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Some typical alcoholic beverages
.An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol intended for ingestion.^ A malt beverage produced under this; subdivision may not contain more than six percent (6%) alcohol by volume.

^ II. That borders on a; county that has approved the sale of alcoholic beverages countywide and; contains an international airport; and .

^ If the seal on a container of alcoholic beverages has been broken, it; is opened within the meaning of this section.

.Alcoholic beverages are divided into three general classes: beers, wines, and spirits.^ Prohibited; storage of alcoholic beverages and wine .
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Prohibited storage of alcoholic; beverages and wine.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Class “F” beer permit (beer and wine wholesale) .
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

.Alcoholic beverages are consumed in most sovereign states.^ Alcoholic beverages purchased out‑of‑State.

^ Air; carriers may sell and serve alcoholic beverages anywhere in this State to; passengers while in transit aboard any aircraft.

^ It shall be unlawful for any person to manufacture, sell,; transport, import, deliver, furnish, purchase, consume, or possess any; alcoholic beverages except as authorized by the ABC law.

Each nation has laws that regulate their production, sale, and consumption. .In particular, such laws specify the minimum age at which a person may legally buy or drink them.^ Any person who is over the lawful age to purchase and who aids or; abets another in violation of subsection (a), (a1), or (b) of this section; shall be guilty of a Class 1 misdemeanor.

^ Any party may be represented by an attorney or another; person authorized by law.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ "Underage person"; means a person who is less than the age legally required for purchase of the; alcoholic beverage in question.

The minimum age varies between 16 and 25 depending on the nation and the type of drink. .Most nations set it at 18 years of age.^ Persons must be 18 years of age or older to work in a state; liquor store.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

[1]
.The production and consumption of alcohol occurs in most cultures of the world, from hunter-gatherer peoples to nation-states.^ Especially since most Muslims live in cultures where the penalty for Apostasy is Death and where people of other religions are subject to sometimes murderous persecution.
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

[2][3] .Alcoholic beverages are often an important part of social events in these cultures.^ At no event; may the patron make available a quantity of alcoholic beverages in excess of; the amount a person is allowed to buy under G.S. 18B‑303(a).

^ Alcoholic beverages products sold during the event.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ These rules shall govern all forms prescribed by the; alcoholic beverages commission for use in proceedings before the division.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

In many cultures, drinking plays a significant role in social interaction — mainly because of alcohol’s neurological effects.
Alcohol is a psychoactive drug that has a depressant effect. .A high blood alcohol content is usually considered to be legal drunkenness because it reduces attention and slows reaction speed.^ But low doses of chemicals, because they are legally considered to be at negligible levels, have no such notification or labeling requirements.

.Alcoholic beverages can be addictive, and the state of addiction to alcohol is known as alcoholism.^ Alcoholic beverages purchased out‑of‑State.

^ "Nontaxpaid alcoholic; beverage" means any alcoholic beverage upon which the taxes imposed by the; United States, this State, or any other territorial jurisdiction in which the; alcoholic beverage was purchased have not been paid.

^ Air; carriers may sell and serve alcoholic beverages anywhere in this State to; passengers while in transit aboard any aircraft.

Contents

Types

.Alcoholic beverages that have a lower alcohol content (beer and wine) are produced by fermentation of sugar- or starch-containing plant material; beverages of higher alcohol content (spirits) are produced by fermentation followed by distillation.^ Prohibited; storage of alcoholic beverages and wine .
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Prohibited storage of alcoholic; beverages and wine.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Wine means any beverage containing more than 5; percent, but not more than 17 percent, of alcohol by weight obtained by the; fermentation of the natural sugar content of fruits or other agricultural; products by excluding any product containing alcohol derived from malt or by; the distillation process from grain cereal, molasses, or cactus.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

Beer

.Beer is the world's oldest[4] and most widely consumed[5] alcoholic beverage and the third most popular drink overall after water and coffee.^ THE; CONDITION OF THIS OBLIGATION IS SUCH, That whereas, the Principal has made; application for either a class “A” beer permit, class “A” wine permit, or a; class “F” beer permit to be issued by the Alcoholic Beverages Division.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Use of establishment during hours; alcoholic liquor, wine, and beer cannot ; be consumed.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ An alcoholic consuming 1500 calories a day from alcoholic sources alone may consume between 0 and 600 mg of methanol each day depending on his choice of beverages (Table 1).

[6] .It is produced by the brewing and fermentation of starches which are mainly derived from cereal grains — most commonly malted barley although wheat, maize (corn), and rice are also used.^ Malt beverages; may be made by use of malt beverage kits containing grain extracts or; concentrates.

^ A; permittee may transfer the ingredients from the fermentation room to the cold; room and may assist the customer in all the steps involved in brewing a malt; beverage except adding the yeast.

.Alcoholic beverages which are distilled after fermentation, fermented from non-cereal sources such as grapes or honey, or fermented from un-malted cereal grain, are not classified as beer.^ Wine means any beverage containing more than 5; percent, but not more than 17 percent, of alcohol by weight obtained by the; fermentation of the natural sugar content of fruits or other agricultural; products by excluding any product containing alcohol derived from malt or by; the distillation process from grain cereal, molasses, or cactus.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The city may hold a; malt beverage or unfortified wine election if any county in which a portion of; the city is located has already held such an election, the vote in the last; election of the particular type was against the sale of that type of alcoholic; beverage, and the city has a population of 500 or more.

^ Alcoholic beverages may not be sold in such a; room unless a permit has been issued under Article 10 authorizing sale there.

Most beer is flavored with hops, which add bitterness and act as a natural preservative. .Other flavorings, such as fruits or herbs, may also be used.^ Any winery which holds an unfortified winery permit and which; produces its wine principally from honey, grapes or other fruit or grain grown; in this State may obtain a limited winery permit.

^ Property which may be possessed lawfully shall not be subject to; forfeiture when it was used unlawfully by someone other than the owner of the; property and the owner did not consent to the unlawful use.

^ For example, tables produced by the model weight function for other regression models may be used as input for LinearModel.
  • ICM Language Reference : Functions 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.molsoft.com [Source type: Reference]

.The alcoholic strength of beer is usually 4% to 6% alcohol by volume (abv), but it may be less than 1% or more than 20%.^ An industry member may extend credit; to a retailer on the sale of wine for not more than 30 days from the date of; the sale.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The time; fixed for hearing or nonoral submission shall be not less than 20 days after; the filing of the motion, unless a shorter time is ordered by the presiding; officer.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Any wines obtained; by the process defined herein that contain more than 17 percent of alcohol by; weight will be considered an alcoholic liquor.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

Beer is part of the culture of various nations and has acquired social traditions such as beer festivals and pub culture, which involves activities such as pub crawling and pub games.
The basics of brewing beer are shared across national and cultural boundaries. The two main types of beer are lager and ale, which is further classified into varieties such as pale ale, stout, and brown ale. The beer-brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and thousands of smaller producers, which range from brewpubs to regional breweries.

Wine

.Wine involves a longer (complete) fermentation process and a long aging process (months or years) that results in an alcohol content of 9%–16% ABV.^ Wine means any beverage containing more than 5; percent, but not more than 17 percent, of alcohol by weight obtained by the; fermentation of the natural sugar content of fruits or other agricultural; products by excluding any product containing alcohol derived from malt or by; the distillation process from grain cereal, molasses, or cactus.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Any wines obtained; by the process defined herein that contain more than 17 percent of alcohol by; weight will be considered an alcoholic liquor.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ No city alcoholic beverage election may be; held within three years of the certification of the results of a previous; election on the same kind of alcoholic beverage in that city.

.Sparkling wine can be made by adding a small amount of sugar before bottling, which causes a secondary fermentation to occur in the bottle.^ Be made at the earliest possible time and no less; than three days before the hearing except for a good cause showing; .
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ So I went out to the kitchen and made another mug, adding just the right amount of creamer and my usual two tablets of NutraSweet.

^ Wine is essentially alcohol and water and sugars, all made from H 2 O and CO 2 .
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

Spirits

.Unsweetened, distilled, alcoholic beverages that have an alcohol content of at least 20% ABV are called spirits.^ When they present their original data relating to the methanol content of French wines (range 14-265 ppm) or when the methanol content of any alcoholic beverage is given, the ration of methanol to ethanol is also presented.

[7] .Spirits are produced by distillation of a fermented product; this process concentrates the alcohol and eliminates some of the congeners.^ Wine means any beverage containing more than 5; percent, but not more than 17 percent, of alcohol by weight obtained by the; fermentation of the natural sugar content of fruits or other agricultural; products by excluding any product containing alcohol derived from malt or by; the distillation process from grain cereal, molasses, or cactus.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

.Spirits can be added to wines to create fortified wines, such as port and sherry.^ It shall be lawful to possess fortified wine and spirituous liquor at any; place, such as an ABC store, where possession is a necessary incident to lawful; sale.

^ Any person to; consume fortified wine, spirituous liquor, or mixed beverages or to offer such; beverages to another person: .

Alcohol content of beverages

.The concentration of alcohol in a beverage is usually stated as the percentage of alcohol by volume (ABV) or—in the United States—as proof.^ Alcoholic beverages purchased out‑of‑State.

^ The; Commission may issue rules relating to applications for permits and otherwise; regulate the importation, sale, and delivery of alcoholic beverages under this; section to insure that those beverages are used only on oceangoing vessels; outside the United States.

^ A malt beverage produced under this; subdivision may not contain more than six percent (6%) alcohol by volume.

.In the U.S.A., proof is twice the percentage of alcohol by volume at 60 degrees Fahrenheit (e.g., 80 proof = 40% ABV).^ Pi/3 volume of unit sphere vol=Volume("APPGGASDDDEWQSSR") # van der Waals volume of the sequence vol=Volume({2.3,2.,5.,80.,90.,40.
  • ICM Language Reference : Functions 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.molsoft.com [Source type: Reference]

.Degrees proof were formerly used in the United Kingdom, where 100 degrees proof was equivalent to 57.1% ABV. Historically, this was the most dilute spirit that would sustain the combustion of gunpowder.^ First of all, measuring formaldehyde is tricky, and in any case, the circulating levels would be below the current limit of detection for most of the methods used.

.Ordinary distillation cannot produce alcohol of more than 95.6% ABV (191.2 proof) because at that point alcohol is an azeotrope with water.^ An industry member who engages in trade spending is; prohibited from paying the retailer more than the ordinary and customary charge; for the beverages.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Any wines obtained; by the process defined herein that contain more than 17 percent of alcohol by; weight will be considered an alcoholic liquor.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ This is partly because science is more easily taught than theology, partly because the further you go in science the more credibility you will have in science/theology debates, and partly because theology as taught in universities can be a rather faith-destroying experience.
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

Alcohol of this high level of purity is commonly called neutral grain spirit.
.Most yeasts cannot reproduce when the concentration of alcohol is higher than about 18%, so that is the practical limit for the strength of fermented beverages such as wine, beer, and sake.^ Prohibited; storage of alcoholic beverages and wine .
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Prohibited storage of alcoholic; beverages and wine.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Wine means any beverage containing more than 5; percent, but not more than 17 percent, of alcohol by weight obtained by the; fermentation of the natural sugar content of fruits or other agricultural; products by excluding any product containing alcohol derived from malt or by; the distillation process from grain cereal, molasses, or cactus.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

Strains of yeast have been developed that can reproduce in solutions of up to 25% ABV.

Serving sizes

United Kingdom

.In the United Kingdom, serving size in licensed premises is regulated under the Weights and Measures Act (1985).^ Prohibit; advertisements of alcoholic beverages on the premises of a permittee, or; regulate the size, number, and appearance of those advertisements; .

^ The licensed; premises of any business for which the Commission has issued a special; occasions permit under G.S. 18B‑1001(8), if he is the host of that; private function and has the permission of the permittee.

Spirits (gin, whisky, rum, and vodka) must be sold in quantities of 25 milliliters or multiples thereof, or 35 milliliters or multiples thereof. .A sign must be displayed stating whether the 25 ml or the 35 ml measure is being used.^ The malt beverages must come to rest at the; licensed premises of a malt beverage wholesaler in this State before being; resold to a retailer.

^ A request by an association must be signed by an; officer or designee of the association and must contain a statement that the; association has at least 25 members and the address and telephone number of the; person signing that request.
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^ The unfortified and fortified wine must; come to rest at the licensed premises of a wine wholesaler in this State before; being resold to a retailer.

[8] See alcoholic spirits measures.
Beer is typically sold in pints (568 ml), but can also be legally served as half-pints or third-pints. Traditionally, a crown stamp on a glass was used to indicate that the glass was a full-sized measure. .In 2008, after over three hundred years' use, this was replaced by a Europe-wide mark “CE” (Conformite Europeenne).^ This provision may be used only three years; out of every 10 years and notice must be given to the Commission each time this; provision is used; .

^ Dental amalgam has been widely used for over 150 years.

Leading breweries and pub companies campaigned against its removal.[9]
In addition to this, a system of units of alcohol exists as a guideline for alcohol consumption. A unit of alcohol is defined as 10 millilitres of pure ethanol. The number of units present in a typical drink is printed on bottles. .The system is intended as an aid to people regulating the amount of alcohol they drink; it is not used to determine serving sizes.^ They use propylene alcohol, too.

^ Prohibit; advertisements of alcoholic beverages on the premises of a permittee, or; regulate the size, number, and appearance of those advertisements; .

^ Prohibit alcoholic; beverage advertisements on outdoor signs, or regulate the nature, size, number,; and appearance of those advertisements; .

Europe outside the British Isles

In pubs or restaurants, beer is usually served in glasses of 40 or 50 cl, but this can vary, up to 1 litre.

United States

.In the United States, the standardized serving of an alcoholic beverage contains 0.6 US fluid ounces (18 ml) of pure ethanol.^ Standards for alcoholic beverages.

^ Import malt; beverages from outside the United States in closed containers; .

^ Alcoholic beverages purchased out‑of‑State.

That is approximately the amount of ethanol in a 12-US-fluid-ounce (350 ml) serving of beer, a 5-US-fluid-ounce (150 ml) glass of wine, or a 1.5-US-fluid-ounce (44 ml) glass of a 40% ABV spirit.

Flavoring

Alcohol is a moderately good solvent for many fatty substances and essential oils. .This attribute facilitates the use of flavoring and coloring compounds in alcoholic beverages, especially distilled beverages.^ Alcoholic beverages for use in air; commerce.

^ Alcoholic beverages for use on oceangoing; ships.

^ These rules shall govern all forms prescribed by the; alcoholic beverages commission for use in proceedings before the division.
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.Flavors may be naturally present in the beverage’s base material.^ A party may request the taking of additional; evidence only by establishing that the evidence is material, that good cause; existed for the failure to present the evidence at the hearing, and that the; party has not waived the right to present the evidence.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

.Beer and wine may be flavored before fermentation.^ A liquor license, wine permit, or a beer permit may only be; transferred within the boundaries of the local authority which approved the; license or permit.
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^ An industry member may sell, furnish; or give wine and beer coil cleaning services to a retailer.
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^ An industry member may offer coupons to the public for; mail–in rebates on alcoholic liquor, wine and beer.
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Spirits may be flavored before, during, or after distillation.
Sometimes flavor is obtained by allowing the beverage to stand for months or years in oak barrels, usually American or French oak.
A few brands of spirits have fruit or herbs inserted into the bottle at the time of bottling.

Uses

.In many countries, people drink alcoholic beverages at lunch and dinner.^ The division may accept from the general public; for alcoholic beverages traveler’s checks issued in a foreign country if payment; is in U.S. dollars.
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.Studies have found that when food is eaten before drinking alcohol, alcohol absorption is reduced[10] and the rate at which alcohol is eliminated from the blood is increased.^ CONCLUSION Simply because methanol is found "naturally" in foods, we can not dismiss the need for carefully documented safety testing in appropriate animal models before allowing a dramatic increase in its consumption.

^ Following intravenous infusion into the monkey, formaldehyde was rapidly eliminated from the blood with a half-life of about 1.5 min and formic acid levels promptly increased in the blood.

^ Most patients, however, give a history of 5 to 10 years of heavy drinking before the onset of the first attack (16).

The mechanism for the faster alcohol elimination appears to be unrelated to the type of food. .The likely mechanism is food-induced increases in alcohol-metabolizing enzymes and liver blood flow.^ Alcohol dehydrogenase is the primary enzyme for the oxidation of methanol to formaldehyde, and this oxidation reaction is the rate-limiting step in the metabolism of methanol.

^ Investigations are being pursued on the pathogenesis of liver cancer induced either by agents that attack DNA or that operate through indirect or epigenetic mechanisms.

[10]
.At times and places of poor public sanitation (such as Medieval Europe), the consumption of alcoholic drinks was a way of avoiding water-borne diseases such as cholera.^ Bear in mind that the EPA limit for formaldehyde in drinking water is 1 ppm, or 2 mg daily for a typical daily consumption of 2 L of water.

^ This is 56-112 times the EPA limit of 2 mg formaldehyde in drinking water, if 15%, 0.3 mg, is retained in the body.

^ Bear in mind that the EPA limit [see below] for formaldehyde in drinking water is 1 ppm, or 2 mg daily for a typical daily consumption of 2 L of water.

.Small beer and faux wine, in particular, were used for this purpose.^ Use of establishment during hours; alcoholic liquor, wine, and beer cannot ; be consumed.
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^ A licensee or; permittee cannot transfer to anyone else the right to use the liquor license,; wine permit, or beer permit of the licensee or permittee; the right of transfer; is merely an opportunity for a licensee or permittee to use the licensee’s or; permittee’s liquor license, wine permit, or beer permit at a different; location.
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^ Alcoholic liquor; and wine may not be kept, consumed, or dispensed for any purpose by any entity; or individual on the premises of a Class “B” beer permit holder.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

.Although alcohol kills bacteria, its low concentration in these beverages would have had only a limited effect.^ (In addition, the mixtures of these chemicals which bioaccumulate within an organism in low doses may have toxic effects many times those of any one chemical.

^ The inhibitory effect is a linear function of the log of the ethyl alcohol concentration, with a 72% inhibition rate at only a 0.01 molar concentration of ethanol (2, 46).

^ This high ethanol to methanol ratio, even at these low ethanol concentrations, may have some protective effect.

.More important was that the boiling of water (required for the brewing of beer) and the growth of yeast (required for fermentation of beer and wine) would tend to kill dangerous microorganisms.^ After the issuance of an emergency adjudicative; order, the agency shall proceed as quickly as feasible to complete any; proceedings that would be required if the matter did not involve an immediate; danger.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ All applicants for liquor control licenses, wine; permits, or beer permits shall comply with the following requirements, where; applicable, prior to receiving a liquor license, wine permit, or beer permit.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The sale of unfortified wine or fortified wine shall be by public auction; unless those wines would likely become spoiled or lose value in the time; required to arrange a public auction.

.The alcohol content of these beverages allowed them to be stored for months or years in simple wood or clay containers without spoiling.^ Sale of alcoholic beverages in ABC stores.

^ No ABC; store shall be open, and no ABC store employee shall sell alcoholic beverages,; between 9:00 P.M. and 9:00 A.M. The local board shall otherwise determine; opening and closing hours of its stores.

^ At no event; may the patron make available a quantity of alcoholic beverages in excess of; the amount a person is allowed to buy under G.S. 18B‑303(a).

For this reason, they were commonly kept aboard sailing vessels as an important (or even the sole) source of hydration for the crew, especially during the long voyages of the early modern period.
.In cold climates, potent alcoholic beverages such as vodka are popularly seen as a way to “warm up” the body, possibly because alcohol is a quickly absorbed source of food energy and because it dilates peripheral blood vessels (peripherovascular dilation).^ Requests for such a statement must be in writing and be delivered to the; Alcoholic Beverages Division, 1918 S.E. Hulsizer Road, Ankeny, Iowa; 50021–3941.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ THE; CONDITION OF THIS OBLIGATION IS SUCH, That whereas, the Principal has made; application for either a class “A” beer permit, class “A” wine permit, or a; class “F” beer permit to be issued by the Alcoholic Beverages Division.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ To qualify as a restaurant, an establishment's gross receipts from food; and nonalcoholic beverages shall be not less than thirty percent (30%) of the; total gross receipts from food, nonalcoholic beverages, and alcoholic; beverages.

This is a misconception because the perception of warmth is actually caused by the transfer of heat from the body’s core to its extremities, where it is quickly lost to the environment.

Drunk driving

.Most countries have laws against drunk driving, i.e., driving with a certain concentration of alcohol in the blood.^ If a majority of voters vote against certain; alcoholic beverage sales in a county election, sale of that kind of alcoholic; beverage shall be unlawful throughout the county, except that sale of that; alcoholic beverage shall remain lawful in any city or township in which sale is; lawful because of a city or township election or a local act.

Punishments for violation include fines, temporary loss of driving license, and imprisonment.
.The legal threshold of blood alcohol content ranges from 0.0% to 0.08%, according to local law.^ When they present their original data relating to the methanol content of French wines (range 14-265 ppm) or when the methanol content of any alcoholic beverage is given, the ration of methanol to ethanol is also presented.

Similar prohibitions exist for drunk sailing, drunk bicycling, and even drunk rollerblading.
.In many places in the United States, it is illegal to have an open container of an alcoholic beverage in the passenger compartment of a vehicle.^ Import malt; beverages from outside the United States in closed containers; .

^ Alcoholic beverages purchased out‑of‑State.

^ The; Commission may issue rules relating to applications for permits and otherwise; regulate the importation, sale, and delivery of alcoholic beverages under this; section to insure that those beverages are used only on oceangoing vessels; outside the United States.

Effects of alcohol on health

Alcohol and Health
Short-term effects of alcohol
Long-term effects of alcohol
Alcohol and cardiovascular disease
Alcoholic liver disease
Alcoholic hepatitis
Alcohol and cancer
Alcohol and weight
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder
Alcoholism
Blackout (alcohol-related amnesia)
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
Recommended maximum intake
Wine and health
.
Data from The Lancet shows ethanol in comparison to other psychoactive drugs.
^ The method of storage does not match,; collate or permit comparison with other data processing systems.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The information stored does not match, collate or permit; comparison with other data processing systems.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The information stored; in the automated data system does not match, collate or permit comparison with; other data processing systems.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

[11]
.Short-term effects of alcohol consumption include intoxication, dehydration, and ultimately alcohol poisoning.^ Each ABC store; shall display or cause to be displayed warning signs that meet the requirements; of this section on the store's premises to inform the public of the effects of; alcohol consumption during pregnancy.

^ The purchaser of a winery is; obligated to all the terms and conditions of an agreement in effect on the date; of the purchase, except for good cause, which includes, .

.Long-term effects of alcohol include changes to metabolism in the liver and brain, and possible addiction (alcoholism).^ How the writer could have determined within one day that no one would suffer any long-term or irreversible adverse effects was not explained.

^ This will also include any change in price, alcoholic content, name; or formula.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ We will instead be more concerned with the long-term adverse health effects that people might experience as a result of such an exposure.

Short term effects

Alcohol intoxication affects the brain, causing slurred speech, clumsiness, and delayed reflexes. .Alcohol stimulates insulin production, which speeds up the glucose metabolism and can result in low blood sugar, causing irritability, and possibly death for diabetics; in normal subjects severe alcohol poisoning can also be lethal.^ And that view does lead to the rivers of blood of the 20th C - not in all cases but in enough to cause massive concern, and over 100M deaths.
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

A blood alcohol content of 0.45 represents the LD50, or the amount which would prove fatal in 50% of test subjects. .This is about six times the level of intoxication (0.08%), but vomiting and/or unconsciousness are triggered much sooner in people with a low tolerance, among whom such high levels are rarely reached unless a large amount of alcohol is consumed very quickly.^ Recently, such studies have been appearing by graduate students at low-level research departments.

^ Alcoholic beverages may not be sold in such a; room unless a permit has been issued under Article 10 authorizing sale there.

^ The formaldehyde dose would temporarily be about 67 times more than the lowest level of 1 mmol/L that Oyama found hurt rat cells.

[12] .However, chronic heavy drinkers' high tolerance may allow some of them to remain conscious at levels above .4%, despite the serious health dangers.^ This high ethanol to methanol ratio, even at these low ethanol concentrations, may have some protective effect.

^ I have friends who were exposed to high levels of mold and have lost some cognitive functions but they are coming back slowly.

^ These are indeed extremely high levels for adducts of formaldehyde, a substance responsible of chronic deleterious effects (33), that has also been considered carcinogenic (34,47).

Heart disease

.One study found that men who drank moderate amounts of alcohol three or more times a week were up to 35% less likely to have a heart attack than non-drinkers, and men who increased their alcohol consumption by one drink a day over the 12 years of the study had a 22% lower risk of heart attack.^ Example: read pdb "1crn" if Date(a_) > 19820000 print "released after 1982" Date ( [ s_format ] ) returns string with the current week day, month, year and time in the given format.
  • ICM Language Reference : Functions 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.molsoft.com [Source type: Reference]

^ The significantly lower hospitalization incidence for coronary disease among moderate drinkers than among nondrinkers and the protection to coronary risk afforded the moderate drinker (less than two drinks a day) over the nondrinker (56) seems contradictory.

^ Barbara Bush, who suffers from the same hyperthyroid condition, quietly underwent her medical checkup last week, Lee said, and was found to be in good health.

[13]
.Daily intake of 1 or 2 units of alcohol (a half or full regular size glass of wine) is associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease in men over 40 and women who have been through the menopause.^ Alcoholic cardiomyopathy, however, typically occurs in 30-55 year old men who have a history of alcohol intake in quantities comprising 30-50 percent of their daily caloric requirement over a 10 to 15 year period (56).

^ The significantly lower hospitalization incidence for coronary disease among moderate drinkers than among nondrinkers and the protection to coronary risk afforded the moderate drinker (less than two drinks a day) over the nondrinker (56) seems contradictory.

^ Focus on the person and character of Jesus: He is the Way, the Truth and the Light, who is lifted up so that he can draw all men and women to him.
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

[14] .However, getting drunk at least once a month puts women at a significantly increased risk of heart attack, negating any of alcohol's potential protective effect.^ Once diagnosed, Bush promptly began treatment for a hyperactive thyroid, which will take up to four months to completely take effect.

^ Corresponding with the effects on aggression, aspartame significantly increased striatal levels of serotonin.

^ However, over the past few months I've found myself desperately trying not to "walk away" from the faith I once thought was so unshakable.
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

[15]
.Increased longevity is almost entirely the result of lowered coronary heart disease.^ For older Americans, the increase in life expectancy is largely due to the sharp drop in deaths from heart disease and stroke.

[16]

Dementia

.Long-term moderate or short-term excessive (binge) drinking has been linked to dementia; it is estimated that between 10% to 24% of dementia cases are caused by alcohol consumption, with women being at greater risk than men.^ Maurice F, Rivory J-P, Larsson PH, Johansson SGO, Bousquet J. Anaphylactic shock caused by formaldehyde in a patient undergoing long-term hemodialysis.

^ The significantly lower hospitalization incidence for coronary disease among moderate drinkers than among nondrinkers and the protection to coronary risk afforded the moderate drinker (less than two drinks a day) over the nondrinker (56) seems contradictory.

^ Almost 40% engaged in no physical activity during leisure time, and women were more sedentary than men.

[17][18] Alcoholism is associated with a type of alcohol-related dementia called Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, which is caused by a deficiency in thiamine (vitamin B1).[19]
.The toxic effects of alcohol on the brain are caused by the neurotoxic effects of alcohol, interaction with nutritional deficiencies, and the neurotoxicity of withdrawal.^ Each ABC store; shall display or cause to be displayed warning signs that meet the requirements; of this section on the store's premises to inform the public of the effects of; alcohol consumption during pregnancy.

[20] In rats, extended consumption of alcohol "did not produce anatomic deficits", but the withdrawal was associated with neuronal loss.[20] Alcohol interferes with the neurotrasmitter glutamate, increasing (upregulating) the number of glutamute receptors in the brain. When alcohol intake is reduced, the glutamute receptors become overactive and neurotoxic.[19] Other effects which could contribute to withdrawal include the facilitation of GABA, upregulation of certain voltage sensitive calcium channels, and dopamine release.[21]
.In people aged 55 and over, daily light to moderate drinking (one to three drinks) was associated with a 42% drop in the probability of developing dementia, and a 70% reduction in risk of vascular dementia.^ At the age of 13, one doctor suggested that John drink more milk, and at age 14, Kennedy experienced severe gastric distress.

^ She developed severe depression and visual problems for the first time within two weeks after consuming 8-10 glasses of an aspartame drink daily.

^ One in 10 Americans age 45-54, 1 in 5 of those 55-64 years, 1 in 4 of those 65-74 years, and 1 in 3 of those 75 years and over reported being in fair or poor health.

[22] .The researchers suggest alcohol may stimulate the release of acetylcholine in the hippocampus area of the brain.^ The proven ability of aspartame to inhibit the glucose-induced release of serotonin within the brain may also affect behaviors, such as satiety and sleep (61).

[22]

Cancer

Alcohol consumption has been linked with seven different types of cancer: mouth cancer, pharyngeal cancer, oesophageal cancer, laryngeal cancer, breast cancer, bowel cancer and liver cancer.[23] .The risk of developing cancer increases even with a moderate consumption of as little as 3 units of alcohol (one pint of lager or a large glass of wine) a day.^ Except for; purposes of this subsection, the holder of a wine‑tasting permit shall; not be construed to hold a permit for the on‑premises sale or consumption; of alcoholic beverages.

^ The administrator may allow Class; “D” liquor control licensees to store alcoholic liquor and wine in a bonded; warehouse to be used for consumption in Iowa, under the authority of a Class; “D” liquor control license.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ It shall be unlawful to consume, or for a permittee to allow; the consumption of, malt beverages or unfortified wine on any premises having; only an off‑premises permit for the kind of alcoholic beverage being; consumed.

[23] Heavy drinkers are more likely to develop liver cancer due to cirrhosis of the liver.[23]
.A global study found that 3.6% of all cancer cases worldwide are caused by alcohol drinking, resulting in 3.5% of all global cancer deaths.^ The fact that 40% of all cases of acute pancreatitis complaints are attributable to alcoholics (21), however, must be taken into consideration to avoid artifactual association.

^ And that view does lead to the rivers of blood of the 20th C - not in all cases but in enough to cause massive concern, and over 100M deaths.
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Drinking alcohol during; pregnancy can cause birth defects."

[24] .A U.K. study found that alcohol causes about 6% of cancer deaths in the U.K., killing over 9,000 people a year.^ The news is that of the world population of over 6,000 million, in a year about 1.6 million die of violence, 3 % of all deaths: suicide 49% .8 million homocide 32 .5 million war 19 .3 million So, in a year, about 1 in 20,000 people die from war.

^ And only 7bn people in the world after 200,000 years of existance?
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

[23]
.Women who regularly consume low to moderate amounts of alcohol have an increased risk of cancers of the upper digestive tract, rectum, liver, and breast.^ The weight of the evidence regarding prostate and testicular cancer suggests that men with vasectomy are not at increased risk of these cancers.

^ The appointing authority may exempt from this bond requirement any board; member who does not handle board funds, and it may also increase the amount of; the bond for any member who does handle board funds.

[25][26] .For both men and women, consuming two or more drinks daily increases the risk of pancreatic cancer by 22%.^ The establishment is; substantially engaged in the business of providing an 18‑hole golf; course, two or more tennis courts, or both.

^ In addition, communities need to be made more aware of the health risks to which they are daily being exposed without their knowledge and without their consent.

^ Case 4 A 54-year-old woman had consumed increasing amounts of aspartame-containing products-- including 15 packets of a tabletop sweetener in hot drinks daily.

[27]
.Red wine contains resveratrol, which has some anti-cancer effects in laboratory cells, however, based on studies done so far, there is no strong evidence that red wine could protect against cancer in humans.^ But there must be some reason, which cannot be within L, why L should apply and not some other logical system L' Also no logical system can 'ignore' Godel's theorem - unless it is not rich enough to contain elementary arithmetic it cannot be both complete and consistent.
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Before we do that, however, we will, in Chapter One, look at the array of adverse human health effects associated with exposure to environmental toxicants.

^ Later in the day, White House press secretary Marlin Fitzwater reported that the president's checkup showed no evidence of skin cancer.

[28]

Alcoholism

.Proclivity to alcoholism is believed to be partially genetic; individuals with such propensity may have a different biochemical response to alcohol, though this is disputed.^ Within 30 days thereafter, any party may file a responsive brief.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ When a secured party takes possession of a liquor control licensee’s; or permittee’s alcoholic liquor, wine, and beer, the secured party shall notify; the division in writing of such action.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ If the agency initially determines that it; will release such records, the agency may, where appropriate, notify interested; parties and withhold the records from inspection as provided in subrule 18.4 (3).
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

.Alcohol addiction can also lead to malnutrition because it can alter digestion and metabolism of most nutrients.^ This effect is usually best observed at low ; levels of alcohol concentration, because higher levels may alter the person's perception ; of reality.
  • MISSOURI BREATH ALCOHOL PROGRAM 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.dhss.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Severe thiamine deficiency is common due to deficiency of folate, riboflavin, vitamin B6 and selenium and can lead to Korsakoff's syndrome.^ The accumulation of formate is due to a deficiency in formate metabolism which is, in turn, related, in part, to low hepatic tetrahydrofolate (H4 folate).

Muscle cramps, nausea, appetite loss, nerve disorders and depression are some common symptoms. It can also lead to osteoporosis and bone fractures due to vitamin D deficiency (vitamin D helps in calcium absorption).

Diabetes

.Daily consumption of a small amount of pure ethanol by older women may slow or prevent the onset of diabetes by lowering the level of blood glucose.^ In addition, it is not logical to expect to find measurable levels of formaldehyde in a medium (blood) containing a huge amount of protein.

^ Shortly thereafter, her blood glucose concentrations became highly erratic, coupled with loss of urinary bladder control (ascribed to diabetic neuropathy.

^ This alone exceeds what the Food and Drug Administration considers the 99+ percentile daily consumption level of aspartame (48).

[29] .However, the researchers caution that the study used pure ethanol, and that everyday alcoholic drinks contain additives, including sugar, which would negate the effect.^ The inhibitory effect is a linear function of the log of the ethyl alcohol concentration, with a 72% inhibition rate at only a 0.01 molar concentration of ethanol (2, 46).

^ However, according to Tephly (1999), the dose of aspartame used in the study (20 mg/kg body wt =2 mg of methanol/kg body wt) would not yield blood methanol concentrations outside control values.

^ Finally, since there are a number of other excitotoxins on the market including aspartame, a cumulative effect would be expected in many cases.

[29]
People with diabetes should avoid sugary drinks, sweet wines, and liqueurs.[30]

Stroke

.A study found that lifelong abstainers were 2.36 times more likely to suffer a stroke than those who drank a moderate amount regularly.^ An industry member who engages in trade spending is; prohibited from paying the retailer more than the ordinary and customary charge; for the beverages.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Those without a high school education were still almost three times as likely to smoke cigarettes as college graduates.

^ The formaldehyde dose would temporarily be about 67 times more than the lowest level of 1 mmol/L that Oyama found hurt rat cells.

.Heavy drinkers were 2.88 times more likely to suffer a stroke than moderate drinkers.^ The formaldehyde dose would temporarily be about 67 times more than the lowest level of 1 mmol/L that Oyama found hurt rat cells.

^ Bush has suffered more than the president with teary bloodshot eyes.

^ No more than eight liters of either fortified wine or; spirituous liquor, or eight liters of the two combined, may be stored by a; member at one time.

[31]

Longevity

.Alcohol consumption by the elderly results in increased longevity, almost entirely as a result of lowered coronary heart disease.^ The increased availability and consumption of these food products in various countries over the years may parallel better than most other dietary factors the increase in incidence of coronary disease in their populations.

^ For older Americans, the increase in life expectancy is largely due to the sharp drop in deaths from heart disease and stroke.

[16]
.One study found that consumption of 2 units of alcohol (one regular glass of wine) daily by doctors aged 48+ years increased longevity by reducing the risk of death by ischaemic heart disease and respiratory disease.^ Except for; purposes of this subsection, the holder of a wine‑tasting permit shall; not be construed to hold a permit for the on‑premises sale or consumption; of alcoholic beverages.

^ Deaths among children and young adults from unintentional injuries, cancer, and heart disease are down sharply.

^ Any delivery of wines to a person under 21 years; of age by a common carrier shall constitute a violation of G.S. 18B‑302(a)(1); by the common carrier.

[32] .Deaths where alcohol consumption is known to increase risk accounted for only 5% of the total deaths, but this figure was increased for those who drank more than 2 units of alcohol per day.^ An industry member may extend credit; to a retailer on the sale of wine for not more than 30 days from the date of; the sale.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Twenty years ago patients spent more than 7 days in the hospital.

^ An industry member who engages in trade spending is; prohibited from paying the retailer more than the ordinary and customary charge; for the beverages.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

[32]

Mortality rate

.A 2001 report estimates that medium and high consumption of alcohol led to 75,754 deaths in the USA. Low consumption has some beneficial effects, so a net 59,180 deaths were attributed to alcohol.^ This high ethanol to methanol ratio, even at these low ethanol concentrations, may have some protective effect.

^ Each ABC store; shall display or cause to be displayed warning signs that meet the requirements; of this section on the store's premises to inform the public of the effects of; alcohol consumption during pregnancy.

^ The high ethanol/methanol ration of alcoholic beverages must have a very significant protective effect, though enzyme kinetics mandate some constant but low level of methanol metabolism.

[33]
.In the U.K., heavy drinking is blamed for up to 33,000 deaths a year.^ Most patients, however, give a history of 5 to 10 years of heavy drinking before the onset of the first attack (16).

[34]
.A study in Sweden found that 29% to 44% of "unnatural" deaths (those not caused by illness) were related to alcohol; the causes of death included suicide, falls, traffic injuries, asphyxia, intoxication and murder.^ If the owner or; possessor of the alcoholic beverages is found guilty of a criminal charge; relating to those alcoholic beverages, the judge may order the sale or; destruction of any alcoholic beverages that were held until trial.

^ If the owner or possessor of alcoholic; beverages seized for violation of the ABC laws is found not guilty of criminal; charges relating to the seizure of those beverages or the charge is dismissed; or otherwise resolved in favor of the owner or possessor, and if possession of; the alcoholic beverages by that owner or possessor was lawful when the; beverages were seized, the proceeds from the sale of those alcoholic beverages; shall be paid to the owner or possessor.

^ A recent report: "Methanol poisoning may cause severe illness or death.

[35]
.A global study found that 3.6% of all cancer cases worldwide are caused by alcohol drinking, resulting in 3.5% of all global cancer deaths.^ The fact that 40% of all cases of acute pancreatitis complaints are attributable to alcoholics (21), however, must be taken into consideration to avoid artifactual association.

^ And that view does lead to the rivers of blood of the 20th C - not in all cases but in enough to cause massive concern, and over 100M deaths.
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Drinking alcohol during; pregnancy can cause birth defects."

[24] .A U.K. study found that alcohol causes about 6% of cancer deaths in the U.K., killing over 9,000 people a year.^ The news is that of the world population of over 6,000 million, in a year about 1.6 million die of violence, 3 % of all deaths: suicide 49% .8 million homocide 32 .5 million war 19 .3 million So, in a year, about 1 in 20,000 people die from war.

^ And only 7bn people in the world after 200,000 years of existance?
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

[23]

Alcohol expectations

.Alcohol expectations are beliefs that people hold about the effects they will experience when drinking alcoholic beverages.^ Except for; purposes of this subsection, the holder of a wine‑tasting permit shall; not be construed to hold a permit for the on‑premises sale or consumption; of alcoholic beverages.

^ When they present their original data relating to the methanol content of French wines (range 14-265 ppm) or when the methanol content of any alcoholic beverage is given, the ration of methanol to ethanol is also presented.

^ However, remember this is not drinking alcohol, but methanol (wood alcohol) -- thus his complaints about his vision and his memory.

.They are largely beliefs about how the consumption of alcohol will affect a person’s emotions, abilities, and behaviors.^ The proven ability of aspartame to inhibit the glucose-induced release of serotonin within the brain may also affect behaviors, such as satiety and sleep (61).

^ Any other property; not primarily used for commercial purposes and not open to the public at the; time the alcoholic beverage is possessed, if the owner or other person in; charge of the property consents to that possession and consumption; .

^ Exactly how and in what mode they exist is something of which we know pretty well nothing, and about which speculation seems pointless.
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

.If alcohol expectations can be changed, it may be possible to reduce a major social and health problem, that of alcohol abuse.^ The; Department of Health and Human Services shall spend those funds for the; treatment of alcoholism or substance abuse, or for research or education on; alcohol or substance abuse.

^ It is very clear that climate change is a serious problem, and that radical solutions will be required, some involving social changes and some involving large-scale applications of technology.
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

[36]
.If people in a society generally believe that intoxication leads to aggression, sexual behavior AKA "beer goggles", or rowdy behavior, they tend to act that way when intoxicated.^ They may not have believed in a God in exactly the way Christians do, but they certainly viewed Hitler as a mythical, God-like figure-head of their ideology.
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It’s also worth remembering that there are several people who were atheists who are now Christians – indeed the traffic after the age of 30 tends to be the other way round.
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Rather, I believe that these people have other problems which they are blaming on aspartame because of urban legends.

If the society teaches that intoxication leads to relaxation and tranquil behavior, it virtually always leads to those outcomes. Alcohol expectations vary within a population so outcomes are not uniform.[37]
.People tend to conform to social expectations and a common belief in most societies is that alcohol causes disinhibition.^ Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism, an overactivity of the walnut-sized, butterfly-shaped gland in the neck that regulates the metabolism.

.However, in those societies in which people don’t believe that alcohol disinhibits, intoxication virtually never leads to unacceptable behaviors because of “disinhibition”.^ Of course your argument about Father Christmas is bogus, because no regime, whether atheist or not, has been led by people who believe in Father Christmas.
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Rather, I believe that these people have other problems which they are blaming on aspartame because of urban legends.

^ Those little bugs just don't like alcohol.

[38]
Alcohol expectations can operate in the absence of actual consumption of alcohol. .Research in the U.S. over a period of decades has shown that men tend to become physically more sexually aroused when they think they have been drinking alcohol, even when they haven't.^ So, even if many humans do not ingest 1/4 of the level of MSG shown in this study to cause damage, a smaller amount still may cause damage in humans after decades of use.

^ Almost 40% engaged in no physical activity during leisure time, and women were more sedentary than men.

^ We do know that He loves our departed loved-ones even more that we do and did – dying sinless in agony on the Cross so that they may have eternal and loving union with Him.
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

.Women report feeling more sexually aroused when they falsely believe the beverages they have been consuming contain alcohol, although a measure of their physiological arousal shows that they are physically becoming less aroused.^ Any wines obtained; by the process defined herein that contain more than 17 percent of alcohol by; weight will be considered an alcoholic liquor.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ A malt beverage produced under this; subdivision may not contain more than six percent (6%) alcohol by volume.

^ It shall be unlawful for any person to manufacture, sell,; transport, import, deliver, furnish, purchase, consume, or possess any; alcoholic beverages except as authorized by the ABC law.

.Men tend to become more aggressive in laboratory studies in which they are drinking only tonic water but believe that it contains alcohol.^ The EPA recommends that an adult should not drink water containing more than 1 milligram of formaldehyde per liter of water (1 mg/L) [equals 1 ppm] for a lifetime exposure, and a child should not drink water containing more than 10 mg/L for 1 day or 5 mg/L for 10 days."

^ Any wines obtained; by the process defined herein that contain more than 17 percent of alcohol by; weight will be considered an alcoholic liquor.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ A malt beverage produced under this; subdivision may not contain more than six percent (6%) alcohol by volume.

.They also become relatively less aggressive when they think they are drinking only tonic water, but are actually drinking tonic containing alcohol.^ However, if only 15% of that 2 mg from drinking water is retained in the body, that is 0.3 mg-- so the formaldehye limit is actualy 3.9 times larger, in terms of the formaldehyde actually retained in the body, according to this chain of reasonable estimates.

^ The holder of a Class “E” liquor control license; shall sell alcoholic liquor in original, sealed and unopened containers only; for off–premises consumption.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ A drink composed in; whole or in part of spirituous liquor and served in a quantity less than the; quantity contained in a closed package.

[36]
.The phenomenon of alcohol expectations recognizes that intoxication has real physiological consequences affecting perceptions of space and time, reducing psychomotor skills, disrupting equilibrium and a number of other behaviors.^ Clearly, as with any other historical phenomenon, there are an enormous number of conceivable explanations.
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

[38]
.The manner and degree to which alcohol expectations interact with the physiological effects of intoxication to yield the behavior that results is unclear.^ Wang, S. Y., Moon, S. H., Vannice, M. A., "Effect of SMSI (strong metal-support interaction) behavior on CO adsorption and hydrogenation on Pd catalysts.

Alcohol and religion

.Some religions—most notably Islam, Sikhism, Jainism, the Bahá'í Faith, The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, the Seventh-day Adventist Church, the Church of Christ, Scientist, the United Pentecostal Church International, Theravada, most Mahayana schools of Buddhism, some Protestant sects of Fundamentalist Christianity, and some sects of Hinduism—forbid, discourage, or restrict the drinking of alcoholic beverages for various reasons.^ Having grown up in a Christian church (I'm 24 now), I've never at any point doubted that God was real and that Christ is who he said he is.
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

^ "Nontaxpaid alcoholic; beverage" means any alcoholic beverage upon which the taxes imposed by the; United States, this State, or any other territorial jurisdiction in which the; alcoholic beverage was purchased have not been paid.

^ For some time now, I have been keeping up with the various arguments that attempt to reconcile evolution with Christianity.
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

.Many Christian denominations use wine in the Eucharist or Communion and permit the use of alcohol in moderation, while others use unfermented grape juice in Communion and abstain from alcohol by choice or prohibit it outright.^ Prohibited; storage of alcoholic beverages and wine .
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Prohibited storage of alcoholic; beverages and wine.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Any other form or; means of identification that indicates or symbolizes that the person is not; prohibited from purchasing or possessing alcoholic beverages under this; section.

.Judaism uses wine on Shabbat for Kiddush as well as in the Passover ceremony and in other religious ceremonies, including Purim, and allows the use of alcohol, such as kosher wine.^ "Spirituous; liquor" or "liquor" means distilled spirits or ethyl alcohol,; including spirits of wine, whiskey, rum, brandy, gin and all other distilled; spirits and mixtures of cordials, liqueur, and premixed cocktails, in closed; containers for beverage use regardless of their dilution.

^ Manufacture,; purchase, import and transport brandy and other ingredients and equipment used; in the manufacture of fortified wine; .

^ It shall be unlawful to consume, or for a permittee to allow; the consumption of, malt beverages or unfortified wine on any premises having; only an off‑premises permit for the kind of alcoholic beverage being; consumed.

.Many ancient Jewish texts such as the Talmud even encourage moderate amounts of drinking on holidays such as Purim, in order to make the occasion more joyous.^ It is not set forth as a "primer" in diagnostics, even though the author has made every effort to make the text as readable as possible.

^ Persons wishing to make oral; presentations at such a proceeding are encouraged to notify the agency at least; one business day prior to the proceeding and indicate the general subject of; their presentations.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Knowing the history of the Bible's construction I find it phenomanally difficult to believe that it can be treated as much more authoratative than other ancient texts.
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

.Buddhist texts recommend refraining from drugs and alcohol, because they may inhibit mindfulness.^ Anecdotes are useless precisely because they may point to idiosyncratic responses.

^ Anecdotes are useless precisely because they may point to > idiosyncratic responses.

^ The letters also tell the Bushes to get off the drugs as soon as possible since they may have side effects such as procainemide, which slows the heart beat.

Some pagan religions, however, had a completely opposite view of alcohol and drunkenness; they actively promoted them as means of fostering fertility. Alcohol was thought to increase sexual desire and to lower the threshold of approaching another person for sex. For example, Norse paganism considered alcohol to be the sap of Yggdrasil, and drunkenness was an important fertility rite in this religion. Paradoxically, one of the effects of alcohol intoxication is the reduction of sexual arousal.

Alcohol consumption by country

Total recorded alcohol per capita consumption (15+), in litres of pure alcohol[39]

Government regulation

Outright prohibition of alcohol

.Some countries forbid the production and consumption of alcoholic beverages.^ Any other property; not primarily used for commercial purposes and not open to the public at the; time the alcoholic beverage is possessed, if the owner or other person in; charge of the property consents to that possession and consumption; .

^ Alcoholic beverages products sold prior to allegation; of violation in retail establishment.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Alcoholic beverages products sold during the event.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

.In the United States, there was an attempt from 1920 to 1933 to eliminate the consumption of alcoholic beverages through national prohibition of their manufacture and sale.^ Prohibited; storage of alcoholic beverages and wine .
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Alcoholic beverages purchased out‑of‑State.

^ Prohibited storage of alcoholic; beverages and wine.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

This period became known as the prohibition era. .During this period the 18th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States made manufacture, sale and transportation of alcoholic beverages illegal throughout the United States.^ WHEREAS, the said ______________________________ of; ____________________ has made application under Iowa Code section 123.41 for a Manufacturer’s license allowing the; manufacture, storage and wholesale disposition and sale of alcoholic liquor to the; Alcoholic Beverages Division and to customers outside of the state.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ THE; CONDITION OF THIS OBLIGATION IS SUCH, That whereas, the Principal has made; application for either a class “A” beer permit, class “A” wine permit, or a; class “F” beer permit to be issued by the Alcoholic Beverages Division.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ METHANOL Methanol (methyl alcohol, wood alcohol), a poisonous substance (60), is added as a component during the manufacture of aspartame (47).

.However, this project led to the unintended consequences of causing widespread disrespect for the law as many people sought alcoholic beverages from illegal sources, and of creating a lucrative business for illegal purveyors of alcohol (bootleggers), which led to the development of organized crime.^ This chapter describes the organization and operation; of the alcoholic beverages division, including the offices where and the means; by which any interested person may obtain information and make submittals or; requests.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ News releases, annual reports, project reports, agency newsletters, etc., are; available at the central offices of the alcoholic beverages division.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ WHEREFORE, it is requested that the administrator of; the Alcoholic Beverages Division hear the proceeding in accordance with the law; and regulations.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

.As a result prohibition became widely unpopular, leading to repeal of the 18th Amendment in 1933. Prior to national prohibition, beginning in the late 19th century, many states and localities had enacted prohibition within their jurisdictions, and following repeal of the 18th Amendment, some communities in the United States (known as dry counties) still ban alcohol sales.^ Indeed one of the reasons that leading physicists of the 19th Century were so cautious about Darwinism was that, on the basis of what was then known of the physical forces of nature, the sun could not be old enough to allow time for evolution to have occurred.
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As mentioned below, high temperature canning as developed late in the 19th century should increase significantly the methanol content of fruits and vegetables.

^ The medication was banned in Britain and has received intense criticism in the United States.

Detroit police inspecting equipment found in a clandestine brewery during the Prohibition era
The Nordic countries (Norway and Finland) also had a period of alcohol prohibition in the early 20th century. This was the result of social democratic campaigning. Prohibition did not have popular support resulting in large-scale smuggling. .Following the end of prohibition, state alcohol monopolies were established with detailed restrictions and high taxes.^ Alcoholic beverages may be transported over the public highways of; this State by motor vehicle carriers under the following conditions: .

^ Delivery Permitted.; – Alcoholic beverages for use outside the United States on oceangoing vessels; shall be delivered as follows: .

^ "Nontaxpaid alcoholic; beverage" means any alcoholic beverage upon which the taxes imposed by the; United States, this State, or any other territorial jurisdiction in which the; alcoholic beverage was purchased have not been paid.

Some restrictions have been lifted. .For example, supermarkets in Finland are allowed to sell only fermented beverages with an alcohol content up to 4.7%, but Alko, the government monopoly, is allowed to sell wine and spirits.^ Prohibited; storage of alcoholic beverages and wine .
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Prohibited storage of alcoholic; beverages and wine.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Wine means any beverage containing more than 5; percent, but not more than 17 percent, of alcohol by weight obtained by the; fermentation of the natural sugar content of fruits or other agricultural; products by excluding any product containing alcohol derived from malt or by; the distillation process from grain cereal, molasses, or cactus.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

This is also the case with the Swedish Systembolaget and the Norwegian Vinmonopolet.
.
  • In Iceland, beer with an alcohol percentage of 2.25% or less is sold in supermarkets.^ An industry member may affix; prices to alcoholic liquor, wine or beer sold by the industry member at the; time of delivery, provided that the retailer independently determines the price; of the alcoholic liquor, wine and beer.
    • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Consignment means; a sale under which the retailer is not obligated to pay for the alcoholic; liquor, wine or beer, until the product is sold by the retailer.
    • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ No one, including licensee, permittee, and employees can; consume beer, wine, or alcoholic beverages in their licensed establishment; during hours which beer, wine, and alcoholic beverages cannot be sold.
    • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

    Stronger beer, wine or other spirits are sold in 'Vinbudin'.
Some Muslim countries, such as Saudi Arabia, prohibit alcohol for religious reasons.

Prohibition of drinking alcohol in public places

A sign prohibiting the drinking of alcohol in public places in Victoria, Australia
.Drinking alcohol in public places, such as streets and parks, is against the law in most of the United States and in some European countries, but it is legal in others, such as Germany.^ The alcoholic beverages division administers the laws; of this state concerning beer, alcoholic liquor, and wine.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Transfers of information within the agency, to other; state agencies, or to local units of government as appropriate to administer; the program for which the information is collected.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The division will post a list of the most current price of wines it lists in a; conspicuous place in the agency’s central office and in all state liquor; stores.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

[citation needed]
.In the UK and the Netherlands, it is not banned by national law, but many cities and towns prohibit possession of an open container of an alcoholic beverage in a public place.^ Prohibited; storage of alcoholic beverages and wine .
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Prohibited storage of alcoholic; beverages and wine.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ WHEREFORE, it is requested that the administrator of; the Alcoholic Beverages Division hear the proceeding in accordance with the law; and regulations.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

.In India, the state of Gujarat has prohibited sale and consumption of alcohol, in many other states prohibition laws were in place at different times in past.^ Other prohibited sales.

^ Except as provided in this; Chapter, local ordinances establishing different rules on the manufacture,; sale, purchase, transportation, possession, consumption, or other use of; alcoholic beverages, or requiring additional permits or fees, are prohibited.

^ This Chapter is intended to; establish a uniform system of control over the sale, purchase, transportation,; manufacture, consumption, and possession of alcoholic beverages in North; Carolina, and to provide procedures to insure the proper administration of the; ABC laws under a uniform system throughout the State.

[citation needed]

Age restrictions

.Most countries have a legal drinking age that prohibits the sale of alcoholic beverages to minors.^ Sale of alcoholic beverages in ABC stores.

^ Prohibited; storage of alcoholic beverages and wine .
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Prohibited storage of alcoholic; beverages and wine.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

The age at which this prohibition ends, as well as the degree to which it is enforced, varies significantly from country to country.

Argentina

.In Argentina, the minimum age required for purchasing alcohol is 18 years.^ The Commission may require the officer or agent to obtain a; permit before purchasing alcoholic beverages under this subdivision.

^ "Underage person"; means a person who is less than the age legally required for purchase of the; alcoholic beverage in question.

^ Require the; recipient, upon delivery, to demonstrate that the recipient is at least 21; years of age by providing a form of identification specified in G.S. 18B‑302(d)(1).

.It is illegal for anyone to sell alcoholic beverages to people under this age.^ Any other form or; means of identification that indicates or symbolizes that the person is not; prohibited from purchasing or possessing alcoholic beverages under this; section.

^ The Commission may require the officer or agent to obtain a; permit before purchasing alcoholic beverages under this subdivision.

^ No ABC; store shall be open, and no ABC store employee shall sell alcoholic beverages,; between 9:00 P.M. and 9:00 A.M. The local board shall otherwise determine; opening and closing hours of its stores.

[40] .However, there is no minimum age for its consumption.^ However before the creation of the Universe there were no clocks so the concept of “an infinite time before” creation does not really apply.
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

Australia

.In Australia, the minimum age for the purchase of alcohol, but not necessarily its consumption, is 18 years.^ Acute Toxicity in Man "Toxic Syndrome" A striking feature of methyl alcohol syndrome is the asymptomatic interval (latent period) which usually lasts 12 to 18 hours after consumption.

^ Persons must be 18 years of age or older to work in a state; liquor store.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Persons 18 years of age and older may be bartenders, waiters,; waitresses, and may handle alcoholic beverages, wine, and beer during the; course of the person’s employment for a licensee or permittee in establishments; in which alcoholic beverages, wine, and beer are consumed.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

.In New South Wales and Queensland, it is illegal for anyone to supply alcohol to a person under the age of 18. In Victoria you can consume alcohol at any age on private property.^ Any other form or; means of identification that indicates or symbolizes that the person is not; prohibited from purchasing or possessing alcoholic beverages under this; section.

^ A local board; may pledge a security interest in any real or personal property it owns other; than alcoholic beverages.

^ "Underage person"; means a person who is less than the age legally required for purchase of the; alcoholic beverage in question.

Canada

.In Canada, the legal drinking age is 18 years in the provinces of Alberta, Manitoba, and Quebec, and 19 years in the other provinces.^ Persons must be 18 years of age or older to work in a state; liquor store.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

[1]

Europe

.Laws covering the legal drinking age and sale of alcoholic beverages in Europe vary from country to country, both in terms of legal drinking age and the age to legally purchase alcohol; the legal drinking age is usually 16 to 18. Some countries have a tiered structure restricting the sales of stronger alcoholic drinks (typically based on alcohol% w/w) to older adults.^ Amounts of alcoholic beverages that may be; purchased.

^ Alcoholic beverages purchased out‑of‑State.

^ Sale of alcoholic beverages in ABC stores.

.For example, in the Netherlands, Germany,[41] Switzerland, Belgium, and Austria, a purchaser of beer or wine must be 16, and 18 for distilled alcoholic beverages.^ Prohibited; storage of alcoholic beverages and wine .
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Where retailers must purchase wine.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Amounts of alcoholic beverages that may be; purchased.

.Germany's law is directed toward sellers of alcoholic beverages, not toward minors themselves; German law vests control of the consumption of alcoholic beverage in the hands of parents and guardians.^ This Chapter is intended to; establish a uniform system of control over the sale, purchase, transportation,; manufacture, consumption, and possession of alcoholic beverages in North; Carolina, and to provide procedures to insure the proper administration of the; ABC laws under a uniform system throughout the State.

^ Containers for; alcoholic beverages which are manufactured, possessed, sold, or transported in; violation of the ABC laws; and .

^ Except for; purposes of this subsection, the holder of a wine‑tasting permit shall; not be construed to hold a permit for the on‑premises sale or consumption; of alcoholic beverages.

[42] .In the United Kingdom, the minimum age for purchasing alcohol is 18, although minors aged 16 or above may consume some types of alcohol in restaurants with a meal, if accompanied by an adult[43] Children are able to drink in the home from the age of five.^ Amounts of alcoholic beverages that may be; purchased.

^ The Commission may require the officer or agent to obtain a; permit before purchasing alcoholic beverages under this subdivision.

^ "Nontaxpaid alcoholic; beverage" means any alcoholic beverage upon which the taxes imposed by the; United States, this State, or any other territorial jurisdiction in which the; alcoholic beverage was purchased have not been paid.

.Shop workers under 18 may not legally sell alcohol.^ The Commission may require the officer or agent to obtain a; permit before purchasing alcoholic beverages under this subdivision.

^ Alcoholic beverages may not be sold in such a; room unless a permit has been issued under Article 10 authorizing sale there.

^ At no event; may the patron make available a quantity of alcoholic beverages in excess of; the amount a person is allowed to buy under G.S. 18B‑303(a).

.However, underage drinking as well as the use of illegal chemicals in the UK are among the worst in the world.^ There are approximately 80,000 chemicals in common industrial use today (almost none of which existed before World War II).

^ However, much of the formaldehyde is retained in the body daily, as the formaldehyde reacts with a variety of body chemicals-- that is why formaldehyde is used to preserve bodies for autopsy.

[44]In .France the purchasing age for alcohol was increased from 16 to 18 on July 23, 2009. In Portugal people must be 16 to buy alcoholic beverages.^ Amounts of alcoholic beverages that may be; purchased.

^ Alcoholic beverages purchased out‑of‑State.

^ Any other form or; means of identification that indicates or symbolizes that the person is not; prohibited from purchasing or possessing alcoholic beverages under this; section.

.The same is in Italy, where 16 is the legal age to either purchase alcohol and work in public places where alcohol is served, while the minimum age for the consumption of alcoholic beverages is 14; however it must be noted that the law is seldom enforced, if ever at all, and that in Italy a license is required only for those establishments dedicated to serve alcohol to the public (es.^ An establishment that meets either of the following requirements: .

^ An; establishment that meets either of the following requirements: .

^ Amounts of alcoholic beverages that may be; purchased.

Bars, Pubs, etc.), while the .sale is non-restricted and as such alcoholic beverages are normally sold in grocery stores and supermarkets, where no proof-of-age is asked for the purchase.^ Amounts of alcoholic beverages that may be; purchased.

^ Alcoholic beverages purchased out‑of‑State.

^ Sale of alcoholic beverages in ABC stores.

In Ireland and Poland the legal drinking age is 18.

Hong Kong

In Hong Kong, the legal age to purchase, possess and consume alcohol is 18.

India

.In some states of India, the legal age to purchase, and consume alcohol is 25 years.^ Alcoholic beverages purchased out‑of‑State.

^ A Class “E”; liquor license shall authorize the licensee to purchase alcoholic liquor from; this division only, to sell and to deliver alcoholic liquor to consumers and; Class “A,” Class “B,” and Class “C” liquor control licensees.
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^ It shall be unlawful for any person to manufacture, sell,; transport, import, deliver, furnish, purchase, consume, or possess any; alcoholic beverages except as authorized by the ABC law.

Drinking alcohol in public is forbidden. .Generally, bars and pubs in India display signs which state that entry is allowed only for persons of age 21 and above, but the rule is seldom followed as evidenced by the number of college/birthday parties held by teenagers in pubs and bars.^ A petition shall state in separately; numbered paragraphs the following: .
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ In preparing its rules, the agency shall follow the uniform numbering system,; form, and style prescribed by the administrative rules coordinator.
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^ The; intent of this chapter is to allow persons to seek exception to the application; of rules adopted by the division.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

The general drinking age in the country is 18 and above.

Japan

.In Japan, the legal age for purchasing and consuming alcohol is 20 years.^ Purchase,; Possession, or Consumption by 19 or 20‑Year Old.

^ It shall be unlawful for any person to enter or attempt to; enter a place where alcoholic beverages are sold or consumed, or to obtain or; attempt to obtain alcoholic beverages, or to obtain or attempt to obtain; permission to purchase alcoholic beverages, in violation of subsection (b) of; this section, by using or attempting to use any of the following: .

^ It shall be unlawful for any person to manufacture, sell,; transport, import, deliver, furnish, purchase, consume, or possess any; alcoholic beverages except as authorized by the ABC law.

Korea

.In Korea, the legal drinking age is 19 years, but it is generally acceptable to drink after graduation from high schools, even though those who graduate from high schools are usually 18. In the traditional Korean society, minors' purchasing alcoholic beverages itself did not seem illegal because there were adults who sent their children to buy some alcoholic beverage.^ Amounts of alcoholic beverages that may be; purchased.

^ Alcoholic beverages purchased out‑of‑State.

^ She did not smoke or drink alcohol.

.These days, however, sellers of alcoholic beverages are required to check the age of the person who purchases them.^ Amounts of alcoholic beverages that may be; purchased.

^ "Underage person"; means a person who is less than the age legally required for purchase of the; alcoholic beverage in question.

^ Alcoholic beverages purchased out‑of‑State.

Nordic countries

.In the Nordic countries (except for Denmark), the legal drinking age is 18 years, but these rights are limited up to the age of 20. In Iceland and Sweden, purchasers and possessors of alcoholic beverages must be generally 20, although 18- and 19-year-olds are allowed to drink alcohol.^ Purchase,; Possession, or Consumption by 19 or 20‑Year Old.

^ Amounts of alcoholic beverages that may be; purchased.

^ Alcoholic beverages purchased out‑of‑State.

.In Finland and Norway, purchase and possession of alcoholic beverages with up to 22% ABV is allowed from age 18, for stronger drinks from age 20. In Finland and Sweden (excluding Norway), stronger drinks may be ordered in a restaurant from age 18. Also, in Sweden, 18-year-olds can legally purchase alcoholic beverages sold in grocery stores, but not in the state-run stores.^ Purchase,; Possession, or Consumption by 19 or 20‑Year Old.

^ Determine what; brands of alcoholic beverages may be sold in this State; .

^ Amounts of alcoholic beverages that may be; purchased.

Denmark allows any type of alcoholic beverage (above 1.2%) to be purchased at age 16.[45]

United States of America

Exceptions to the minimum age of 21 for consumption of alcohol in the United States, as of January 1, 2007
The legal age for purchase or possession (but not necessarily consumption) in every state has been 21 since shortly after the passage of the National Minimum Drinking Age Act in 1984, which tied federal highway funds to states' maintaining a minimum drinking age of 21.
.Eighteen states (Arkansas, California, Connecticut, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Maryland, Massachusetts, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Mexico, New York, Oklahoma, Rhode Island, South Carolina, and Wyoming) and the District of Columbia have laws against possession of alcohol by minors but do not prohibit its consumption by minors.^ This Chapter is intended to; establish a uniform system of control over the sale, purchase, transportation,; manufacture, consumption, and possession of alcoholic beverages in North; Carolina, and to provide procedures to insure the proper administration of the; ABC laws under a uniform system throughout the State.

^ Any other form or; means of identification that indicates or symbolizes that the person is not; prohibited from purchasing or possessing alcoholic beverages under this; section.

^ Any other property; not primarily used for commercial purposes and not open to the public at the; time the alcoholic beverage is possessed, if the owner or other person in; charge of the property consents to that possession and consumption; .

.Thirteen states (Alaska, Colorado, Delaware, Illinois, Louisiana, Maine, Minnesota, Missouri, Montana, Ohio, Oregon, Texas, and Wisconsin) specifically permit minors to drink alcohol given to them by their parents or a by a person whom their parents see fit.^ Persons producing fuel alcohol for their own use or to; be sold commercially do not have to obtain a license or permit from the; division.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ It shall be unlawful for any person to permit the use of the; person's drivers license or any other form of identification of any kind issued; or given to the person by any other person who violates or attempts to violate; subsection (b) of this section.

^ The driver or person; in charge of each vehicle transporting alcoholic beverages shall possess a copy; of the carrier's fleet permit certified by the carrier to be an exact copy of; the original.

[citation needed]
.Many states also specifically permit consumption under the age of 21 for religious or health reasons.^ State the specific reasons for the request; and .
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Regardless of the; results of any local wine election, sell the wine owned by the winery at the; winery for on‑ or off‑premise consumption upon obtaining the; appropriate permit under G.S. 18B‑1001; .

^ Except for bona fide religious organizations, no; organization that discriminates in the selection of its membership on the basis; of religion shall be eligible to receive any permit issued under this Chapter.

Restrictions on manufacturing

.In many countries, production of alcoholic beverages requires a license, and alcohol production is taxed.^ The Commission may require the officer or agent to obtain a; permit before purchasing alcoholic beverages under this subdivision.

^ "Nontaxpaid alcoholic; beverage" means any alcoholic beverage upon which the taxes imposed by the; United States, this State, or any other territorial jurisdiction in which the; alcoholic beverage was purchased have not been paid.

^ "Underage person"; means a person who is less than the age legally required for purchase of the; alcoholic beverage in question.

.In the United States, the sale of alcoholic beverages is controlled by the individual states, the counties or parishes within each state, and then by local jurisdictions within counties.^ Act” means; the alcoholic beverage control Act.
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^ Any person may file a petition with the alcoholic; beverages division for a declaratory order as to the applicability to specified; circumstances of a statute, rule, or order within the primary jurisdiction of; the division, at 1918 S.E. Hulsizer Road, Ankeny, Iowa 50021–3941.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ To another government agency or to an instrumentality; of any governmental jurisdiction within or under the control of the United; States for a civil or criminal law enforcement activity if the activity is; authorized by law, and if an authorized representative of such government; agency or instrumentality has submitted a written request to the agency; specifying the record desired and the law enforcement activity for which the; record is sought.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

.For example, in most of North Carolina, beer and wine may be purchased in retail stores, but distilled spirits are only available at state ABC (Alcohol Beverage Control) stores.^ Any county may hold a malt beverage, unfortified wine, or ABC store election.

^ A purchase may be made only from the store named on the permit.

^ Determine what; brands of alcoholic beverages may be sold in this State; .

.In Maryland, distilled spirits are available in liquor stores except in Montgomery County where the county runs the ABC stores.^ The county operates; an ABC store; .

^ Any county may hold a malt beverage, unfortified wine, or ABC store election.

^ Spirituous Liquor.; – Except as provided in Article 10 of this Chapter, spirituous liquor may be; sold only in ABC stores operated by local boards.

.A county that prohibits the sale of alcohol is known as a dry county.^ An industry member is; prohibited from extending credit on the sale of alcoholic liquor, beer, wine; coolers, or spirit coolers to a retailer.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ II. That borders on a; county that has approved the sale of alcoholic beverages countywide and; contains an international airport; and .

^ An industry member and a; retailer are prohibited from entering into implied or express contracts for the; future sale and purchase of alcoholic beverages.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

.In most states, individuals may freely produce wine and beer usually up to 100 gallons per adult per year, but no more than 200 gallons per household per year for personal consumption (but not for sale).^ The holder of a wine producer permit may: .

^ No more than six; wines may be tasted at any one tasting area.

^ An industry member may extend credit; to a retailer on the sale of wine for not more than 30 days from the date of; the sale.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

However, in St. Mary's County, Maryland, a "bona fide" resident may sell beer and native wines from their home.
.The production of distilled beverages is regulated and taxed.^ Furnish or sell; marketable malt beverage products, or packages which do not conform to the; manufacturer's marketing standards, if State taxes have been or will be paid,; to its employees for the use of the employees or their families and guests in; this State; .

[46] .The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms, and Explosives and the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau (formerly one organization known as the Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms) enforce federal laws and regulations related to alcohol.^ All labels must conform to the regulations of the Bureau of Alcohol,; Tobacco and Firearms.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ WHEREFORE, it is requested that the administrator of; the Alcoholic Beverages Division hear the proceeding in accordance with the law; and regulations.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ This section shall; not apply to producers of beverage alcohol holding a basic permit from the; Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco and Firearms.

Illegal manufacture of distilled liquor is often referred to as "moonshining," and the product, which is not aged and contains a high percentage of alcohol, is often called "white lightning."
.All alcoholic product packaging must contain a health warning from the Surgeon General.^ All petitions for a waiver must be; submitted in writing to the Alcoholic Beverages Division, 1918 SE Hulsizer; Road, Ankeny, Iowa 50021.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Require all; advertisements of alcoholic beverages to disclose fully the identity of the; advertiser and of the product being advertised; .

^ (Industry members who sell alcoholic liquor to the; division must comply with the division’s policies regarding combination; packaging.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

In the United Kingdom, the Customs and Excise department issues distilling licenses. .New Zealand is one of the few countries where it is not only legal to produce any form of alcohol for personal use, including spirits, it is neither taxed nor licensed.^ Persons; producing fuel alcohol .
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^ Persons producing fuel alcohol.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Any other form or; means of identification that indicates or symbolizes that the person is not; prohibited from purchasing or possessing alcoholic beverages under this; section.

.This has made the sale and use of home distillation equipment popular.^ Manufacture,; purchase, import, possess and transport ingredients and equipment used in the; distillation of spirituous liquor; .

Restrictions on sale and possession

Canada

.In most Canadian provinces, there is a government monopoly on the sale of alcohol, for example the Liquor Control Board of Ontario, or Liquor Distribution Branch of British Columbia.^ Provide for the; distribution and posting of warning signs to local ABC boards regarding the; dangers of alcohol consumption during pregnancy as required under G.S. 18B‑808; .

^ Liquor control licensees and permittees shall not; advertise or display any brand of alcoholic liquor, wine, or beer on the; outside of any premises licensed to sell alcoholic liquor, wine, or beer at; retail, whether the sale is for on–premises consumption or off–premises; consumption.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Alcoholic beverages may not be sold in such a; room unless a permit has been issued under Article 10 authorizing sale there.

The idea of government control and supervision of the sale of alcohol was a compromise devised in the 1920s between "drys" and "wets" to end Prohibition in Canada. .Some provinces have moved away from government control: in Alberta privately-owned liquor stores exist, while in Quebec a limited number of wines and liquors can be purchased at dépanneurs and grocery stores.^ A Class “E”; liquor license shall authorize the licensee to purchase alcoholic liquor from; this division only, to sell and to deliver alcoholic liquor to consumers and; Class “A,” Class “B,” and Class “C” liquor control licensees.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ All applicants for liquor control licenses, wine; permits, or beer permits shall comply with the following requirements, where; applicable, prior to receiving a liquor license, wine permit, or beer permit.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ When a secured party takes possession of a liquor control licensee’s; or permittee’s alcoholic liquor, wine, and beer, the secured party shall notify; the division in writing of such action.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

.At the same time Canada has some of the highest excise taxes on alcohol in the world, referred to as a "sin tax", this is a source of income for governments and is also meant to discourage over-consumption.^ A person may transport at one; time the same amount of alcoholic beverages that he is allowed to buy under; G.S. 18B‑303(a).

(see Taxation in Canada).
.Other restrictions on the sale of alcohol vary from province to province.^ Retail sales of food or alcoholic beverages to be; consumed on the premises of a cooking school are restricted to bona fide; enrolled students of that school.

^ Require that an; alcoholic beverage retailer purchase any alcoholic beverages from that person; to the full or partial exclusion of any other alcoholic beverages offered for; sale by other persons in this State; or .

^ The permit may authorize the sale or other; disposition of the alcoholic beverages in a manner prescribed by the; Commission.

.In Alberta, changes introduced in 2008 included a ban on "happy hour", minimum prices, and a limit on the number of drinks a person can purchase at one time after 1pm in bars and pubs.^ Purchases Allowed.; – Without a permit, a person may purchase at one time: .

^ With a; purchase‑transportation permit, a person may purchase and transport an; amount of alcoholic beverages greater than the amount specified in G.S. 18B‑303(a).; A permit authorizes the holder to transport from the place of purchase to the; destination within North Carolina indicated on the permit at one time the; following amount of alcoholic beverages: .

^ A person may transport at one; time the same amount of alcoholic beverages that he is allowed to buy under; G.S. 18B‑303(a).

[47]

Nordic countries

In each of the Nordic countries except Denmark, there is a government monopoly on the selling of hard alcohol in stores.
.In Sweden, beer with a lower alcohol content, called folköl (2.25% to 3.5% alcohol by weight), can be sold in regular stores to anyone older than 18, but drinks with a high alcohol content can only be sold by government-run vendors to people older than 20, or in licensed facilities such as restaurants and bars, where the age limit is 18. The law states that alcoholic drinks bought at these licensed facilities must be consumed on the premises, and it is not allowed to consume alcoholic drinks bought elsewhere.^ Persons must be 18 years of age or older to work in a state; liquor store.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ An; establishment covered by a liquor license, wine permit, or beer permit can be; used as a restaurant or any other lawful purpose during hours which beer, wine,; or alcoholic liquor cannot be sold as long as beer, wine, or alcoholic; beverages are not consumed during these hours.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Liquor control licensees and permittees shall not; advertise or display any brand of alcoholic liquor, wine, or beer on the; outside of any premises licensed to sell alcoholic liquor, wine, or beer at; retail, whether the sale is for on–premises consumption or off–premises; consumption.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

.For non-alcoholic drinks there is no such legal requirement, but individual facilities may still set their own restrictions.^ No winery may require any; wholesaler to waive compliance with any provision of this Chapter.

^ The Commission may require the officer or agent to obtain a; permit before purchasing alcoholic beverages under this subdivision.

^ The presiding officer presides at the hearing, and; may rule on motions, require briefs, issue a proposed decision, and issue such; orders and rulings as will ensure the orderly conduct of the proceedings.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

.In Norway, beers with an alcohol content of 4.74% by volume or less can be legally sold in grocery stores.^ "Underage person"; means a person who is less than the age legally required for purchase of the; alcoholic beverage in question.

^ Set the prices of; alcoholic beverages sold in local ABC stores as provided in Article 8; .

^ The Commission may also authorize air carriers to store,; at facilities approved by the Commission, alcoholic beverages to be sold or; served pursuant to subsection (b).

.Stronger beers, wine and spirits can only be bought at official government-run vendors.^ The holder of a nonresident wine vendor permit may sell, deliver, and; ship into this State only wine for which it is a primary American source of; supply.

.All alcoholic beverages can be bought at licensed bars and restaurants, provided they are consumed on the premises.^ These rules shall govern all forms prescribed by the; alcoholic beverages commission for use in proceedings before the division.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ A licensee shall not; keep on the licensed premises nor use for resale alcoholic liquor which does; not bear identifying markers as prescribed by the administrator of this; division.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Except for; purposes of this subsection, the holder of a wine‑tasting permit shall; not be construed to hold a permit for the on‑premises sale or consumption; of alcoholic beverages.

.Beers and wine can be purchased by anyone of age 18 or older, spirits by anyone 20 or over.^ Persons 16 years of; age and older may sell beer and wine in off–premises beer and wine; establishments.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Possess wines; manufactured during the viticulture/enology program for the purpose of; conducting wine‑tasting seminars and classes for students who are 21; years of age or older.

^ Persons 21 years of age or older may hold a liquor; license, wine permit, or beer permit; however, persons who are between the ages; of 18 and 21 and hold a liquor license, wine permit, or beer permit before; September 1, 1986, are not affected by or subject to this rule, and may hold; such license or permit even though the licensee or permittee has not attained; the age of 21.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

.Norway levies some of the heaviest fees in the world on alcoholic beverages, particularly spirits, on top of a 25% GST on all goods and services.^ The facility's; annual gross receipts from the sale of alcoholic beverages shall be less than; fifty percent (50%) of the gross receipts paid to all providers at permitted; functions for food, nonalcoholic beverages, alcoholic beverages, service, and; facility usage fees (excluding receipts or charges for entertainment and; ancillary services not directly related to providing food and beverage; service).

^ All communications to the division shall be addressed to the Alcoholic; Beverages Division, 1918 S.E. Hulsizer, Ankeny, Iowa 50021, unless otherwise; specifically directed.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ All petitions for a waiver must be; submitted in writing to the Alcoholic Beverages Division, 1918 SE Hulsizer; Road, Ankeny, Iowa 50021.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

For example, 700 ml of Absolut Vodka currently retails at 275 NOK, which is about US$54.
The state-run vendor is called Systembolaget in Sweden, Vinmonopolet in Norway, Alko in Finland, and Vínbúð in Iceland. .The governments claim that the purpose of this system is to cut down on the consumption of alcohol in these countries where binge drinking is an ancient tradition.^ These rules shall govern all forms prescribed by the; alcoholic beverages commission for use in proceedings before the division.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Except for; purposes of this subsection, the holder of a wine‑tasting permit shall; not be construed to hold a permit for the on‑premises sale or consumption; of alcoholic beverages.

^ The Intoxilyzer 5000 has been in production since the 1980's and has been used for the ; purpose of forensic breath alcohol concentration measurement in over 30 different states ; and various other countries.
  • MISSOURI BREATH ALCOHOL PROGRAM 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.dhss.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The first such monopoly was in Falun in the 19th century. .In the early 20th century, Sweden had a brief prohibition of strong alcoholic drinks, followed by strict rationing, and then more lax regulation, including being open on Saturdays.^ Prohibit or regulate; advertising of alcoholic beverages by mail; .

^ Prohibit; advertisements of alcoholic beverages on the premises of a permittee, or; regulate the size, number, and appearance of those advertisements; .

^ A ; person who is depressed and unhappy is usually more depressed and unhappy ; following the consumption of alcohol.
  • MISSOURI BREATH ALCOHOL PROGRAM 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.dhss.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These measures have had success in the past, but since joining the European Union it has been harder to curb importation, legal or illegal, from other EU countries, making these measures less effective.^ The Intoxilyzer 5000 has been in production since the 1980's and has been used for the ; purpose of forensic breath alcohol concentration measurement in over 30 different states ; and various other countries.
  • MISSOURI BREATH ALCOHOL PROGRAM 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.dhss.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Has any other legally sufficient cause to withdraw; from participation in the decision making in that case.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The other point I would like to make may be a little harder for me to articulate.
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

There is an ongoing debate over whether or not to maintain the state-run alcohol monopolies.
Denmark
.In Denmark, people can buy all kinds of alcoholic beverages from grocery stores.^ Many homes, most schools, virtually all grocery stores, restaurants, malls, department stores, and most public office buildings are regularly fumigated with insecticides.

.The legal age of purchasing alcohol is 16 in shops, and 18 in bars and restaurants.^ The holder of a Class “E” liquor license shall not; employ or use persons who are under the age of 16 years to handle or sell; alcoholic liquor.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ "Underage person"; means a person who is less than the age legally required for purchase of the; alcoholic beverage in question.

.Until 1998 there was no age limit to buy alcohol in shops.^ However, controls were ; ; not tested and there was no information on the purity of the ; alcohol.
  • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ There is no; dollar limitation on wearing apparel which may be sold by an industry member to; a retailer.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Original Lager (Bowes): not thin but no flavour until a bit of alcohol or chemical at end.

.It is generally legal to drink alcoholic beverages in the street, however, you have to be at least 18 years old, but restrictions are sometimes applied by local authorities in problem areas.^ Except; as otherwise provided in this Chapter, the purchase, consumption, and; possession of malt beverages and unfortified wine by individuals 21 years old; and older for their own use is permitted without restriction.

^ If; the patron occupying the suite so desires, alcoholic beverages by self‑service; may be made available to any person at least 21 years of age possessing a valid; ticket to the event authorizing that person to occupy the suite.

^ No ABC; store shall be open, and no ABC store employee shall sell alcoholic beverages,; between 9:00 P.M. and 9:00 A.M. The local board shall otherwise determine; opening and closing hours of its stores.

.On public transportation, it is generally allowed to drink alcohol, but not to act heavily intoxicated, a rule enforced less strictly than in neighboring Scandinavian countries.^ To qualify as a restaurant, an establishment's gross receipts from food; and nonalcoholic beverages shall be not less than thirty percent (30%) of the; total gross receipts from food, nonalcoholic beverages, and alcoholic; beverages.

^ "Underage person"; means a person who is less than the age legally required for purchase of the; alcoholic beverage in question.

^ Alcohol; law‑enforcement agents are also authorized to be on the premises to the; extent necessary to enforce the provisions of Article 68 of Chapter 143 of the; General Statutes.

.Home production of wine and beer is not regulated.^ Consignment means; a sale under which the retailer is not obligated to pay for the alcoholic; liquor, wine or beer, until the product is sold by the retailer.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ An industry member may repack alcoholic liquor,; wine and beer for the purpose of assisting the retailer to sell slow moving or; overstocked products.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ An industry member is; prohibited from requiring a retailer to purchase a specific quantity of; alcoholic liquor, wine or beer in order to receive a product display.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

.Home distillation of spirits is legal, however not common since it is subject to the same taxation as spirits sold commercially.^ However, Implied Consent applies to blood draws the same as breath samples, and if a ; subject refuses to submit to a blood test then "none shall be given".
  • MISSOURI BREATH ALCOHOL PROGRAM 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.dhss.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Bootlegging is rarely heard of, in contrast to rural Sweden and Norway. .Danish alcohol taxes are significantly lower than in Sweden and Norway, but higher than in most other European countries.^ Trent mentions other novel aspects of the alcoholysis process: Trent says that esters produced ; with higher alcohols (ethanol and above) have a greater tendency to gel from soap formation ; than with methanol.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Blanche Soleil (Bièropholie): yeasty, a touch of sharpness, an impression of a higher alcohol content than it actually has.

^ "Nontaxpaid alcoholic; beverage" means any alcoholic beverage upon which the taxes imposed by the; United States, this State, or any other territorial jurisdiction in which the; alcoholic beverage was purchased have not been paid.

United States of America

Map of open container laws in the United States by state, as of September 2007
See also: Alcohol laws of Kansas, Alcohol laws of Missouri, Alcohol laws of New York, Alcohol laws of Oklahoma
.In the United States, the places where alcohol may be sold and/or possessed, like all other alcohol restrictions, varies from state to state.^ Determine what; brands of alcoholic beverages may be sold in this State; .

^ Any other form or; means of identification that indicates or symbolizes that the person is not; prohibited from purchasing or possessing alcoholic beverages under this; section.

^ The; Commission may issue rules relating to applications for permits and otherwise; regulate the importation, sale, and delivery of alcoholic beverages under this; section to insure that those beverages are used only on oceangoing vessels; outside the United States.

.Some states, like Nevada, Louisiana, Missouri, and Connecticut, have very permissive and laissez-faire alcohol laws, whereas other states, like Kansas and Oklahoma, have very strict alcohol laws.^ The alcoholic beverages division administers the laws; of this state concerning beer, alcoholic liquor, and wine.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Some materials are confidential under other applicable; provisions of law or because of a court order.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The agency may have discretion to disclose some; confidential records which are exempt from disclosure under Iowa Code section 22.7 or other law.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

.Many U.S. states require that distilled liquor be sold only in dedicated liquor stores.^ The establishment or discontinuance of state liquor; stores.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Closure of state liquor stores.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ To whom liquor may be sold outside the state of; Iowa.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

.In fourteen alcoholic beverage control states (Alabama, Idaho, Maine, Mississippi, Montana, New Hampshire, North Carolina, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, and Wyoming), liquor stores are run by the state itself, ostensibly to prevent young cashiers from allowing sales to underage friends while pretending to verify their age.^ The establishment or discontinuance of state liquor; stores.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Alcoholic beverages purchased out‑of‑State.

^ Sale of alcoholic beverages in ABC stores.

.In Nevada, Missouri, and Louisiana however, state law does not specifically enumerate the precise locations where alcohol may be sold, allowing even gas stations to sell any alcoholic beverage as if they were liquor stores.^ Determine what; brands of alcoholic beverages may be sold in this State; .

^ Amounts of alcoholic beverages that may be; purchased.

^ Alcoholic beverages purchased out‑of‑State.

.In some states, liquor sales are prohibited on Sunday by a blue law.^ The sale of spirituous liquor sold at the uniform State; price shall consist of the following components: .

^ Nothing in this Article; relieves a winery or wholesaler of any obligation, duty, or prohibition imposed; by any other provision of this Chapter or by G.S. 75‑1.1 or by any other; provision of State law, and the remedies provided in this Article are; nonexclusive.

^ If the; sale of mixed beverages is approved, purchase‑transportation permits; shall be issued and the sales of liquor shall be made by any local board; designated by the State ABC Commission.

This convenience store in Michigan had its retail license suspended for two weeks because it sold alcoholic beverages to minors.
.Most U.S. states follow a three-tier system where producers cannot sell directly to retailers, but must instead sell to distributors, who in turn sell to retailers.^ The malt beverages must come to rest at the; licensed premises of a malt beverage wholesaler in this State before being; resold to a retailer.

^ Promote and maintain; a sound, stable and viable three‑tier system of distribution of malt; beverages to the public.

^ A retail permittee may purchase malt beverages, unfortified; wine, or fortified wine only from a wholesaler who maintains a place of; business in this State and has the proper permit.

.Exceptions often exist for brewpubs (pubs which brew their own beer) and wineries, which are allowed to sell their products directly to consumers.^ Licensees and permittees who hold a license or permit; which allows them to sell bottled wine and bottled beer may deliver beer and; wine to residences if the customers telephoned and requested that the beer and; wine be delivered.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ An industry member engaged in the; manufacturing or wholesaling of beer or wine may sell commemorative glassware; which bears substantial advertising matter identifying the industry member or; the industry member’s product to off–premises retailers for resale to; consumers.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ An industry member may repack alcoholic liquor,; wine and beer for the purpose of assisting the retailer to sell slow moving or; overstocked products.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

.Although all U.S. states have laws against drunk driving (usually defined as driving with at or above 0.08% blood alcohol content), most U.S. states also do not allow open containers of alcohol inside of moving vehicles.^ Any wines obtained; by the process defined herein that contain more than 17 percent of alcohol by; weight will be considered an alcoholic liquor.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Those companies shall; keep accurate records of the character, volume and number of containers; transported and shall allow the Commission and alcohol law‑enforcement; agents to inspect those records at any time.

^ It also authorizes the holder of the permit to; ship malt beverages in closed containers to individual purchasers inside and; outside the State.

.The federal Transportation Equity Act for the 21st Century of 1999 mandates that if a state does not prohibit open containers of alcohol inside of all moving vehicles, a percentage of its federal highway funds will be transferred instead to alcohol education programs each year.^ The; Department of Health and Human Services shall spend those funds for the; treatment of alcoholism or substance abuse, or for research or education on; alcohol or substance abuse.

^ Records of purchases of; alcoholic beverages and sales of alcoholic beverages shall be filed separate; and apart from all other records maintained on the premises, and all records; related to alcoholic beverages, including original invoices, shall be; maintained on the premises for three years and shall be open for inspection and; audit pursuant to G.S. 18B‑502.

^ Funds distributed under subdivisions (b)(4) and (c)(3) of; this section shall be spent for the treatment of alcoholism or substance abuse,; or for research or education on alcohol or substance abuse.

.As of November, 2007, only one state (Mississippi) allows drivers to consume alcohol while driving (below the 0.08% limit), and only seven states (Arkansas, Connecticut, Delaware, Mississippi, Missouri, Virginia, and West Virginia) allow passengers to consume alcohol while the vehicle is in motion.^ One who holds only a; brown bagging permit, a special occasions permit, or a limited special; occasions permit; .

^ A Class “E”; liquor license shall authorize the licensee to purchase alcoholic liquor from; this division only, to sell and to deliver alcoholic liquor to consumers and; Class “A,” Class “B,” and Class “C” liquor control licensees.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ It shall be unlawful for a person; who is driving a motor vehicle on a highway or public vehicular area to consume; in the passenger area of that vehicle any malt beverage or unfortified wine.

.Five U.S. states limit alcohol sales in grocery stores and gas stations to beer at or below 3.2% alcohol: Colorado, Kansas, Minnesota, Oklahoma, and Utah.^ Sale of alcoholic beverages in ABC stores.

^ Funds derived from the sale of; damaged alcoholic beverages shall be paid to the general fund of the State.

^ No ABC store may sell any alcoholic beverage which has not been; approved by the Commission for sale in this State.

.In these states, stronger beverages are restricted to liquor stores.^ The establishment or discontinuance of state liquor; stores.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Closure of state liquor stores.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Store any other; spirituous liquor with liquor possessed for resale in mixed beverages or from a; guest room cabinet.

.In Oklahoma, liquor stores may not refrigerate any beverage containing more than 3.2% alcohol.^ Wine means any beverage containing more than 5; percent, but not more than 17 percent, of alcohol by weight obtained by the; fermentation of the natural sugar content of fruits or other agricultural; products by excluding any product containing alcohol derived from malt or by; the distillation process from grain cereal, molasses, or cactus.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ An industry member may extend credit; to a retailer on the sale of wine for not more than 30 days from the date of; the sale.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ An industry member who engages in trade spending is; prohibited from paying the retailer more than the ordinary and customary charge; for the beverages.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

.Missouri also has provisions for 3.2% beer, but its permissive alcohol laws (when compared to other states) make this type of beer a rarity.^ The division is; vested with the sole and exclusive control within the state of Iowa both as; purchaser and vendor of all alcoholic liquor sold by distilleries within the; state or imported therein, except beer and wine, except as otherwise provided; by law.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The alcoholic beverages division administers the laws; of this state concerning beer, alcoholic liquor, and wine.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Before making a sale to a purchaser other than the; division, a licensed manufacturer or wholesaler shall require the purchaser to; produce and exhibit for inspection proof of the right to purchase alcoholic; liquor according to the laws of the purchaser’s own state.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

Most states ban drinking alcoholic beverages in public (i.e. in the street). Moreover, even where a state, like Nevada, Louisiana, or Missouri, has no laws against drinking alcoholic beverages in public, the vast majority of cities and counties in them do ban drinking alcoholic beverages in public. .Still, in the French Quarter of New Orleans, Louisiana, the Power & Light District of Kansas City, Missouri, Beale Street of Memphis, Tennessee, and Savannah, Georgia, state law specifically allow persons over the age of 21 to possess alcoholic beverages in plastic cups on the street.^ Within 15 days after receipt of a petition for a; declaratory order, the alcoholic beverages division shall give notice of the; petition to all persons not served by the petitioner pursuant to rule 3.6 (17A) to whom notice is required by any provision of; law.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Vendors shall; follow the policy established by the administrator of the division for; accepting personal checks and traveler’s checks for the purchase of alcoholic; beverages.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ This chapter describes the organization and operation; of the alcoholic beverages division, including the offices where and the means; by which any interested person may obtain information and make submittals or; requests.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

.Often, bars serving distilled liquor are exempted from smoking bans where they exist in the United States (see list of smoking bans in the United States.^ Heaven and Hell clearly exist, and they are clearly spiritual states rather than physical places.
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The division will post a list of the most current price of wines it lists in a; conspicuous place in the agency’s central office and in all state liquor; stores.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The medication was banned in Britain and has received intense criticism in the United States.

)

History

.Alcohol has been used by people around the world, in the standard diet, for hygienic/medical reasons, for its relaxant and euphoric effects, for recreational purposes, for artistic inspiration, as aphrodisiacs, and for other reasons.^ Any other property; not primarily used for commercial purposes and not open to the public at the; time the alcoholic beverage is possessed, if the owner or other person in; charge of the property consents to that possession and consumption; .

^ The use of grain; alcohol by college, university or State laboratories, and by manufacturers of; medicine, for compounding, mixing, or preserving medicines or medical; preparations, or for surgical purposes; .

^ The use of alcoholic; beverages by licensed physicians, druggists, or dental surgeons for medicinal; or pharmaceutical purposes; or the use of alcoholic beverages by medical; facilities established and maintained for the treatment of patients addicted to; the use of alcohol or drugs; .

.Some drinks have been invested with symbolic or religious significance suggesting the mystical use of alcohol, e.g.^ An unusual taste that takes some getting used to: an initial powerful alcoholic sensation with an aftertaste of something like burnt toast.

^ After the drinking stops, at some point the amount of alcohol being absorbed ; will equal the amount being eliminated, which results in the peak alcohol concentration.
  • MISSOURI BREATH ALCOHOL PROGRAM 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.dhss.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ EGBERT, A.M., REED, J.S., POWELL, B.J., LISKOW, B.I., & ; LIESE, B.S. (1985) Alcoholics who drink mouthwash: the ; spectrum of nonbeverage alcohol use.
  • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

by .Greco-Roman religion in the ecstatic rituals of Dionysus (also called Bacchus), god of wine and revelry; in the Christian Eucharist; and on the Jewish Shabbat and festivals (particularly Passover).^ Anyone who had removed the body could have earned themselves an enormous reward from the Jewish and/or Roman authorities by producing it – it would have stopped Christianity in its tracks.
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

Fermented beverages

.Chemical analysis of traces absorbed and preserved in pottery jars from the Neolithic village of Jiahu, in Henan province, Northern China, have revealed that a mixed fermented beverage of rice, honey, and fruit was being produced as early as 9,000 years ago.^ Most of the 75,000 to 80,000 synthetic chemical compounds in common industrial use today were not even in existence before the middle of the 20th century, and approximately 1,000 new chemicals are being added to that number each year.

^ Then if one accepts human evolution, which suggests humans have been around for 200,000 years, then how can one reconcile this with human history only being up to 10,000 years ago at the same time as agriculture started in the middle east...
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

^ And that first “observation” could have occurred 6,000 years ago.
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

.This is approximately the same time that barley beer and grape wine were beginning to be made in the Middle East.^ THE; CONDITION OF THIS OBLIGATION IS SUCH, That whereas, the Principal has made; application for either a class “A” beer permit, class “A” wine permit, or a; class “F” beer permit to be issued by the Alcoholic Beverages Division.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ An industry member may affix; prices to alcoholic liquor, wine or beer sold by the industry member at the; time of delivery, provided that the retailer independently determines the price; of the alcoholic liquor, wine and beer.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Any wine received by a winery under this provision must; be made available for sale by the winery to wholesalers for distribution to; retailers, without discrimination, in the same manner as if the wine were being; imported by the winery; .

Recipes have been found on clay tablets and art in Mesopotamia that show individuals using straws to drink beer from large vats and pots. .The Hindu Ayurvedic texts describe both the beneficent uses of alcoholic beverages and the consequences of intoxication and alcoholic diseases.^ Alcoholic beverages for use in air; commerce.

^ Alcoholic beverages for use on oceangoing; ships.

^ This chapter describes the organization and operation; of the alcoholic beverages division, including the offices where and the means; by which any interested person may obtain information and make submittals or; requests.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

.Most of the peoples in India and China, have continued, throughout, to ferment a portion of their crops and nourish themselves with the alcoholic product.^ Dried residues ; on 9000-year-old pottery found in northern China imply the use of alcoholic beverages ; even among Neolithic peoples.
  • MISSOURI BREATH ALCOHOL PROGRAM 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.dhss.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Production of alcoholic beverages always begins with the process of ; fermentation .
  • MISSOURI BREATH ALCOHOL PROGRAM 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.dhss.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alcohol: The most commonly used primary alcohol used in biodiesel production is methanol, ; although other alcohols, such as ethanol, isopropanol, and butyl, can be used.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

However, devout adherents of Buddhism, which arose in India in the 5th and 6th centuries BC and spread over southern and eastern Asia, abstain to this day, as do devout Hindus and Sikhs. .In Mesopotamia and Egypt, the birthplace of beer and wine, Islam is now the predominant religion, and it also prohibits the drinking and even the handling of alcoholic beverages.^ Prohibited storage of alcoholic; beverages and wine.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Prohibited; storage of alcoholic beverages and wine .
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Dried residues ; on 9000-year-old pottery found in northern China imply the use of alcoholic beverages ; even among Neolithic peoples.
  • MISSOURI BREATH ALCOHOL PROGRAM 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.dhss.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Wine was consumed in Classical Greece at breakfast or at symposia, and in the 1st century BC it was part of the diet of most Roman citizens. .However, both Greeks and Romans generally consumed diluted wine (with strengths varying from 1 part wine and 1 part water to 1 part wine and 4 parts water).^ The holder of a wine‑tasting; permit not engaged in the preparation or sale of food on the premises is not; subject to Part 6 of Article 8 of Chapter 130A of the General Statutes.

.The transformation of water into wine at the wedding at Cana is the first of the miracles attributed to Jesus in the New Testament, and His use of wine in the Last Supper led to it becoming an essential part of the Eucharist rite in most Christian traditions (see Christianity and alcohol).^ Wine is essentially alcohol and water and sugars, all made from H 2 O and CO 2 .
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Most of my questions that have led me to doubt Christianity have involved the following: Evolution/Anthropology, the historicity of the Bible, eschatology, and the idea of the miraculous.
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Christian God clearly interacts with Creation in specific and decisive ways, most importantly in the life, death and resurrection of Jesus.
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

.In Europe during the Middle Ages, beer was consumed by the whole family, thanks to a triple fermentation process—the men had the strongest, then women, then children.^ Use; of establishment during hours alcoholic liquor, wine and beer cannot be; consumed .
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ No one, including licensee, permittee, and employees can; consume beer, wine, or alcoholic beverages in their licensed establishment; during hours which beer, wine, and alcoholic beverages cannot be sold.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Persons 18 years of age and older may be bartenders, waiters,; waitresses, and may handle alcoholic beverages, wine, and beer during the; course of the person’s employment for a licensee or permittee in establishments; in which alcoholic beverages, wine, and beer are consumed.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

A document of the times mentions nuns having an allowance of six pints of ale a day. Cider and pomace wine were also widely available, while grape wine was the prerogative of the higher classes.
.By the time the Europeans reached the Americas in the 15th century, several native civilizations had developed alcoholic beverages.^ However, to reach significant levels of alcohol ; concentration requires exposure to a severely irritating environment for an extended ; period of time.
  • MISSOURI BREATH ALCOHOL PROGRAM 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.dhss.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She developed severe depression and visual problems for the first time within two weeks after consuming 8-10 glasses of an aspartame drink daily.

^ Slowing the alcohol absorption decreases the peak ; alcohol concentration, may prolong the time to reach the ; peak concentration, and reduces the impact of that alcohol on the person.
  • MISSOURI BREATH ALCOHOL PROGRAM 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.dhss.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.According to a post-Conquest Aztec document, consumption of the local "wine" (pulque) was generally restricted to religious ceremonies, but freely allowed to those over 70 years old.^ Provide for the; distribution and posting of warning signs to local ABC boards regarding the; dangers of alcohol consumption during pregnancy as required under G.S. 18B‑808; .

^ Except; as otherwise provided in this Chapter, the purchase, consumption, and; possession of malt beverages and unfortified wine by individuals 21 years old; and older for their own use is permitted without restriction.

^ Give malt beverages; or unfortified wine to anyone less than 21 years old; or .

.The natives of South America manufactured a beer-like product from cassava or maize (cauim, chicha), which had to be chewed before fermentation in order to turn the starch into sugars.^ Besides the chemicals we manufacture and deliberately put into our consumer products each year, there are also industrial chemical byproducts that are unintentionally released into the environment each year.

.This chewing technique was also used in ancient Japan to make sake from rice and other starchy crops.^ Although some forms of mercury are hazardous, the mercury in amalgam is chemically bound to the other metals to make it stable and therefore safe for use in dental applications.

.The medicinal use of alcohol was mentioned in Sumerian and Egyptian texts dated from 2100 BC or earlier.^ The use of grain; alcohol by college, university or State laboratories, and by manufacturers of; medicine, for compounding, mixing, or preserving medicines or medical; preparations, or for surgical purposes; .

^ The Commission shall dispose of the alcoholic beverages by; giving them to a public or private hospital for medicinal use only, by selling; them to a military installation, or by destroying them.

^ While hydrochloric ; acid is a common choice to neutralize base catalysts, as mentioned earlier, if phosphoric acid is ; used, the resulting salt has value as a chemical fertilizer.
  • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

.The Hebrew Bible recommends giving alcoholic drinks to those who are dying or depressed, so that they can forget their misery (Proverbs 31:6-7).^ It shall be unlawful for a permittee or his employee or for an ABC; store employee to knowingly sell or give alcoholic beverages to any person who; is intoxicated.

^ It is apparent that those clinicians who enjoy the respect of their colleagues as astute diagnosticians usually achieve this status primarily as a result of the time and interest they give their patients.

^ Those who do take medicines say as a result they have little energy for chores or sports.

Distilled beverages

The distillation of alcohol can be traced back to China, Central Asia and the Middle East. In particular, Muslim chemists were the first to produce fully purified distilled alcohol.[48] It later spread to Europe in the mid-12th century, and by the early 14th century it had spread throughout the continent. It also spread eastward, mainly due to the Mongols, and began in China no later than the 14th century. Paracelsus gave alcohol its modern name, taking it from the Arabic word which means "finely divided", a reference to distillation.

Alcoholic beverages in American history

In the early 19th century, Americans had inherited a hearty drinking tradition. .Many different types of alcoholic beverages were consumed.^ It shall be unlawful for any person to manufacture, sell,; transport, import, deliver, furnish, purchase, consume, or possess any; alcoholic beverages except as authorized by the ABC law.

^ It shall be unlawful to consume, or for a permittee to allow; the consumption of, malt beverages or unfortified wine on any premises having; only an off‑premises permit for the kind of alcoholic beverage being; consumed.

^ This subsection does; not authorize any person possessing a valid ticket to an event at the facility; to bring alcoholic beverages onto the premises and consume those alcoholic; beverages on the premises, or to remove those beverages from the suite.

One reason for this heavy drinking was an overabundance of corn on the western frontier. This overabundance encouraged the widespread production of cheap whiskey. .It was at this time that alcoholic beverages became an important part of the American diet.^ A person may transport at one; time the same amount of alcoholic beverages that he is allowed to buy under; G.S. 18B‑303(a).

^ If ownership of the; alcoholic beverages remains uncertain after trial or after the charges have; been dismissed, the judge may order the alcoholic beverages held, or the; alcoholic beverages sold and the proceeds held, for a specified time, until; ownership of the alcoholic beverages can be determined.

^ Any other property; not primarily used for commercial purposes and not open to the public at the; time the alcoholic beverage is possessed, if the owner or other person in; charge of the property consents to that possession and consumption; .

In the mid 1820s, Americans drank seven gallons of alcohol per capita annually.[49][50]
During the 19th century, Americans drank an abundance of alcohol and drank it in two distinctive ways.
One way was to drink small amounts daily and regularly, usually at home or alone. The other way consisted of communal binges. .Groups of people would gather in a public place for elections, court sessions, militia musters, holiday celebrations, or neighborly festivities.^ Sale at auction; after notice to certain named individuals or groups, if only a limited number; of people would have use for that property; .

^ Exemptions may be granted only to individuals, not to groups or classes; of people, and each exemption shall be in writing, be available for public; inspection, and contain a statement of the financial interest in question.

Participants would typically drink until they became intoxicated.

Chemistry and toxicology

.Ethanol (CH3CH2OH), the active ingredient in alcoholic drinks, for consumption purposes is always produced by fermentation – the metabolism of carbohydrates - by certain species of yeast in the absence of oxygen.^ Any other property; not primarily used for commercial purposes and not open to the public at the; time the alcoholic beverage is possessed, if the owner or other person in; charge of the property consents to that possession and consumption; .

^ Except for; purposes of this subsection, the holder of a wine‑tasting permit shall; not be construed to hold a permit for the on‑premises sale or consumption; of alcoholic beverages.

^ Formate, itself, produces blindness in monkeys in the absence of metabolic acidosis.

.The process of culturing yeast under alcohol-producing conditions is referred to as brewing.^ A malt beverage produced under this; subdivision may not contain more than six percent (6%) alcohol by volume.

^ Alcoholic beverages may be transported over the public highways of; this State by motor vehicle carriers under the following conditions: .

^ Sell or possess; equipment or ingredients intended for use in the manufacture of any alcoholic; beverage, except equipment and ingredients provided under a Brew on Premises; permit or a Winemaking on Premises permit; or .

.The same process produces carbon dioxide in situ, and may be used to carbonate the drink.^ For example, tables produced by the model weight function for other regression models may be used as input for LinearModel.
  • ICM Language Reference : Functions 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.molsoft.com [Source type: Reference]

However, this method leaves yeast residues and on the industrial scale, carbonation is usually done separately.
.Drinks with a concentration of more than about 50% ethanol by volume (100 US proof) are flammable liquids and easily ignited.^ Religious motivations are more akin to the sort of motivations that lead us to trust our friends, that is they are attained through trusting rather than testing.
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The formaldehyde dose would temporarily be about 67 times more than the lowest level of 1 mmol/L that Oyama found hurt rat cells.

^ Therefore, although there are certainly some questions of minute detail, we know more about what the NT authors wrote than any other authors from the period.
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

.Some exotic drinks gain their distinctive flavors through intentional ignition, such as the Flaming Dr Pepper.^ As much as I myself give much thought to such things, it will all ultimately come down to a faith of some sort, a faith that won't be won through argument I'm afraid.
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

Spirits with a higher ethanol content can be ignited with ease by heating slightly, e.g. adding the spirit to a warmed shot glass.
In the liver, the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase oxidizes ethanol into acetaldehyde, which is then further oxidized into harmless acetic acid by acetaldehyde dehydrogenase. .Ethanol is metabolized into acetaldehyde and then into acetic acid.^ However, soon after ingestion by a creature, its 11% methanol component is released and quickly metabolized into the potent, cumulative, mutagenic toxicants, formaldehyde and formic acid.

Acetic acid is esterified with coenzyme A to produce acetyl CoA. .Acetyl CoA carries the acetyl moiety into the citric acid cycle, which produces energy by oxidizing the acetyl moiety into carbon dioxide.^ This means the possibility of metabolism in the GI tract to methanol, formaldehyde, formic acid, and, finally, carbon dioxide and water, was bypassed.

^ In fact, bacteria in the colon probably reduce methanol directly to formic acid or carbon dioxide (6) (aspartame is completely absorbed before reaching the colon).

Acetyl CoA can also be used for biosynthesis. .Acetyl CoA is an intermediate common with the metabolism of sugars and fats, and it is the product of glycolysis, the breakdown of glucose.^ No skeptic can overlook the fact that, metabolically, formaldehyde must be formed as an intermediate to formic acid production (54).

.When compared to other alcohols, ethanol is only slightly toxic, with a lowest known lethal dose in humans of 1400 mg/kg (about 20 shots for a 100 kg person), and a LD50 of 9000 mg/kg (oral, rat).^ Any other form or; means of identification that indicates or symbolizes that the person is not; prohibited from purchasing or possessing alcoholic beverages under this; section.

^ Require that an; alcoholic beverage retailer purchase any alcoholic beverages from that person; to the full or partial exclusion of any other alcoholic beverages offered for; sale by other persons in this State; or .

^ The purchase‑transportation; permit authorizes that person to transport only the amounts of those alcoholic; beverages authorized by subsection (a).

.Nevertheless, accidental overdosing of alcoholic drinks, especially those of concentrated variety, is a risk, especially for women, lightweight persons and children.^ It; shall be lawful for a person to consume fortified wine and spirituous liquor in; any place where it is lawful for him to possess those alcoholic beverages under; subsections (a) through (c).

^ A person possessing alcoholic beverages which do not meet a new; standard set by the Commission shall have 60 days after the effective date of; the standard to sell or otherwise dispose of those alcoholic beverages.

^ The purchase‑transportation; permit authorizes that person to transport only the amounts of those alcoholic; beverages authorized by subsection (a).

These people have a smaller quantity of water in their bodies, so that alcohol is diluted less. .A blood alcohol concentration of 50 to 100 mg/dL may be considered legal drunkenness (laws vary by jurisdiction).^ When the issuance of the; permit is lawful in the jurisdiction in which the premises are located, the; Commission may issue the following kinds of permits: .

^ An alcoholic consuming 1500 calories a day from alcoholic sources alone may consume between 0 and 600 mg of methanol each day depending on his choice of beverages (Table 1).

^ Alcoholics may average much more, with a potential range of between 0 and 600 mg/day, depending on the source and in some cases the quality of their beverages (15).

The threshold of effects is at 22 mg/dL.[51]
.Alcohol affects the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, to produce a depressant (neurochemical inhibitory) effect.^ The inhibitory effect is a linear function of the log of the ethyl alcohol concentration, with a 72% inhibition rate at only a 0.01 molar concentration of ethanol (2, 46).

^ The inhibitory effect is a linear function of the log of the ethyl alcohol concentration, with a 72% inhibition rate at only a 0.01 molar concentration of ethanol (2).

.Alcohol is similar to other sedative-hypnotics such as barbiturates and benzodiazepines both in its effect on the GABAA receptor although its pharmacological profile is not identical.^ Refill any; spirituous liquor container having a mixed beverages tax stamp with any other; alcoholic beverage, or add to the contents of such a container any other; alcoholic beverage.

It has anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, hypnotic and sedative actions similar to many other sedative-hypnotic drugs. Alcohol is also cross-tolerant with benzodiazepines and barbiturates.[52]
.Excessive consumption of alcohol leads to a toxication-induced delayed poisoning called hangover (in Latin, crapula refers to intoxication and hangover).^ Acute Toxicity in Man "Toxic Syndrome" A striking feature of methyl alcohol syndrome is the asymptomatic interval (latent period) which usually lasts 12 to 18 hours after consumption.

Various factors contribute, including the toxication of ethanol itself to acetaldehyde, the direct toxic effects and toxication of impurities called congeners, and dehydration. The hangover starts after the euphoric effects of alcohol itself have subsided, typically in the night and morning after alcoholic drinks were consumed. .However, the blood alcohol concentration may still be substantial and above the limits imposed for drivers and operators of other dangerous equipment.^ Nothing in; this Chapter, however, may be construed to limit or prohibit good faith; settlements of disputes voluntarily entered into between the parties.

^ The Commission may also adopt; any other rules concerning the financial operations of local boards which are; needed to assure the proper accountability of public funds.

^ Any winery which holds an unfortified winery permit and which; produces its wine principally from honey, grapes or other fruit or grain grown; in this State may obtain a limited winery permit.

The effects of a hangover subside over time. Various treatments to cure hangover have been suggested, many of them pseudoscientific.
.In chemistry, alcohol is a general term for any organic compound in which a hydroxyl group (-OH) is bound to a carbon atom, which in turn may be bound to other carbon atoms and further hydrogens.^ Alcoholic beverages may be; sold on railroad trains in this State upon compliance with Article 2C of; Chapter 105 of the General Statutes.

^ A local board; may pledge a security interest in any real or personal property it owns other; than alcoholic beverages.

^ The permit may authorize the sale or other; disposition of the alcoholic beverages in a manner prescribed by the; Commission.

.Other alcohols such as propylene glycol and the sugar alcohols may appear in food or beverages regularly, but these alcohols do not make them "alcoholic". Methanol (one carbon), the propanols (three carbons giving two isomers), and the butanols (four carbons, four isomers) are all commonly found alcohols, and none of these three should ever be consumed in any form.^ Amounts of alcoholic beverages that may be; purchased.

^ Any other form or; means of identification that indicates or symbolizes that the person is not; prohibited from purchasing or possessing alcoholic beverages under this; section.

^ Lend or give to any; alcoholic beverage retailer in this State or his employee or to the owner of; the premises where the business of any alcoholic beverage retailer in this; State is conducted, any money, service, equipment, furniture, fixtures or any; other thing of value.

.Alcohols are toxicated into the corresponding aldehydes and then into the corresponding carboxylic acids.^ Although methanol itself is not highly toxic, it is metabolized by alcohol dehydrogenase to formaldehyde and subsequently to formic acid (Fig.

^ However, soon after ingestion by a creature, its 11% methanol component is released and quickly metabolized into the potent, cumulative, mutagenic toxicants, formaldehyde and formic acid.

.These metabolic products cause a poisoning and acidosis.^ The minimum dose causing; permanent visual defects is unknown.; ; The severity of the metabolic acidosis is variable and may not; correlate well with the amount of methanol ingested.
  • Methanol (EHC 196, 1997) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cooper JR & Felig P (1961) The biochemistry of methanol poisoning: II.; Metabolic acidosis in the monkey.
  • Methanol (EHC 196, 1997) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ These; effects do not seem to be induced by metabolic acidosis.
  • Methanol (EHC 196, 1997) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.In the case of other alcohols than ethanol, the aldehydes and carboxylic acids are poisonous and the acidosis can be lethal.^ The minimum lethal dose of methanol in the rat, rabbit, and dog is 9, 5, 7, and 8 g/kg, respectively (43); ethyl alcohol is more toxic than methanol to these test animals (43).

^ Alcoholics have a much higher incidence of cancer and other degenerative diseases, none of which can be attributed to ethanol alone (56).

^ Insufficient formic acid is generated to account for the severity of metabolic acidosis produced and, therefore, other organic acids may also be involved (32).

.In contrast, fatalities from ethanol are mainly found in extreme doses and related to induction of unconsciousness or chronic addiction (alcoholism).^ If the owner or; possessor of the alcoholic beverages is found guilty of a criminal charge; relating to those alcoholic beverages, the judge may order the sale or; destruction of any alcoholic beverages that were held until trial.

^ The ability to steer is very susceptible to ; ethanol impairment and impairment has been found at levels well below 0.08 g/210 L ; alcohol concentration.
  • MISSOURI BREATH ALCOHOL PROGRAM 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.dhss.mo.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The raw materials of alcoholic beverages

The names of some beverages are determined by the source of the material fermented. .In general, a beverage fermented from a starch-heavy source (grain or potato), in which the starch must first be broken down into sugars (by malting, for example), will be called a beer; if the mash is distilled, the end product is a spirit.^ Pursuant to the authority of; the State under the Twenty‑First Amendment to the United States; Constitution, the General Assembly finds that regulation of the business; relations between malt beverage manufacturers and importers and the wholesalers; of such products is necessary to: .

^ For purchase of a keg or kegs of malt beverages for off‑premises; consumption, the permit required by G.S. 18B‑403.1(a) must first be; obtained; .

^ A; permittee may transfer the ingredients from the fermentation room to the cold; room and may assist the customer in all the steps involved in brewing a malt; beverage except adding the yeast.

.Wine is made from fermented grapes.^ Native wines shall be made principally from; honey, grapes, or other fruit or grain grown in this State, or from wine kits; containing honey, grapes, or other fruit or grain concentrates, and shall have; only that alcoholic content produced by natural fermentation.

.Brandy and wine are made only from grapes.^ The direct; shipment of wine by wine shipper or wine shipper packager permittees pursuant; to this section shall be made by approved common carrier only.

^ Native wines shall be made principally from; honey, grapes, or other fruit or grain grown in this State, or from wine kits; containing honey, grapes, or other fruit or grain concentrates, and shall have; only that alcoholic content produced by natural fermentation.

^ Wines may be manufactured only from grapes grown in a; viticulture/enology course vineyard that is located on the school's campus or; the school's contracted or leased property.

.If an alcoholic beverage is made from another kind of fruit, it is distinguished as fruit brandy or fruit wine.^ If a jurisdiction has lawfully; voted in favor of ABC stores or in favor of the sale of some kind of alcoholic; beverage, and the jurisdiction would not be eligible to hold another election; under the conditions set by G.S. 18B‑600, then that jurisdiction may; continue to hold elections as though qualified under G.S. 18B‑600.

^ Except for; purposes of this subsection, the holder of a wine‑tasting permit shall; not be construed to hold a permit for the on‑premises sale or consumption; of alcoholic beverages.

^ No city alcoholic beverage election may be; held within three years of the certification of the results of a previous; election on the same kind of alcoholic beverage in that city.

The variety of fruit must be specified, as (for example) "cherry brandy" or "plum wine".
In the USA and Canada, cider often means unfermented apple juice (see the article on cider), while fermented cider is called hard cider. Unfermented cider is sometimes called sweet cider. In the UK, cider refers to the alcoholic drink; in Australia the term is ambiguous.
.Beer is generally made from barley, but can sometimes contain a mix of other grains.^ Sometimes it really just does seem like a made up story with little more weight than any other religious legend.
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Approximately 25% of the 2-propanol found ; in beer is added as a flavouring agent during its manufacture [242].; ; 5.2.2 Exposure via other consumer products ; ; The general population is potentially exposed to a wide variety ; of consumer products containing 2-propanol (section 3.2.2).
  • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Malt beverages; may be made by use of malt beverage kits containing grain extracts or; concentrates.

.Whisky (or whiskey) is sometimes made from a blend of different grains, especially Irish whiskey which may contain several different grains.^ Malt beverages; may be made by use of malt beverage kits containing grain extracts or; concentrates.

The style of whisk(e)y (Scotch, rye, Bourbon, corn) generally determines the primary grain used, with additional grains usually added to the blend (most often barley, and sometimes oats). .As far as American whiskey is concerned, Bourbon (corn), and rye whiskey, must be at least 51% of respective constituent at fermentation, while corn whiskey (as opposed to Bourbon) must be at least 81%—all by American law similar to the French A.O.C (Appellation d'Origine Controlée).^ The persistent polarization that has stangely impeded civil and competent discussion of this issue must be overcome by earnest and respectful efforts on all sides, for the common weal.

Two common distilled beverages are vodka and gin. .Vodka can be distilled from any source of agricultural origin (grain and potatoes being the most common), but the main characteristic of vodka is that it is so thoroughly distilled as to exhibit less of the flavors derived from its source material.^ Some of the most common chemicals found in these artificial fragrances include toluene, xylene, acetone, benzene derivatives, and various aldehydes.

Some distillers and experts, however, may disagree, arguing that potato vodkas display a creamy mouthfeel, while rye vodkas will have heavy nuances of rye. Other vodkas may display citrus notes. .Gin is a similar distillate which has been flavored by contact with herbs and other plant products—especially juniper berries, but also including angel root, licorice, cardamom, grains of paradise, Bulgarian rose petals, and many others.^ Finally, since there are a number of other excitotoxins on the market including aspartame, a cumulative effect would be expected in many cases.

^ A; farming establishment of at least five acres committed to the production of; grapes, berries, or other fruits for the manufacture of unfortified wine.

Applejack is an example of a drink originally made by freeze distillation, which is easy to do in cold climates. .Although both distillation and freeze distillation reduce the water content, they are not equivalent, because freeze distillation concentrates poisonous higher alcohols rather than reducing them like distillation.^ Heaven and Hell clearly exist, and they are clearly spiritual states rather than physical places.
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The most characteristic signs and symptoms of methyl alcohol poisoning in humans are the various visual disturbances which can occur without acidosis (55) although they unfortunately do not always appear (20).

^ It sounds like a cosmic battle in some ways, although I realise this a simplistic way of understanding both aspects.
  • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

Ingredients

Grains

Source Name of fermented beverage Name of distilled beverage
barley beer, ale, barley wine Scotch whisky, Irish whiskey, shōchū (mugijōchū) (Japan)
rye rye beer, kvass rye whiskey, vodka (Poland), roggenkorn (Germany)
corn chicha, corn beer, tesguino Bourbon whiskey; and vodka (rarely)
sorghum burukutu (Nigeria), pito (Ghana), merisa (southern Sudan), bilibili (Chad, Central African Republic, Cameroon) maotai, gaoliang, certain other types of baijiu (China).
wheat wheat beer vodka, wheat whisky, weizenkorn (Germany)
rice Ruou gao (Vietnam), huangjiu, choujiu (China), sake (Japan), sonti (India), makgeolli (Korea), tuak (Borneo Island), thwon (Nepal) aila (Nepal), rice baijiu (China), shōchū (komejōchū) and awamori (Japan), soju (Korea)
millet millet beer (Sub-Saharan Africa), tongba (Nepal, Tibet)
buckwheat shōchū (sobajōchū) (Japan)

Juice of fruits

Source Name of fermented beverage Name of distilled beverage
juice of grapes, wine brandy, Cognac (France), Vermouth, Armagnac (France), Branntwein (Germany), pisco (Chile and Peru), Rakia (The Balkans, Turkey), singani (Bolivia), Arak (Syria, Lebanon, Jordan), törkölypálinka (Hungary)
juice of apples cider (U.S.: "hard cider"), apfelwein applejack (or apple brandy), calvados, cider
juice of pears perry, or pear cider; poire (France) Poire Williams, pear brandy, Eau-de-vie (France), pálinka (Hungary)
juice of plums plum wine slivovitz, tzuica, palinca, umeshu, pálinka
juice of pineapples tepache (Mexico)
bananas or plantains Chuoi hot (Vietnam), urgwagwa (Uganda, Rwanda), mbege (with millet malt; Tanzania), kasikisi (with sorghum malt; Democratic Republic of the Congo)
gouqi gouqi jiu (China) gouqi jiu (China)
coconut arrack, lambanog (Sri Lanka, India, Philippines) Old arrack, Special, (Sri Lanka)
ginger with sugar, ginger with raisins ginger ale, ginger beer, ginger wine
Myrica rubra yangmei jiu (China) yangmei jiu (China)
pomace pomace wine Raki/Ouzo/Pastis/Sambuca (Turkey/Greece/France/Italy), tsipouro/tsikoudia (Greece), grappa (Italy), Trester (Germany), marc (France), zivania (Cyprus), aguardente (Portugal), tescovină (Romania), Arak (Iraq)

Vegetables

Source Name of fermented beverage Name of distilled beverage
juice of ginger root ginger beer (Botswana)
potatoes or grain potato beer vodka: Potatoes are mostly used in Poland and Germany, otherwise grain or potatoes. A strong drink called akvavit, popular in Scandinavia, is made from potatoes or grain. In Ireland, poitín (or poteen) is a traditional liquor made from potatoes, which was illegal from 1661 to 1997.
sweet potato shōchū (imojōchū) (Japan), soju (Korea)
cassava/manioc/yuca nihamanchi (South America), kasiri (Sub-Saharan Africa), chicha (Ecuador)
juice of sugarcane, or molasses basi, betsa-betsa (regional) rum (Caribbean), pinga or cachaça (Brasil), aguardiente, guaro
juice of agave pulque tequila, mezcal, raicilla
Other
Source Name of fermented beverage Name of distilled beverage
sap of palm coyol wine (Central America), tembo (Sub-Saharan Africa), toddy (Indian subcontinent)
honey mead, tej (Ethiopia) distilled mead (mead brandy or honey brandy)
milk kumis, kefir, blaand
sugar kilju (Finland) shōchū (kokutō shōchū): made from brown sugar (Japan)

See also

Alcohol and Health
Short-term effects of alcohol
Long-term effects of alcohol
Alcohol and cardiovascular disease
Alcoholic liver disease
Alcoholic hepatitis
Alcohol and cancer
Alcohol and weight
Fetal alcohol syndrome
Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder
Alcoholism
Blackout (alcohol-related amnesia)
Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome
Recommended maximum intake
Wine and health

References

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  3. ^ "Volume of World Beer Production". European Beer Guide. http://www.europeanbeerguide.net/eustats.htm#production. Retrieved 2006-10-17. 
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  8. ^ "fifedirect - Licensing & Regulations - Calling Time on Short Measures!". Fifefire.gov.uk. 2008-07-29. http://www.fifefire.gov.uk/topics/index.cfm?fuseaction=news.display&subjectid=8133D50D-A872-4A5B-9C65EE07BBF04E7E&objectid=6DDC0AD4-C85A-2F07-BE70B5A0D64D0A58. Retrieved 2010-02-11. 
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  12. ^ Meyer, Jerold S. and Linda F. Quenzer. Psychopharmacology: Drugs, the Brain, and Behavior. Sinauer Associates, Inc: Sunderland, Massachusetts. 2005. Page 228.
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  15. ^ "Moderate Drinking Lowers Women's Risk Of Heart Attack". Science Daily. 2007-05-25. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2007/05/070523153047.htm. 
  16. ^ a b A L Klatsky and G D Friedman (1995-01). "Alcohol and longevity". American Journal of Public Health (American Public Health Association) 85 (1): 16–8. PMID 7832254. PMC 1615277. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?artid=1615277. 
  17. ^ "Alcohol 'major cause of dementia'". National Health Service. 2008-05-11. http://www.nhs.uk/news/2009/05may/pages/alcoholmajordementiacause.aspx. 
  18. ^ "Binge drinking 'increases risk' of dementia". The Guardian. 2009-05-10. http://www.guardian.co.uk/society/2009/may/10/alcohol-intake-dementia-memory-loss. 
  19. ^ a b Oscar-Berman M, Marinkovic K (2003). "Alcoholism and the brain: an overview". Alcohol Res Health 27 (2): 125–33. PMID 15303622.  Free full-text.
  20. ^ a b Krystal JH, Tabakoff B. (2002). [ETHANOL ABUSE, DEPENDENCE, AND WITHDRAWAL: NEUROBIOLOGY AND CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS]. In: Neuropsychopharmacology: The Fifth Generation of Progress. Free full-text.
  21. ^ Cite error: Invalid <ref> tag; no text was provided for refs named Kyrstal2002; see Help:Cite error.
  22. ^ a b "Alcohol 'could reduce dementia risk'". BBC News. 2002-01-25. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/1780130.stm. 
  23. ^ a b c d e "Alcohol and cancer". Cancer Research UK. http://info.cancerresearchuk.org/healthyliving/alcohol/. 
  24. ^ a b "Burden of alcohol-related cancer substantial". Abramson Cancer Center of the University of Pennsylvania. 2006-08-03. http://www.oncolink.com/resources/article.cfm?c=3&s=8&ss=23&id=13383&month=08&year=2006. 
  25. ^ "Moderate Alcohol Consumption Increases Risk of Cancer in Women". 2009-03-10. http://professional.cancerconsultants.com/oncology_main_news.aspx?id=43299. 
  26. ^ "Alcohol Consumption May Increase Pancreatic Cancer Risk". Medicalnewstoday.com. http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/140882.php. Retrieved 2010-02-11. 
  27. ^ "Alcohol Consumption May Increase Pancreatic Cancer Risk". Medical News Today. 2009-03-04. http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/140882.php. 
  28. ^ "Can alcohol be good for you?". Cancer Research UK. http://info.cancerresearchuk.org/healthyliving/alcohol/benefits/. 
  29. ^ a b "Alcohol may prevent diabetes". BBC News. 2002-05-15. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/1988884.stm. 
  30. ^ Dr Roger Henderson, GP (2006-01-17). "Alcohol and diabetes". Net Doctor. http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/ate/diabetes/201565.html. 
  31. ^ H Rodgers, PD Aitken, JM French, RH Curless, D Bates and OF James (1993). "Alcohol and stroke. A case-control study of drinking habits past and present". Stroke (AHA Journals) 24: 1473–1477. http://stroke.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/strokeaha;24/10/1473. 
  32. ^ a b Richard Doll*, Richard Peto, Jillian Boreham and Isabelle Sutherland (2005). "Mortality in relation to alcohol consumption: a prospective study among male British doctors". International Journal of Epidemiology (Oxford Journals) 34 (1): 199–204. doi:10.1093/ije/dyh369. PMID 15647313. http://ije.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/34/1/199. 
  33. ^ "Alcohol-Attributable Deaths and Years of Potential Life Lost --- United States, 2001". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2004-09-24. http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5337a2.htm. 
  34. ^ "Alcohol". BBC News. 2000-08-09. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/medical_notes/a-b/872428.stm. 
  35. ^ "Alcohol linked to thousands of deaths". BBC News. 2000-07-14. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/833483.stm. 
  36. ^ a b Grattan, K.E. and Vogel-Sprott. Maintaining intentional control of behavior under alcohol. Alcoholism, clinical and experimental research. 2001 Feb;25(2):192–197.
  37. ^ Marlatt, G. A. and Rosenow. “The think-drink effect”. Psychology Today, 1981, 15, 60-93.
  38. ^ a b MacAndrew, C. and Edgerton. Drunken Comportment: A Social Explanation. Chicago: Aldine, 1969.
  39. ^ "Microsoft Word - global_alcohol_overview_260105.doc" (PDF). http://www.who.int/entity/substance_abuse/publications/global_status_report_2004_overview.pdf. Retrieved 2010-02-11. 
  40. ^ "Ley 24.788". 1997-03-31. http://infoleg.gov.ar/infolegInternet/anexos/40000-44999/42480/norma.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-16. 
  41. ^ Gewalt durch Alkohol. die junge Seite der Bundesregierung, 5 December 2008 (German). Retrieved 15 July 2009.
  42. ^ "Protection of Young Person Act" (PDF). 2002-07-23. http://www.bmfsfj.de/RedaktionBMFSFJ/Abteilung5/Pdf-Anlagen/juSchGenglisch,property=pdf.pdf. Retrieved 2006-07-25. 
  43. ^ "Alcohol, your child and the law". http://www.direct.gov.uk/en/Parents/Yourchildshealthandsafety/WorriedAbout/DG_10026210. Retrieved 2008-10-16. 
  44. ^ "Underage drinking in Britain 'among worst in the world'". http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/politics/lawandorder/2140278/Underage-drinking-in-Britain-among-worst-in-the-world.html. Retrieved 2008-06-16. 
  45. ^ LBK nr 1020 af 21/10/2008 (Danish)
  46. ^ "TTBGov General Alcohol FAQs". Ttb.gov. http://www.ttb.gov/faqs/genalcohol.shtml. Retrieved 2010-02-11. 
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External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Alcoholic beverages article)

From Wikiquote

.This entry should contain ONLY quotes about alcohol in general; quotes about beer or wine specifically should go in those respective entries.^ A liquor license, wine permit, or a beer permit may only be; transferred within the boundaries of the local authority which approved the; license or permit.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ THE; CONDITION OF THIS OBLIGATION IS SUCH, That whereas, the Principal has made; application for either a class “A” beer permit, class “A” wine permit, or a; class “F” beer permit to be issued by the Alcoholic Beverages Division.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Kent Old Brown (Carlton & United, Victoria): an odd little sharp bitterness, a sharpness that I would associate with high alcohol content but the beer is only 4.4%.

.An alcoholic beverage is a drink containing ethanol, commonly known as alcohol — although in chemistry the definition of alcohol includes many other compounds.^ Any other form or; means of identification that indicates or symbolizes that the person is not; prohibited from purchasing or possessing alcoholic beverages under this; section.

^ A malt beverage produced under this; subdivision may not contain more than six percent (6%) alcohol by volume.

^ Prohibit or regulate; advertising by on‑premises permittees of brands or prices of alcoholic; beverages via newspapers, radio, television, and other mass media; .

.Alcoholic beverages are divided into three general classes: beers, wines, and spirits.^ Class “F” beer permit (beer and wine wholesale) .
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Prohibited; storage of alcoholic beverages and wine .
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Prohibited storage of alcoholic; beverages and wine.
  • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

Contents

Sourced

.
  • Woe unto them that rise up early in the morning, that they may follow strong drink; that continue until night, till wine inflame them!^ B. People only end up in Hell because they'd rather be their own gods rather than repent, accept God's forgiveness, and follow His will.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A county may; adopt an ordinance prohibiting, in the parts of the county outside any city,; the retail sale of malt beverages, unfortified wine, and fortified wine during; any or all of the hours from 12:00 Noon on Sunday until 7:00 A.M. on the; following Monday.

    ^ An applicant for a new alcoholic beverages license or; permit may not sell alcoholic liquor, wine or beer in the proposed; establishment until a license or permit has been granted by the division.
    • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • There's nought, no doubt, so much the spirit calms as rum and true religion.^ God is responsible for the fact that we have Freewill but this is not a fault, but an essential feature of our design (and indeed the design of the universe) since without Freewill there can be no true love.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ However there is one subject where I feel it almost impossible to reconcile the Bible with science: Genesis 1 to 11 with the Theory of Evolution.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There's no doubt that this reaction, although perhaps possible in principle, is most unlikely.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • Oh many a peer of England brews
    Livelier liquor than the Muse,
    And malt does more than Milton can
    To justify God's ways to man.^ La Gallante (Schoune): a maple beer, although it reminded me more of caramel than of maple syrup; pleasant in a dessertish way, not very beery.

    ^ "Malt; beverage" means beer, lager, malt liquor, ale, porter, and any other; brewed or fermented beverage except unfortified or fortified wine as defined by; this Chapter, containing at least one‑half of one percent (0.5%), and not; more than fifteen percent (15%), alcohol by volume.

    ^ A malt beverage produced under this; subdivision may not contain more than six percent (6%) alcohol by volume.

Unsourced

I drink when I have occasion, and sometimes when I have no occasion. ~ Miguel de Cervantes, Don Quixote
  • All excess is ill, but drunkenness is of the worst sort. It spoils health, dismounts the mind, and unmans men. It reveals secrets, is quarrelsome, lascivious, impudent, dangerous and mad. He that is drunk is not a man, because he is, for so long, void of reason that distinguishes a man from a beast.
  • Some of the domestic evils of drunkenness are houses without windows, gardens without fences, fields without tillage, barns without roofs, children without clothing, principles, morals or manners.
  • Drunkenness is the vice of a good constitution or of a bad memory—of a constitution so treacherously good that it never bends till it breaks; or of a memory that recollects the pleasures of getting intoxicated, but forgets the pains of getting sober. .
  • It were better for a man to be subject to any vice, than to drunkenness: for all other vanities and sins are recovered, but a drunkard will never shake off the delight of beastliness.^ After all chaotic dynamics itself is a relatively new area and is much better understood now than 30 years ago.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The New Testament has far better textual evidence than any other book from antiquity, with at least 10x as many manuscripts and quotations than anything else.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There are huge philosophical consequences if man has evolved rather than created, not least the death and destruction in the world prior to original sin.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • Man has evil as well as good qualities peculiar to himself.^ Or does limited Omniscience only apply to man after he became self aware and capable of good/evil?
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ How an otherwise intellgent man like Stephen Weinberg can say that without religion, 'you'd have good people doing good things and evil people doing evil things.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    Drunkenness places him as much below the level of the brutes as reason elevates him above them. .
  • Of all vices take heed of drunkenness; other vices are but fruits of disordered affections—this disorders, nay, banishes reason; other vices but impair the soul—this demolishes her two chief faculties, the understanding and the will; other vices make their own way—this makes way for all vices; he that is a drunkard is qualified for all vice.^ The best way to make sure that everything is all right is to display grob solid and check the lighting.
    • ICM Language Reference : Functions 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.molsoft.com [Source type: Reference]

    ^ It is possible that Stenger denies the existence of minds - after all as Plantinga famously argues the reasons for believing in God are of much the same strength as those for believing in other Minds.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This understanding of God in no way dodges theodicy: God is ultimately responsible for the Holcaust, for children suffering, for all pain and distress.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

  • There is scarcely a crime before me that is not directly or indirectly caused by strong drink. .
  • Beware of drunkenness, lest all good men beware of thee; where drunkenness reigns, there reason is an exile, virtue a stranger, God an enemy; blasphemy is wit, oaths are rhetoric, and secrets are proclamations.^ But there is no reason whatsoever for thus categorising the God in whom Wiles ande I believe.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There are excellent reasons to do with freewill why God does not do this.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The view of God knowing the whole of temporal history 'all at once', which you sketch, has had many supporters, including Augustine and Aquinas, so you are in good company.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

  • The Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy says that the effect of a Pan Galactic Gargle Blaster is like having your brains smashed out by a slice of lemon wrapped round a large gold brick.^ Response from questioner : Thank you for your considered reply.You say that if I assume that God doesn't exist then I will automatically rule out the possibility of the resurrection.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Say brane theory pans out, or there is some scientific way (I know I am speaking in extremes) of proving the multiple universe theory.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If the system is sufficiently complex (far below the complexity of the brain say) then there will be situations where the effects of such uncertainties, however tiny, will grow exponentially.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

  • Here's what the Encyclopedia Galactica has to say about alcohol. .It says that alcohol is a colourless volatile liquid formed by the fermentation of sugars and also notes its intoxicating effect on certain carbon-based life forms.^ In man, the most likely acute effects of exposure to high ; levels of 2-propanol by ingestion or inhalation are alcoholic ; intoxication and narcosis.
    • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ ZINBO, M. (1984) Determination of one-carbon to three-carbon ; alcohols and water in gasoline/alcohol blends by liquid ; chromatography.
    • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The base catalysts are highly hygroscopic and they form chemical water when dissolved in the ; alcohol reactant.
    • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

    .
  • One reason I don't drink is that I want to know when I'm having a good time.^ For whatever reasons, and probably very > good ones, he is a lone ranger.

    ^ One day we might know how God works, we learn more everyday, but I don't know that we can learn on our own - ever - why.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Having challenged me to find a Christian physicist, he also wants me to account for how humans can have free will and have a God that is omniscient at the same time.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    • Nancy Astor
  • The problem with the world is that everyone is a few drinks behind. .
  • It only takes one drink to get me drunk-- I can just never remember if its the eighth or ninth.^ Firsly, one must remember that cosmologists are "often in error but never in doubt" - I think that's unfair to Linde BTW because he understands that his theories are speculative and provisional.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

  • What's drinking? A mere pause from thinking!
    • Lord Byron, The Deformed Transformed
  • When I sell liquor, it's bootlegging. When my customers serve it on Lake Shore Drive, it's hospitality.
  • I drink when I have occasion, and sometimes when I have no occasion. .
  • The last time I seen my father, he was blind in the cedars from drinking.^ I’ve seen similar questions on this forum, but they don’t really answer my question.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    .And every time he put the bottle to his mouth, he don't suck out of it, it sucks out of him...^ This provision may be used only three years; out of every 10 years and notice must be given to the Commission each time this; provision is used; .

    ^ This time it was in a bottle rather than in a can, and was straight out of a fridge.

  • I drink too much. Way too much. I gave a urine sample, there was an olive in it.
  • My family was a bunch of drunks. .When I was six I came up missing, they put my picture on a bottle of scotch.^ I put a piece of wood along the side of the scanner bed and keep the bottom of the bottle up against it.

    ^ I bought a case of six to take back to D&D, and some time later they brought a case when they came to Montréal.

  • The prestige of government has undoubtedly been lowered considerably by the prohibition law. .For nothing is more destructive of respect for the government and the law of the land than passing laws which cannot be enforced.^ At these 2 ; sites, used for the disposal of domestic waste, the 2-propanol ; concentrations were 17 mg/m 3 and more than 46 mg/m 3 , respectively ; [288].
    • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The minimum lethal dose of methanol in the rat, rabbit, and dog is 9, 5, 7, and 8 g/kg, respectively (43); ethyl alcohol is more toxic than methanol to these test animals (43).

    ^ Preliminary response: Thoughts cannot be any more material than software - and if two persons can have the same thought in different places then the thoughts can hardly be material!
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    It is an open secret that the dangerous increase of crime in this country is closely connected with this. .
  • Bacchus hath drowned more men than Neptune.^ In a subgroup of 71 men, who ; had been employed for more than 5 years, 7 cases of cancer were ; observed: 4 cancers of the paranasal sinuses, 1 lung carcinoma, 1 ; laryngeal carcinoma, and 1 laryngeal papilloma.
    • Propanol, 2- (EHC 103, 1990) 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The first, "Difficult Diagnosis: A Guide to the Interpretation of Obscure Illness (W.B. Saunders Company, 1958), has been used by more than 60,000 physicians in the United States.

    ^ India Pale Ale (Alchimiste): this was the first time I'd seen it in a small bottle, and my impression was of a smaller taste than when I've had it before, not such a grapefruity bitterness.

    .
  • My manager told me, Mitch, don't use alcohol as a crutch.^ My impression is that QM WORKS, and that because of this, many phyicists don't worry about the philosophical implications and just use it.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    .I can't use alcohol as a crutch because a crutch is something that helps me walk.^ Kennedy had trouble walking, and had to use crutches.

    ^ When using higher ; alcohols, if ester/glycerol separation is a problem, adding methanol can help encourage the ; separation.
    • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ An unusual taste that takes some getting used to: an initial powerful alcoholic sensation with an aftertaste of something like burnt toast.

    Alcohol severely fucks up the way I walk. It's more like the step I didn't see.
  • Always do sober what you said you'd do drunk. That will teach you to keep your mouth shut. .
  • Well I ain't seen my baby since I don't know when,
    I've been drinking bourbon whiskey, scotch and gin
    Gonna get high man I'm gonna get loose,
    Need me a triple shot of that juice
    Gonna get drunk don't you have no fear
    I want one bourbon, one scotch and one beer
    One bourbon, one scotch, one beer.^ Just before leaving at the end of my third visit, I saw two beer T-shirts: ‘Beer: Helping ugly people get laid since 1869’ and (on an older man) ‘Life is too short to drink cheap beer’.

    ^ If I'm correct in my feeling that most do not opt for one or the other, how is this data seen generally amongst scientists?
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It certainly seems possible that there is intelligent life on other planets, but there are some quite powerful arguments against this as well – we just don’t know.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • The sway of alcohol over mankind is unquestionably due to its power to stimulate the mystical faculties of human nature.^ Sans Nom (La Mare Au Diable): very strong beer (13%) with a powerful smell of alcohol, a heavy body and a flavour that (in the one sip of DF's glass that I tasted) reminded me of sherry.

    ^ No one, including licensee, permittee, and employees can; consume beer, wine, or alcoholic beverages in their licensed establishment; during hours which beer, wine, and alcoholic beverages cannot be sold.
    • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Lucas’s Theorem (due to John Lucas ) proves that, if some human minds are capable, in principle, with the aid of a sufficiently powerful computer, of understanding a Gödel Proposition in any deterministic logical system, then at least those minds cannot be completely modeled by any deterministic logical system.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • William James, Varieties of Religious Experience, Chapter: Mysticism
  • If we take habitual drunkards as a class, their heads and their hearts will bear an advantageous comparison with those of any other class.^ His idea that mystical or religious experiences should lead to empirically testable knowledge is again rather laughable.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I can only tell you from my experience that some things are long term, others seem to diminish with time and taking care of oneself.

    ^ In other words, religious people offer their time, money and resources into a system that does not provide an obvious adaptive advantage.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    .There seems ever to have been a proneness in the brilliant and warm-blooded to fall in to this vice.^ However, there seems to be every indication of evil in the animal kingdom that pre-dates the fall eg animals preying on each other, killing each other viciously etc.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    The demon of intemperance ever seems to have delighted in sucking the blood of genius and generosity. .
    • Abraham Lincoln, Address to the Washington Temperance Society, Springfield, Illinois, 22 February (1842).
  • When alchemists first learned how to distill spirits, they called it aqua vitae, the water of life, and far from considering it the work of the devil, they thought the discovery was divinely inspired.^ They can of course inspire us: we can’t help them in any way except through prayer and of course only God knows how and to what extent this “works”.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It is now clear that the genome tells us far less about how the human body works than was at first supposed and that the expression of genes into physiololgy is enormously complex and very poorly understood.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I know that it is addressed in the book I mentioned, and I suppose I could reread that part and try to digest it, but as it didn't quite take the first time, I thought I would seek an authoritative audience for my own musings, such as they are.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

  • I feel sorry for people who don't drink. .They must have that morning feeling all the time.^ All holders of a; vintner’s certificate of compliance must register with the division the labels; on all wines they wish to distribute for sale in the state.
    • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Storage stability - Method to be determined ; All fuels are subject to degradation over time when they are stored.
    • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

    ^ The hazard properties and recommended methods of handling each ; compound are included in the MSDS. All employees must be familiar with the chemicals that ; they are working with and must follow the recommendations for their handling, use and disposal.
    • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

    • Dean Martin
  • If you drink, don't drive. Don't even putt.
    • Dean Martin
  • You are not drunk if you can lie on the floor without holding on.
    • Dean Martin
  • I'll stick with gin. Champagne is just ginger ale that knows somebody.
    • M*A*S*H, (spoken by Hawkeye), Ceasefire (1973).
  • Never cry over spilt milk. It could've been whiskey.
  • The chief reason for drinking is the desire to behave in a certain way, and to be able to blame it on alcohol. .
  • The harsh, useful things of the world, from pulling teeth to digging potatoes, are best done by men who are as starkly sober as so many convicts in the death-house, but the lovely and useless things, the charming and exhilarating things, are best done by men with, as the phrase is, a few sheets in the wind.^ I doubt you'll find many historians (if any) who will place the blame for either world war on a lack of belief.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

  • Candy is dandy
    But liquor is quicker. .
  • An abstainer is the sort of man you wouldn't want to drink with even if he did.^ I thought my words on Wednesday evening were a contribution to just such a discussion If they did not seem so to you, I am both puzzled and regretful.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ So if you want to be a rational person and accepts the results of rational inquiry into nature, then we must accept the fact that God did not cause the universe to exist.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Couldn't you say that everybody should drink lots of ice cream sodas and coke?

  • Being hungover is like winning the lottery, only they pay you in regret.^ I thought my words on Wednesday evening were a contribution to just such a discussion If they did not seem so to you, I am both puzzled and regretful.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But if you point this out to the atheist they will counter with something like this: 4 .
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Like the internists who diagnose MS instead of you know what-- that is how they make their money...

  • When we drink, we get drunk. When we get drunk, we fall asleep. When we fall asleep, we commit no sin. When we commit no sin, we go to heaven. Sooooo, let's all get drunk and go to heaven!
    • Brian O'Rourke
  • It is most absurdly said, in popular language, of any man, that he is disguised in liquor; for, on the contrary, most men are disguised by sobriety.
  • To alcohol: the cause of --- and solution to --- all of life's problems.^ However, excess alcohol can ; cause problems with separation of the esters and glycerol.
    • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

    .
  • I feel sorry for people who don't drink.^ In fact, I am nearly certain that people who have headaches that are made worse by aspartame shouldn't drink it.

    .When they wake up in the morning, that's as good as they're going to feel all day.^ It may well be that our subjective experience will be that we “asleep in Christ” and then we wake up on that great Day.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

  • Alcohol is the answer... What was the question?
  • If when you say 'whiskey' you mean the devil's brew, the poison scourge, the bloody monster that defiles innocence, dethrones reason... then I am certainly against it. But, if when you say 'whiskey' you mean the oil of conversation, the philosophic wine... the drink that enables a man to magnify his joy... then I am certainly for it. This is my stand. I will not retreat from it. I will not compromise. .
  • It is all well and good for children and acid freaks to still believe in Santa Claus — but it is still a profoundly morbid day for us working professionals.^ After all they could well be milliennia ahead of us technologically.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Everything else, all arguments pointing to something mysterious, something not yet discovered, something science has overlooked or cannot explain may well be explained one day.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ What we do know is that He interacts like a loving father, respecting the autonomy of his children but always working for their ultimate good.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    .It is unsettling to know that one out of every twenty people you meet on Xmas will be dead this time next year...^ I've had this many times before, the first time being at lunch with people from work a few years ago, but this is the first time I've described it here.

    Some people can accept this, and some can't. That is why God made whiskey, and also why Wild Turkey comes in $300 shaped canisters during most of the Christmas season. .
  • I wouldn't recommend drugs, alcohol, violence, or insanity for everyone, but they've always worked for me.^ The hazard properties and recommended methods of handling each ; compound are included in the MSDS. All employees must be familiar with the chemicals that ; they are working with and must follow the recommendations for their handling, use and disposal.
    • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

  • Of the demonstrably wise there are but two: those who commit suicide, and those who keep their reasoning faculties atrophied by drink.
  • When I read about the evils of drinking, I gave up reading.^ I heard about the Irenean theodicy (but haven’t read about it) which suggest all Evil in the world will be ‘transformed’ into eternal Good for all creation.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

  • My grandmother is over eighty and still doesn't need glasses. Drinks right out of the bottle.
  • Oh brother, be a brother, fill this tiny cup of mine. And please, sir, make it whiskey: I have no head for wine!
  • Worf: Romulan ale should be illegal
Geordi: It is
    • Star Trek: Nemesis
  • The wine-cup is glad! Dear Zenophile's lip
    It boasts to have touched when she stooped down to sip.
    Happy wine-cup! .I wish that, with lips joined to mine,
    All my soul at a draught she would drink up like wine.
    ^ He that would shine, and petrify his tutor, Should drink draught Allsopp in its "native pewter."

    ^ Chaotic Inflation Redemption for All - follow-up Predesitination Binitarianism Miracles - Water into Wine?
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A computer would likely seem nothing less than divine to my ancestors, for example.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Acilius
  • When I think of all the people I respect the most, you're right there, serving them drinks.^ Do you think there's still the possiblity of God's existence in multiple universes?
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I also tend to think of miracles - if there are miracles at all - as restricted to humanly-mediated healings, and discount other miracle stories as mythical or folkloric, etc.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ On tap at Het Elfde Gebod; there was no-one drinking inside, and a small number of people on the terrace; a small musical interlude from the carillon added to the enjoyment.

    • Scott Adams
  • When you drink, don't drive. Don't even putt.
    • Dean Martin
  • You're not drunk if you can lie on the floor without holding on. .
    • Dean Martin
  • I feel sorry for people who don't drink.^ In fact, I am nearly certain that people who have headaches that are made worse by aspartame shouldn't drink it.

    .When they wake up in the morning, that's as good as they're going to feel all day.^ It may well be that our subjective experience will be that we “asleep in Christ” and then we wake up on that great Day.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    • Frank Sinatra
  • R-e-m-o-r-s-e,
    Those dry Martinis were too much for me.
    .Last night I really felt immense,
    To-day I feel like thirty cents;
    It is no time for mirth and laughter
    In the cold gray dawn of the morning after.
    ^ Stay away from any known allergens (seems like a no brainer) º Irrigate your nasal passage with warm saline water 3 times a day.

    ^ However before the creation of the Universe there were no clocks so the concept of “an infinite time before” creation does not really apply.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Be made at the earliest possible time and no less; than three days before the hearing except for a good cause showing; .
    • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • George Ade
  • The horse and mule live thirty years
    And nothing know of wines and beers;
    The goat and sheep at twenty die,
    With never a taste of scotch or rye;
    The cow drinks water by the ton,
    And at eighteen is mostly done.^ Persons 16 years of; age and older may sell beer and wine in off–premises beer and wine; establishments.
    • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Any person pouring wine at a wine tasting shall; be at least 21 years of age.

    ^ Possess wines; manufactured during the viticulture/enology program for the purpose of; conducting wine‑tasting seminars and classes for students who are 21; years of age or older.


    .Without the aid of rum or gin
    The dog at fifteen cashes in;
    The cat in milk and water soaks,
    And then at twelve years old it croaks;
    The modest, sober, bone-dry hen
    Lays eggs for nogs and dies at ten;
    All animals are strictly dry;
    They sinless live and swiftly die,
    While sinful, gleeful, rum-soaked men
    Survive for three score years and ten.
    ^ A 59-year-old female writer underwent two partial thyroidectomies for Graves disease three decades previously, and then received radioiodine therapy.

    ^ In addition to teaching regular philosophy courses, I had been teaching courses in medical ethics and HIV/AIDS for approximately ten years and was enjoying it.

    ^ The Extra Old (2–3 years) was smooth, dry, flavourful but not too sharp.


    And some of us - a mighty few -
    Stay pickled 'till we're ninety-two.
    • Harlan Fiske Stone, reported in Alpheus Thomas Mason, Harlan Fiske Stone, Pillar of the Law (1956), p. 731.
  • Drink is the curse of the land. .It makes you fight with your neighbour.^ "And when you clap, take your gloves off — it makes a better sound."

    .It makes you shoot at your landlord and it makes you miss him.^ "And when you clap, take your gloves off — it makes a better sound."

    ^ Well, you can lead a horse to water, but you can't make him drink.

    • Irish proverb

W. C. Fields

  • Everybody has to believe in something... .I believe I'll have another drink.
  • Christmas at my house is always at least six or seven times more pleasant than anywhere else.^ The formaldehyde dose would temporarily be about 67 times more than the lowest level of 1 mmol/L that Oyama found hurt rat cells.

    ^ A malt beverage produced under this; subdivision may not contain more than six percent (6%) alcohol by volume.

    ^ By the time he goes to bed again half a dozen or more of the sticky drinks will have been sluiced down.

    We start drinking early. And while everyone else is seeing only one Santa Claus, we'll be seeing six or seven.
  • Once ... in the wilds of Afghanistan, I lost my corkscrew, and we were forced to live on nothing but food and water for days.
  • How well I remember my first encounter with The Devil's Brew.^ Let me give my preliminary answer to the underlying question - but John may well offer a rather different point of view.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    .I happened to stumble across a case of bourbon— and went right on stumbling for several days thereafter.
  • I certainly do not drink all the time.^ Parties have the right to participate or to be; represented in all hearings related to their case.
    • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ She developed severe depression and visual problems for the first time within two weeks after consuming 8-10 glasses of an aspartame drink daily.

    ^ Williams ; Laboratory Services) are available that can analyze the samples but the cost is $100-$150/test ; and the time required may be several days.
    • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

    I have to sleep you know.
  • I exercise extreme self control. I never drink anything stronger than gin before breakfast.
  • More people are driven insane through religious hysteria than by drinking alcohol.
  • The cost of living has gone up another dollar a quart.
  • Thou shalt not covet thy neighbor's house unless they have a well-stocked bar.
  • When life hands you lemons, make whisky sours.
  • Always carry a flagon of whiskey in case of snake bite, and furthermore, always carry a small snake.

Attributed

.
  • They don't want us to drink and drive, but you need a drivers license to buy alcohol and why do bars have parking lots?^ If you want to get credibility, then the last thing > you need is to talk about how discredible you are.

    ^ Of course "defender" won't be impressed by this, but he needs to take the general point that you don't refute someone's position by refuting something that they are not saying .
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Group 3: Not enough alcohol (Why should I use more than the reaction needs?
    • Biodiesel Production Technology: August 2002--January 2004 18 May 2010 14:42 UTC www.methanol.org [Source type: Reference]

    .Bob and Tom in the Morning.
  • You know you have a drinking problem when the bartender knows your name.^ "But if you're a sodium glutamate junkie, then you could potentially run into problems with your retina," he said.

    And you've never been to that bar before.
  • Have you ever been so drunk you wet the bed? Not even sleeping, just standing over, pissing on it?
  • I don't have a drinking problem. I drink, I get drunk, I fall down. No problem! .
  • The only alcohol problem I have is not having any.
  • Wine goes with wine and the two should never part.
  • I drink to forget all the stupid things I do when I'm drunk.
  • There are more old drunkards than there are old doctors.
  • I have an alcohol allergy...^ An industry member may extend credit; to a retailer on the sale of wine for not more than 30 days from the date of; the sale.
    • 185 Alcoholic Beverages Division 26 May 2010 9:48 UTC www.legis.state.ia.us [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Or is this simply a false dilemma in that there are more than two possible options and we have just been presented with two that suit the argument?
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It may be that there are parts of tghe site where this is all dealt with.
    • John Polkinghorne Q&A 9 October 2009 5:33 UTC www.starcourse.org [Source type: Original source]

    Every time I drink, I break out in hand cuffs.

See also

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Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 14, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Alcoholic beverage, which are similar to those in the above article.








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