' heads (although not the originals) are displayed in the cots, and it is easy to see how in the dim light of nighttime they could be mistaken for human heads instead.
  • Alcatraz Island; Escape to Alcatraz - Alcatraz Island - Epinions.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.epinions.com [Source type: General]

.The prisoners are estimated to have entered San Francisco Bay at 10 p.m.^ See San Francisco Bay by helicopter.
  • Alcatraz Tours, Alcatraz Tickets, Cruises to Alcatraz Island in San Francisco 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.sanfranciscotours.us [Source type: General]

^ San Francisco, the Bay, and Bay Bridge panorama .
  • Alcatraz 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.virtuar.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aerial view of Alcatraz prison in San Francisco Bay, California.
  • Alcatraz Stock Photos and Images. 167 Alcatraz pictures and royalty free photography available to search from over 100 stock photo brands. 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

.The official investigation by the FBI was aided by another prisoner, Allen West, who also was part of the escapees' group but was left behind (West's false wall kept slipping so he held it into place with cement, which set; when the Anglin brothers (John & Clarence) accelerated the schedule, West desperately chipped away at the wall, but by the time he did his companions were gone).^ He was not alone in his attempt; there were three others John Anglin, his brother Clarence Anglin, and Allen West(who never went through with the escape attempt).

^ They were also joined by fellow inmate Allen West who knew John Anglin from time spent at a Florida state prison.
  • Damn Interesting • The Alcatraz Redemption 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.damninteresting.com [Source type: Original source]

^ John Anglin would be 79; his brother, Clarence, 78.
  • Mystery Still Swirls Around Alcatraz Escape : NPR 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: General]

.Articles belonging to the prisoners (including plywood paddles and parts of the raincoat raft) were located on nearby Angel Island, and the official report on the escape says the prisoners drowned while trying to reach the mainland in the cold waters of the bay.^ There was also an unconfirmed report of a raft on the island.
  • Mystery Still Swirls Around Alcatraz Escape : NPR 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: General]

^ Dyke says a paddle was recovered near Angel Island.
  • Mystery Still Swirls Around Alcatraz Escape : NPR 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: General]

^ The federal penitentiary at Alcatraz was a cell house built on an island surrounded by the frigid waters of the San Francisco Bay.
  • Escape From Alcatraz And A 47-Year Manhunt : NPR 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: General]

.The MythBusters investigated the myth, concluding such an escape was plausible.^ Eventually, after a long and thorough investigation, it was concluded that the inmates died that day in the water, but the thought that Alcatraz was escape proof was forever tarnished.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A530641 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25]

Notable inmates

.Robert Stroud, who was better known to the public as the "Birdman of Alcatraz," was transferred to Alcatraz in 1942. He spent the next seventeen years on "the Rock" — six years in segregation in D Block, and eleven years in the prison hospital.^ He checks the crumbling medical ward where Robert Stroud, "the Birdman of Alcatraz," spent 17 years.
  • Alcatraz Island: Getting rattled on 'the Rock' - Travel - LATimes.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC travel.latimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Stroud was transferred to Alcatraz in 1942, where he spent the next 17 years (6 years in segregation in "D Block" and 11 years in the prison hospital).
  • BOP: Alcatraz 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.bop.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alcatraz where he spent 6 of his 17 years in solitary confinement and 11 years in the hospital.
  • Alcatraz The famous Prison 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.protopage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1959 he was transferred to the Medical Center for Federal Prisoners in Springfield, Missouri (MCFP Springfield).^ He was then transferred to the new Federal prison at Terminal Island near Los Angeles.

^ He was transferred to the Medical Facility for Federal Prisoners in Springfield.
  • Alcatraz: A Most Merry and Illustrated History 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.coopertoons.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Stroud wasn't transferred to Alcatraz until 1942, and was transferred off The Rock purportedly for medical reasons in 1959.
  • Alcatraz Island Things To Do - Alcatraz Island Travel Reviews - VirtualTourist.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.virtualtourist.com [Source type: General]

.Although called "The Birdman of Alcatraz," Stroud was not allowed to keep birds while incarcerated there.^ Interesting tidbit: Robert Stroud, the “ Birdman of Alcatraz ” didn’t have keep birds at Alcatraz.
  • How to Change the World: Tour of Alcatraz Island 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC blog.guykawasaki.com [Source type: General]

^ The birdman never had birds while at Alcatraz.
  • Alcatraz Island, a tourist attraction that exceeds all expectations - Boing Boing 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.boingboing.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Among the famous gangsters who occupied cell blocks A through D were Al Capone, Robert Stroud, the so-called Birdman of Alcatraz (because he was an expert in ornithological diseases), Machine Gun Kelly, and Alvin Karpis.
  • Alcatraz Island Review at Frommer's 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.frommers.com [Source type: General]

.When Al Capone arrived on Alcatraz in 1934, prison officials made it clear that he would not be receiving any preferential treatment.^ AL CAPONE: ALCATRAZ’S MOST INFAMOUS PRISONER When Al Capone arrived on Alcatraz in 1934 prison officials made it clear that he would not be receiving any preferential treatment.
  • Bay City Guide - San Francisco Attractions, Maps, Events, Sightseeing Tours, Restaurants, more 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.baycityguide.com [Source type: General]

^ Al Capone arrived at the prison in August 1934.

^ The Birdman was one of many famous prisoners to live on the island of Pelicans, along with, of course, Al Capone and Machine Gun Kelley .
  • Alcatraz@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

.While serving his time in Atlanta, Capone, a master manipulator, had continued running his rackets from behind bars by buying off guards.^ While serving his time in Atlanta, Capone, a master manipulator, had continued running his rackets from behind bars by buying off guards.
  • Bay City Guide - San Francisco Attractions, Maps, Events, Sightseeing Tours, Restaurants, more 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.baycityguide.com [Source type: General]

^ Crime boss Al Capone , who had it easy at his prior prison and ran his criminal empire from behind bars, came to Alcatraz expecting the same deal.
  • Howstuffworks "How Alcatraz Worked" 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Al Capone was quite good at manipulating guards into getting what he wanted so even in jail he lived rather luxurious.
  • Alcatraz Island Things To Do - Alcatraz Island Travel Reviews - VirtualTourist.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.virtualtourist.com [Source type: General]

."Big Al" generated incredible media attention while on Alcatraz though he served just four and a half years of his sentence there before developing symptoms of tertiary syphilis and being transferred to the Federal Correctional Institution at Terminal Island in Los Angeles.^ He was then transferred to the new Federal prison at Terminal Island near Los Angeles.

^ For years there have been reports of mysterious happenings on Alcatraz Island.
  • Alcatraz - The World's Most Haunted Prison? 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

^ Big Al” generated incredible media attention while on Alcatraz though he served just four and a half years of his sentence there before developing symptoms of syphilis and being transferred to a prison in Southern California where he died.
  • Bay City Guide - San Francisco Attractions, Maps, Events, Sightseeing Tours, Restaurants, more 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.baycityguide.com [Source type: General]

.George "Machine Gun" Kelly arrived on September 4, 1934. At Alcatraz, Kelly was constantly boasting about several robberies and murders that he had never committed.^ George Kelly was called Machine Gun Kelly for his amazing machine gunning skills.
  • Alcatraz The famous Prison 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.protopage.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The drummer in the group was "Machine-Gun" Kelly.

^ Machine Gun Kelly was locked up for kidnapping and bank robbery.

.Although this was said to be an apparent point of frustration for several fellow prisoners, Warden Johnson considered him a model inmate.^ Warden Johnson and several inmates were subpoenaed to testify on prison conditions and procedures.
  • Bay City Guide - San Francisco Attractions, Maps, Events, Sightseeing Tours, Restaurants, more 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.baycityguide.com [Source type: General]

^ Although the inquiry has not yet revealed anything definite, the warden said it was expected the full story would be developed eventually in a fragmentary fashion.
  • Alcatraz Archive 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.sfgenealogy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Legend has it that wardens of some federal prisons kept a picture of Alcatraz in their offices as a warning to troublesome inmates of the price of misbehavior.

Kelly was returned to Leavenworth in 1951.
.Alvin "Creepy Karpis" Karpowicz arrived in 1936. He was not a model inmate, constantly fighting with other inmates.^ He was far from a model prisoner, frequently fighting with other inmates.

^ Alvin “Creepy” Karpis spent 25 years on the Rock, more than any other prisoner.
  • Instant City » The Marina & Fisherman's Wharf » My Life On Alcatraz 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC instantcity.org [Source type: General]

^ Alcatraz: Encyclopedia II - Alvin Karpis - Stay at Alcatraz Sentenced to life imprisonment, Karpis was incarcerated at the recently formed Alcatraz federal penitentiary from August 1936 to April 1962.

.He also spent the longest time on Alcatraz island, serving nearly 26 years.^ Average time spent on Alcatraz is 2.5 to 3 hours.
  • COMBO: Alcatraz Ferry and Audio Tour PLUS San Francisco Fishermans Wharf Pass - A One Price Admission Pass to the best Wharf Attractions, Sightseeing Tours and Bay Cruises 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.wharfpass.com [Source type: General]

^ He had spent nearly 40 years in prison.

^ Q. What's the best time of year to visit the island?
  • COMBO: Alcatraz Ferry and Audio Tour PLUS San Francisco Fishermans Wharf Pass - A One Price Admission Pass to the best Wharf Attractions, Sightseeing Tours and Bay Cruises 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.wharfpass.com [Source type: General]

.He was sent to Alcatraz on convictions for worse crimes than any other inmate, though surprisingly he never once attempted an escape.^ Much like an attempt to escape from Alcatraz.
  • Damn Interesting • The Alcatraz Redemption 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.damninteresting.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The average population was only about 260-275 (the prison never once reached its capacity of 336 - at any given time, Alcatraz held less than 1 percent of the total Federal prison population).
  • BOP: Alcatraz 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.bop.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The typical Alcatraz inmate was someone who had abused the rules at a prior detention center, engaging in fights with other prisoners or attempting numerous escapes.
  • Christine M. Flowers: Lessons for Philly from the Rock | Philadelphia Daily News | 12/18/2009 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.philly.com [Source type: General]
  • Christine M. Flowers: Lessons for Philly from the Rock | Philadelphia Daily News | 12/18/2009 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.philly.com [Source type: General]

.James “Whitey” Bulger spent 3 years on Alcatraz (1959–1962) while serving a sentence for bank robbery.^ Hamilton was serving a sentence for bank robbery.
  • Alcatraz Archive 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.sfgenealogy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was serving 30 years for bank robbery.
  • Alcatraz Archive 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.sfgenealogy.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At Alcatraz, this purpose was served by D Block, where prisoners spent almost every minute in their cells, with only one hour per week for exercise.
  • Howstuffworks "How Alcatraz Worked" 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While there, he became close to Clarence Carnes, also known as the Choctaw Kid.^ And Clarence Carnes, the only active participant to survive the 1946 "Battle of Alcatraz" blastout attempt, remained there from 1945 until January, 1963, just a few months before the prison closed.
  • Alcatraz: A Most Merry and Illustrated History 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.coopertoons.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While there were a few successful escapes from Alcatraz during its years as a military prison, once it became a federal penitentiary, there were no known successful escapes.
  • GCF7A2 Escape From Alcatraz (Virtual Cache) in California, United States created by Jbond 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.geocaching.com [Source type: General]

Post prison years

Alcatraz
U.S. National Register of Historic Places
U.S. National Historic Landmark
Flowers on Alcatraz. In the background is the Social Hall, destroyed by fire during the Native American occupation.
Location: California
Built/Founded: 1847
Architect: U.S. Army, Bureau of Prisons; U.S. Army
Architectural style(s): Mission/Spanish Revival
Governing body: National Park Service
Added to NRHP: June 23, 1976[26]
Designated NHL: January 17, 1986[27]
NRHP Reference#: 76000209
.By decision of Attorney General Robert F. Kennedy, the penitentiary was closed on March 21, 1963. It was closed because it was far more expensive to operate than other prisons (nearly $10 per prisoner per day, as opposed to $3 per prisoner per day at Atlanta),[28] half a century of salt water saturation had severely eroded the buildings, and the bay was being badly polluted by the sewage from the approximately 250 inmates and 60 Bureau of Prisons families on the island.^ By order of Attorney General Robert Kennedy (under the John F Kennedy administration) it was shut down officially on 21 March, 1963.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A530641 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was far from a model prisoner, frequently fighting with other inmates.

^ In 1963 the decision to close Alcatraz was made by US Attorney General Robert Kennedy.
  • Bay City Guide - San Francisco Attractions, Maps, Events, Sightseeing Tours, Restaurants, more 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.baycityguide.com [Source type: General]

.The United States Penitentiary in Marion, Illinois, a new, traditional land-bound prison opened that same year to serve as a replacement for Alcatraz.^ Alcatraz is open every day except Christmas and New Year's day.
  • Hotels Near Alcatraz Island, Hotel close to Alcatraz Island California 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.hotelplanner.com [Source type: General]

^ Alcatraz deemed public land, property of the United States Government.
  • Bay City Guide - San Francisco Attractions, Maps, Events, Sightseeing Tours, Restaurants, more 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.baycityguide.com [Source type: General]

^ Every eight years a new photo identification mug shot would be taken of Frank Hatfield, but his prisoner identification number always remained the same through his long years of confinement.

Native American occupation

A lingering sign of the 1969-71 Native American occupation (2006 Photograph).
.Beginning on November 20, 1969, a group of Native Americans from many different tribes (many individual Native Americans relocated to the Bay Area under the Federal Indian Reorganization Act of 1934), occupied the island, and proposed an education center, ecology center and cultural center.^ In 1969, a group of Native Americans chartered a boat to the island to symbolically reclaim the island for the Indian people.
  • Alcatraz Island Review at Frommer's 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.frommers.com [Source type: General]

^ A home for Native Americans from November, 1969 to June, 1971.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A530641 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1969, a group of Native American protesters seized and occupied the island.
  • Alcatraz- San Francisco, CA - VirtualTourist.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.virtualtourist.com [Source type: General]

.According to the occupants, the Treaty of Fort Laramie (1868) between the U.S. and the Sioux returned all retired, abandoned or out-of-use federal land to the Native people from whom it was acquired.^ Natives landed to reclaim the island under a loose interpretation of a treaty that dictated the return of unused federal land to the Natives from whom it was acquired.
  • Thousands celebrate 40th anniversary of Alcatraz occupation | Indian Country Today | National & World News 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.indiancountrytoday.com [Source type: General]
  • Thousands celebrate 40th anniversary of Alcatraz occupation | Indian Country Today | Southwest 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.indiancountrytoday.com [Source type: General]

^ The treaty of 1868 was between the United States and .
  • Don Jelinek 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.donjelinek.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The landing party -- calling itself Indians of All Tribes -- was led by Richard Oakes, a Native American and student at what was then San Francisco State College.
  • 1969 Alcatraz takeover 'changed the whole course of history' - CNN.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www-cgi.cnn.com [Source type: News]
  • 1969 Alcatraz takeover 'changed the whole course of history' - CNN.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: News]

.In fact, the Sioux Treaty of 1868 stated that all abandoned or unused federal land adjacent to the Sioux Reservation could be reclaimed by descendant of the Sioux Nation.^ The treaty of 1868 was between the United States and .
  • Don Jelinek 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.donjelinek.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But if the land is abandoned, it is supposed to revert to the "Sioux."
  • Don Jelinek 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.donjelinek.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The landing party -- calling itself Indians of All Tribes -- was led by Richard Oakes, a Native American and student at what was then San Francisco State College.
  • 1969 Alcatraz takeover 'changed the whole course of history' - CNN.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www-cgi.cnn.com [Source type: News]
  • 1969 Alcatraz takeover 'changed the whole course of history' - CNN.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: News]

.For that reason, the group Indians of All Tribes abandoned the Sioux treaty as the basis of their occupation and claimed Alcatraz Island by Right of Discovery.^ They claimed it in the name of "Indians of All Tribes."
  • Alcatraz Island Things To Do - Alcatraz Island Travel Reviews - VirtualTourist.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.virtualtourist.com [Source type: General]

^ Large group of Native Americans land on Alcatraz and claim the island as Indian property.
  • Bay City Guide - San Francisco Attractions, Maps, Events, Sightseeing Tours, Restaurants, more 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.baycityguide.com [Source type: General]

^ After the occupation, the island was again abandoned.
  • Alcatraz- San Francisco, CA - VirtualTourist.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.virtualtourist.com [Source type: General]

.The Native Americans demanded reparation of the broken treaties and for the land that was taken away from them.^ The landing party -- calling itself Indians of All Tribes -- was led by Richard Oakes, a Native American and student at what was then San Francisco State College.
  • 1969 Alcatraz takeover 'changed the whole course of history' - CNN.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www-cgi.cnn.com [Source type: News]
  • 1969 Alcatraz takeover 'changed the whole course of history' - CNN.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.cnn.com [Source type: News]

^ Natives landed to reclaim the island under a loose interpretation of a treaty that dictated the return of unused federal land to the Natives from whom it was acquired.
  • Thousands celebrate 40th anniversary of Alcatraz occupation | Indian Country Today | National & World News 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.indiancountrytoday.com [Source type: General]
  • Thousands celebrate 40th anniversary of Alcatraz occupation | Indian Country Today | Southwest 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.indiancountrytoday.com [Source type: General]

^ Large group of Native Americans land on Alcatraz and claim the island as Indian property.
  • Bay City Guide - San Francisco Attractions, Maps, Events, Sightseeing Tours, Restaurants, more 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.baycityguide.com [Source type: General]

.Historian Troy R. Johnson states in The Occupation of Alcatraz Island, that Indian people have known about Alcatraz 10,000 to 20,000 years before any European knew a thing about the land.^ About Alcatraz Island elsewhere .
  • Alcatraz Island | TripSay.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.tripsay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ About places near Alcatraz Island .
  • Alcatraz Island | TripSay.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.tripsay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ USA wrote about Alcatraz Island one year, 10 months ago .
  • Alcatraz Island | TripSay.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.tripsay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During 1895, one of the largest Indian groups being held as military prisoners, were the Moqui Hopi.^ First a military fortress, then more famously a prison, then the site of an Indian reclaimation and occupation.
  • Alcatraz- San Francisco, CA - VirtualTourist.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.virtualtourist.com [Source type: General]

^ As one of the prisoners was being led to solitary, he walked by the Birdman's cell.
  • Alcatraz: A Most Merry and Illustrated History 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.coopertoons.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A Berkeley attorney held the trust of both sides during Indians' takeover of Alcatraz .
  • Don Jelinek 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.donjelinek.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Hopi refused to agree on a policy the U.S. government offered, opting for them to send their children to U.S. school, deteriorating their culture and forced assimilation.^ These Hopi village leaders were involved in land disputes with the government, and they refused to comply with a mandatory government education program for their children.
  • Alcatraz Island - The Post on Alcatraces (U.S. National Park Service) 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC home.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Hopis were released after they pledged to "cease interference with the plans of the government for the civilization and education of its Indian wards," although they continued their resistance of government policies after returning to Arizona.
  • Alcatraz Island - The Post on Alcatraces (U.S. National Park Service) 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC home.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The government refused to recognize this agreement, however and the siege continued as the Indians rejected offers of a five‑year lease and a museum.
  • Don Jelinek 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.donjelinek.com [Source type: Original source]

.The point of the policy was to break any relations the Indians may have had with the U.S. government.^ Shortly thereafter, the official government policy of termination of Indian tribes was ended and a policy of Indian self-determination became the official US government policy.
  • Alcatraz Tours - Get on The Rock - Do not wait in line - Great Rates -Book Online 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.buysanfranciscotours.com [Source type: General]
  • ALCATRAZ HISTORY - The Rock - AN OVERVIEW - Alcatraz Tours and Tickets - reserve online 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.buysanfranciscotours.com [Source type: General]

^ The Hopis were released after they pledged to "cease interference with the plans of the government for the civilization and education of its Indian wards," although they continued their resistance of government policies after returning to Arizona.
  • Alcatraz Island - The Post on Alcatraces (U.S. National Park Service) 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC home.nps.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29]
.During the nineteen months and nine days of occupation, several buildings were damaged or destroyed by fires, including the recreation hall, the Coast Guard quarters and the Warden's home.^ During Indian occupation, fire destroys Wardens house, officers club and damages historic lighthouse.
  • Bay City Guide - San Francisco Attractions, Maps, Events, Sightseeing Tours, Restaurants, more 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.baycityguide.com [Source type: General]

^ Wardens home after fire .
  • Bay City Guide - San Francisco Attractions, Maps, Events, Sightseeing Tours, Restaurants, more 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.baycityguide.com [Source type: General]

^ On 1 June, 1970, fires destroyed some of the prison buildings, the lighthouse-keeper's residence, the Warden's house and the Officer's Club, and the lighthouse was damaged.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A530641 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The origins of the fires are unknown. .A number of other buildings (mostly apartments) were destroyed by the U.S. Government after the occupation had ended.^ Because the buildings were far apart from each other, occupiers concluded that government agents had set the fires to discredit the occupation.
  • Alcatraz: Occupation by The American Indian Movement (AIM) 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC siouxme.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Native Press - Continuing the Oral Storytelling Tradition in the 21st Century Online! 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.thenativepress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It isn't clear who was to blame, but since the buildings were not next to each other, the Indians reasoned it was deliberate and started by government agents.
  • Alcatraz@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The government committed $3 million US to restore the chapel, cells and other buildings that are still standing.
  • The Cape Breton Post: Travel | Scars of horror amid the beauty 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.capebretonpost.com [Source type: General]

.Graffiti from the period of Native American occupation are still visible at many locations on the island.^ Many 'troublesome Native Americans' were also allowed to be imprisoned in the island's facilities.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A530641 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Several exhibits present the various periods of Alcatraz’s history, from early military history to the Island’s occupation by Indians from 1969-1971.
  • Bay City Guide - San Francisco Attractions, Maps, Events, Sightseeing Tours, Restaurants, more 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.baycityguide.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1969, a group of Native American protesters seized and occupied the island.
  • Alcatraz- San Francisco, CA - VirtualTourist.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.virtualtourist.com [Source type: General]

[30]
.During the occupation, the Indian termination policy, designed to end federal recognition of tribes, was rescinded by President Richard Nixon, and the new policy of self-determination was established, in part as a result of the publicity and awareness created by the occupiers.^ Shortly thereafter, the official government policy of termination of Indian tribes was ended and a policy of Indian self-determination became the official US government policy.
  • Alcatraz Tours - Get on The Rock - Do not wait in line - Great Rates -Book Online 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.buysanfranciscotours.com [Source type: General]
  • ALCATRAZ HISTORY - The Rock - AN OVERVIEW - Alcatraz Tours and Tickets - reserve online 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.buysanfranciscotours.com [Source type: General]

^ During the eighteen months, President Richard Nixon signed the papers ending "Termination" policy.
  • Alcatraz@Everything2.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.everything2.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During the occupation Nixon quietly signed papers rescinding Termination, a policy designed to end federal recognition of tribes.
  • Alcatraz: Occupation by The American Indian Movement (AIM) 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC siouxme.com [Source type: Original source]
  • The Native Press - Continuing the Oral Storytelling Tradition in the 21st Century Online! 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.thenativepress.com [Source type: Original source]

The occupation ended on June 11, 1971.[31]
.Alcatraz would eventually result in the Trail of Broken Treaties and would influence the Longest Walk in 1985. The occupation of Alcatraz is assumed to have played a huge role for Native Americans and is defined as a key movement, fighting for what some felt was rightfully theirs.^ The Military found that, because of its complete isolation from the mainland, Alcatraz would be a good prison, and in August, 1861, some Civil War military prisoners were sent to the island.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A530641 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Eventually, after the Mexican-American War and the Bear Flag Revolt, California became a territory of the US government, and with it Alcatraz.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A530641 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Occupying cell B-206, he occasionally got in fights, and was once stabbed, but his spirit as an incorrigible criminal was eventually broken.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A530641 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The U.S. government returned land to the Taos, Yakima, Navajo and Washoe tribes following a succession of demands at Alcatraz.^ Mount Adams was returned to the Yakama Nation in Washington state, and 48,000 acres of the Sacred Blue Lake lands were returned to Taos Pueblo in New Mexico.
  • Alcatraz: Occupation by The American Indian Movement (AIM) 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC siouxme.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To reach Hornblower Alcatraz Landing from the south, take Highway 101 North and follow the signs towards the Bay Bridge.

^ Alcatraz deemed public land, property of the United States Government.
  • Bay City Guide - San Francisco Attractions, Maps, Events, Sightseeing Tours, Restaurants, more 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.baycityguide.com [Source type: General]

[29]

Landmarking and development

.
A guard tower on Alcatraz Island.
^ Isolation, one of the constants of island life for any inhabitant - soldier, guard, prisoner, bird or plant - is a recurrent theme in the unfolding history of Alcatraz.
  • Alcatraz- San Francisco, CA - VirtualTourist.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.virtualtourist.com [Source type: General]

^ Though he did not own the island for long, Fremont noticed that Alcatraz had a useful strategic position and could be used as a fort to guard the growing city of San Francisco.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A530641 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sighted by a tower guard, a drifting outboard motorboat, the motor missing, was picked up by a prison launch as the tide swept it toward the island yesterday afternoon.
  • Alcatraz Archive 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.sfgenealogy.com [Source type: Original source]

The San Francisco - Oakland Bay Bridge and San Francisco are visible in the background
The entire Alcatraz Island was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1976,[26] and was further declared a National Historic Landmark in 1986.[27][32]
.In 1993, the National Park Service published a plan entitled Alcatraz Development Concept and Environmental Assessment. This plan, approved in 1980, doubled the amount of Alcatraz accessible to the public to enable visitors to enjoy its scenery and bird, marine, and animal life, such as the California slender salamander.^ Official National Park Service information .
  • Bay City Guide - San Francisco Attractions, Maps, Events, Sightseeing Tours, Restaurants, more 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.baycityguide.com [Source type: General]

^ Today it's managed by the national park service.
  • Alcatraz- San Francisco, CA - VirtualTourist.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.virtualtourist.com [Source type: General]

^ Telesales is a concessionaire of the National Park Service.
  • Alcatraz Island Ferry and Audio Tour and a San Francisco City Tour - Combination 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.buysanfranciscotours.com [Source type: General]

[33]
.Today American Indian groups, the International Indian Treaty Council, for example, hold ceremonies on the island.^ On March 8, 1964, a small group of Sioux attempted to take the island, invoking the Treaty of Fort Laramie.
  • The Native Press - Continuing the Oral Storytelling Tradition in the 21st Century Online! 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.thenativepress.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On March 8, 1964, a small group of Sioux attempted to take the island, invoking the 1868 Treaty of Fort Laramie.
  • Alcatraz: Occupation by The American Indian Movement (AIM) 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC siouxme.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Historians and other experts say the occupation -- though chaotic and laced with tragedy --improved conditions for the 2 million American Indians and Alaska Natives alive today.
  • The Native Press - Continuing the Oral Storytelling Tradition in the 21st Century Online! 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.thenativepress.com [Source type: Original source]

.The most notable of these are on Columbus Day and Thanksgiving Day when they hold a "Sunrise Gathering."^ This was all happening in these days prior to Thanksgiving [1969 -- the day I arrived on Alcatraz].
  • Don Jelinek 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.donjelinek.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It's definitely a place I would stay again, and yes, like most places these days - free wifi - a must!
  • Alcatraz Island | TripSay.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.tripsay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This sunrise ceremony on Un-Thanksgiving Day was a celebration of the 40th Anniversary of the Occupation of Alcatraz – a day when a group of Natives took a leap into history.
  • Thousands celebrate 40th anniversary of Alcatraz occupation | Indian Country Today | National & World News 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.indiancountrytoday.com [Source type: General]
  • Thousands celebrate 40th anniversary of Alcatraz occupation | Indian Country Today | Southwest 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.indiancountrytoday.com [Source type: General]

.In 2006, the Park Service awarded the ferry contract to Hornblower Yachts ferry operator Alcatraz Cruises.^ The Alcatraz Ferry operates year round.
  • Reviews for The San Francisco Waterfront Segway Tour Combined with The Alctraz Ferry and Tour - 2 great Activities 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.sfelectrictour.com [Source type: General]

^ Alcatraz Cruises" has several tour options which seems to be enhanced since we visited in 2000 (this may be due to the different company now running the ferries/tours or to the National Park Service itself).
  • Alcatraz Island Things To Do - Alcatraz Island Travel Reviews - VirtualTourist.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.virtualtourist.com [Source type: General]

^ Pass by Alcatraz Island as your friendly cruise director gives a historical narration about the history of Alcatraz, from fortress penitentiary prison to national park.
  • GoThere Corporation | San Francisco Alcatraz Discovery Lunch Cruise 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.partner.viator.com [Source type: General]

.Because Hornblower does not employ union labor, there were protests, but they have ceased.^ I am putting this out there because others have been saying the same thing and the opportunists should know that they don't fool all of us.
  • Thousands celebrate 40th anniversary of Alcatraz occupation | Indian Country Today | National & World News 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.indiancountrytoday.com [Source type: General]
  • Thousands celebrate 40th anniversary of Alcatraz occupation | Indian Country Today | Southwest 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.indiancountrytoday.com [Source type: General]

Proposed peace center

Artist's concept of the proposed Alcatraz
.The Global Peace Foundation proposed to raze the prison and build a peace center in its place.^ A large building called the Citadel was erected to house the troops stationed there -- the prison at Alcatraz would later be built on the Citadel's foundations.
  • Howstuffworks "How Alcatraz Worked" 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The commanding officers would stick these prisoners wherever they would fit (in the Citadel's basement, at first), building new places for them almost haphazardly.
  • Howstuffworks "How Alcatraz Worked" 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Prior to D Block's construction, troublesome prisoners were sent to "the dungeon," a series of old cells in the basement, left over from the original building upon whose foundation the prison was built.
  • Howstuffworks "How Alcatraz Worked" 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC history.howstuffworks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During the previous year, supporters collected 10,350 signatures that placed it on the presidential primary ballots in San Francisco for February 5, 2008.[34] The proposed plan was estimated at $1 billion.^ She also admired and supported San Francisco's firemen.

^ Planning a trip to San Francisco?
  • San Francisco, Fisherman's Wharf & Bay Area Travel Planner. Maps,Guides & Online Coupons 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.mapwest.com [Source type: General]

^ Welcome to the Crowne Plaza San Francisco International Airport hotel , the Place to Meet for your San Francisco hotel experience.
  • Reserve Hotels near Alcatraz Island in San Francisco 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.shdweb.com [Source type: General]

.For the plan to pass, Congress would have had to have taken Alcatraz out of the National Park Service.^ Official National Park Service information .
  • Bay City Guide - San Francisco Attractions, Maps, Events, Sightseeing Tours, Restaurants, more 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.baycityguide.com [Source type: General]

^ Today it's managed by the national park service.
  • Alcatraz- San Francisco, CA - VirtualTourist.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.virtualtourist.com [Source type: General]

^ Telesales is a concessionaire of the National Park Service.
  • Alcatraz Island Ferry and Audio Tour and a San Francisco City Tour - Combination 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.buysanfranciscotours.com [Source type: General]

.Critics of the plan said that Alcatraz is too rich in history to be destroyed.^ The rich history of Alcatraz during the penitentiary years and many of the inmates who called "the Rock" home.
  • Alcatraz- San Francisco, CA - VirtualTourist.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.virtualtourist.com [Source type: General]

^ The Opal San Francisco 1.37 miles from Alcatraz Island Nightly Rates: ( 42.00 - 81.00 ) Built in 1909, The Opal San Francisco is rich in history and character.
  • Alcatraz Island - San Francisco, CA, California hotels 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.qwikcast.com [Source type: General]

^ The Cellhouse by SteveOSF, 4 more photos Alcatraz is an enjoyable attraction that is rich in history.
  • Alcatraz- San Francisco, CA - VirtualTourist.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.virtualtourist.com [Source type: General]

[35] .On February 6, 2008, the Alcatraz Island Global Peace Center Proposition C failed to pass, with 72% of voters rejecting the proposition.^ Civic Center Inn 1.52 miles from Alcatraz Island Nightly Rates: ( 55.31 - 70.31 ) City...
  • Alcatraz Island - San Francisco, CA, California hotels 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.qwikcast.com [Source type: General]

^ Best Western Inn 23.90 miles from Alcatraz Island Nightly Rates: ( 66.99 - 102.99 ) Experience the peaceful environment of Redwood City.
  • Alcatraz Island - San Francisco, CA, California hotels 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.qwikcast.com [Source type: General]

^ Inn at the Opera 1.72 miles from Alcatraz Island Nightly Rates: ( 162.50 - 293.59 ) Inn at the Opera is a charming European style boutique hotel.
  • Alcatraz Island - San Francisco, CA, California hotels 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.qwikcast.com [Source type: General]

[36]

Fauna and flora

Brandt's Cormorant nesting on Alcatraz Island

Habitats

  • Cisterns. .A bluff that, because of its moist crevices, is believed to be an important site for California slender salamanders.
  • Cliff tops at the island's north end.^ The plan, he said, had been to paddle to nearby Angel Island, then swim the Raccoon Straits to the Marin Headlands, near the north end of the Golden Gate Bridge.
    • Damn Interesting • The Alcatraz Redemption 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.damninteresting.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Home Travel Guides Hotels Meet Members Travel Deals Trip Planner Forums Home » Travel Guides » North America » United States of America » California » Alcatraz Island » Things To Do Alcatraz Island Hotels .
    • Alcatraz Island Things To Do - Alcatraz Island Travel Reviews - VirtualTourist.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.virtualtourist.com [Source type: General]

    Containing a onetime manufacturing building and a plaza, the area is listed as important to nesting and roosting birds.
  • The powerhouse area. A steep embankment where native grassland and creeping wild rye support a habitat for deer mice.
  • Tide pools. A series of them, created by long-ago quarrying activities, contains still-unidentified invertebrate species and marine algae..September 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] They form one of the few tide-pool complexes in the Bay, according to the report.
  • Western cliffs and cliff tops.^ They would just stretch blankets over the top cell fronts and everyone would be happy - especially them since no one could see them make the rafts.
    • Alcatraz: A Most Merry and Illustrated History 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.coopertoons.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Starting form a distance, the boats would circle, coming closer on each loop until they came within a few yards of the Rock.
    • Alcatraz Archive 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.sfgenealogy.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And, according to one inmate, they did get even.
    • Alcatraz: A Most Merry and Illustrated History 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.coopertoons.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Rising to heights of nearly 100 feet (30 m), they provide nesting and roosting sites for sea birds including pigeon guillemots, cormorants, Heermann's Gulls and Western Gulls.^ They miraculously escaped grave injury in the bare-footed plunge of some 30 feet down a sheer cliff to the rock-strewn shore.
    • Alcatraz Archive 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.sfgenealogy.com [Source type: Original source]

    Harbor seals can occasionally be seen on a small beach at the base.
  • The parade grounds. .Carved from the hillside during the late 19th century and covered with rubble since the government demolished guard housing in 1971, the area has become a habitat and breeding ground for black-crowned night herons, western gulls, slender salamanders and deer mice.
  • The Agave Path, a trail named for its dense growth of agave.^ The trail (open from late September to mid-February) begins near the ferryboat landing on the east side of the island and winds through a protected bird sanctuary to a stone stairway where prison guards’ houses once stood.
    • Bay City Guide - San Francisco Attractions, Maps, Events, Sightseeing Tours, Restaurants, more 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.baycityguide.com [Source type: General]

    ^ They named him Wovoka, after the 19th-century Paiute who .
    • The Native Press - Continuing the Oral Storytelling Tradition in the 21st Century Online! 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.thenativepress.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They named him Wovoka, after the 19th-century Paiute who introduced the Ghost Dance and the prophecy that North America would be returned to Indians.
    • Alcatraz: Occupation by The American Indian Movement (AIM) 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC siouxme.com [Source type: Original source]

    Located atop a shoreline bulkhead on the south side, it provides a nesting habitat for night herons.
  • Alcatraz prison and its surroundings.

Flora

Flowers on Alcatraz. In the background a watch tower.
.Gardens planted by families of the original Army post, and later by families of the prison guards, fell into neglect after the prison closure in 1963. After 40 years they are being restored by a paid staff member and many volunteers, thanks to funding by the Garden Conservancy and the Golden Gate National Parks Conservancy.^ He had spent nearly 40 years in prison.

^ Originally Posted by Delirium1337 thanks !
  • Strongest Pro Bodybuilder Ever? - Bodybuilding.com Forums 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC forum.bodybuilding.com [Source type: General]

^ It served as a lighthouse, then a military fortification, then a military prison followed by a federal prison until 1963, when it became a national recreation area (...
  • Alcatraz Island | TripSay.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.tripsay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The untended gardens had become severely overgrown and had developed into a nesting habitat and sanctuary for numerous birds. .Now, areas of bird habitat are being preserved and protected, while many of the gardens are being fully restored to their original glory.^ The Hilton Garden Inn San Francisco Airport North hotel is located in California*s South San Francisco an area that many Biotech Companies call home.
  • Reserve Hotels near Alcatraz Island in San Francisco 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.shdweb.com [Source type: General]

^ This, along with the natural fog of the area, resulted in a masking effect, and it prevented the bay from being discovered for many years.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A530641 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In clearing out the overgrowth, many of the original plants were discovered to still be growing where they had been planted - some over 100 years ago.^ (I read, some years ago, that the state was letting people stay overnight in that prison - with special permission.
  • BBC America Discussion Boards : JA- Book of Blood ... 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC discussions.bbcamerica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Reply Report I spent a night in a cell at Alcatraz...because I worked on the new audio tour production, which came out a year or so ago.
  • Alcatraz Island, a tourist attraction that exceeds all expectations - Boing Boing 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.boingboing.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So Allen figured they needed some way to make it look like they were still in the cell while they were really happily swimming away to freedom.
  • Alcatraz: A Most Merry and Illustrated History 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.coopertoons.com [Source type: Original source]

Numerous heirloom rose hybrids, including a Welsh rose that had been believed to be extinct, have been discovered and propagated. Many species of roses, succulents, and geraniums are to be found growing among apple and fig trees, banks of sweet peas, manicured gardens of cutting flowers, and wildly overgrown sections of native grasses with blackberry and honeysuckle.

Hauntings

.Some visitors to the island claim to have heard men screaming, whistling, orbs, and doors clanging in the prison.^ Their screams could not be heard in the main prison.

^ The Military found that, because of its complete isolation from the mainland, Alcatraz would be a good prison, and in August, 1861, some Civil War military prisoners were sent to the island.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A530641 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some reformers claim it is really a place to get rid of the prison dissenters and jailhouse lawyers who fight for prisoners' rights.
  • Alcatraz: A Most Merry and Illustrated History 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.coopertoons.com [Source type: Original source]

[37] .As is likely with many prisons, deaths occurred in Alcatraz, and some believe that those who died in the prison haunt the island.^ "Those who violate the laws of society go to prison, those who violate the laws of prison go to Alcatraz."
  • Christine M. Flowers: Lessons for Philly from the Rock | Philadelphia Daily News | 12/18/2009 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.philly.com [Source type: General]

^ The typical Alcatraz inmate was someone who had abused the rules at a prior detention center, engaging in fights with other prisoners or attempting numerous escapes.
  • Christine M. Flowers: Lessons for Philly from the Rock | Philadelphia Daily News | 12/18/2009 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.philly.com [Source type: General]

^ For those who want to get a closer look at Alcatraz without going ashore, two boat-tour operators offer short circumnavigations of the island.
  • Alcatraz Island - Reviews and Ratings of Sights in San Francisco - New York Times Travel 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC travel.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

.Many guards and police officers reported to have seen or heard ghostly apparitions while guarding the building.^ They freed Captain Madigan, because it would be time for the officers to call the Administration building, or else the other guards would become suspicious.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A530641 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[38] .There is also a report of banjo music in the shower.^ According to one park ranger, he was in one of the cell houses one morning, near the shower room, and heard the distinctive sound of banjo music coming from the room.

.Witnesses say this could be tied to the famous Gangster Al Capone.^ Among the famous gangsters who occupied cell blocks A through D were Al Capone, Robert Stroud, the so-called Birdman of Alcatraz (because he was an expert in ornithological diseases), Machine Gun Kelly, and Alvin Karpis.
  • Alcatraz Island - Reviews and Ratings of Sights in San Francisco - New York Times Travel 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC travel.nytimes.com [Source type: General]

^ Al Capone , or 'Scarface' was possibly the most famous and notorious gangster of the Prohibition Era.
  • http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A530641 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.bbc.co.uk [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A 2009 episode of The Othersiders visits Alcatraz Prison.^ The book contains the history of Alcatraz Island, the operation of the prison, memories of growing up on Alcatraz, a final visit, stories of the Rock, and a multitude of historic photographs.

^ From: Amazon Posted: Sep-12-2009 A "Must See" movie If you ever plan to visit Alcatraz, one of the most famour prisons in the United States, then this movie is a "must see".
  • Alcatraz - Shop Smarter.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.smarter.com [Source type: General]

[39] .Other TV shows to visit Alcatraz in 2009 were Ghost Lab[40] and MysteryQuest[41] The island and prison were the focus of the SyFy television show Ghost Hunters 100th episode and season opener.^ Show on map Alcatraz Island, USA .
  • Alcatraz Island | TripSay.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.tripsay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another good video (which features a lot of the same footage) is ALCATRAZ IS NOT AN ISLAND which often shows on PBS affiliates in the month of November, and which is available for sale on the island.
  • Alcatraz Island, a tourist attraction that exceeds all expectations - Boing Boing 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.boingboing.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The book contains the history of Alcatraz Island, the operation of the prison, memories of growing up on Alcatraz, a final visit, stories of the Rock, and a multitude of historic photographs.

Gallery

.
A panorama of Alcatraz as viewed from San Francisco Bay, facing east.^ Richmond park with views of San Francisco Bay.
  • Reserve Hotels near Alcatraz Island in San Francisco 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.shdweb.com [Source type: General]
  • Hotels Near Alcatraz Island - San Francisco California hotels 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC hotel.uscity.net [Source type: General]

^ Alcatraz, San Francisco, CA, USA, aerial view .
  • Alcatraz Stock Photos and Images. 167 Alcatraz pictures and royalty free photography available to search from over 100 stock photo brands. 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Alcatraz tour & San Francisco .
  • Bay City Guide - San Francisco Attractions, Maps, Events, Sightseeing Tours, Restaurants, more 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.baycityguide.com [Source type: General]

Sather Tower and UC Berkeley are visible in the background on the right.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Alcatraz Island". Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Encyclopædia Britannica. 2009. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/13237/Alcatraz-Island. Retrieved 2009-08-20. 
  2. ^ Odier, Odier (1982). The Rock: A History of Alcatraz: The Fort/The Prison. L'Image Odier. ISBN 0961163208. 
  3. ^ Hornblower Hybrid
  4. ^ Alcatraz Island, USGS Geographic Names Information System.
  5. ^ The March of Portolá and the Log of the San Carlos - Zoeth S. Eldredge & E. J. Molera - Log of the San Carlos
  6. ^ The History of Alcatraz Island
  7. ^ History: Military Fortress
  8. ^ BOP: Alcatraz
  9. ^ Alcatraz Island - History & Culture (U.S. National Park Service)
  10. ^ "Albatross" in the American Heritage Dictionary
  11. ^ Block 1067, Block Group 1, Census Tract 179.02, San Francisco County United States Census Bureau.
  12. ^ http://www.archive.org/stream/expeditionsofjoh02fr/expeditionsofjoh02fr_djvu.txt
  13. ^ a b http://www.sgha.net/articles/fh.html
  14. ^ BBC - h2g2 - Alcatraz, San Francisco, California, USA
  15. ^ a b http://www.nps.gov/history/Nr/travel/wwIIbayarea/alc.htm
  16. ^ Hannings, Bud (March 2005). Forts of the United States: An Historical Dictionary, 16th Through 19th Centuries. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Co Inc. p. 36. ISBN 978-0786417964. 
  17. ^ Historic Posts, Camps, Stations and Airfields: Post at Alcatraz Island
  18. ^ Alcatraz Preservation Project: Exposing the Layers of An American Landmark (pamphlet), Golden Gate National Parks Conservancy, 2003.
  19. ^ "The most painful story of resistance to assimilation programs and compulsory school attendance laws involved the Hopis in Arizona, who surrendered a group of men to the military rather than voluntarily relinquish their children. The Hopi men served time in federal prison at Alcatraz". Child, Brenda J. (February 2000). Boarding School Seasons: American Indian Families, 1900-1940. University of Nebraska Press. p. 13. ISBN 0-8032-6405-4. 
  20. ^ A Brief History of Alcatraz Island
  21. ^ a b Hannings, Bud (March 2005). Forts of the United States: An Historical Dictionary, 16th Through 19th Centuries. Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Co Inc. p. 36. ISBN 978-0786417964. 
  22. ^ Grosser, P., Block, H., Blackwell, A. S., & Berkman, A. (1933). Uncle Sam's Devil's Island: experiences of a conscientious objector in America during the World War. Boston, Mass: Published by a Group of friends. [1]
  23. ^ Ron Filion; Pamela Storm (22 January 2006). "Escapes from Alcatraz Image Gallery: Federal Penitentiary Wardens:". San Franciso History. SF Genealogy. http://www.sfgenealogy.com/sf/history/sfoeat00.htm. Retrieved 2009-08-20. 
  24. ^ Alcatraz Escape Attempts
  25. ^ The attempt was the subject of the 1979 film "Escape From Alcatraz" with screenplay by Richard Tuggle; directed by Don Siegel and starring Clint Eastwood as Frank Morris, Jack Thibeau as Clarence Anglin and Fred Ward as John Anglin. "Escape from Alcatraz / Duck Quack / Stud Finder". Mythbusters. Discovery Channel. 12 December 2003. No. 011, season 1. Retrieved on 2009-08-20.
  26. ^ a b "National Register Information System". National Register of Historic Places. National Park Service. 2007-01-23. http://www.nr.nps.gov/. 
  27. ^ a b "Alcatraz Island". National Historic Landmark summary listing. National Park Service. http://tps.cr.nps.gov/nhl/detail.cfm?ResourceId=1595&ResourceType=District. Retrieved 2007-10-22. 
  28. ^ A Brief History of Alcatraz, p. 5.
  29. ^ a b Roots of Justice, You Are Now on Indian Land, Larry R. Solomon, 2003
  30. ^ Alcatraz Island
  31. ^ Alcatraz Is Not an Island. "Indians of All Tribes", author. Berkeley, Wingbow Press, 1972
  32. ^ Stephen A. Haller (April 15, 1985) (PDF), National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination: Alcatraz Island / La Isla de los Alcatraces / Fort Alcatraz / The Post at Alcatraz / Pacific Branch, U.S. Military Prison / U.S. Disciplinary Barracks, Alcatraz Island / United States Penitentiary ad Alcatraz Island, National Park Service, http://pdfhost.focus.nps.gov/docs/NHLS/Text/76000209.pdf, retrieved 2009-06-21  and Accompanying 18 photos, exterior and interior, from 1985, 1980, and undated.PDF (4.03 MB)
  33. ^ Adams, Gerald D., Alcatraz Proposal Highlights Wildlife Plan Would Open Up More of Rock, San Francisco Examiner (July 27, 1993), News section, p. A1.
  34. ^ Voters consider changing Alcatraz to peace center | U.S. | Reuters
  35. ^ LJWorld.com / Activist wants to transform Alcatraz into global peace center
  36. ^ Local and National Politics - Democratic, Republicans News, Elections and Results | KNTV Bay Area - NBC 11.
  37. ^ The History & Hauntings of Alcatraz.
  38. ^ America's Most Haunted Places.
  39. ^ The Othersiders "Alcatraz". The Othersiders, Cartoon Network.
  40. ^ Ghost Lab "Alcatraz". Ghost Lab, Discovery Channel.
  41. ^ MysteryQuest. "The Mystery of Devil's Island". MysteryQuest, History Channel.

External links


Simple English

Alcatraz Island (sometimes just called Alcatraz or The Rock). is a small island in San Francisco Bay in California. It was first a lighthouse, then a military fort, then a military prison followed by a federal prison. In 1963, it became a museum. The name Alcatraz is the English version of the Spanish word "Alcatraces" meaning "pelican". It was given the name pelican when a Spanish explorer, John Manuel de Ayala, noticed the great amount of pelicans roosting on the island. Alcatraz Island is one of many islands in the San Francisco Bay area.


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 26, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Alcatraz Island, which are similar to those in the above article.








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