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Alcuronium
Systematic (IUPAC) name
4,4'-Didemethyl-4,4'-di-propenyltoxiferin-1-dichloride
Identifiers
CAS number 23214-96-2
ATC code M03AA01
PubChem 5311001
ChemSpider 20118193
Chemical data
Formula C 44H50N4O2 +2
Mol. mass 666.894 g/mol
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability  ?
Metabolism not metabolized
Half life  ?
Excretion 70-90% unchanged in urine 1.3ml/kg/min t1/2 2- 4 hours
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.  ?
Legal status
Routes  ?

Alcuronium is a peripherally acting muscle relaxant in the curare alkaloid family. It is a semi-synthetic substance derived from toxiferine.

Effects

  • Cardiovascular system - histamine release and blockage of the sympathetic ganglia including adrenal medulla could cause Hypotension
  • Respiratory - apnea due to phrenic blockage but bronchoconstriction can occur from the histamine release
  • Central nervous system - no effect on intraoccular pressure
  • Autonomic ganglion blockade can cause decrease in gut motility

Special points

  • Duration of action prolonger in states of low potassium, calcium and protein, also in states of high magnesium and acidosis.
  • Pharmaceutically incompatible with thiopentone
  • Infusion can cause fixed dilated pupils

References

Zahn K, Eckstein N, Tränkle C, Sadée W, Mohr K (2002). "Allosteric modulation of muscarinic receptor signaling: alcuronium-induced conversion of pilocarpine from an agonist into an antagonist.". J Pharmacol Exp Ther 301 (2): 720–8. doi:10.1124/jpet.301.2.720. PMID 11961078.   Maass A, Mohr K (1996). "Opposite effects of alcuronium on agonist and on antagonist binding to muscarinic receptors.". Eur J Pharmacol 305 (1-3): 231–4. doi:10.1016/0014-2999(96)00240-3. PMID 8813558.   Jakubík J, Tucek S (1994). "Protection by alcuronium of muscarinic receptors against chemical inactivation and location of the allosteric binding site for alcuronium.". J Neurochem 63 (5): 1932–40. PMID 7931349.  

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