From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Total recorded alcohol per capita consumption (15+), in litres of pure alcohol.
Alcohol is associated with an increased risk of a number of cancers. 3.6% of all cancer cases and 3.5% of cancer deaths worldwide are attributable to alcohol drinking. Breast cancer in women is linked with alcohol intake. Alcohol also increases the risk of cancers of the mouth, esophagus, pharynx and larynx, colorectal cancer, liver cancer, stomach and ovaries.
Australia: A 2009 study found that 2,100 Australians die from alcohol-related cancer each year.
Alcohol as a carcinogen and cocarcinogen
The International Agency for Research on Cancer (Centre International de Recherche sur le Cancer) of the World Health Organization has classified alcohol as a Group 1 carcinogen. Its evaluation states, "There is sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages in humans. …Alcoholic beverages are carcinogenic to humans (Group 1)."
Possible mechanisms of alcohol as a carcinogen
Acetaldehyde is produced by the liver as it breaks down ethanol. The liver then normally eliminates 99% of the acetaldehyde. An average liver can process 7 grams of ethanol per hour. For example, it takes 12 hours to eliminate the ethanol in a bottle of wine, giving 12 hours or more of acetaldehyde exposure. A study of 818 heavy drinkers found that those who are exposed to more acetaldehyde than normal through a defect in the gene for alcohol dehydrogenase are at greater risk of developing cancers of the upper gastrointestinal tract and liver.
In a review, Pöschl and Seitz list some possible mechanisms of alcohol as a carcinogen:
- local effects of alcohol
- metabolism to acetaldehyde (which may be mutagenic at physiologically meaningful levels)
- induction of CYP2E1
- nutritional deficiencies
- interactions with retinoids
- alcohol and methylation
- alcohol and immune surveillance
Purohita et al. propose an overlapping list:
- production of acetaldehyde, which is a weak mutagen and carcinogen
- induction of cytochrome P450 2E1 and associated oxidative stress and conversion of procarcinogens to carcinogens
- depletion of S-adenosylmethionine and, consequently, induction of global DNA hypomethylation;
- induction of increased production of inhibitory guanine nucleotide regulatory proteins and components of extracellular signal-regulated kinase–mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling
- accumulation of iron and associated oxidative stress
- inactivation of the tumor suppressor gene BRCA1 and increased estrogen responsiveness (primarily in breast)
- impairment of retinoic acid metabolism.
Boffetta and Hashibe list plausible mechanisms as including:
- a genotoxic effect of acetaldehyde
- increased oestrogen concentration
- a role as solvent for tobacco carcinogens
- production of reactive oxygen species and nitrogen species
- changes in folate metabolism
Individuals who both smoke and drink are at a much higher risk of developing mouth, tracheal, and esophageal cancer. Research has shown their risk of developing these cancers is 35 times higher than in individuals who neither smoke nor drink. This evidence may suggest that there is a cocarcinogenic interaction between alcohol and tobacco-related carcinogens.
A study found that found that alcohol stimulates the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), in which ordinary cancer cells change into a more aggressive form and begin to spread throughout the body.
Effect of alcohol on the progress of cancer when established
A study of the influence of alcohol intake on tumor growth of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with type C cirrhosis, found that alcohol influenced tumor volume doubling time (TVDT).
A study of chick embryos suggests that alcohol stimulates their tumor growth by fueling the production of a growth factor that stimulates blood vessel development in tumors. A 2006 study in mice showed moderate drinking resulted in larger and stronger tumors via a process known as angiogenesis.
A study where high amounts of alcohol were given to mice suggests that it accelerates their cancer growth by speeding up the loss of body fat and depressing immune activity.
Genetic variation and cancer risk
A study found that "the ADH1C*1 allele and genotype ADH1C*1/1 were significantly more frequent in patients with alcohol-related cancers…" A European study has found two gene variants which offer "significant" protection against mouth and throat cancers. Alcohol is a known porphyrinogenic chemical. Several European studies have linked the inherited hepatic porphyrias with a predisposition to hepatocellular carcinoma. Typical risk factors for HCC need not be present with the acute hepatic porphyrias, specifically acute intermittent porphyria, variegate porphyria and hereditary coproporphyria. Porphyria cutanea tarda is also associated with HCC, but with typical risk factors including evidence of hepatotropic viruses, hemochromatosis and alcoholic cirrhosis. Tyrosinemia Type I, an inherited disorder in tyrosine metabolism impacting the second enzyme in the heme metabolic pathway is associated with a high risk of developing HCC in younger populations, including children.
Alcohol as a risk factor for specific cancers
Moderate alcohol consumption increases risk
A study of 1,280,296 middle-aged women in the United Kingdom found that, "Increasing but moderate alcohol consumption in women was determined to be associated with an increased risk of cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, esophagus, larynx, rectum, breast, and liver…"
Cancers of the mouth, esophagus, pharynx, and larynx
Alcohol is a risk factor for cancers of the mouth, esophagus, pharynx and larynx. The U.S. National Cancer Institute states "Drinking alcohol increases the risk of cancers of the mouth, esophagus, pharynx, larynx, and liver in men and women, … In general, these risks increase after about one daily drink for women and two daily drinks for men. (A drink is defined as 12 ounces of regular beer, 5 ounces of wine, or 1.5 ounces of 80-proof liquor.) … Also, using alcohol with tobacco is riskier than using either one alone, because it further increases the chances of getting cancers of the mouth, throat, and esophagus."
The International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology (INHANCE) Consortium co-ordinated a meta-study on the issue. A study looking at laryngeal cancer and beverage type concluded, "This study thus indicates that in the Italian population characterized by frequent wine consumption, wine is the beverage most strongly related to the risk of laryngeal cancer."
A review of the epidemiological literature published from 1966 to 2006 concluded that:
- The risk of esophageal cancer nearly doubled in the first two years following alcohol cessation, a sharp increase that may be due to the fact that some people only stop drinking when they are already experiencing disease symptoms. However, risk then decreased rapidly and significantly after longer periods of abstention.
- Risk of head and neck cancer only reduced significantly after 10 years of cessation.
- After more than 20 years of alcohol cessation, the risks for both cancers were similar to those seen in people who never drank alcohol.
A study of more than 1,280,000 middle-aged British women concluded that for every additional drink regularly consumed per day, the incidence of oral cavity and pharynx cancers increases by 1 per 1000. The incidence of cancers of the esophagus and larynx increase by 0.7 per 1000.
A 2008 study suggests that acetaldehyde (a break-down product of alcohol) is implicated in oral cancer.
Alcohol is a risk factor for breast cancer in women.
A woman drinking an average of two units of alcohol per day has 8% higher of developing breast cancer than a woman who drinks an average of one unit of alcohol per day. A study of more than 1,280,000 middle-aged British women concluded that for every additional drink regularly consumed per day, the incidence of breast cancer increases by 11 per 1000. Approximately 6% (between 3.2% and 8.8%) of breast cancers reported in the UK each year could be prevented if drinking was reduced to a very low level (i.e. less than 1 unit/week).
Moderate to heavy consumption of alcoholic beverages (at least three to four drinks per week) is associated with a 1.3-fold increased risk of the recurrence of breast cancer.
Drinking may be a cause of earlier onset of colorectal cancer. The evidence that alcohol is a cause of bowel cancer is convincing in men and probable in women.
The National Institutes of Health, the National Cancer Institute, Cancer Research, the American Cancer Society, the Mayo Clinic, and the Colorectal Cancer Coalition, American Society of Clinical Oncology and the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center list alcohol as a risk factor.
A WCRF panel report finds the evidence "convincing" that alcoholic drinks increase the risk of colorectal cancer in men at consumption levels above 30 grams of absolute alcohol daily. The National Cancer Institute states, "Heavy alcohol use may also increase the risk of colorectal cancer" 
One study found that "While there was a more than twofold increased risk of significant colorectal neoplasia in people who drink spirits and beer, people who drank wine had a lower risk. In our sample, people who drank more than eight servings of beer or spirits per week had at least a one in five chance of having significant colorectal neoplasia detected by screening colonoscopy.".
The EPIC study suggests that "people who drink 15 grams of alcohol a day– equivalent to about two units– have about a 10 percent increased risk of bowel cancer. Those who drank more than 30 grams of alcohol– equivalent to three to four units which is less than a couple of pints of strong lager– increased their bowel cancer risk by around 25 per cent."
A study found, "The proportion of patients with adenomas was 29.6% in abstainers, 22.1% in moderate drinkers, and 36.7% in heavy drinkers." It concluded "Consumption of less than seven alcohol drinks per week does not increase the risk of having a colorectal adenoma. We found evidence in this study that moderate alcohol consumption among long-term smokers may potentially decrease the risk of an adenoma compared to abstainers."
A Japanese study concluded, "One fourth of colorectal cancer cases in men were attributable to an alcohol intake of ≥23 g/day."
A study of more than 1,280,000 middle-aged British women concluded that for every additional drink regularly consumed per day, the incidence of rectal cancer increases by 1 per 1000.
Main article: Liver cancer
Hepatocellular carcinoma in an individual that was hepatitis C
Alcohol is a risk factor for liver cancer, through cirrhosis. "Cirrhosis results from scar formation within the liver, most commonly due to chronic alcohol use."
"Approximately 5 percent of people with cirrhosis develop liver cancer. Cirrhosis is a disease that develops when liver cells are replaced with scar tissue after damage from alcohol abuse, …"
The NIAAA reports that "Prolonged, heavy drinking has been associated in many cases with primary liver cancer." However, it is liver cirrhosis, whether caused by alcohol or another factor, that is thought to induce the cancer."
"The chances of getting liver cancer increase markedly with five or more drinks per day" (NCI).
A study of more than 1,280,000 middle-aged British women concluded that for every additional drink regularly consumed per day, the incidence of liver cancer increases by 0.7 per 1000.
In the United States, liver cancer is relatively uncommon, afflicting approximately 2 people per 100,000, but excessive alcohol consumption is linked to as many as 36% of these cases by some investigators "Overall, 61% of HCC were attributable to HCV [hepatitis C virus], 13% to HBV [hepatitis B virus], and 18% to heavy alcohol drinking." A study in the province of Brescia, northern Italy concluded, "On the basis of population attributable risks (AR), heavy alcohol intake seems to be the single most relevant cause of HCC in this area (AR: 45%), followed by HCV (AR: 36%), and HBV (AR: 22%) infection."
Main article: Lung cancer
Alcohol intake of more than 2 drinks per day is associated with a small increased risk of lung cancer. Commenting on a study by Freudenheim et al., R. Curtis Ellison MD writes, "This study, like others, suggests a weak, positive association between consuming larger amounts of alcohol (>2 drinks a day) and lung cancer risk."
High alcohol intake is associated with the development of malignant melanoma.
Main article: Stomach cancer
"Statistically significant increases in risk also existed for cancers of the stomach, colon, rectum, liver, female breast, and ovaries."
"While alcohol has been extensively studied as a cause of stomach cancer there is no conclusive evidence that it increases risk. However, results from at least three studies suggest that heavy alcohol consumption may increase the risk of stomach cancer in heavy smokers."
A Taiwanese study concluded, "…cigarette smoking may play the most harmful role in the initial development of gastric cancer, and that drinking alcohol may promote the process."
A Norwegian study found that, "No statistically significant associations between various degrees of exposure to alcohol and risk of gastric cancer was revealed, but combined high use of cigarettes (>20/day) and alcohol (>5 occasions/14 days) increased the risk of noncardia gastric cancer nearly 5-fold (HR = 4.90 [95% CI = 1.90-12.62]), compared to nonusers."
Alcohol consumption of 50g or more per day increases risk
An endometrial adenocarcinoma
invading the uterine muscle.
Alcohol has been identified as a risk factor for endometrial cancer. Data however, on the association of alcohol intake and endometrial cancer is conflicting. Where data exists for an association low to moderate intake of alcohol, (less than two drinks per day) is not associated with an increased risk but an association has been suggested for higher alcohol intake. "Our results suggest that only alcohol consumption equivalent to 2 or more drinks per day increases risk of endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women."
Alcohol has been suggested as a risk factor for gall bladder cancer. Evidence suggests that a high intake of alcohol is associated with gall bladder cancer. Men may be at a higher risk of alcohol related gallbladder cancer than women.
Main article: Ovarian cancer
"Thus, the results of this study suggest that relatively elevated alcohol intake (of the order of 40 g per day or more) may cause a modest increase of epithelial ovarian cancer risk.". "Associations were also found between alcohol consumption and cancers of the ovary and prostate, but only for 50 g and 100 g a day." "Statistically significant increases in risk also existed for cancers of the stomach, colon, rectum, liver, female breast, and ovaries."
"Thus, this pooled analysis does not provide support for an association between moderate alcohol intake and ovarian cancer risk."
"Data from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study showed only a weak association between overall alcohol intake and prostate cancer risk, and no association at all between red wine intake and prostate cancer risk."
A meta-analysis published in 2001 found a small but significant increased risk for men drinking more than 50 g/day of alcohol, with a slightly higher risk for men consuming more than 100 g/day. Since that analysis, cohort studies in America have found increased risks for men drinking moderate amounts of spirits, and for ‘binge drinkers, but moderate consumption of beer or wine has not been linked to an increased risk.
Alcohol consumption of 50 g and 100 g per dayis also associated with cancers of the ovary and prostate. However, one study concludes, that moderate alcohol consumption increases the risk of prostate cancer. Liquor, but not wine or beer, consumption was positively associated with prostate cancer."
The Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center found that men who consumed four or more glasses of red wine per week had a 50 percent reduction in the risk of developing prostate cancer. They "found no significant effects — positive nor negative — associated with the consumption of beer or hard liquor and no consistent risk reduction with white wine, which suggests that there must be a beneficial compound in red wine that other types of alcohol lack. That compound … may be an antioxidant called resveratrol, which is abundant in the skins of red grapes.".
A meta analysis of studies published in 2009 found that consumption of only 2 standard drinks per day increased the cancer risk by 20%.
Evidence of alcohol as a risk factor is mixed
Intake of alcohol during pregnancy has been associated with childhood leukemia. A review published by the National Cancer Institute placed maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy in the category of "suggestive" but concluded that the risk was not important.
- Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia (ALL)
For ALL in children, maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy is "unlikely to be an important risk factor for ALL"
- Acute myeloid leukemia (AML)
A study concluded, "In conclusion, even though our study did not show a clear association between alcohol intake and leukemia risk, some of the patterns of the risk estimates (a possible J-shaped dose-response curve between alcohol intake and ALL, AML, and CLL risks, and the positive association between alcohol and CML), may be suggestive."
- Childhood AML
"Three studies have reported an increased risk (approximately 1.5-2 fold) in mothers who drank alcoholic beverages during pregnancy. These associations have been particularly apparent in children diagnosed younger than three years of age.". "Maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy increases the risk of infant leukemia, especially AML."
- Acute non-lymphocytic leukemia (ANLL)
A study found that intrauterine exposure to alcohol doubled the risk for childhood ANLL.
- Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL)
A study concluded, "In conclusion, even though our study did not show a clear association between alcohol intake and leukemia risk, some of the patterns of the risk estimates (a possible J-shaped dose-response curve between alcohol intake and ALL, AML, and CLL risks, and the positive association between alcohol and CML), may be suggestive."
- Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML)
A population-based case-control study in Italy found a non-significant positive association between drinking and CML.
- Hairy cell leukemia
A study concluded, "There was no association found for cigarette smoking, alcohol or coffee consumption and hairy cell leukemia."
Multiple myeloma (MM)
Alcohol has been suggested as a possible cause of multiple myeloma, although a study found no association between MM in a comparison study between drinkers and non-drinkers.
"About 7 out of 10 cases of chronic pancreatitis are due to long term heavy drinking. Chronic pancreatitis is a known risk factor for cancer of the pancreas. But chronic pancreatitis that is due to alcohol doesn't increase risk as much as other types of chronic pancreatitis. So if there is a link with alcohol and pancreatic cancer risk, it is only very slight."
Whilst the association between alcohol abuse and pancreatitis is well established the association between alcohol consumption and pancreatic cancer is less clear. Overall the evidence suggests a slightly increased risk of pancreatic cancer with chronic heavy alcohol consumption but the evidence remains conflicting with a number of studies finding no association., but no increased risk for people consuming up to 30g of alcohol a day
"Our findings indicate that alcohol drinking at the levels typically consumed by the general population of the United States is probably not a risk factor for pancreatic cancer. Our data suggest, however, that heavy alcohol drinking may be related to pancreatic cancer risk."
"Relative risks of pancreatic cancer increased with the amount of alcohol consumed (Ptrend = 0.11) after adjustment for age, smoking status, and pack-years of smoking."
"Alcoholics had only a modest 40% excess risk of pancreatic cancer … The excess risk for pancreatic cancer among alcoholics is small and could conceivably be attributed to confounding by smoking."
"It was shown that the relative risk of cancer of the pancreas increases with fat and alcohol intakes, … Alcohol may be not directly involved in the aetiology of cancer of the pancreas: its effect could be due to the contents of some alcoholic beverages."
"When compared with data from non-drinkers, the cumulative lifetime consumption of all types of alcohol in grams of ethanol… beer, spirits, red wine and fortified wine was not related to risk. The consumption of white wine was inversely associated with risk…. The uniformly reduced risk estimates for the lifetime number of drinks of white wine were based on small numbers…."
"For the most part, consumption of total alcohol, wine, liquor and beer was not associated with pancreatic cancer."
"Data from these two large cohorts do not support any overall association between coffee intake or alcohol intake and risk of pancreatic cancer."
"Our findings are consistent with a modest increase in risk of pancreatic cancer with consumption of 30 or more grams of alcohol per day."
Alcohol consumption is not suspected to increase risk
This section lists cancers where alcohol is not listed as a risk factor and where papers have been published.
Main article: Astrocytoma
A study concluded that feotal exposure to alcohol is not associated with childhood astrocytoma.
Bile duct cancer
A review of the literature found that there is no association between alcohol use and bile duct cancer.
Main article: Bladder cancer
The currently available evidence suggests that there is no significant association between alcohol use and bladder cancer.
A study concluded "that alcoholic women are at high risk for in situ and invasive cervical cancer" but attributed this to indirect, lifestyle-related reasons.
Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) breast cancer
"DCIS patients and control subjects did not differ with respect to oral contraceptive use, hormone replacement therapy, alcohol consumption or smoking history, or breast self-examination. Associations for LCIS were similar."
A review of the literature found that consumption of beer was associated with increased risk in one study but not in another
Intraocular and uveal melanomas
A study found no association between alcohol and uveal melanoma.
Nasopharynageal cancer / Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC)
A systematic review found evidence that light drinking may decrease the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma whereas high intake of alcohol may increase the risk.
Main article: Neuroblastoma
Alcohol intake has been associated with an increased risk of developing neuroblastoma.
Salivary gland cancer (SGC)
Alcohol use is associated with an increased risk of salivary gland cancer.
Small intestine cancer
A study of small intestine cancer patients reported that alcohol consumption was associated with adenocarcinomas and malignant carcinoid tumors.
"Heavy ethanol intake (>80 g a day) was also a risk factor in both men and women, with no increased risk associated with lower levels of ethanol intake, reported a study of patients in Los Angeles County (US)."
"Alcohol and tobacco consumption did not increase the risk of adenocarcinoma of the small intestine. … While the present data are inconsistent with a major effect of tobacco or alcohol, a moderate association between these factors and small bowel cancer may have been obscured by the play of chance."
A review concluded that "There is no firm evidence of a causal relation between behavior risks [tobacco, alcohol and diet] and testicular cancer."
Main article: Thyroid cancer
Alcohol intake does not appear to be associated with the risk of developing thyroid cancer. Another study suggests that drinking in moderation significantly reduces the risk of some malignant tumors such as thyroid cancer in women. However, another study concludes, "A reduced risk associated with alcohol was eliminated after adjustment for smoking…".
A 2009 study concluded, "These results suggest a potential protective role for alcohol consumption in thyroid cancer."
Main article: Vaginal cancer
A Danish study found that "Abstinence from alcohol consumption was associated with low risk for both VV-SCCvagina and VV-SCCvulva in our study."
A study concluded that alcoholic women are at high risk for cancer of the vagina. In both studies, indirect, lifestyle-related reasons were cited.
Main article: Vulvar cancer
A study reported "No consistent association emerged between milk, meat, liver, alcohol and coffee consumption and risk of vulvar cancer." A Danish study that found the reverse, that alcohol consumption as significantly associated with VV-SCCvagina and VV-SCCvulva cancer. A Swedish study that concluded that alcoholic women are at no higher risk for cancer of the vulva.
Alcohol consumption might reduce risk
Hodgkin's lymphoma (HL)
A study concluded, "The results of this large-scale European study … suggested a protective effect of alcohol on development of NHL for men and in non-Mediterranean countries." A population based case-control study in Germany found that alcohol reduced the risk of HL for both men and women but more so for men, whose risk was lowered by 53%.
A population-based case-control study in Italy reported a protective effect of alcohol consumption on risk of HL among non-smokers. Analysis of data from a series of case-control studies in Northern Italy revealed a modest positive effect of alcohol on lowering risk of HL among both smokers and non-smokers.
Kidney cancer (Renal cell carcinoma) (RCC)
"Moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a lower risk of renal cell cancer among both women and men in this pooled analysis" "This pooled analysis found an inverse association between alcohol drinking and RCC. Risks continued to decrease even above eight drinks per day (i.e. >100 g/day) of alcohol intake, with no apparent levelling in risk."
A study concluded, "Results from our prospective cohort study of middle-aged and elderly women indicate that moderate alcohol consumption may be associated with decreased risk of RCC." Researchers who conducted a study in Iowa reported that "In this population-based case-control investigation, we report further evidence that alcohol consumption decreases the risk of RCC among women but not among men. Our ability to show that the association remains after multivariate adjustment for several new confounding factors (i.e., diet, physical activity, and family history) strengthens support for a true association.
Another study found no relationship between alcohol consumption and risk of kidney cancer among either men or women.
A Finnish study concluded, "These data suggest that alcohol consumption is associated with decreased risk of RCC in male smokers. Because most of the risk reductions were seen at the highest quartile of alcohol intake and alcohol is a risk factor for a number of cancers particularly among smokers, these data should be interpreted with caution." "Our data suggest an inverse association between alcohol intake and risk of renal cell cancer…" Compared with nondrinkers, men who drank one or more drinks per day had a 31% lower risk of kidney cancer among 161,126 Hawaii-Los Angeles Multiethnic Cohort participants.
Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL)
A study concluded, "People who drink alcoholic beverages might have a lower risk of NHL than those who do not, and this risk might vary by NHL subtype." "Compared with nondrinkers, alcohol consumers had a lower risk for non-Hodgkin's lymphoma overall … and for its main subtypes." A study concluded, "Nonusers of alcohol had an elevated NHL risk compared with users…" 
Some studies have found a protective effect on NHL of drinking some forms of alcoholic beverage or in some demographic groups. A study of men in the US found that consumption of wine, but not beer or spirits, was associated with a reduced NHL risk  and a large European study found a protective effect of alcohol among men and in non-Mediterranean countries.." A study of older women in Iowa found alcohol to reduce the risk of NHL and the amount of alcohol consumed, rather than the type of alcohollic beverages, appeared to be the main determinant in reducing risk."
Some studies have not found a protective effect from drinking. Research in England found no association between frequency of drinking and NHL  and research in Sweden found that total beer, wine, or liquor intake was not associated with any major subtype of NHL examined, apart from an association between high wine consumption and increased risk of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.."
One study of NHL patients concluded, "Our findings strongly encourage physicians to advice NHL patients to stop smoking and diminish alcohol consumption to obtain improvements in the course of NHL."
Recommended maximum alcohol intake
As outlined above, there is no recommended alcohol intake with respect to cancer risk alone as it varies with each individual cancer. See Recommended maximum intake of alcoholic beverages for a list of governments' guidances on alcohol intake which, for a healthy man, range from 140–280g per week.
One meta-analysis suggests that risks of cancers may start below the recommended levels. "Risk increased significantly for drinkers, compared with non-drinkers, beginning at an intake of 25 g (< 2 standard drinks) per day for the following: cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx (relative risk, RR, 1.9), esophagus (RR 1.4), larynx (RR 1.4), breast (RR 1.3), liver (RR 1.2), colon (RR 1.1), and rectum (RR 1.1)"
- ^ Global Status Report on Alcohol 2004. Geneva: World Health Organization. 2004. ISBN 92-4-156272-2. http://www.who.int/entity/substance_abuse/publications/global_status_report_2004_overview.pdf.
- ^ a b c "Alcohol and Cancer". Alcohol Alert (National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism) 21. 1993. http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/aa21.htm.
- ^ Boffetta P, Hashibe M, La Vecchia C, Zatonski W, Rehm J (August 2006). "The burden of cancer attributable to alcohol drinking". International Journal of Cancer 119 (4): 884–7. doi:10.1002/ijc.21903. PMID 16557583.
- ^ Review of Alcohol: Association with Breast Cancer
- ^ a b World Cancer Research Fund, American Institute for Cancer Research (2007). Food, Nutrition, Physical Activity, and the Prevention of Cancer: a Global Perspective. Washington, D.C.: American Institute for Cancer Research. ISBN 978-0-9722522-2-5. http://www.dietandcancerreport.org/downloads/Second_Expert_Report.pdf. Retrieved 29 June 2009.
- ^ Su LJ, Arab L (2004). "Alcohol consumption and risk of colon cancer: evidence from the national health and nutrition examination survey I epidemiologic follow-up study". Nutrition and Cancer 50 (2): 111–9. doi:10.1207/s15327914nc5002_1. PMID 15623458.
- ^ Cho E, Smith-Warner SA, Ritz J, et al. (20 April 2004). "Alcohol intake and colorectal cancer: a pooled analysis of 8 cohort studies". Annals of Internal Medicine 140 (8): 603–13. PMID 15096331. http://www.annals.org/cgi/content/abstract/140/8/603.
- ^ Voigt MD (February 2005). "Alcohol in hepatocellular cancer". Clinics in Liver Disease 9 (1): 151–69. doi:10.1016/j.cld.2004.10.003. PMID 15763234.
- ^ Andrea Benedetti, Marie-Elise Parent, Jack Siemiatycki Lifetime consumption of alcoholic beverages and risk of 13 types of cancer in men: Results from a case–control study in Montreal Cancer Epidemiology Volume 32, Issue 5, Pages 352-362 (2009) doi:10.1016/j.canep.2009.03.001
- ^ a b c Bagnardi V, Blangiardo M, La Vecchia C, Corrao G (2001). "Alcohol consumption and the risk of cancer: a meta-analysis". Alcohol Research & Health 25 (4): 263–70. PMID 11910703. http://pubs.niaaa.nih.gov/publications/arh25-4/263-270.htm.
- ^ Study bolsters alcohol-cancer link ABC News 24 August 2009
- ^ International Agency for Rescarch on Cancer, World Health Organization. (1988). Alcohol drinking. Lyon: World Health Organization, International Agency for Research on Cancer. ISBN 92-832-1244-4. http://monographs.iarc.fr/ENG/Monographs/vol44/volume44.pdf. p8
- ^ Nils Homann, Felix Stickel, Inke R. König, Arne Jacobs, Klaus Junghanns, Monika Benesova, Detlef Schuppan, Susanne Himsel, Ina Zuber-Jerger, Claus Hellerbrand, Dieter Ludwig, Wolfgang H. Caselmann, Helmut K. Seitz Alcohol dehydrogenase 1C*1 allele is a genetic marker for alcohol-associated cancer in heavy drinkers International Journal of Cancer Volume 118, Issue 8, Pages 1998–2002
- ^ Pöschl G, Seitz HK (2004). "Alcohol and cancer". Alcohol and Alcoholism 39 (3): 155–65. doi:10.1093/alcalc/agh057. PMID 15082451.
- ^ Theruvathu JA, Jaruga P, Nath RG, Dizdaroglu M, Brooks PJ (2005). "Polyamines stimulate the formation of mutagenic 1,N2-propanodeoxyguanosine adducts from acetaldehyde". Nucleic Acids Research 33 (11): 3513–20. doi:10.1093/nar/gki661. PMID 15972793.
- ^ Purohit V, Khalsa J, Serrano J (April 2005). "Mechanisms of alcohol-associated cancers: introduction and summary of the symposium". Alcohol 35 (3): 155–60. doi:10.1016/j.alcohol.2005.05.001. PMID 16054976.
- ^ Dr Paolo Boffetta, Mia Hashibe Alcohol and cancer The Lancet Oncology, Volume 7, Issue 2, Pages 149–156, February 2006 doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(06)70577-0
- ^ Blot WJ, McLaughlin JK, Winn DM, et al. (1 June 1988). "Smoking and drinking in relation to oral and pharyngeal cancer". Cancer Research 48 (11): 3282–7. PMID 3365707. http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=3365707.
- ^ Rush University Medical Center Alcohol Activates Cellular Changes That Make Tumor Cells Spread 26 October 2009
- ^ Christopher B. Forsyth, Yueming Tang, Maliha Shaikh, Lijuan Zhang, and Ali Keshavarzian Alcohol Stimulates Activation of Snail, Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling, and Biomarkers of Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition in Colon and Breast Cancer Cells Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research Published Online: 23 Oct 2009
- ^ Matsuhashi T, Yamada N, Shinzawa H, Takahashi T (June 1996). "Effect of alcohol on tumor growth of hepatocellular carcinoma with type C cirrhosis". Internal Medicine 35 (6): 443–8. doi:10.2169/internalmedicine.35.443. PMID 8835593. "In conclusion we found that alcohol intake was closely related to the tumor growth of HCC in patients with type C cirrhosis.".
- ^ Gu JW, Bailey AP, Sartin A, Makey I, Brady AL (January 2005). "Ethanol stimulates tumor progression and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in chick embryos". Cancer 103 (2): 422–31. doi:10.1002/cncr.20781. PMID 15597382.
- ^ American Physiological Society (3 April 2006). "Equivalent Of 2-4 Drinks Daily Fuels Blood Vessel Growth, Encourages Cancer Tumors In Mice". Press release. http://www.the-aps.org/press/conference/eb06/8.htm. Retrieved 26 June 2009.
- ^ Tan W, Bailey AP, Shparago M, et al. (August 2007). "Chronic alcohol consumption stimulates VEGF expression, tumor angiogenesis and progression of melanoma in mice". Cancer Biology & Therapy 6 (8): 1211–7. PMID 17660711. http://www.landesbioscience.com/journals/cbt/abstract.php?id=4406.
- ^ Núñez NP, Carter PA, Meadows GG (May 2002). "Alcohol consumption promotes body weight loss in melanoma-bearing mice". Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research 26 (5): 617–26. doi:10.1111/j.1530-0277.2002.tb02583.x. PMID 12045469.
- ^ Homann N, Stickel F, König IR, et al. (April 2006). "Alcohol dehydrogenase 1C*1 allele is a genetic marker for alcohol-associated cancer in heavy drinkers". International Journal of Cancer 118 (8): 1998–2002. doi:10.1002/ijc.21583. PMID 16287084.
- ^ "Clues to alcohol cancer mystery". BBC News. 25 May 2008. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/7417725.stm. Retrieved 29 June 2009.
- ^ a b c d e Allen NE, Beral V, Casabonne D, et al. (March 2009). "Moderate alcohol intake and cancer incidence in women". Journal of the National Cancer Institute 101 (5): 296–305. doi:10.1093/jnci/djn514. PMID 19244173.
- ^ "Alcohol Consumption". Cancer Trends Progress Report – 2007 Update. National Cancer Institute. December 2007. http://progressreport.cancer.gov/doc_detail.asp?pid=1&did=2007&chid=71&coid=706&mid=. Retrieved 29 June 2009.
- ^ "Research Projects: Pooled analysis investigating the effects of beer, wine and liquor consumption on the risk of head and neck cancers". The International Head and Neck Cancer Epidemiology Consortium. http://inhance.iarc.fr/projects.php. Retrieved 29 June 2009.
- ^ Garavello W, Bosetti C, Gallus S, et al. (February 2006). "Type of alcoholic beverage and the risk of laryngeal cancer". European Journal of Cancer Prevention 15 (1): 69–73. doi:10.1097/01.cej.0000186641.19872.04. PMID 16374233.
- ^ Centre for Addiction and Mental Health (26 September 2007). "Alcohol and cancer: is drinking the new smoking?". Press release. http://www.camh.net/News_events/News_releases_and_media_advisories_and_backgrounders/alcohol_cancer_research.html. Retrieved 29 June 2009.
- ^ Centre for Addiction and Mental Health, Science Daily (28 September 2007). "Alcohol And Cancer: Is Drinking The New Smoking?". Press release. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/09/070926094722.htm. Retrieved 29 June 2009.
- ^ Saman Warnakulasuriya, Seppo Parkkila, Toru Nagao, Victor R. Preedy, Markku Pasanen, Heidi Koivisto, Onni Niemelä Demonstration of ethanol-induced protein adducts in oral leukoplakia (pre-cancer) and cancer Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine Volume 37 Issue 3, Pages 157–165
- ^ Alcohol and oral cancer research breakthrough
- ^ "What Are the Risk Factors for Breast Cancer?". American Cancer Society. 31 May 2009. http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_2X_What_are_the_risk_factors_for_breast_cancer_5.asp. Retrieved 29 June 2009.
- ^ "What You Need To Know About Breast Cancer". National Cancer Institute. http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/wyntk/breast/page4.
- ^ "Definite breast cancer risks". CancerHelp UK. Cancer Research UK. http://www.cancerhelp.org.uk/help/default.asp?page=3293#alcohol.
- ^ "Guide to Breast Cancer". American Society of Clinical Oncology. 2008. p. 6. http://www.cancer.net/patient/Cancer%20Types/Cancer.Net%20Guide%20to%20Cancer%20PDFs/Cancer.Net_Guide_to_Breast_Cancer_PDF.pdf. Retrieved 29 June 2009.
- ^ Room, R; Babor, T; Rehm, J (2005). "Alcohol and public health". The Lancet 365: 519. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(05)17870-2.
- ^ a b Non-Technical Summary Committee on Carcinogenicity of Chemicals in Food Consumer Products and the Environment (COC)
- ^ American Association for Cancer Research Alcohol Consumption Increases Risk of Breast Cancer Recurrence 10 December 2009
- ^ BBC Alcohol link to breast cancer recurrence 11 December 2009
- ^ Zisman AL, Nickolov A, Brand RE, Gorchow A, Roy HK (March 2006). "Associations between the age at diagnosis and location of colorectal cancer and the use of alcohol and tobacco: implications for screening". Archives of Internal Medicine 166 (6): 629–34. doi:10.1001/archinte.166.6.629. PMID 16567601.
- ^ "Types of cancer". World Cancer Research Fund. http://www.wcrf-uk.org/research/types_of_cancer.php. Retrieved 29 June 2009.
- ^ "Colorectal Cancer - Step 1: Find Out About Colorectal Cancer Risk". National Cancer Institute. http://understandingrisk.cancer.gov/a_Colon/01.cfm. Retrieved 29 June 2009.
- ^ "Colorectal Cancer Prevention". National Cancer Institute. 7 May 2009. http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/pdq/prevention/colorectal/Patient/page3. Retrieved 29 June 2009.
- ^ "Food types and bowel cancer". Cancer Research. 19 September 2008. http://www.cancerhelp.org.uk/help/default.asp?page=2813. Retrieved 29 June 2009.
- ^ "What Are the Risk Factors for Colorectal Cancer?". American Cancer Society. 18 May 2009. http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/content/CRI_2_4_2X_What_are_the_risk_factors_for_colon_and_rectum_cancer.asp. Retrieved 26 June 2009.
- ^ "Colon Cancer: Risk factors". Mayo Clinic. 2 May 2008. http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/colon-cancer/DS00035/DSECTION=risk%2Dfactors. Retrieved 29 June 2009.
- ^ "Assessing Your Risk for Colorectal Cancer". Colorectal Cancer Coalition. 9 January 2009. http://fightcolorectalcancer.org/awareness/patients/prevention/risk. Retrieved 29 June 2009.
- ^ Alcohol
- ^ Sloan-Kettering - Colorectal Cancer: Risk Reduction
- ^ National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Trends Progress Report Alcohol Consumption
- ^ Anderson JC, Alpern Z, Sethi G, et al. (September 2005). "Prevalence and risk of colorectal neoplasia in consumers of alcohol in a screening population". The American Journal of Gastroenterology 100 (9): 2049–55. doi:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2005.41832.x. PMID 16128951.
- ^ Booze boosts bowel cancer risk
- ^ Alcohol link to bowel cancer risk
- ^ Austin GL, Galanko JA, Martin CF, Sandler RS (January 2008). "Moderate alcohol consumption protects against colorectal adenomas in smokers". Digestive Diseases and Sciences 53 (1): 116–22. doi:10.1007/s10620-007-9831-3. PMID 17510802.
- ^ Mizoue T, Inoue M, Wakai K, et al. (June 2008). "Alcohol drinking and colorectal cancer in Japanese: a pooled analysis of results from five cohort studies". American Journal of Epidemiology 167 (12): 1397–406. doi:10.1093/aje/kwn073. PMID 18420544.
- ^ Risk Factors
- ^ What Are the Risk Factors for Liver Cancer?
- ^ Risk Factors
- ^ Liver Cancer
- ^ Liver Cancer: The Basics
- ^ Liver Cancer
- ^ Takada, Akira; Shujiro Takase and Mikihiro Tsutsumi (1992). "Alcohol and Hepatic Carcinogenesis". in Raz Yirmiya and Anna N. Taylor. Alcohol, Immunity, and Cancer. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. pp. 187–209. ISBN 978-0-8493-5761-9.
- ^ Villa, Erica; Margherita Melegari and Federico Manenti (1992). "Alcohol, Viral Hepatitis, and Hepatocellular Carcinoma". in Ronald Ross Watson. Alcohol and cancer. Boca Raton, Florida: CRC Press. pp. 151–165. ISBN 978-0-8493-7938-3. http://books.google.com/books?id=81V5y-LOxg0C&pg=PA151.
- ^ Duffy, S.W., and Sharples, L.D. Alcohol and cancer risk. In: Duffy, J.L., ed. Alcohol and Illness: The Epidemiological Viewpoint. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1992. pp. 64–127.'
- ^ Franceschi S, Montella M, Polesel J, et al. (April 2006). "Hepatitis viruses, alcohol, and tobacco in the etiology of hepatocellular carcinoma in Italy". Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 15 (4): 683–9. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-05-0702. PMID 16614109.
- ^ Donato F, Tagger A, Chiesa R, et al. (September 1997). "Hepatitis B and C virus infection, alcohol drinking, and hepatocellular carcinoma: a case-control study in Italy. Brescia HCC Study". Hepatology 26 (3): 579–84. doi:10.1002/hep.510260308. PMID 9303486.
- ^ Freudenheim JL, Ritz J, Smith-Warner SA, et al. (1 September 2005). "Alcohol consumption and risk of lung cancer: a pooled analysis of cohort studies". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 82 (3): 657–67. PMID 16155281. http://www.ajcn.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=16155281.
- ^ Boston University Alcohol Consumption and Lung Cancer: Are They Connected?
- ^ Millen AE, Tucker MA, Hartge P, et al. (1 June 2004). "Diet and melanoma in a case-control study". Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 13 (6): 1042–51. PMID 15184262. http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=15184262.
- ^ a b Chen MJ, Chiou YY, Wu DC, Wu SL (November 2000). "Lifestyle habits and gastric cancer in a hospital-based case-control study in Taiwan". The American Journal of Gastroenterology 95 (11): 3242–9. doi:10.1111/j.1572-0241.2000.03260.x. PMID 11095349.
- ^ Inoue M, Tajima K, Hirose K, Kuroishi T, Gao CM, Kitoh T (February 1994). "Life-style and subsite of gastric cancer--joint effect of smoking and drinking habits". International Journal of Cancer 56 (4): 494–9. doi:10.1002/ijc.2910560407. PMID 8112885.
- ^ a b Sjödahl K, Lu Y, Nilsen TI, et al. (January 2007). "Smoking and alcohol drinking in relation to risk of gastric cancer: a population-based, prospective cohort study". International Journal of Cancer 120 (1): 128–32. doi:10.1002/ijc.22157. PMID 17036324.
- ^ Stomach Cancer risk factors
- ^ Tinelli A, Vergara D, Martignago R, Leo G, Malvasi A, Tinelli R (2008). "Hormonal carcinogenesis and socio-biological development factors in endometrial cancer: a clinical review". Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand 87 (11): 1101–13. doi:10.1080/00016340802160079. PMID 18607816. http://www.informaworld.com/openurl?genre=article&doi=10.1080/00016340802160079&magic=pubmed||1B69BA326FFE69C3F0A8F227DF8201D0.
- ^ UK Department of Health Review of Alcohol: Association with Endometrial Cancer p8
- ^ Polly A. Newcomb, Amy Trentham-Dietz, and Barry E. Storer Alcohol consumption in relation to endometrial cancer risk Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers & Prevention Vol 6, Issue 10 775-778
- ^ Setiawan VW, Monroe KR, Goodman MT, Kolonel LN, Pike MC, Henderson BE (February 2008). "Alcohol consumption and endometrial cancer risk: the multiethnic cohort". International Journal of Cancer 122 (3): 634–8. doi:10.1002/ijc.23072. PMID 17764072.
- ^ Moerman CJ, Bueno-de-Mesquita HB (1999). "The epidemiology of gallbladder cancer: lifestyle related risk factors and limited surgical possibilities for prevention". Hepatogastroenterology 46 (27): 1533–9. PMID 10430290.
- ^ Ji J, Couto E, Hemminki K (September 2005). "Incidence differences for gallbladder cancer between occupational groups suggest an etiological role for alcohol". International Journal of Cancer 116 (3): 492–3. doi:10.1002/ijc.21055. PMID 15800949.
- ^ Pandey M, Shukla VK (August 2003). "Lifestyle, parity, menstrual and reproductive factors and risk of gallbladder cancer". European Journal of Cancer Prevention 12 (4): 269–72. doi:10.1097/01.cej.0000082604.47188.5d (inactive 26 June 2009). PMID 12883378.
- ^ Yagyu K, Kikuchi S, Obata Y, et al. (February 2008). "Cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking and the risk of gallbladder cancer death: a prospective cohort study in Japan". International Journal of Cancer 122 (4): 924–9. doi:10.1002/ijc.23159. PMID 17955487.
- ^ La Vecchia C, Negri E, Franceschi S, Parazzini F, Gentile A, Fasoli M (September 1992). "Alcohol and epithelial ovarian cancer". Journal of Clinical Epidemiology 45 (9): 1025–30. doi:10.1016/0895-4356(92)90119-8. PMID 1432017.
- ^ a b Alcohol consumption and cancer risk
- ^ Genkinger JM, Hunter DJ, Spiegelman D, et al. (March 2006). "Alcohol intake and ovarian cancer risk: a pooled analysis of 10 cohort studies". British Journal of Cancer 94 (5): 757–62. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6603020. PMID 16495916.
- ^ Nutrition and Prostate Cancer
- ^ Bagnardi V, Blangiardo M, La Vecchia C, Corrao G (November 2001). "A meta-analysis of alcohol drinking and cancer risk". British Journal of Cancer 85 (11): 1700–5. doi:10.1054/bjoc.2001.2140. PMID 11742491.
- ^ Platz EA, Leitzmann MF, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Giovannucci E (March 2004). "Alcohol intake, drinking patterns, and risk of prostate cancer in a large prospective cohort study". American Journal of Epidemiology 159 (5): 444–53. doi:10.1093/aje/kwh062. PMID 14977640.
- ^ a b Sesso HD, Paffenbarger RS, Lee IM (August 2001). "Alcohol consumption and risk of prostate cancer: The Harvard Alumni Health Study". International Journal of Epidemiology 30 (4): 749–55. doi:10.1093/ije/30.4.749. PMID 11511598.
- ^ a b Schoonen WM, Salinas CA, Kiemeney LA, Stanford JL (January 2005). "Alcohol consumption and risk of prostate cancer in middle-aged men". International Journal of Cancer 113 (1): 133–40. doi:10.1002/ijc.20528. PMID 15386436.
- ^ Cancer Research UK Prostate Cancer risk factors
- ^ Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center press release A Glass of Red Wine a Day May Keep Prostate Cancer Away
- ^ Middleton Fillmore K, Chikritzhs T, Stockwell T, Bostrom A, Pascal R (February 2009). "Alcohol use and prostate cancer: a meta-analysis". Molecular Nutrition & Food Research 53 (2): 240–55. doi:10.1002/mnfr.200800122. PMID 19156715.
- ^ "Study links alcohol, prostate cancer". ABC News. 14 March 2009. http://www.abc.net.au/news/stories/2009/03/14/2516235.htm. Retrieved 29 June 2009.
- ^ Infante-Rivard C, El-Zein M (2007). "Parental alcohol consumption and childhood cancers: a review". J Toxicol Environ Health B Crit Rev 10 (1-2): 101–29. doi:10.1080/10937400601034597. PMID 18074306. http://www.informaworld.com/openurl?genre=article&doi=10.1080/10937400601034597&magic=pubmed||1B69BA326FFE69C3F0A8F227DF8201D0.
- ^ Malcolm A. Smith, Lynn A. Gloeckler Ries, James G. Gurney, Julie A. Ross Leukemia SEER Pediatric Monograph National Cancer Institute
- ^ a b Malcolm A. Smith, Lynn A. Gloeckler Ries, James G. Gurney, Julie A. Ross  National Cancer Institute 34 SEER Pediatric Monograph
- ^ a b c Gorini G, Stagnaro E, Fontana V, et al. (March 2007). "Alcohol consumption and risk of leukemia: A multicenter case-control study". Leukemia Research 31 (3): 379–86. doi:10.1016/j.leukres.2006.07.002. PMID 16919329.
- ^ Shu XO, Ross JA, Pendergrass TW, Reaman GH, Lampkin B, Robison LL (January 1996). "Parental alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, and risk of infant leukemia: a Childrens Cancer Group study". Journal of the National Cancer Institute 88 (1): 24–31. doi:10.1093/jnci/88.1.24. PMID 8847721.
- ^ van Duijn CM, van Steensel-Moll HA, Coebergh JW, van Zanen GE (1 September 1994). "Risk factors for childhood acute non-lymphocytic leukemia: an association with maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy?". Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 3 (6): 457–60. PMID 8000294. http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=8000294.
- ^ Oleske D, Golomb HM, Farber MD, Levy PS (May 1985). "A case-control inquiry into the etiology of hairy cell leukemia" (). American Journal of Epidemiology 121 (5): 675–83. doi:10.1093/aje/121.5.675. PMID 4014159. http://aje.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=4014159.
- ^ Kyle RA, Rajkumar SV (December 2007). "Epidemiology of the plasma-cell disorders". Best Pract Res Clin Haematol 20 (4): 637–64. doi:10.1016/j.beha.2007.08.001. PMID 18070711. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1521-6926(07)00062-X.
- ^ a b Gorini G, Stagnaro E, Fontana V, et al. (January 2007). "Alcohol consumption and risk of Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma: a multicentre case-control study". Annals of Oncology 18 (1): 143–8. doi:10.1093/annonc/mdl352. PMID 17047000.
- ^ Cancer Research UK Pancreatic cancer risks and causes
- ^ a b Ye W, Lagergren J, Weiderpass E, Nyrén O, Adami HO, Ekbom A (August 2002). "Alcohol abuse and the risk of pancreatic cancer". Gut 51 (2): 236–9. doi:10.1136/gut.51.2.236. PMID 12117886.
- ^ a b Silverman DT, Brown LM, Hoover RN, et al. (1 November 1995). "Alcohol and pancreatic cancer in blacks and whites in the United States". Cancer Research 55 (21): 4899–905. PMID 7585527. http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=7585527.
- ^ a b Michaud DS, Giovannucci E, Willett WC, Colditz GA, Fuchs CS (1 May 2001). "Coffee and alcohol consumption and the risk of pancreatic cancer in two prospective United States cohorts". Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 10 (5): 429–37. PMID 11352851. http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=11352851.
- ^ Harnack LJ, Anderson KE, Zheng W, Folsom AR, Sellers TA, Kushi LH (1 December 1997). "Smoking, alcohol, coffee, and tea intake and incidence of cancer of the exocrine pancreas: the Iowa Women's Health Study". Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 6 (12): 1081–6. PMID 9419407. http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=9419407.
- ^ Durbec JP, Chevillotte G, Bidart JM, Berthezene P, Sarles H (April 1983). "Diet, alcohol, tobacco and risk of cancer of the pancreas: a case-control study". British Journal of Cancer 47 (4): 463–70. PMID 6849792.
- ^ Bueno de Mesquita HB, Maisonneuve P, Moerman CJ, Runia S, Boyle P (February 1992). "Lifetime consumption of alcoholic beverages, tea and coffee and exocrine carcinoma of the pancreas: a population-based case-control study in The Netherlands". International Journal of Cancer 50 (4): 514–22. doi:10.1002/ijc.2910500403. PMID 1537615.
- ^ Villeneuve PJ, Johnson KC, Hanley AJ, Mao Y (February 2000). "Alcohol, tobacco and coffee consumption and the risk of pancreatic cancer: results from the Canadian Enhanced Surveillance System case-control project. Canadian Cancer Registries Epidemiology Research Group". European Journal of Cancer Prevention 9 (1): 49–58. doi:10.1097/00008469-200002000-00007. PMID 10777010.
- ^ Genkinger JM, Spiegelman D, Anderson KE, et al. (March 2009). "Alcohol intake and pancreatic cancer risk: a pooled analysis of fourteen cohort studies". Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 18 (3): 765–76. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-08-0880. PMID 19258474.
- ^ Kuijten RR, Bunin GR, Nass CC, Meadows AT (1 May 1990). "Gestational and familial risk factors for childhood astrocytoma: results of a case-control study". Cancer Research 50 (9): 2608–12. PMID 2328486. http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/cgi/reprint/50/9/2608.pdf.
- ^ Ben-Menachem T (August 2007). "Risk factors for cholangiocarcinoma". Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol 19 (8): 615–7. doi:10.1097/MEG.0b013e328224b935. PMID 17625428.
- ^ Pelucchi C, La Vecchia C (February 2009). "Alcohol, coffee, and bladder cancer risk: a review of epidemiological studies". Eur. J. Cancer Prev. 18 (1): 62–8. doi:10.1097/CEJ.0b013e32830c8d44. PMID 19077567.
- ^ a b c Weiderpass E, Ye W, Tamimi R, et al. (1 August 2001). "Alcoholism and risk for cancer of the cervix uteri, vagina, and vulva". Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 10 (8): 899–901. PMID 11489758. http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=11489758.
- ^ Claus EB, Stowe M, Carter D (December 2001). "Breast carcinoma in situ: risk factors and screening patterns". Journal of the National Cancer Institute 93 (23): 1811–7. doi:10.1093/jnci/93.23.1811. PMID 11734598.
- ^ Kuijten RR, Bunin GR (1 May 1993). "Risk factors for childhood brain tumors". Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 2 (3): 277–88. PMID 8318881. http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=8318881.
- ^ Howe GR, Burch JD, Chiarelli AM, Risch HA, Choi BC (1 August 1989). "An exploratory case-control study of brain tumors in children". Cancer Research 49 (15): 4349–52. PMID 2743324. http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=2743324.
- ^ Preston-Martin S, Yu MC, Benton B, Henderson BE (1 December 1982). "N-Nitroso compounds and childhood brain tumors: a case-control study". Cancer Research 42 (12): 5240–5. PMID 7139628. http://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=7139628.
- ^ Stang A, Ahrens W, Anastassiou G, Jöckel KH (December 2003). "Phenotypical characteristics, lifestyle, social class and uveal melanoma". Ophthalmic Epidemiol 10 (5): 293–302. doi:10.1076/opep.10.5.293.17319. PMID 14566630.
- ^ Chen L, Gallicchio L, Boyd-Lindsley K, et al. (2009). "Alcohol consumption and the risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma: a systematic review". Nutr Cancer 61 (1): 1–15. doi:10.1080/01635580802372633. PMID 19116871.
- ^ Heck JE, Ritz B, Hung RJ, Hashibe M, Boffetta P (March 2009). "The epidemiology of neuroblastoma: a review". Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol 23 (2): 125–43. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3016.2008.00983.x. PMID 19159399. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/resolve/openurl?genre=article&sid=nlm:pubmed&issn=0269-5022&date=2009&volume=23&issue=2&spage=125.
- ^ Actis AB, Eynard AR (November 2000). "Influence of environmental and nutritional factors on salivary gland tumorigenesis with a special reference to dietary lipids". Eur J Clin Nutr 54 (11): 805–10. doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601077. PMID 11114673.
- ^ Chen CC, Neugut AI, Rotterdam H (1 April 1994). "Risk factors for adenocarcinomas and malignant carcinoids of the small intestine: preliminary findings". Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 3 (3): 205–7. PMID 8019367. http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=8019367.
- ^ Wu AH, Yu MC, Mack TM (March 1997). "Smoking, alcohol use, dietary factors and risk of small intestinal adenocarcinoma". International Journal of Cancer 70 (5): 512–7. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(19970304)70:5<512::AID-IJC4>3.0.CO;2-0. PMID 9052748.
- ^ Negri E, Bosetti C, La Vecchia C, Fioretti F, Conti E, Franceschi S (July 1999). "Risk factors for adenocarcinoma of the small intestine". International Journal of Cancer 82 (2): 171–4. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1097-0215(19990719)82:2<171::AID-IJC3>3.0.CO;2-T. PMID 10389747.
- ^ van Hemelrijck, Mieke J.J. (2007). "Tobacco, Alcohol and Dietary Consumption: Behavior Risks Associated with Testicular Cancer?". Current Urology 1: 57. doi:10.1159/000106534.
- ^ Dal Maso L, Bosetti C, La Vecchia C, Franceschi S (February 2009). "Risk factors for thyroid cancer: an epidemiological review focused on nutritional factors". Cancer Causes Control 20 (1): 75–86. doi:10.1007/s10552-008-9219-5. PMID 18766448.
- ^ Rossing MA, Cushing KL, Voigt LF, Wicklund KG, Daling JR (January 2000). "Risk of papillary thyroid cancer in women in relation to smoking and alcohol consumption". Epidemiology 11 (1): 49–54. doi:10.1097/00001648-200001000-00011. PMID 10615843.
- ^ Mack WJ, Preston-Martin S, Dal Maso L, et al. (October 2003). "A pooled analysis of case-control studies of thyroid cancer: cigarette smoking and consumption of alcohol, coffee, and tea". Cancer Causes & Control 14 (8): 773–85. doi:10.1023/A:1026349702909. PMID 14674742.
- ^ C L Meinhold, Y Park, R Z Stolzenberg-Solomon, A R Hollenbeck, A Schatzkin and A Berrington de Gonzalez Alcohol intake and risk of thyroid cancer in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study British Journal of Cancer (2009) 101, 1630–1634. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6605337
- ^ a b Madsen BS, Jensen HL, van den Brule AJ, Wohlfahrt J, Frisch M (June 2008). "Risk factors for invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the vulva and vagina--population-based case-control study in Denmark". International Journal of Cancer 122 (12): 2827–34. doi:10.1002/ijc.23446. PMID 18348142.
- ^ Parazzini F, Moroni S, Negri E, La Vecchia C, Dal Pino D, Cavalleri E (December 1995). "Selected food intake and risk of vulvar cancer". Cancer 76 (11): 2291–6. doi:10.1002/1097-0142(19951201)76:11<2291::AID-CNCR2820761117>3.0.CO;2-W. PMID 8635034.
- ^ Besson H, Brennan P, Becker N, et al. (August 2006). "Tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: A European multicenter case-control study (Epilymph)". International Journal of Cancer 119 (4): 901–8. doi:10.1002/ijc.21913. PMID 16557575.
- ^ Nieters A, Deeg E, Becker N (January 2006). "Tobacco and alcohol consumption and risk of lymphoma: results of a population-based case-control study in Germany". International Journal of Cancer 118 (2): 422–30. doi:10.1002/ijc.21306. PMID 16080191.
- ^ Deandrea S, Bertuccio P, Chatenoud L, Franceschi S, Serraino D, La Vecchia C (June 2007). "Reply to 'Alcohol consumption and risk of Hodgkin's lymphoma and multiple myeloma: a multicentre case-control study' by Gorini et al". Annals of Oncology 18 (6): 1119–21. doi:10.1093/annonc/mdm203. PMID 17586754.
- ^ Lee JE, Hunter DJ, Spiegelman D, et al. (May 2007). "Alcohol intake and renal cell cancer in a pooled analysis of 12 prospective studies". Journal of the National Cancer Institute 99 (10): 801–10. doi:10.1093/jnci/djk181. PMID 17505075.
- ^ Pelucchi C, Galeone C, Montella M, et al. (May 2008). "Alcohol consumption and renal cell cancer risk in two Italian case-control studies". Annals of Oncology 19 (5): 1003–8. doi:10.1093/annonc/mdm590. PMID 18187482.
- ^ Rashidkhani B, Akesson A, Lindblad P, Wolk A (December 2005). "Alcohol consumption and risk of renal cell carcinoma: a prospective study of Swedish women". International Journal of Cancer 117 (5): 848–53. doi:10.1002/ijc.21231. PMID 15957170.
- ^ Parker AS, Cerhan JR, Lynch CF, Ershow AG, Cantor KP (March 2002). "Gender, alcohol consumption, and renal cell carcinoma". American Journal of Epidemiology 155 (5): 455–62. doi:10.1093/aje/155.5.455. PMID 11867357.
- ^ Pelucchi C, La Vecchia C, Negri E, Talamini R, Franceschi S (December 2002). "Alcohol drinking and renal cell carcinoma in women and men". European Journal of Cancer Prevention 11 (6): 543–5. doi:10.1097/00008469-200212000-00006. PMID 12457106.
- ^ Mahabir S, Leitzmann MF, Virtanen MJ, et al. (1 January 2005). "Prospective study of alcohol drinking and renal cell cancer risk in a cohort of finnish male smokers". Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 14 (1): 170–5. PMID 15668492. http://cebp.aacrjournals.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=15668492.
- ^ Lee JE, Giovannucci E, Smith-Warner SA, Spiegelman D, Willett WC, Curhan GC (June 2006). "Total fluid intake and use of individual beverages and risk of renal cell cancer in two large cohorts". Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention 15 (6): 1204–11. doi:10.1158/1055-9965.EPI-05-0889. PMID 16775182.
- ^ Setiawan VW, Stram DO, Nomura AM, Kolonel LN, Henderson BE (October 2007). "Risk factors for renal cell cancer: the multiethnic cohort". American Journal of Epidemiology 166 (8): 932–40. doi:10.1093/aje/kwm170. PMID 17656615.
- ^ Morton LM, Zheng T, Holford TR, et al. (July 2005). "Alcohol consumption and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma: a pooled analysis". The Lancet Oncology 6 (7): 469–76. doi:10.1016/S1470-2045(05)70214-X. PMID 15992695.
- ^ Lim U, Morton LM, Subar AF, et al. (September 2007). "Alcohol, smoking, and body size in relation to incident Hodgkin's and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma risk". American Journal of Epidemiology 166 (6): 697–708. doi:10.1093/aje/kwm122. PMID 17596266.
- ^ Lim U, Schenk M, Kelemen LE, et al. (November 2005). "Dietary determinants of one-carbon metabolism and the risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma: NCI-SEER case-control study, 1998–2000". American Journal of Epidemiology 162 (10): 953–64. doi:10.1093/aje/kwi310. PMID 16221809.
- ^ Briggs NC, Levine RS, Bobo LD, Haliburton WP, Brann EA, Hennekens CH (September 2002). "Wine drinking and risk of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma among men in the United States: a population-based case-control study". American Journal of Epidemiology 156 (5): 454–62. doi:10.1093/aje/kwf058. PMID 12196315.
- ^ Besson H, Brennan P, Becker N, et al. (August 2006). "Tobacco smoking, alcohol drinking and Hodgkin's lymphoma: a European multi-centre case-control study (EPILYMPH)". British Journal of Cancer 95 (3): 378–84. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6603229. PMID 16819547.
- ^ Chiu BC, Cerhan JR, Gapstur SM, et al. (July 1999). "Alcohol consumption and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in a cohort of older women". British Journal of Cancer 80 (9): 1476–82. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6690547. PMID 10424754.
- ^ Willett EV, Smith AG, Dovey GJ, Morgan GJ, Parker J, Roman E (October 2004). "Tobacco and alcohol consumption and the risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma". Cancer Causes & Control 15 (8): 771–80. doi:10.1023/B:CACO.0000043427.77739.60. PMID 15456990.
- ^ Chang ET, Smedby KE, Zhang SM, et al. (December 2004). "Alcohol intake and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in men and women". Cancer Causes & Control 15 (10): 1067–76. doi:10.1007/s10552-004-2234-2. PMID 15801490.
- ^ Talamini R, Polesel J, Spina M, et al. (April 2008). "The impact of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking on survival of patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma". International Journal of Cancer 122 (7): 1624–9. doi:10.1002/ijc.23205. PMID 18059029.
- ^ Alcohol and Serious Consequences: Risks Increase Even With “Moderate” Intake
- ^ Corrao G, Bagnardi V, Zambon A, La Vecchia C (May 2004). "A meta-analysis of alcohol consumption and the risk of 15 diseases". Preventive Medicine 38 (5): 613–9. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2003.11.027. PMID 15066364.
- Government and international bodies
- Cancer charities
- Other sites
- Science and medical sites