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The hydroxyl (OH) functional group in an alcohol molecule
In chemistry, an alcohol is any organic compound in which a hydroxyl functional group (-OH) is bound to a carbon atom, usually connected to other carbon or hydrogen atoms.
.An important class are the simple acyclic alcohols, the general formula for which is CnH2n+1OH. Of those, ethanol (C2H5OH) is the type of alcohol found in alcoholic beverages, and in common speech the word alcohol refers specifically to ethanol.^ When they present their original data relating to the methanol content of French wines (range 14-265 ppm) or when the methanol content of any alcoholic beverage is given, the ration of methanol to ethanol is also presented.

.Other alcohols are usually described with a clarifying adjective, as in isopropyl alcohol (propan-2-ol) or wood alcohol (methyl alcohol, or methanol).^ METHANOL Methanol (methyl alcohol, wood alcohol), a poisonous substance (60), is added as a component during the manufacture of aspartame (47).

^ Abstract] "Many of the signs and symptoms of intoxication due to methanol ingestion are not specific to methyl alcohol.

^ Methyl alcohol produces the Methyl alcohol syndrome, consistently , only in humans and no other test animal, including monkeys (42, 54).

The suffix -ol appears in the IUPAC chemical name of all alcohols.

Contents

Simple alcohols

The most commonly used alcohol is ethanol, C2H5OH, with the ethane backbone. .Ethanol has been produced and consumed by humans for millennia, in the form of fermented and distilled alcoholic beverages, and was isolated by the Persian alchemist Rāzi (Rhazes) around 900 AD. It is a clear flammable liquid that boils at 78.4 °C, which is used as an industrial solvent, car fuel, and raw material in the chemical industry.^ There are approximately 80,000 chemicals in common industrial use today (almost none of which existed before World War II).

^ An alcoholic consuming 1500 calories a day from alcoholic sources alone may consume between 0 and 600 mg of methanol each day depending on his choice of beverages (Table 1).

^ Thirty-five billion pounds of toxic industrial byproducts certainly seems like a significant quantity of toxicants to be adding to the environment each year, the environment which human beings and other life forms need in order to live, to live well, and to reproduce.

.In the US and some other countries, because of legal and tax restrictions on alcohol consumption, ethanol destined for other uses often contains additives that make it unpalatable (such as Bitrex) or poisonous (such as methanol).^ METHANOL Methanol (methyl alcohol, wood alcohol), a poisonous substance (60), is added as a component during the manufacture of aspartame (47).

^ Although some forms of mercury are hazardous, the mercury in amalgam is chemically bound to the other metals to make it stable and therefore safe for use in dental applications.

^ Some aspartame victims need this surgery even after they stop 'using', because aspartame harms the synovial fluid that bathes the joints.

Ethanol in this form is known generally as denatured alcohol; when methanol is used, it may be referred to as methylated spirits ("Meths") or "surgical spirits".
.The simplest alcohol is methanol, CH3OH, which was formerly obtained by the distillation of wood and therefore is called "wood alcohol". It is a clear liquid resembling ethanol in smell and properties, with a slightly lower boiling point (64.7 °C), and is used mainly as a solvent, fuel, and raw material.^ METHANOL Methanol (methyl alcohol, wood alcohol), a poisonous substance (60), is added as a component during the manufacture of aspartame (47).

^ Therefore if a liter of a high methanol content orange juice is consumed, with 33 mg/liter of methanol and a 20/1 ration of ethanol/methanol, only one molecule of methanol in 180 will be metabolized into dangerous metabolites until the majority of the ethanol has been cleared from the bloodstream.

^ The wood alcohol (methanol) is widely distributed throughout the body including brain, muscle, fat and nervous tissue.

.Unlike ethanol, methanol is extremely toxic: one sip (as little as 10 ml) can cause permanent blindness by destruction of the optic nerve and 30 ml (one fluid ounce) is potentially fatal.^ This study admitted one datum that showed accumulation of formaldehye in the midbrain from an acute toxicity dose of methanol, and widespread accumulation of formic acid in five tissues.

^ ETHANOL AND FOLIC ACID The importance of ethanol as an antidote to methanol toxicity in humans is very well established in the literature (46, 55).

^ Ethanol, the classic antidote for methanol toxicity, is found in natural food sources of methanol at concentrations 5 to 500,000 times that of the toxin (Table 1).

[1]
.Two other alcohols whose uses are relatively widespread (though not so much as those of methanol and ethanol) are propanol and butanol.^ When they present their original data relating to the methanol content of French wines (range 14-265 ppm) or when the methanol content of any alcoholic beverage is given, the ration of methanol to ethanol is also presented.

^ Of the wines they tested, the ratio associated with the highest methanol content (265 ppm) indicates over 262 times as much ethanol present as methanol.

^ Cigarette smoke, a known coronary risk factor, contains four times as much methanol as formaldehyde and only traces of ethanol.

Like ethanol, they can be produced by fermentation processes. (However, the fermenting agent is a bacterium, Clostridium acetobutylicum, that feeds on cellulose, not sugars like the Saccharomyces yeast that produces ethanol.)

Nomenclature

Systematic names

In the IUPAC system, the name of the alkane chain loses the terminal "e" and adds "ol", e.g. ."methanol" and "ethanol".[2] When necessary, the position of the hydroxyl group is indicated by a number between the alkane name and the "ol": propan-1-ol for CH3CH2CH2OH, propan-2-ol for CH3CH(OH)CH3.^ Of the wines they tested, the ratio associated with the highest methanol content (265 ppm) indicates over 262 times as much ethanol present as methanol.

.Sometimes, the position number is written before the IUPAC name: 1-propanol and 2-propanol.^ Each row corresponds to a different sequence, the sequence name is stored in the first column, while other columns contain residue numbers in the selected alignment positions.
  • ICM Language Reference : Functions 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.molsoft.com [Source type: Reference]

If a higher priority group is present (such as an aldehyde, ketone or carboxylic acid), then it is necessary to use the prefix "hydroxy",[2] for example: 1-hydroxy-2-propanone (CH3COCH2OH).
Some examples of simple alcohols and how to name them

The IUPAC nomenclature is used in scientific publications and where precise identification of the substance is important. In other less formal contexts, an alcohol is often called with the name of the corresponding alkyl group followed by the word "alcohol", e.g. methyl alcohol, ethyl alcohol. .Propyl alcohol may be n-propyl alcohol or isopropyl alcohol depending on whether the hydroxyl group is bonded to the 1st or 2nd carbon on the propane chain.^ An alcoholic consuming 1500 calories a day from alcoholic sources alone may consume between 0 and 600 mg of methanol each day depending on his choice of beverages (Table 1).

^ Alcoholics may average much more, with a potential range of between 0 and 600 mg/day, depending on the source and in some cases the quality of their beverages (15).

Alcohols are classified into primary, secondary and tertiary, based upon the number of carbon atoms connected to the carbon atom that bears the hydroxyl group. Namely, the primary alcohols have general formulas RCH2OH; secondary ones are RR'CHOH; and tertiary ones are RR'R"COH, where R, R'and R" stand for alkyl groups. Ethanol and n-propyl alcohol are primary alcohols; isopropyl alcohol is a secondary one. The prefixes sec- (or s-) and tert- (or t-), conventionally in italics, may be used before the alkyl group's name to distinguish secondary and tertiary alcohols, respectively, from the primary one. For example, isopropyl alcohol is occasionally called sec-propyl alcohol, and the tertiary alcohol (CH3)3COH, or 2-methylpropan-2-ol in IUPAC nomenclature, is commonly known as tert-butyl alcohol or tert-butanol.

Common Names

 Chemical Formula   IUPAC Name   Common Name 
Monohydric alcohols
CH3OH Methanol Wood alcohol
C2H5OH Ethanol Grain alcohol
C5H11OH Pentanol Amyl alcohol
C16H33OH Hexadecan-1-ol Cetyl alcohol
Polyhydric alcohols
C2H4(OH)2 Ethane-1 ,2-diol Ethylene glycol
C3H5(OH)3 Propane-1 ,2,3-triol Glycerin
C4H6(OH)4 Butane-1 ,2,3,4-tetraol Erythritol
C5H7(OH)5 Pentane-1 ,2,3,4,5-pentol Xylitol
C6H8(OH)6 Hexane-1 ,2,3,4,5,6-hexol Mannitol, Sorbitol
C7H9(OH)7 Heptane-1 ,2,3,4,5,6,7-heptol Volemitol
Unsaturated aliphatic alcohols
C3H5OH Prop-2-ene-1-ol Allyl alcohol
C10H17OH 3,7-Dimethylocta-2,6-dien-1-ol Geraniol
C3H3OH Prop-2-in-1-ol Propargyl alcohol
Alicyclic alcohols
C6H6(OH)6 Cyclohexane-1 ,2,3,4,5,6-geksol Inositol
C10H19OH 2 - (2-propyl)-5-methyl-cyclohexane-1-ol Menthol

Etymology

The word alcohol appears in English in the 16th century, loaned via French from medical Latin, ultimately from the Arabic الكحل (al-kuḥl, "the kohl, a powder used as an eyeliner").
ال al is Arabic for the definitive article, the in English.
The current Arabic name for alcohol is الكحول al-kuḥūl, re-introduced from western usage.
kuḥl was the name given to the very fine powder, produced by the sublimation of the natural mineral stibnite to form antimony sulfide Sb2S3 (hence the essence or "spirit" of the substance), which was used as an antiseptic and eyeliner.
Bartholomew Traheron in his 1543 translation of John of Vigo introduces the word as a term used by "barbarous" (Moorish) authors for "fine powder":
the barbarous auctours use alcohol, or (as I fynde it sometymes wryten) alcofoll, for moost fine poudre.
William Johnson in his 1657 Lexicon Chymicum glosses the word as antimonium sive stibium. By extension, the word came to refer to any fluid obtained by distillation, including "alcohol of wine", the distilled essence of wine. Libavius in Alchymia (1594) has vini alcohol vel vinum alcalisatum. Johnson (1657) glosses alcohol vini as quando omnis superfluitas vini a vino separatur, ita ut accensum ardeat donec totum consumatur, nihilque fæcum aut phlegmatis in fundo remaneat. The word's meaning became restricted to "spirit of wine" (ethanol) in the 18th century, and was again extended to the family of substances so called in modern chemistry from 1850.

Physical and chemical properties

Alcohols have an odor that is often described as “biting” and as “hanging” in the nasal passages.
The hydroxyl group generally makes the alcohol molecule polar. Those groups can form hydrogen bonds to one another and to other compounds (except in certain large molecules where the hydroxyl is protected by steric hindrance of adjacent groups[3]). This hydrogen bonding means that alcohols can be used as protic solvents. Two opposing solubility trends in alcohols are: the tendency of the polar OH to promote solubility in water, and of the carbon chain to resist it. .Thus, methanol, ethanol, and propanol are miscible in water because the hydroxyl group wins out over the short carbon chain.^ This dose of methanol is thus 20 mg from each can, while the EPA limit for drinking water is 7.8 mg daily.

^ [Thus, 600 mg aspartame gives 66 mg methanol, which is 8.5 times the EPA daily limit for drinking water of 7.8 mg daily methanol.

Butanol, with a four-carbon chain, is moderately soluble because of a balance between the two trends. Alcohols of five or more carbons (Pentanol and higher) are effectively insoluble in water because of the hydrocarbon chain's dominance. All simple alcohols are miscible in organic solvents.
Because of hydrogen bonding, alcohols tend to have higher boiling points than comparable hydrocarbons and ethers. The boiling point of the alcohol ethanol is 78.29 °C, compared to 69 °C for the hydrocarbon Hexane (a common constituent of gasoline), and 34.6 °C for Diethyl ether.
Alcohols, like water, can show either acidic or basic properties at the O-H group. With a pKa of around 16-19 they are generally slightly weaker acids than water, but they are still able to react with strong bases such as sodium hydride or reactive metals such as sodium. The salts that result are called alkoxides, with the general formula RO- M+.
Meanwhile the oxygen atom has lone pairs of nonbonded electrons that render it weakly basic in the presence of strong acids such as sulfuric acid. For example, with methanol:
Acidity & basicity of methanol
Alcohols can also undergo oxidation to give aldehydes, ketones or carboxylic acids, or they can be dehydrated to alkenes. They can react to form ester compounds, and they can (if activated first) undergo nucleophilic substitution reactions. The lone pairs of electrons on the oxygen of the hydroxyl group also makes alcohols nucleophiles. For more details see the reactions of alcohols section below.
As one moves from primary to secondary to tertiary alcohols with the same backbone, the hydrogen bond strength, the boiling point,and the acidity typically decrease.

Applications

Total recorded alcohol per capita consumption (15+), in litres of pure alcohol[4]
.Alcohols can be used as a beverage (ethanol only), as fuel and for many scientific, medical, and industrial utilities.^ The inhibitory effect is a linear function of the log of the ethyl alcohol concentration, with a 72% inhibition rate at only a 0.01 molar concentration of ethanol (2, 46).

^ When they present their original data relating to the methanol content of French wines (range 14-265 ppm) or when the methanol content of any alcoholic beverage is given, the ration of methanol to ethanol is also presented.

^ Aspartame is a widely used artificial sweetener added to many soft beverages and its usage is increasing in health-conscious societies.

.Ethanol in the form of alcoholic beverages has been consumed by humans since pre-historic times.^ An alcoholic consuming 1500 calories a day from alcoholic sources alone may consume between 0 and 600 mg of methanol each day depending on his choice of beverages (Table 1).

^ There is information "from highly reliable sources" that they frequently consumed aspartame in the form of both beverages and a tabletop sweetener.

^ When they present their original data relating to the methanol content of French wines (range 14-265 ppm) or when the methanol content of any alcoholic beverage is given, the ration of methanol to ethanol is also presented.

A 50% v/v solution of ethylene glycol in water is commonly used as an antifreeze.
Some alcohols, mainly ethanol and methanol, can be used as an alcohol fuel. Fuel performance can be increased in forced induction internal combustion engines by injecting alcohol into the air intake after the turbocharger or supercharger has pressurized the air. This cools the pressurized air, providing a denser air charge, which allows for more fuel, and therefore more power.
Alcohols have applications in industry and science as reagents or solvents. .Because of its low toxicity and ability to dissolve non-polar substances, ethanol can be used as a solvent in medical drugs, perfumes, and vegetable essences such as vanilla.^ But low doses of chemicals, because they are legally considered to be at negligible levels, have no such notification or labeling requirements.

In organic synthesis, alcohols serve as versatile intermediates.
Ethanol can be used as an antiseptic to disinfect the skin before injections are given, often along with iodine. .Ethanol-based soaps are becoming common in restaurants and are convenient because they do not require drying due to the volatility of the compound.^ But low doses of chemicals, because they are legally considered to be at negligible levels, have no such notification or labeling requirements.

Alcohol is also used as a preservative for specimens.
Alcohol gels have become common as hand sanitizers.

Production

Industrially alcohols are produced in several ways:

Endogenous

Several of the benign bacteria in the intestine use fermentation as a form of anaerobic respiration. .This metabolic reaction produces ethanol as a waste product, just like aerobic respiration produces carbon dioxide and water.^ This means the possibility of metabolism in the GI tract to methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid, and, finally, carbon dioxide and water, was bypassed.

.Thus, human bodies inevitably contain some quantity of alcohol endogenously produced by these bacteria.^ Methyl alcohol produces the Methyl alcohol syndrome, consistently , only in humans and no other test animal, including monkeys (42, 54).

Laboratory synthesis

Several methods exist for the preparation of alcohols in the laboratory.

Substitution

Primary alkyl halides react with aqueous NaOH or KOH mainly to primary alcohols in nucleophilic aliphatic substitution. (Secondary and especially tertiary alkyl halides will give the elimination (alkene) product instead). Grignard reagents react with carbonyl groups to secondary and tertiary alcohols. Related reactions are the Barbier reaction and the Nozaki-Hiyama reaction.

Reduction

Aldehydes or ketones are reduced with sodium borohydride or lithium aluminium hydride (after an acidic workup). Another reduction by aluminiumisopropylates is the Meerwein-Ponndorf-Verley reduction. Noyori asymmetric hydrogenation is the asymmetric reduction of β-keto-esters

Hydrolysis

Alkenes engage in an acid catalysed hydration reaction using concentrated sulfuric acid as a catalyst which gives usually secondary or tertiary alcohols. The hydroboration-oxidation and oxymercuration-reduction of alkenes are more reliable in organic synthesis. Alkenes react with NBS and water in halohydrin formation reaction. Amines can be converted to diazonium salts which are then hydrolyzed.
The formation of a secondary alcohol via reduction and hydration is shown:
Preparation of a secondary alcohol

Reactions

Deprotonation

Alcohols can behave as weak acids, undergoing deprotonation. The deprotonation reaction to produce an alkoxide salt is either performed with a strong base such as sodium hydride or n-butyllithium, or with sodium or potassium metal.
2 R-OH + 2 NaH → 2 R-O-Na+ + 2H2
2 R-OH + 2Na → 2R-ONa + H2
E.g. 2 CH3CH2-OH + 2 Na → 2 CH3-CH2-ONa + H2
Water is similar in pKa to many alcohols, so with sodium hydroxide there is an equilibrium set up which usually lies to the left:
R-OH + NaOH <=> R-O-Na+ + H2O (equilibrium to the left)
It should be noted, though, that the bases used to deprotonate alcohols are strong themselves. .The bases used and the alkoxides created are both highly moisture sensitive chemical reagents.^ In this vein, the patients complain of a sensitivity (both olfactory and respiratory) to environments containing low concentrations of HCHO and other chemicals.

The acidity of alcohols is also affected by the overall stability of the alkoxide ion. Electron-withdrawing groups attached to the carbon containing the hydroxyl group will serve to stabilize the alkoxide when formed, thus resulting in greater acidity. .On the other hand, the presence of electron-donating group will result in a less stable alkoxide ion formed.^ Although some forms of mercury are hazardous, the mercury in amalgam is chemically bound to the other metals to make it stable and therefore safe for use in dental applications.

This will result in a scenario whereby the unstable alkoxide ion formed will tend to accept a proton to reform the original alcohol.
With alkyl halides alkoxides give rise to ethers in the Williamson ether synthesis.

Nucleophilic substitution

The OH group is not a good leaving group in nucleophilic substitution reactions, so neutral alcohols do not react in such reactions. .However, if the oxygen is first protonated to give R−OH2+, the leaving group (water) is much more stable, and the nucleophilic substitution can take place.^ Most patients, however, give a history of 5 to 10 years of heavy drinking before the onset of the first attack (16).

For instance, tertiary alcohols react with hydrochloric acid to produce tertiary alkyl halides, where the hydroxyl group is replaced by a chlorine atom by unimolecular nucleophilic substitution. If primary or secondary alcohols are to be reacted with hydrochloric acid, an activator such as zinc chloride is needed. .Alternatively the conversion may be performed directly using thionyl chloride.^ [Not included in the totals of CRR reports, even though the content seems properly scientific, since the journal is decidedly "alternative", and may not use peer review.

[1]
Some simple conversions of alcohols to alkyl chlorides
Alcohols may likewise be converted to alkyl bromides using hydrobromic acid or phosphorus tribromide, for example:
3 R-OH + PBr3 → 3 RBr + H3PO3
In the Barton-McCombie deoxygenation an alcohol is deoxygenated to an alkane with tributyltin hydride or a trimethylborane-water complex in a radical substitution reaction.

Dehydration

Alcohols are themselves nucleophilic, so R−OH2+ can react with ROH to produce ethers and water in a dehydration reaction, although this reaction is rarely used except in the manufacture of diethyl ether.
More useful is the E1 elimination reaction of alcohols to produce alkenes. The reaction generally obeys Zaitsev's Rule, which states that the most stable (usually the most substituted) alkene is formed. Tertiary alcohols eliminate easily at just above room temperature, but primary alcohols require a higher temperature.
This is a diagram of acid catalysed dehydration of ethanol to produce ethene:
DehydrationOfAlcoholWithH-.png
A more controlled elimination reaction is the Chugaev elimination with carbon disulfide and iodomethane.

Esterification

To form an ester from an alcohol and a carboxylic acid the reaction, known as Fischer esterification, is usually performed at reflux with a catalyst of concentrated sulfuric acid:
R-OH + R'-COOH → R'-COOR + H2O
In order to drive the equilibrium to the right and produce a good yield of ester, water is usually removed, either by an excess of H2SO4 or by using a Dean-Stark apparatus. Esters may also be prepared by reaction of the alcohol with an acid chloride in the presence of a base such as pyridine.
Other types of ester are prepared similarly- for example tosyl (tosylate) esters are made by reaction of the alcohol with p-toluenesulfonyl chloride in pyridine.

Oxidation

.Primary alcohols (R-CH2-OH) can be oxidized either to aldehydes (R-CHO) or to carboxylic acids (R-CO2H), while the oxidation of secondary alcohols (R1R2CH-OH) normally terminates at the ketone (R1R2C=O) stage.^ Alcohol dehydrogenase is the primary enzyme for the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde, and this oxidation reaction is the rate-limiting step in the metabolism of methanol.

Tertiary alcohols (R1R2R3C-OH) are resistant to oxidation.
.The direct oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids normally proceeds via the corresponding aldehyde, which is transformed via an aldehyde hydrate (R-CH(OH)2) by reaction with water before it can be further oxidized to the carboxylic acid.^ Alcohol dehydrogenase is the primary enzyme for the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde, and this oxidation reaction is the rate-limiting step in the metabolism of methanol.

Mechanism of oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids via aldehydes and aldehyde hydrates
.Reagents useful for the transformation of primary alcohols to aldehydes are normally also suitable for the oxidation of secondary alcohols to ketones.^ Alcohol dehydrogenase is the primary enzyme for the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde, and this oxidation reaction is the rate-limiting step in the metabolism of methanol.

These include Collins reagent and Dess-Martin periodinane. .The direct oxidation of primary alcohols to carboxylic acids can be carried out using Potassium permanganate or the Jones reagent.^ Alcohol dehydrogenase is the primary enzyme for the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde, and this oxidation reaction is the rate-limiting step in the metabolism of methanol.

Toxicity

.
Most significant of the possible long-term effects of ethanol.
^ With the reduced demand for liquid fuel, it is possible that we could fuel most cars with the ethanol WE ALREADY PRODUCE...
  • John Stossel : The Many Myths of Ethanol - Townhall.com 27 January 2010 23:50 UTC townhall.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How the writer could have determined within one day that no one would suffer any long-term or irreversible adverse effects was not explained.

^ Most importantly, delocalization effects are corrected so that ; artifact-free imaging of the perimeter of a sample is possible.
  • Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft Berlin 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.fhi-berlin.mpg.de [Source type: Academic]

Additionally, in pregnant women, it causes fetal alcohol syndrome.
.Ethanol in alcoholic beverages has been consumed by humans since prehistoric times for a variety of hygienic, dietary, medicinal, religious, and recreational reasons.^ When they present their original data relating to the methanol content of French wines (range 14-265 ppm) or when the methanol content of any alcoholic beverage is given, the ration of methanol to ethanol is also presented.

^ An alcoholic consuming 1500 calories a day from alcoholic sources alone may consume between 0 and 600 mg of methanol each day depending on his choice of beverages (Table 1).

.The consumption of large doses of ethanol causes drunkenness (intoxication), which may lead to a hangover as its effects wear off.^ (In addition, the mixtures of these chemicals which bioaccumulate within an organism in low doses may have toxic effects many times those of any one chemical.

^ This high ethanol to methanol ratio, even at these low ethanol concentrations, may have some protective effect.

^ The letters also tell the Bushes to get off the drugs as soon as possible since they may have side effects such as procainemide, which slows the heart beat.

Depending upon the dose and the regularity of its consumption, ethanol can cause acute respiratory failure or death. Because ethanol impairs judgment in humans, it can be a catalyst for reckless or irresponsible behavior. The LD50 of ethanol in rats is 10.3 g/kg.[6]
.Other alcohols are substantially more poisonous than ethanol, partly because they take much longer to be metabolized and partly because their metabolism produces substances that are even more toxic.^ Everything, even water, they say, is toxic in some dose.

^ METHANOL Methanol (methyl alcohol, wood alcohol), a poisonous substance (60), is added as a component during the manufacture of aspartame (47).

^ Although methanol itself is not highly toxic, it is metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenase to formaldehyde and subsequently to formic acid (Fig.

.Methanol (wood alcohol), for instance, is oxidized to formaldehyde and then to the poisonous formic acid in the liver by alcohol dehydrogenase and formaldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes respectively; accumulation of formic acid can lead to blindness or death.^ The inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase is fundamental to the treatment of methanol poisoning.

^ In the body, methanol is oxidized to formaldehyde and formic acid; both of these metabolites are toxic."

^ Formaldehyde was detected only in the blood of Monkey B, while formate was found in 8 and 10, respectively, of the 10 fluid and tissue samples in Monkeys B and C. For instance, the lowest value of formate, except for zero-time blood, for each monkey was in the midbrain, 2.16 mmol/kg for Monkey B (24 times the detection limit for the chromatropic acid method) and 1.02 mmol/kg (1.3 times the detection for the dimedon method) for Monkey C. This shows accumulation of formate in liver, kidney, optic nerve, cerebrum, and midbrain.

[7] .Similarly poisoning due to other alcohols such as ethylene glycol or diethylene glycol are due to their metabolites which are also produced by alcohol dehydrogenase.^ Methyl alcohol produces the Methyl alcohol syndrome, consistently , only in humans and no other test animal, including monkeys (42, 54).

^ The inhibition of alcohol dehydrogenase is fundamental to the treatment of methanol poisoning.

^ We performed a multicenter study to evaluate fomepizole, an inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase, in the treatment of patients with methanol poisoning.

[8][9] .An effective treatment to prevent toxicity after methanol or ethylene glycol ingestion is to administer ethanol.^ However, soon after ingestion by a creature, its 11% methanol component is released and quickly metabolized into the potent, cumulative, mutagenic toxicants, formaldehyde and formic acid.

^ ETHANOL AND FOLIC ACID The importance of ethanol as an antidote to methanol toxicity in humans is very well established in the literature (46, 55).

^ Ethanol, the classic antidote for methanol toxicity, is found in natural food sources of methanol at concentrations 5 to 500,000 times that of the toxin (Table 1).

.Alcohol dehydrogenase has a higher affinity for ethanol, thus preventing methanol from binding and acting as a substrate.^ Alcoholic polyneuropathy (36) or multiple peripheral neuritis (21) differs symptomatically from the methanol induced syndrome only in its first and often exclusive affinity for legs.

^ When they present their original data relating to the methanol content of French wines (range 14-265 ppm) or when the methanol content of any alcoholic beverage is given, the ration of methanol to ethanol is also presented.

^ However, remember this is not drinking alcohol, but methanol (wood alcohol) -- thus his complaints about his vision and his memory.

.Any remaining methanol will then have time to be excreted through the kidneys.^ Ethanol inhibits metabolism of methanol and allows the body time for clearance of the toxin through the lungs and kidneys (40, 46).

[7][10][11]
.Methanol itself, while poisonous, has a much weaker sedative effect than ethanol.^ This high ethanol to methanol ratio, even at these low ethanol concentrations, may have some protective effect.

^ The timely administration of ethanol is still considered a vital part of methanol poisoning management (11, 12, 19, 20, 50).

^ Of the wines they tested, the ratio associated with the highest methanol content (265 ppm) indicates over 262 times as much ethanol present as methanol.

.Some longer-chain alcohols such as n-propanol, isopropanol, n-butanol, t-butanol and 2-methyl-2-butanol do however have stronger sedative effects, but also have higher toxicity than ethanol.^ Unfortunately, the records documenting these chemical dispersals sometimes disappear or are lost, so that the toxicants remaining in an environment can last much longer than their records.

^ The minimum lethal dose of methanol in the rat, rabbit, and dog is 9, 5, 7, and 8 g/kg, respectively (43); ethyl alcohol is more toxic than methanol to these test animals (43).

^ Alcoholics have a much higher incidence of cancer and other degenerative diseases, none of which can be attributed to ethanol alone (56).

[12][13] .These longer chain alcohols are found as contaminants in some alcoholic beverages and are known as fusel alcohols,[14][15] and are reputed to cause severe hangovers although it is unclear if the fusel alcohols are actually responsible.^ According to FDA regulations, compounds added to foods that are found to cause some adverse health effect at a particular usage level are actually permitted in foods only at much lower levels.

^ Even habitual leg crossing is found to be a cause of serious problems for some patients, and also aerobic exercise.

^ Alcoholics may average much more, with a potential range of between 0 and 600 mg/day, depending on the source and in some cases the quality of their beverages (15).

[16] .Many longer chain alcohols are used in industry as solvents and are occasionally abused by alcoholics,[17][18] leading to a range of adverse health effects.^ If formaldehyde were to somehow stay locked in those products it might not result in adverse human health effects, but it does not stay locked in.

^ Before we do that, however, we will, in Chapter One, look at the array of adverse human health effects associated with exposure to environmental toxicants.

^ We will instead be more concerned with the long-term adverse health effects that people might experience as a result of such an exposure.

[19]

Occurrence in nature

Alcohol has been found outside the Solar system. It can be found in low densities in star and planetary system forming regions of space.
See

See also

References

  1. ^ Vale A (2007). "Methanol". Medicine 35 (12): 633–4. doi:10.1016/j.mpmed.2007.09.014. 
  2. ^ a b William Reusch. "Alcohols". VirtualText of Organic Chemistry. http://www.cem.msu.edu/~reusch/VirtualText/alcohol1.htm#alcnom. Retrieved 2007-09-14. 
  3. ^ Irena Majerza, Ireneusz Natkaniec (2006), ' Experimental and theoretical IR, R, and INS spectra of 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-3-t-butyl-pentane-3-ol Journal of Molecular Structure, Volume 788, Issues 1-3, Pages 93-101 {{doi:10.1016/j.molstruc.2005.11.022}}
  4. ^ Global Status Report on Alcohol 2004
  5. ^ Lodgsdon, J.E. (1994). "Ethanol." In J.I. Kroschwitz (Ed.) .Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology, 4th ed. vol.^ Kirk-Othmer encyclopedia of chemical technology,; 3rd ed.
    • Methanol (EHC 196, 1997) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The Merck index: An encyclopedia of chemicals,; drugs and biologicals, 10th ed.
    • Methanol (EHC 196, 1997) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Encyclopedia of ; chemical technology, 3rd ed., New York, Wiley Interscience.
    • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    9, p. 820. New York: John Wiley & Sons.
  6. ^ Robert S. Gable (2004). "Comparison of acute lethal toxicity of commonly abused psychoactive substances" (reprint). Addiction 99 (6): 686–696. doi:10.1111/j.1360-0443.2004.00744.x. http://web.cgu.edu/faculty/gabler/toxicity%20Addiction%20offprint.pdf. 
  7. ^ a b Schep LJ, Slaughter RJ, Vale JA, Beasley DM (Sep 30 2009). "A seaman with blindness and confusion". BMJ 339: b3929. doi:10.1136/bmj.b3929. PMID 19793790. http://www.bmj.com/cgi/content/full/339/sep30_1/b3929. 
  8. ^ Brent J (May 2009). "Fomepizole for ethylene glycol and methanol poisoning". N. Engl. J. Med. 360 (21): 2216–23. doi:10.1056/NEJMct0806112. ISSN 0028-4793. PMID 19458366. 
  9. ^ Schep LJ, Slaughter RJ, Temple WA, Beasley DM (July 2009). "Diethylene glycol poisoning". Clin Toxicol (Phila) 47 (6): 525–35. doi:10.1080/15563650903086444. ISSN 1556-3650. PMID 19586352. 
  10. ^ Zimmerman HE, Burkhart KK, Donovan JW. Ethylene glycol and methanol poisoning: diagnosis and treatment. Journal of Emergency Nursing. 1999 Apr;25(2):116-20. PMID 10097201
  11. ^ Lobert S. Ethanol, isopropanol, methanol, and ethylene glycol poisoning. Critical Care Nurse. 2000 December;20(6):41-7. PMID 11878258
  12. ^ McKee M, Suzcs S, Sárváry A, Adany R, Kiryanov N, Saburova L, Tomkins S, Andreev E, Leon DA. The composition of surrogate alcohols consumed in Russia. Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research. 2005 October;29(10):1884-8. PMID 16269919
  13. ^ Bunc M, Pezdir T, Mozina H, Mozina M, Brvar M. Butanol ingestion in an airport hangar. Human and Experimental Toxicology. 2006 Apr;25(4):195-7. PMID 16696295
  14. ^ Woo KL. Determination of low molecular weight alcohols including fusel oil in various samples by diethyl ether extraction and capillary gas chromatography. Journal of AOAC International. 2005 September-October;88(5):1419-27. PMID 16385992
  15. ^ Lachenmeier DW, Haupt S, Schulz K. Defining maximum levels of higher alcohols in alcoholic beverages and surrogate alcohol products. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology. 2008 Apr;50(3):313-21. PMID 18295386
  16. ^ Hori H, Fujii W, Hatanaka Y, Suwa Y. Effects of fusel oil on animal hangover models. Alcohol Clinical and Experimental Research. 2003 Aug;27(8 Suppl):37S-41S. PMID 12960505
  17. ^ Wiernikowski A, Piekoszewski W, Krzyzanowska-Kierepka E, Gomułka E. Acute oral poisoning with isopropyl alcohol in alcoholics. (Polish) Przeglad Lekarski. 1997;54(6):459-63. PMID 9333902
  18. ^ Mańkowski W, Klimaszyk D, Krupiński B. How to differentiate acute isopropanol poisoning from ethanol intoxication? -- a case report. (Polish) Przeglad Lekarski 2000;57(10):588-90. PMID 11199895
  19. ^ Bogomolova IN, Bukeshov MK, Bogomolov DV. The forensic medical diagnosis of intoxication of alcohol surrogates by morphological findings. (Russian) Sudebno Meditsinskaia Ekspertiza. 2004 September-October;47(5):22-5. PMID 15523882

Bibliography

  • Metcalf, Allan A. (1999). The World in So Many Words. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 0395959209. 

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Alcoholic beverages article)

From Wikiquote

.This entry should contain ONLY quotes about alcohol in general; quotes about beer or wine specifically should go in those respective entries.^ A liquor license, wine permit, or a beer permit may only be; transferred within the boundaries of the local authority which approved the; license or permit.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ THE; CONDITION OF THIS OBLIGATION IS SUCH, That whereas, the Principal has made; application for either a class “A” beer permit, class “A” wine permit, or a; class “F” beer permit to be issued by the Alcoholic Beverages Division.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Kent Old Brown (Carlton & United, Victoria): an odd little sharp bitterness, a sharpness that I would associate with high alcohol content but the beer is only 4.4%.

.An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol — although in chemistry the definition of alcohol includes many other compounds.^ Any other form or; means of identification that indicates or symbolizes that the person is not; prohibited from purchasing or possessing alcoholic beverages under this; section.

^ A malt beverage produced under this; subdivision may not contain more than six percent (6%) alcohol by volume.

^ Prohibit or regulate; advertising by on‑premises permittees of brands or prices of alcoholic; beverages via newspapers, radio, television, and other mass media; .

.Alcoholic beverages are divided into three general classes: beers, wines, and spirits.^ Class “F” beer permit (beer and wine wholesale) .
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Prohibited; storage of alcoholic beverages and wine .
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Prohibited storage of alcoholic; beverages and wine.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Sourced

.
  • Woe unto them that rise up early in the morning, that they may follow strong drink; that continue until night, till wine inflame them!^ B. People only end up in Hell because they'd rather be their own gods rather than repent, accept God's forgiveness, and follow His will.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A county may; adopt an ordinance prohibiting, in the parts of the county outside any city,; the retail sale of malt beverages, unfortified wine, and fortified wine during; any or all of the hours from 12:00 Noon on Sunday until 7:00 A.M. on the; following Monday.

    ^ An applicant for a new alcoholic beverages license or; permit may not sell alcoholic liquor, wine or beer in the proposed; establishment until a license or permit has been granted by the division.
    • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • There's nought, no doubt, so much the spirit calms as rum and true religion.^ God is responsible for the fact that we have Freewill but this is not a fault, but an essential feature of our design (and indeed the design of the universe) since without Freewill there can be no true love.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ However there is one subject where I feel it almost impossible to reconcile the Bible with science: Genesis 1 to 11 with the Theory of Evolution.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There's no doubt that this reaction, although perhaps possible in principle, is most unlikely.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • Oh many a peer of England brews
    Livelier liquor than the Muse,
    And malt does more than Milton can
    To justify God's ways to man.^ La Gallante (Schoune): a maple beer, although it reminded me more of caramel than of maple syrup; pleasant in a dessertish way, not very beery.

    ^ "Malt; beverage" means beer, lager, malt liquor, ale, porter, and any other; brewed or fermented beverage except unfortified or fortified wine as defined by; this Chapter, containing at least one‑half of one percent (0.5%), and not; more than fifteen percent (15%), alcohol by volume.

    ^ A malt beverage produced under this; subdivision may not contain more than six percent (6%) alcohol by volume.

Unsourced

I drink when I have occasion, and sometimes when I have no occasion. ~ Miguel de Cervantes, Don Quixote
  • All excess is ill, but drunkenness is of the worst sort. It spoils health, dismounts the mind, and unmans men. It reveals secrets, is quarrelsome, lascivious, impudent, dangerous and mad. He that is drunk is not a man, because he is, for so long, void of reason that distinguishes a man from a beast.
  • Some of the domestic evils of drunkenness are houses without windows, gardens without fences, fields without tillage, barns without roofs, children without clothing, principles, morals or manners.
  • Drunkenness is the vice of a good constitution or of a bad memory—of a constitution so treacherously good that it never bends till it breaks; or of a memory that recollects the pleasures of getting intoxicated, but forgets the pains of getting sober. .
  • It were better for a man to be subject to any vice, than to drunkenness: for all other vanities and sins are recovered, but a drunkard will never shake off the delight of beastliness.^ After all chaotic dynamics itself is a relatively new area and is much better understood now than 30 years ago.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The New Testament has far better textual evidence than any other book from antiquity, with at least 10x as many manuscripts and quotations than anything else.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There are huge philosophical consequences if man has evolved rather than created, not least the death and destruction in the world prior to original sin.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • Man has evil as well as good qualities peculiar to himself.^ Or does limited Omniscience only apply to man after he became self aware and capable of good/evil?
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ How an otherwise intellgent man like Stephen Weinberg can say that without religion, 'you'd have good people doing good things and evil people doing evil things.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    Drunkenness places him as much below the level of the brutes as reason elevates him above them. .
  • Of all vices take heed of drunkenness; other vices are but fruits of disordered affections—this disorders, nay, banishes reason; other vices but impair the soul—this demolishes her two chief faculties, the understanding and the will; other vices make their own way—this makes way for all vices; he that is a drunkard is qualified for all vice.^ The best way to make sure that everything is all right is to display grob solid and check the lighting.
    • ICM Language Reference : Functions 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.molsoft.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ It is possible that Stenger denies the existence of minds - after all as Plantinga famously argues the reasons for believing in God are of much the same strength as those for believing in other Minds.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This understanding of God in no way dodges theodicy: God is ultimately responsible for the Holcaust, for children suffering, for all pain and distress.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

  • There is scarcely a crime before me that is not directly or indirectly caused by strong drink. .
  • Beware of drunkenness, lest all good men beware of thee; where drunkenness reigns, there reason is an exile, virtue a stranger, God an enemy; blasphemy is wit, oaths are rhetoric, and secrets are proclamations.^ But there is no reason whatsoever for thus categorising the God in whom Wiles ande I believe.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There are excellent reasons to do with freewill why God does not do this.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The view of God knowing the whole of temporal history 'all at once', which you sketch, has had many supporters, including Augustine and Aquinas, so you are in good company.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

  • The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy says that the effect of a Pan Galactic Gargle Blaster is like having your brains smashed out by a slice of lemon wrapped round a large gold brick.^ Response from questioner : Thank you for your considered reply.You say that if I assume that God doesn't exist then I will automatically rule out the possibility of the resurrection.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Say brane theory pans out, or there is some scientific way (I know I am speaking in extremes) of proving the multiple universe theory.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If the system is sufficiently complex (far below the complexity of the brain say) then there will be situations where the effects of such uncertainties, however tiny, will grow exponentially.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

  • Here's what the Encyclopedia Galactica has to say about alcohol. .It says that alcohol is a colourless volatile liquid formed by the fermentation of sugars and also notes its intoxicating effect on certain carbon-based life forms.^ In man, the most likely acute effects of exposure to high ; levels of 2-propanol by ingestion or inhalation are alcoholic ; intoxication and narcosis.
    • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ ZINBO, M. (1984) Determination of one-carbon to three-carbon ; alcohols and water in gasoline/alcohol blends by liquid ; chromatography.
    • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The base catalysts are highly hygroscopic and they form chemical water when dissolved in the ; alcohol reactant.
    • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

    .
  • One reason I don't drink is that I want to know when I'm having a good time.^ For whatever reasons, and probably very > good ones, he is a lone ranger.

    ^ One day we might know how God works, we learn more everyday, but I don't know that we can learn on our own - ever - why.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Having challenged me to find a Christian physicist, he also wants me to account for how humans can have free will and have a God that is omniscient at the same time.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    • Nancy Astor
  • The problem with the world is that everyone is a few drinks behind. .
  • It only takes one drink to get me drunk-- I can just never remember if its the eighth or ninth.^ Firsly, one must remember that cosmologists are "often in error but never in doubt" - I think that's unfair to Linde BTW because he understands that his theories are speculative and provisional.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

  • What's drinking? A mere pause from thinking!
    • Lord Byron, The Deformed Transformed
  • When I sell liquor, it's bootlegging. When my customers serve it on Lake Shore Drive, it's hospitality.
  • I drink when I have occasion, and sometimes when I have no occasion. .
  • The last time I seen my father, he was blind in the cedars from drinking.^ I’ve seen similar questions on this forum, but they don’t really answer my question.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    .And every time he put the bottle to his mouth, he don't suck out of it, it sucks out of him...^ This provision may be used only three years; out of every 10 years and notice must be given to the Commission each time this; provision is used; .

    ^ This time it was in a bottle rather than in a can, and was straight out of a fridge.

  • I drink too much. Way too much. I gave a urine sample, there was an olive in it.
  • My family was a bunch of drunks. .When I was six I came up missing, they put my picture on a bottle of scotch.^ I put a piece of wood along the side of the scanner bed and keep the bottom of the bottle up against it.

    ^ I bought a case of six to take back to D&D, and some time later they brought a case when they came to Montréal.

  • The prestige of government has undoubtedly been lowered considerably by the prohibition law. .For nothing is more destructive of respect for the government and the law of the land than passing laws which cannot be enforced.^ At these 2 ; sites, used for the disposal of domestic waste, the 2-propanol ; concentrations were 17 mg/m 3 and more than 46 mg/m 3 , respectively ; [288].
    • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The minimum lethal dose of methanol in the rat, rabbit, and dog is 9, 5, 7, and 8 g/kg, respectively (43); ethyl alcohol is more toxic than methanol to these test animals (43).

    ^ Preliminary response: Thoughts cannot be any more material than software - and if two persons can have the same thought in different places then the thoughts can hardly be material!
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    It is an open secret that the dangerous increase of crime in this country is closely connected with this. .
  • Bacchus hath drowned more men than Neptune.^ In a subgroup of 71 men, who ; had been employed for more than 5 years, 7 cases of cancer were ; observed: 4 cancers of the paranasal sinuses, 1 lung carcinoma, 1 ; laryngeal carcinoma, and 1 laryngeal papilloma.
    • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The first, "Difficult Diagnosis: A Guide to the Interpretation of Obscure Illness (W.B. Saunders Company, 1958), has been used by more than 60,000 physicians in the United States.

    ^ India Pale Ale (Alchimiste): this was the first time I'd seen it in a small bottle, and my impression was of a smaller taste than when I've had it before, not such a grapefruity bitterness.

    .
  • My manager told me, Mitch, don't use alcohol as a crutch.^ My impression is that QM WORKS, and that because of this, many phyicists don't worry about the philosophical implications and just use it.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    .I can't use alcohol as a crutch because a crutch is something that helps me walk.^ Kennedy had trouble walking, and had to use crutches.

    ^ When using higher ; alcohols, if ester/glycerol separation is a problem, adding methanol can help encourage the ; separation.
    • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ An unusual taste that takes some getting used to: an initial powerful alcoholic sensation with an aftertaste of something like burnt toast.

    Alcohol severely fucks up the way I walk. It's more like the step I didn't see.
  • Always do sober what you said you'd do drunk. That will teach you to keep your mouth shut. .
  • Well I ain't seen my baby since I don't know when,
    I've been drinking bourbon whiskey, scotch and gin
    Gonna get high man I'm gonna get loose,
    Need me a triple shot of that juice
    Gonna get drunk don't you have no fear
    I want one bourbon, one scotch and one beer
    One bourbon, one scotch, one beer.^ Just before leaving at the end of my third visit, I saw two beer T-shirts: ‘Beer: Helping ugly people get laid since 1869’ and (on an older man) ‘Life is too short to drink cheap beer’.

    ^ If I'm correct in my feeling that most do not opt for one or the other, how is this data seen generally amongst scientists?
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It certainly seems possible that there is intelligent life on other planets, but there are some quite powerful arguments against this as well – we just don’t know.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • The sway of alcohol over mankind is unquestionably due to its power to stimulate the mystical faculties of human nature.^ Sans Nom (La Mare Au Diable): very strong beer (13%) with a powerful smell of alcohol, a heavy body and a flavour that (in the one sip of DF's glass that I tasted) reminded me of sherry.

    ^ No one, including licensee, permittee, and employees can; consume beer, wine, or alcoholic beverages in their licensed establishment; during hours which beer, wine, and alcoholic beverages cannot be sold.
    • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Lucas’s Theorem (due to John Lucas ) proves that, if some human minds are capable, in principle, with the aid of a sufficiently powerful computer, of understanding a Gödel Proposition in any deterministic logical system, then at least those minds cannot be completely modeled by any deterministic logical system.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • William James, Varieties of Religious Experience, Chapter: Mysticism
  • If we take habitual drunkards as a class, their heads and their hearts will bear an advantageous comparison with those of any other class.^ His idea that mystical or religious experiences should lead to empirically testable knowledge is again rather laughable.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I can only tell you from my experience that some things are long term, others seem to diminish with time and taking care of oneself.

    ^ In other words, religious people offer their time, money and resources into a system that does not provide an obvious adaptive advantage.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    .There seems ever to have been a proneness in the brilliant and warm-blooded to fall in to this vice.^ However, there seems to be every indication of evil in the animal kingdom that pre-dates the fall eg animals preying on each other, killing each other viciously etc.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    The demon of intemperance ever seems to have delighted in sucking the blood of genius and generosity. .
    • Abraham Lincoln, Address to the Washington Temperance Society, Springfield, Illinois, 22 February (1842).
  • When alchemists first learned how to distill spirits, they called it aqua vitae, the water of life, and far from considering it the work of the devil, they thought the discovery was divinely inspired.^ They can of course inspire us: we can’t help them in any way except through prayer and of course only God knows how and to what extent this “works”.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It is now clear that the genome tells us far less about how the human body works than was at first supposed and that the expression of genes into physiololgy is enormously complex and very poorly understood.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I know that it is addressed in the book I mentioned, and I suppose I could reread that part and try to digest it, but as it didn't quite take the first time, I thought I would seek an authoritative audience for my own musings, such as they are.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

  • I feel sorry for people who don't drink. .They must have that morning feeling all the time.^ All holders of a; vintner’s certificate of compliance must register with the division the labels; on all wines they wish to distribute for sale in the state.
    • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Storage stability - Method to be determined ; All fuels are subject to degradation over time when they are stored.
    • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The hazard properties and recommended methods of handling each ; compound are included in the MSDS. All employees must be familiar with the chemicals that ; they are working with and must follow the recommendations for their handling, use and disposal.
    • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

    • Dean Martin
  • If you drink, don't drive. Don't even putt.
    • Dean Martin
  • You are not drunk if you can lie on the floor without holding on.
    • Dean Martin
  • I'll stick with gin. Champagne is just ginger ale that knows somebody.
    • M*A*S*H, (spoken by Hawkeye), Ceasefire (1973).
  • Never cry over spilt milk. It could've been whiskey.
  • The chief reason for drinking is the desire to behave in a certain way, and to be able to blame it on alcohol. .
  • The harsh, useful things of the world, from pulling teeth to digging potatoes, are best done by men who are as starkly sober as so many convicts in the death-house, but the lovely and useless things, the charming and exhilarating things, are best done by men with, as the phrase is, a few sheets in the wind.^ I doubt you'll find many historians (if any) who will place the blame for either world war on a lack of belief.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

  • Candy is dandy
    But liquor is quicker. .
  • An abstainer is the sort of man you wouldn't want to drink with even if he did.^ I thought my words on Wednesday evening were a contribution to just such a discussion If they did not seem so to you, I am both puzzled and regretful.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ So if you want to be a rational person and accepts the results of rational inquiry into nature, then we must accept the fact that God did not cause the universe to exist.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Couldn't you say that everybody should drink lots of ice cream sodas and coke?

  • Being hungover is like winning the lottery, only they pay you in regret.^ I thought my words on Wednesday evening were a contribution to just such a discussion If they did not seem so to you, I am both puzzled and regretful.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But if you point this out to the atheist they will counter with something like this: 4 .
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Like the internists who diagnose MS instead of you know what-- that is how they make their money...

  • When we drink, we get drunk. When we get drunk, we fall asleep. When we fall asleep, we commit no sin. When we commit no sin, we go to heaven. Sooooo, let's all get drunk and go to heaven!
    • Brian O'Rourke
  • It is most absurdly said, in popular language, of any man, that he is disguised in liquor; for, on the contrary, most men are disguised by sobriety.
  • To alcohol: the cause of --- and solution to --- all of life's problems.^ However, excess alcohol can ; cause problems with separation of the esters and glycerol.
    • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

    .
  • I feel sorry for people who don't drink.^ In fact, I am nearly certain that people who have headaches that are made worse by aspartame shouldn't drink it.

    .When they wake up in the morning, that's as good as they're going to feel all day.^ It may well be that our subjective experience will be that we “asleep in Christ” and then we wake up on that great Day.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

  • Alcohol is the answer... What was the question?
  • If when you say 'whiskey' you mean the devil's brew, the poison scourge, the bloody monster that defiles innocence, dethrones reason... then I am certainly against it. But, if when you say 'whiskey' you mean the oil of conversation, the philosophic wine... the drink that enables a man to magnify his joy... then I am certainly for it. This is my stand. I will not retreat from it. I will not compromise. .
  • It is all well and good for children and acid freaks to still believe in Santa Claus — but it is still a profoundly morbid day for us working professionals.^ After all they could well be milliennia ahead of us technologically.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Everything else, all arguments pointing to something mysterious, something not yet discovered, something science has overlooked or cannot explain may well be explained one day.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ What we do know is that He interacts like a loving father, respecting the autonomy of his children but always working for their ultimate good.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    .It is unsettling to know that one out of every twenty people you meet on Xmas will be dead this time next year...^ I've had this many times before, the first time being at lunch with people from work a few years ago, but this is the first time I've described it here.

    Some people can accept this, and some can't. That is why God made whiskey, and also why Wild Turkey comes in $300 shaped canisters during most of the Christmas season. .
  • I wouldn't recommend drugs, alcohol, violence, or insanity for everyone, but they've always worked for me.^ The hazard properties and recommended methods of handling each ; compound are included in the MSDS. All employees must be familiar with the chemicals that ; they are working with and must follow the recommendations for their handling, use and disposal.
    • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

  • Of the demonstrably wise there are but two: those who commit suicide, and those who keep their reasoning faculties atrophied by drink.
  • When I read about the evils of drinking, I gave up reading.^ I heard about the Irenean theodicy (but haven’t read about it) which suggest all Evil in the world will be ‘transformed’ into eternal Good for all creation.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

  • My grandmother is over eighty and still doesn't need glasses. Drinks right out of the bottle.
  • Oh brother, be a brother, fill this tiny cup of mine. And please, sir, make it whiskey: I have no head for wine!
  • Worf: Romulan ale should be illegal
Geordi: It is
    • Star Trek: Nemesis
  • The wine-cup is glad! Dear Zenophile's lip
    It boasts to have touched when she stooped down to sip.
    Happy wine-cup! .I wish that, with lips joined to mine,
    All my soul at a draught she would drink up like wine.
    ^ He that would shine, and petrify his tutor, Should drink draught Allsopp in its "native pewter."

    ^ Chaotic Inflation Redemption for All - follow-up Predesitination Binitarianism Miracles - Water into Wine?
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A computer would likely seem nothing less than divine to my ancestors, for example.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Acilius
  • When I think of all the people I respect the most, you're right there, serving them drinks.^ Do you think there's still the possiblity of God's existence in multiple universes?
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I also tend to think of miracles - if there are miracles at all - as restricted to humanly-mediated healings, and discount other miracle stories as mythical or folkloric, etc.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ On tap at Het Elfde Gebod; there was no-one drinking inside, and a small number of people on the terrace; a small musical interlude from the carillon added to the enjoyment.

    • Scott Adams
  • When you drink, don't drive. Don't even putt.
    • Dean Martin
  • You're not drunk if you can lie on the floor without holding on. .
    • Dean Martin
  • I feel sorry for people who don't drink.^ In fact, I am nearly certain that people who have headaches that are made worse by aspartame shouldn't drink it.

    .When they wake up in the morning, that's as good as they're going to feel all day.^ It may well be that our subjective experience will be that we “asleep in Christ” and then we wake up on that great Day.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    • Frank Sinatra
  • R-e-m-o-r-s-e,
    Those dry Martinis were too much for me.
    .Last night I really felt immense,
    To-day I feel like thirty cents;
    It is no time for mirth and laughter
    In the cold gray dawn of the morning after.
    ^ Stay away from any known allergens (seems like a no brainer) º Irrigate your nasal passage with warm saline water 3 times a day.

    ^ However before the creation of the Universe there were no clocks so the concept of “an infinite time before” creation does not really apply.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Be made at the earliest possible time and no less; than three days before the hearing except for a good cause showing; .
    • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • George Ade
  • The horse and mule live thirty years
    And nothing know of wines and beers;
    The goat and sheep at twenty die,
    With never a taste of scotch or rye;
    The cow drinks water by the ton,
    And at eighteen is mostly done.^ Persons 16 years of; age and older may sell beer and wine in off–premises beer and wine; establishments.
    • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Any person pouring wine at a wine tasting shall; be at least 21 years of age.

    ^ Possess wines; manufactured during the viticulture/enology program for the purpose of; conducting wine‑tasting seminars and classes for students who are 21; years of age or older.


    .Without the aid of rum or gin
    The dog at fifteen cashes in;
    The cat in milk and water soaks,
    And then at twelve years old it croaks;
    The modest, sober, bone-dry hen
    Lays eggs for nogs and dies at ten;
    All animals are strictly dry;
    They sinless live and swiftly die,
    While sinful, gleeful, rum-soaked men
    Survive for three score years and ten.
    ^ A 59-year-old female writer underwent two partial thyroidectomies for Graves disease three decades previously, and then received radioiodine therapy.

    ^ In addition to teaching regular philosophy courses, I had been teaching courses in medical ethics and HIV/AIDS for approximately ten years and was enjoying it.

    ^ The Extra Old (2–3 years) was smooth, dry, flavourful but not too sharp.


    And some of us - a mighty few -
    Stay pickled 'till we're ninety-two.
    • Harlan Fiske Stone, reported in Alpheus Thomas Mason, Harlan Fiske Stone, Pillar of the Law (1956), p. 731.
  • Drink is the curse of the land. .It makes you fight with your neighbour.^ "And when you clap, take your gloves off — it makes a better sound."

    .It makes you shoot at your landlord and it makes you miss him.^ "And when you clap, take your gloves off — it makes a better sound."

    ^ Well, you can lead a horse to water, but you can't make him drink.

    • Irish proverb

W. C. Fields

  • Everybody has to believe in something... .I believe I'll have another drink.
  • Christmas at my house is always at least six or seven times more pleasant than anywhere else.^ The formaldehyde dose would temporarily be about 67 times more than the lowest level of 1 mmol/L that Oyama found hurt rat cells.

    ^ A malt beverage produced under this; subdivision may not contain more than six percent (6%) alcohol by volume.

    ^ By the time he goes to bed again half a dozen or more of the sticky drinks will have been sluiced down.

    We start drinking early. And while everyone else is seeing only one Santa Claus, we'll be seeing six or seven.
  • Once ... in the wilds of Afghanistan, I lost my corkscrew, and we were forced to live on nothing but food and water for days.
  • How well I remember my first encounter with The Devil's Brew.^ Let me give my preliminary answer to the underlying question - but John may well offer a rather different point of view.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    .I happened to stumble across a case of bourbon— and went right on stumbling for several days thereafter.
  • I certainly do not drink all the time.^ Parties have the right to participate or to be; represented in all hearings related to their case.
    • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ She developed severe depression and visual problems for the first time within two weeks after consuming 8-10 glasses of an aspartame drink daily.

    ^ Williams ; Laboratory Services) are available that can analyze the samples but the cost is $100-$150/test ; and the time required may be several days.
    • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

    I have to sleep you know.
  • I exercise extreme self control. I never drink anything stronger than gin before breakfast.
  • More people are driven insane through religious hysteria than by drinking alcohol.
  • The cost of living has gone up another dollar a quart.
  • Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's house unless they have a well-stocked bar.
  • When life hands you lemons, make whisky sours.
  • Always carry a flagon of whiskey in case of snake bite, and furthermore, always carry a small snake.

Attributed

.
  • They don't want us to drink and drive, but you need a drivers license to buy alcohol and why do bars have parking lots?^ If you want to get credibility, then the last thing > you need is to talk about how discredible you are.

    ^ Of course "defender" won't be impressed by this, but he needs to take the general point that you don't refute someone's position by refuting something that they are not saying .
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Group 3: Not enough alcohol (Why should I use more than the reaction needs?
    • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

    .Bob and Tom in the Morning.
  • You know you have a drinking problem when the bartender knows your name.^ "But if you're a sodium glutamate junkie, then you could potentially run into problems with your retina," he said.

    And you've never been to that bar before.
  • Have you ever been so drunk you wet the bed? Not even sleeping, just standing over, pissing on it?
  • I don't have a drinking problem. I drink, I get drunk, I fall down. No problem! .
  • The only alcohol problem I have is not having any.
  • Wine goes with wine and the two should never part.
  • I drink to forget all the stupid things I do when I'm drunk.
  • There are more old drunkards than there are old doctors.
  • I have an alcohol allergy...^ An industry member may extend credit; to a retailer on the sale of wine for not more than 30 days from the date of; the sale.
    • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Or is this simply a false dilemma in that there are more than two possible options and we have just been presented with two that suit the argument?
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It may be that there are parts of tghe site where this is all dealt with.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    Every time I drink, I break out in hand cuffs.

See also

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Look up alcohol in Wiktionary, the free dictionary

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

Medical warning!
This article is from the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica. Medical science has made many leaps forward since it has been written. This is not a site for medical advice, when you need information on a medical condition, consult a professional instead.
.ALCOHOL, in commerce, the name generally given to "spirits of wine"; in systematic organic chemistry it has a wider meaning, being the generic name of a class of compounds (hydroxy hydrocarbons) of which ordinary alcohol (specifically ethyl alcohol) is a typical member (see Alcohols).^ When they present their original data relating to the methanol content of French wines (range 14-265 ppm) or when the methanol content of any alcoholic beverage is given, the ration of methanol to ethanol is also presented.

The word "alcohol" is of Arabic origin, being derived from the particle al and the word kohl, an impalpable powder used in the East for painting the eyebrows. For many centuries the word was used to designate any fine powder; its present-day application to the product of the distillation of wine is of comparatively recent date. Thus Paracelsus and Libavius both used the term to denote a fine powder, the latter speaking of an alcohol derived from antimony. .At the same time Paracelsus uses the word for a volatile liquid; alcool or alcool vini occurs often in his writings, and once he adds "id est vino ardente." Other names have been in use among the earlier chemists for this same liquid.^ Williams GM has many-- there seem to be other scientists with the same name.

^ She eventually suspected that there was a possible link between her symptoms and artificial sweeteners, which she had begun using in diet sodas and other foods 18 months earlier.

^ The meaning of others is expressed in the words they chose to use.

Eau de vie (" elixir of life") was in use during the 13th and 14th centuries; Arnoldus Villanovanus applied it to the product of distilled wine, though not as a specific name.
Ordinary alcohol, which we shall frequently refer to by its specific name, ethyl alcohol, seldom occurs in the vegetable kingdom; the unripe seeds of Heracleum giganteum and H. Sphondylium contain it mixed with ethyl alcool. butyrate. In the animal kingdom it occurs in the urine of diabetic patients and of persons addicted to alcohol. Its important source lies in its formation by the "spirituous" or "alcoholic fermentation" of saccharine juices. The mechanism of alcoholic fermentation is discussed in the article Fermentation, and the manufacture of alcohol from fermented liquors in. the article Spirits.
.The qualitative composition of ethyl alcohol was ascertained by A. L. Lavoisier, and the quantitative by N. T. de Saussure in 1808. Sir Edward Frankland,showed how it could be derived from, and converted into, ethane; and thus determined it to be ethane in which one hydrogen atom was replaced by a hydroxyl group.^ How the writer could have determined within one day that no one would suffer any long-term or irreversible adverse effects was not explained.

^ There is thus no simple way to determine when and whether one is being exposed to these chemicals.

Its constitutional formula is therefore CH3�CH2.OH. It may be synthetically prepared by any of the general methods described in the article Alcohols.
Pure ethyl alcohol is a colourless, mobile liquid of an agreeable odour. It boils at 78.3° C. (760 mm.); at - 90° C. it is a thick liquid, and at - 130° it solidifies to a white mass. .Its high coefficient of thermal expansion, coupled with its low freezing point, renders it a valuable thermometric fluid, especially when the temperatures to be measured are below - 39° C., for which the mercury thermometer cannot be used.^ As mentioned below, high temperature canning as developed late in the 19th century should increase significantly the methanol content of fruits and vegetables.

^ First of all, measuring formaldehyde is tricky, and in any case, the circulating levels would be below the current limit of detection for most of the methods used.

.It readily inflames, burning with a blue smokeless flame, and producing water and carbon dioxide, with the evolution of great.^ This means the possibility of metabolism in the GI tract to methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid, and, finally, carbon dioxide and water, was bypassed.

heat; hence it receives considerable application as a fuel. .It mixes with water in all proportions, the mixing being attended by a contraction in volume and a rise in temperature; the maximum contraction corresponds to a mixture of 3 molecules of alcohol and I of water.^ The first lady, meanwhile, doesn't buy the suggestion that the first couple contracted the disease from White House water, which is still being tested for lead and other chemicals....

Commercial alcohol or "spirits of wine" contains about 90% of pure ethyl alcohol, the remainder being water. This water cannot be entirely removed by fractional distillation, and to prepare anhydrous or "absolute" alcohol the commercial product must be allowed to stand over some dehydrating agent, such as caustic lime, baryta, anhydrous copper sulphate, &c., and then distilled. Calcium chloride must not be used, since it forms a crystalline compound with alcohol. .The quantity of alcohol present in an aqueous solution is determined by a comparison of its specific gravity with standard tables, or directly by the use of an alcoholometer, which is a hydrometer graduated so as to read per cents by weight (degrees according to Richter) or volume per cents (degrees according to Tralles).^ This often used average originates from an informative table in a conference paper presented by Francot and Geoffroy (15).

Other methods consist in determining the vapour tension by means of the vaporimeter of Geissler, or the boiling point by the ebullioscope. In the United Kingdom "proof spirit" is defined as having a specific gravity at 51° of 12/13 (. 92308) compared with water at the same temperature. The "quantity at proof" is given by the formula: - quantity of sample X (degrees over or under proof + ioo) divided by ioo.
The presence of water in alcohol may be detected in several ways. Aqueous alcohol becomes turbid when mixed with benzene, carbon disulphide or paraffin oil; when added to a solution of barium oxide in absolute alcohol, a white precipitate of barium hydroxide is formed. .A more delicate method consists in adding a very little anthraquinone and sodium amalgam; absolute alcohol gives a green coloration, but in the presence of minute traces of water a red coloration appears.^ Fresh orange juices can have very little methanol (0.8 mg/liter), and have a concomitant ethyl alcohol content of 380 mg/liter (28).

Traces of ethyl alcohol in solutions are detected and estimated by oxidation to acetaldehyde, or by conversion into iodoform by warming with iodine and potassium hydroxide. An alternative method consists in converting it into ethyl benzoate by shaking with benzoyl chloride and caustic soda.
.Alcohol is extensively employed as a solvent; in fact, this constitutes one of its most important industrial applications.^ Artificial fragrances are simply mixtures of volatile organic chemicals and solvents, often over 100 of them in any one fragrance product, and most of those chemicals are petroleum derivatives.

^ In any case, chemical sensitivity disorders probably constitute quite an extensive class, and not just one uniform disorder.

It dissolves most organic compounds, resins, hydrocarbons, fatty acids and many metallic salts, sometimes forming, in the latter case, crystalline compounds in which the ethyl alcohol plays a role similar to that of water of crystallization. This fact was first noticed by T. Graham, and, although it was at first contradicted, its truth was subsequently confirmed. .In general, gases dissolve in it more readily than in water; loo volumes of alcohol dissolve 7 volumes of hydrogen, 25 volumes of oxygen and 16 volumes of nitrogen.^ The minimum lethal dose of methanol in the rat, rabbit, and dog is 9, 5, 7, and 8 g/kg, respectively (43); ethyl alcohol is more toxic than methanol to these test animals (43).

Potassium and sodium readily dissolve in ethyl alcohol with the production of alcoholates of the formula C2 H5 OK(Na).
These are voluminous white powders. Sulphuric acid Ructions. converts it into ethyl sulphuric acid y p (see Ether), and sulphur trioxide gives carbyl sulphate. The phosphorous haloids give the corresponding ethyl haloid. Ethyl chloride (from the phosphorus chlorides and alcohol) is an ethereal liquid boiling at 12.5° C., soluble in alcohol, but sparingly so in water. Oxidation of ethyl alcohol gives acetaldehyde and acetic acid. Chlorine oxidizes it to acetaldehyde, and under certain conditions chloral is formed.
In almost all countries heavy taxes are levied on manufactured alcohol mainly as a source of revenue. .In the United Kingdom the excise duty is eleven shillings per proof gallon of alcohol, while the customs duty is eleven shillings and 5' g fivepence; the magnitude of these imposts may be more readily understood when one remembers that the proof gallon costs only about sevenpence to manufacture.^ (In addition, the mixtures of these chemicals which bioaccumulate within an organism in low doses may have toxic effects many times those of any one chemical.

^ The minimum lethal dose of methanol in the rat, rabbit, and dog is 9, 5, 7, and 8 g/kg, respectively (43); ethyl alcohol is more toxic than methanol to these test animals (43).

^ One thing I love about this group is the way we share our highs and lows in the knowledge that we are not judged but understood.

The great importance of alcohol in the arts has necessitated the introduction of a duty-free product which is suitable for most industrial purposes, and at the same time is perfectly unfit for beverages or internal application.
.In the United Kingdom this "denaturized" alcohol is known as methylated spirit as a distinction from pure alcohol or "spirits of wine."^ Lee, C.Y., Acree, T.E. and Butts, R.M., Determination of Methyl Alcohol in Wine by Gas Chromatography.

.It was first enacted in 1855 that methylated spirit, a specific mixture of pure alcohol and wood naphtha, should be duty-free; the present law is to be found in the Customs and Inland Revenue Act of 1890, and the Finance Act (sect.^ METHANOL Methanol (methyl alcohol, wood alcohol), a poisonous substance (60), is added as a component during the manufacture of aspartame (47).

^ Abstract] "Many of the signs and symptoms of intoxication due to methanol ingestion are not specific to methyl alcohol.

^ Many of the signs and symptoms of intoxication due to methanol ingestion are not specific to methyl alcohol.

8) of 1902. From 1858 to 1861 methylated spirit was duty-free when it was required for manufacturing processes, and the methylation or "denaturizing" was carried out in accordance with a prescribed process. During the next three decades (1861-1891) the law was extended, and methylated spirit was duty-free for all purposes except for use as beverages and internal medicinal applications. .This spirit ("unmineralized methylated spirit") consisted of 90 parts of alcohol of 60-66 over-proof (9 1 -95% of pure alcohol) and 0 parts of wood-naphtha.^ METHANOL Methanol (methyl alcohol, wood alcohol), a poisonous substance (60), is added as a component during the manufacture of aspartame (47).

^ Methyl alcohol produces the Methyl alcohol syndrome, consistently , only in humans and no other test animal, including monkeys (42, 54).

.It was found, however, that certain classes were addicted to drinking this mixture, and since 1891 the sale of such spirit has been confined to manufacturers who must purchase it in bulk from the "methylators."^ In fact, I am nearly certain that people who have headaches that are made worse by aspartame shouldn't drink it.

For retail purposes the "ordinary" methylated spirit is mixed with � 357 % of mineral naphtha, which has the effect of rendering it quite undrinkable. .The Finance Act of 1902 allows a manufacturer to obtain a license which permits the use of duty-free alcohol, if he can show that such alcohol is absolutely essential for the success of his business, and that methylated spirit is unsuitable.^ METHANOL Methanol (methyl alcohol, wood alcohol), a poisonous substance (60), is added as a component during the manufacture of aspartame (47).

.Notwithstanding this permission there have been many agitations on the part of chemical manufacturers to obtain a less restricted use of absolute alcohol, and in 1905 an Industrial Alcohol Committee was appointed to receive evidence and report as to whether any modification of the present law was advisable.^ There is plenty of evidence that many heavy users of aspartame, over 3 to 6 cans of diet soda daily, suffer a typical serious symptom syndrome.

^ Besides the chemicals we manufacture and deliberately put into our consumer products each year, there are also industrial chemical byproducts that are unintentionally released into the environment each year.

^ Industrial waste chemical byproducts are also released by American (and other) manufacturers, mostly unintentionally, and are dispersed into our air, our water, and over our land, and sometimes underground.

.In the United States the same question was considered in 1896 by a Joint Select Committee on the use of alcohol in the manufactures and arts.^ The first, "Difficult Diagnosis: A Guide to the Interpretation of Obscure Illness (W.B. Saunders Company, 1958), has been used by more than 60,000 physicians in the United States.

Reference should be made to the reports of these committees for a full account of the use, manufacture and statistics of "denaturized" spirits in various European countries.
.In Germany, the use of duty-free spirit is only allowed to state and municipal hospitals, and state scientific institutions, and for the manufacture of fulminates, fuzes and smokeless powders.^ The FDA allows a lower safety margin only when "evidence is submitted which justifies use of a different safety factor."

The duty-free "denaturized" spirits may be divided into two groups - "completely denaturized" and "incompletely denaturized." .In the first category there are two varieties: - (T) A mixture of ioo litres of spirit and 22 litres of a mixture of 4 parts of wood-naphtha and 1 of pyridine bases; this spirit, the use of which is practically limited to heating and lighting purposes, may be mixed with 50 grs.^ If this process proves to be as protective for humans as has been shown in other organisms (50, 38) it may account, in part, for the tremendous variability of human responses to acute methanol toxicity.

^ First of all, measuring formaldehyde is tricky, and in any case, the circulating levels would be below the current limit of detection for most of the methods used.

of lavender or rosemary, in order to destroy the noxious odour of the pyridine bases. (2) A mixture of loo litres of spirit, 14 litres of the naphtha-pyridine mixture described above, 4 litre of methyl violet solution, and from 2 to 20 litres of benzol; this fluid is limited to combustion in motors and agricultural engines. The second category, or "incompletely denaturized" spirits, include numerous mixtures. The "general" mixture consists of Too litres of spirit, and 5 litres of wood spirit or 2 litre of pyridine. Of the "particular" varieties, we can only notice those used in the colour industry. These consist of ioo litres of spirit mixed with either ro litres of sulphuric ether, or r litre of benzol, or 2 litre of turpentine, or �025 litre of animal oil.
.The German regulations are apparently based on a keen appreciation of the fact that while one particular denaturizing agent may have little or no effect on one industry, yet it would be quite fatal to the success of another; there is consequently a great choice of denaturizing agents, and in certain cases it is sufficient to mix the alcohol with a reagent necessary for the purpose in hand, or even with a certain amount of the final product, it being only necessary to satisfy the state that the spirit is not available as a beverage.^ (In addition, the mixtures of these chemicals which bioaccumulate within an organism in low doses may have toxic effects many times those of any one chemical.

^ Look how serious the issue of Neotame is, an aspartame analog, yet there were only three people who wrote, according to Blondell, Rich, myself, and one other, and I know that Ermelle Martinez wrote.

^ The fact that 40% of all cases of acute pancreatitis complaints are attributable to alcoholics (21), however, must be taken into consideration to avoid artifactual association.

In France, the general denaturizing agent is wood-spirit of at least 58 over-proof, and containing 25% of acetone and 2.5% of "impurites pyrogenees"; 10 litres of this spirit denaturizes Too litres of alcohol. This mixture is supplied to manufacturers and corresponds to the British unmineralized methylated spirit; but the regulations are more stringent. When sold for lighting and heating purposes, it is further admixed with 0.5% of heavy benzene boiling at 150°-200° C. Provisions are also made for special denaturizing processes as in Germany.
In America the internal revenue tax on denaturized alcohol (formerly duty-free only to scientific institutions) was removed by Congress in 1906 (act of June 7th).
==Pharmacology, Toxicology and Therapeutics of Alcohol== Alcohol is of great medicinal value as a solvent, being used to form solutions of alkaloids, resins, volatile oils, iodoform, &c. In strength of about 10% and upwards it is an antiseptic. If applied to the skin it rapidly evaporates, thereby cooling the skin and diminishing the amount of sweat excreted. This refrigerant and anhidrotic action is employed to soothe many forms of headache by bathing the forehead with eau de Cologne. If, on the other hand, the alcohol be rubbed into the skin, or if its evaporation be prevented - as by a watch-glass - it absorbs water from the tissues and thus hardens them.
Thoroughly rubbed into the skin alcohol dilates the bloodvessels and produces a mild counter-irritant effect. Many alcoholic liniments are therefore employed for the relief of pain, especially muscular pains, as in lumbago and other forms of so-called "muscular rheumatism." Given internally in small quantities and in sufficient dilution, alcohol causes dilatation of;he gastric blood-vessels, increased secretion of gastric juice, and greater activity in the movements of the muscular layers in the wall of the stomach. It also tends to lessen the sensibility of the stomach and so may relieve gastric pain. In a 50% solution or stronger - as when neat whisky is taken - alcohol precipitates the pepsin which is an essential of gastric digestion, E.nd thereby arrests this process. .The desirable effects produced by alcohol on the stomach are worth obtaining only in cases of acute diseases.^ The inhibitory effect is a linear function of the log of the ethyl alcohol concentration, with a 72% inhibition rate at only a 0.01 molar concentration of ethanol (2, 46).

^ The fact that 40% of all cases of acute pancreatitis complaints are attributable to alcoholics (21), however, must be taken into consideration to avoid artifactual association.

^ Methyl alcohol produces the Methyl alcohol syndrome, consistently , only in humans and no other test animal, including monkeys (42, 54).

.In chronic disease and in health the use of alcohol as an aid to digestion is without the support of clinical or laboratory experience, the beneficial action being at least neutralized by undesirable effects produced elsewhere.^ This past week, shortly before the 39th anniversary of President John F.Kennedy's assassination, the news media reported stories of JFK's drug use, illnesses, and near-death experiences from chronic diseases.

^ This means that aspartame disease can be conveniently studied in individual clinics and laboratories, perhaps funded by medical insurance, using a wide range of tests and measures, some as safe and relatively low cost as a variety of blood tests.

^ Finally, this book discusses the chronic effects of these exposures rather than the immediate, acute health effects.

The continued use of large doses of alcohol produces chronic gastritis, in which the continued irritation has led to overgrowth of connective tissue, atrophy of the gastric glands and permanent cessation of the gastric functions.
A single dose of concentrated alcohol (e.g. brandy) produces very valuable reflex effects, the .heart beating more rapidly and forcibly, and the blood-pressure rising.^ But his doctors are gradually cutting down on the medicines prescribed to slow his heart beat and thin his blood.

Hence the immediately beneficial effect produced in the cases of "fainting" or syncope. After absorption, which is very rapid, alcohol exerts a marked action upon the blood. .The oxygen contained in that fluid, and destined for consumption by the tissues, is retained by the influence of alcohol in its combination with the haemoglobin or colouring matter of the red blood corpuscles.^ Marked formic acid accumulation in the blood and in body fluids and tissues was observed.

.Hence the diminished oxidation of the tissues, which leads to the accumulation of unused fat and so to the obesity which is so often seen in those who habitually take much alcohol.^ Those who do take medicines say as a result they have little energy for chores or sports.

The drug exerts a noteworthy action upon the body-temperature. As it dilates the blood-vessels of the skin it increases the subjective sensation of warmth. .The actual consequence, however, is that more heat than before is necessarily lost from the surface of the body.^ In them, the liver alone retained, for a long time, more than 2 % of the methanol carbon given in a single oral dose of aspartame, and the rest of the body stored an additional 2 % or more.

^ Tephly and then Monte have reported that some of the methanol component of aspartame is converted to retained formaldehyde and retained formic acid in the body, more than the effective formaldehyde doses reported by Thatcher.

Alcohol also diminishes the oxidation which is the main source of the body-heat. It follows that the drug is an antipyretic, and it is hence largely used in fevers as a means of reducing the temperature. This reduction of the temperature, carried to an undesirable extreme, is the reason why the man who has copiously consumed spirits "to keep out the cold" is often visited with pneumonia. .The largest amount of alcohol that can be burnt up within the healthy body in twenty-four hours is 12 oz., but it must be consumed in great dilution and divided into small doses taken every four hours.^ Since 11% of aspartame (1120 mg in 2L diet soda, 5.6 12-oz cans) is 123 mg methanol (wood alcohol), immediately released into the body after drinking (unlike the large levels of methanol locked up in molecules inside many fruits), 16 times the 7.8 EPA limit for methanol in drinking water.

^ The fact that 40% of all cases of acute pancreatitis complaints are attributable to alcoholics (21), however, must be taken into consideration to avoid artifactual association.

^ Blood, urine, and tissue samples were studied 12 hours after the methanol dose of 2,000 mg/kg, when symptoms were visible.

.Otherwise the alcohol will for the most part leave the body unused in the urine and the expired air.^ It is my opinion that the methanol (wood alcohol, 10% of aspartame) is attempting to leave the body through the skin.

In fever the case is different. .The raised temperature appears to facilitate the oxidation of the substance, so that quantities may be taken and completely utilized which would completely intoxicate the individual had his temperature been normal.^ Table 1 shows that under normal conditions these individuals would only be expected to consume between 1 and 7 mg of methanol a day from these sources.

.It follows that alcohol is a food in fever, and its value in this regard is greatly increased by the fact that it requires no primary digestion, but passes without changes, and without needing change, to the tissues which are to use it.^ In addition, changes in cell-mediated immunity include increases in eosinophils, basophils, and T-suppressor cells following acute exposure of patients with HCHO asthma.

^ However, the human has no digestive enzymes for pectin (6, 25) particularly the pectin esterase required for its hydrolysis to methanol (26).

^ No formaldehyde has been detected in blood, urine or tissues obtained from methanol-treated animals (36,37) and, in methanol-poisoned humans, formaldehyde increases have not been observed....

.According to Sir Thomas Fraser nothing else can compete with alcohol as a food in desperate febrile cases, and to this use must be added its antipyretic power already explained and its action as a soporific.^ The fact that 40% of all cases of acute pancreatitis complaints are attributable to alcoholics (21), however, must be taken into consideration to avoid artifactual association.

^ Anybody can extract conclusions from this anomaly, but it seems to me that there was nothing new in that pamphlet that may add information to what we already explained in our paper.

.During its administration in febrile cases the drug must be most carefully watched, as its action may prove deleterious to the nervous system and the circulation in certain classes of patient.^ First of all, measuring formaldehyde is tricky, and in any case, the circulating levels would be below the current limit of detection for most of the methods used.

^ Patients may complain of lethargy, confusion, and impairment of articulation, all frequently encountered signs in moderate central nervous system (CNS) intoxications resulting from other toxic compounds (20).

The state of the pulse is the best criterion of the action of alcohol in any given case of fever. The toxicology of alcohol is treated in other articles. It includes acute alcoholism (i.e. intoxication), chronic alcoholism, delirium tremens, and all the countless pathological changes - extending to every tissue but the bones, and especially marked in the nervous system - which alcohol produces. (See Drunkenness; Delirium).
.After death the presence of alcohol can be detected in all the body fluids.^ The presence of elevated formaldehyde levels in body fluids or tissues following methanol administration has not been observed.

Its especial affinity for the nervous system is indicated by the fact that, when all traces of it have disappeared elsewhere, it can still be detected with ease in the cerebro-spinal fluid.
The 1922 extension to the 1911 encyclopedia has updated information on this subject.
See Alcohol (addition) for this information.


Simple English

The alcohol used in drinks is ethanol- More info on that can be found at Alcoholic drink

In chemistry, alcohol is a general term which refers to many organic compounds used in industry and science as reagents, solvents, and fuels. Alcohols are carbohydrates which are made of an alkyl group with one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups bound to its carbon atoms. Alcohol is colorless, and also transparent.

Names for alcohol

There are two ways of naming alcohols: Common names, and IUPAC names.

  • Common names often are made by taking the name of the alkyl group, and adding the word "alcohol". For example, "methyl alcohol" or "ethyl alcohol".
  • IUPAC names are made by taking the name of the alkane chain, removing the last "e", and adding "ol". Examples of this are "methanol" and "ethanol". l

Physical and chemical properties

The hydroxyl group makes alcohols polar. Alcohols are very weakly acidic.

Common alcohols

The simplest two alcohols are methanol (or methyl alcohol) and ethanol (or ethyl alcohol), which have the following structures:

     H           H H
     |           | |
   H-C-O-H     H-C-C-O-H
     |           | |
     H           H H 
   methanol     ethanol

In common usage, "alcohol" often means ethanol or "grain alcohol". (See also: alcoholic proof).

Other commonly used alcohols include:

  • Isopropyl alcohol (sec-propyl alcohol, propan-2-ol, 2-propanol) H3C-CH(OH)-CH3, or "rubbing alcohol"
  • ethylene glycol (ethane-1,2-diol) HO-CH2-CH2-OH, which is the main substance in antifreeze
  • glycerin (or glycerol, propane-1,2,3-triol) HO-CH2-CH(OH)-CH2-OH bound in natural fats and oils, which are triglycerides (triacylglycerols)
  • Phenol, an alcohol where the hydroxyl group is bound to a benzene ring.

Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 14, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Alcoholic beverage, which are similar to those in the above article.








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