Alexander Graham Bell: Wikis

  
  
  
  
  

Did you know ...


More interesting facts on Alexander Graham Bell

Include this on your site/blog:

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Alexander Graham Bell

Portrait of Alexander Graham Bell c. 1910
Born March 3, 1847
Edinburgh, Scotland, UK
Died August 2, 1922 (aged 75)
Beinn Bhreagh, Nova Scotia, Canada
Cause of death Diabetes
Education University of Edinburgh
University College London
Occupation Inventor, Scientist, Engineer, Professor (Boston University), Teacher of the Deaf
Known for Inventor of the telephone
Spouse(s) Mabel Hubbard
(married 1877–1922)
Children (4) Two sons who died in infancy and two daughters
Parents Alexander Melville Bell
Eliza Grace Symonds Bell
Relatives Gardiner Greene Hubbard (father-in-law)
Gilbert Hovey Grosvenor (son-in-law)
Melville Bell Grosvenor (grandson)
Signature
.Alexander Graham Bell (March 3, 1847 – August 2, 1922) was an eminent scientist, inventor, engineer and innovator who is credited with inventing the first practical telephone.^ Alexander Graham Bell ( 3 March 1847 – 2 August 1922 ) was an eminent scientist , inventor and innovator who is credited with the invention of the telephone .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Portrait of Alexander Graham Bell c.1910 .

^ Alexander Graham Bell (3 March 1847 2 August 1922) was an eminent scientist , inventor and innovator who is widely credited with inventing the first practical telephone .

.Bell's father, grandfather, and brother had all been associated with work on elocution and speech, and both his mother and wife were deaf, profoundly influencing Bell's life's work.^ His father, grandfather and brother had all been associated with work on elocution and speech , and both his mother and wife were deaf, profoundly influencing Bell's life's work.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bell's father, grandfather, and brother had all been associated with work on elocution and speech , and both his mother and wife were deaf, profoundly influencing Bell's life's work.

^ Bell's father encouraged Aleck's interest in speech and, in 1863, took his sons to see a unique automaton , developed by Sir Charles Wheatstone based on the earlier work of Baron Wolfgang von Kempelen .

[1] .His research on hearing and speech further led him to experiment with hearing devices which eventually culminated in Bell being awarded the first U.S. patent for the telephone in 1876.[2] In retrospect, Bell considered his most famous invention an intrusion on his real work as a scientist and refused to have a telephone in his study.^ In reflection, Bell considered his most famous invention an intrusion on his real work as a scientist and refused to have a telephone in his study.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bell was granted a patent on his telephone on March 6, 1876.
  • The Baldwin Project: Great Inventors and Their Inventions by Frank P. Bachman 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ So if there is to be a 'single' inventor, Bell (by virtue of his being first) is the inventor of the telephone.
  • Amazon.com: Customer Reviews: The Telephone Gambit: Chasing Alexander Graham Bell's Secret 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

[3]
.Many other inventions marked Bell's later life, including groundbreaking work in optical telecommunications, hydrofoils and aeronautics.^ Many other inventions marked Bell's later life, including groundbreaking work in hydrofoils and aeronautics .

^ Many other inventions marked Bell's later life including groundbreaking work in hydrofoils and aeronautics .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She later was to say that Bell dedicated his life to the penetration of that "inhuman silence which separates and estranges."
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alexandergrahambell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1888, Alexander Graham Bell became one of the founding members of the National Geographic Society.^ Portrait of Alexander Graham Bell c.1910 .

^ In 1888, Alexander Graham Bell became one of the founding members of the National Geographic Society .

^ In 1888, Alexander Graham Bell was one of the founding members of the National Geographic Society .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[4]

Early years

.Alexander Bell was born in Edinburgh on March 3, 1847.[5] The family home was at 16 South Charlotte Street, and now has a commemorative marker at the doorstep, marking it as Alexander Graham Bell's birthplace.^ Portrait of Alexander Graham Bell c.1910 .

^ Alexander Graham Bell, ca.
  • Alexander Graham Bell address to Congress 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lamar.colostate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander Bell was born in Edinburgh , Scotland on March 3 , 1847 .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He had two brothers: Melville James Bell (1845–1870) and Edward Charles Bell (1848–1867).^ Both of his brothers died of tuberculosis , Edward in 1867 and Melville in 1870.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He had two brothers: Melville James Bell (18451870) and Edward Charles Bell (18481867).

^ He had two brothers: Melville James Bell (1845–1870) and Edward Charles Bell (1848–1867).
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Both of his brothers died of tuberculosis.^ Both of his brothers died of tuberculosis , Edward in 1867 and Melville in 1870.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both of his brothers died of tuberculosis .

^ In 1867 tragedy struck the family, now in London, when Alecks younger brother, Edward Charles, died of tuberculosis.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6] .His father was Professor Alexander Melville Bell, and his mother was Eliza Grace (née Symonds).^ March 1847 in Edinburgh, Scotland, second son of Alexander Melville Bell and Eliza Grace Symonds; m.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His father was Professor Alexander Melville Bell , and his mother was Eliza Grace (ne Symonds).

^ Bell and his father, Alexander Melville Bell were innovators in the field of educating the deaf.
  • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers at the Library of Congress, 1862-1939 - Collection Connections - For Teachers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.lcweb.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7] .Although he was born "Alexander", at age ten, he made a plea to his father to have a middle name like his two brothers.^ Although he was born "Alexander", at age ten he made a plea to his father to have a middle name like his two brothers.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although he was born "Alexander", at age ten, he made a plea to his father to have a middle name like his two brothers.

^ Surprisingly, the young Alexander was neither a model nor even an enthusiastic pupil at school, actually leaving at the age of 15, much to the consternation of his father.
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.squidoo.com [Source type: General]

[8] .For his 11th birthday, his father acquiesced and allowed him to adopt the middle name "Graham", chosen out of admiration for Alexander Graham, a Canadian being treated by his father and boarder who had become a family friend.^ For his 11th birthday, his father acquiesced and allowed him to adopt the middle name "Graham" chosen out of admiration for Alexander Graham, a Canadian being treated by his father and boarder who had become a family friend.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Keywords: invention telephone Bell Becomes Alexander Graham Bell 1858 Edinburgh, Scotland Alexander Graham Bell 1847-1922 adopts the middle name Graham out of admiration for Alexander Graham, a family friend.
  • Sample Search Results for Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.northernblue.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For his 11th birthday, his father acquiesced and allowed him to adopt the middle name "Graham", chosen out of admiration for Alexander Graham, a Canadian being treated by his father and boarder who had become a family friend.

[9] .To close relatives and friends he remained "Aleck" which his father continued to call him into later life.^ To close relatives and friends he remained "Aleck" which his father continued to call him into later life.
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alexandergrahambell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aleck's father taught him and his brothers not only to write Visible Speech but also to identify any symbol and its accompanying sound.
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alexandergrahambell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Keywords: invention telephone Mark Twain to Hubbard 1890 Dec 27 Washington, DC Mark Twain writes a letter to Gardiner G. Hubbard, calling him "The Father-in-law of the Telephone".
  • Sample Search Results for Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.northernblue.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[10]

First invention

.As a child, young Alexander Graham Bell displayed a natural curiosity about his world, resulting in gathering botanical specimens as well as experimenting even at an early age.^ As a child, young Aleck Bell displayed a natural curiosity about his world, resulting in gathering botanical specimens as well as experimenting even at an early age.
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alexandergrahambell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Portrait of Alexander Graham Bell c.1910 .

^ Alexander Graham Bell, ca.
  • Alexander Graham Bell address to Congress 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lamar.colostate.edu [Source type: Original source]

.His best friend was Ben Herdman, a neighbour whose family operated a flour mill, the scene of many forays.^ His best friend was Ben Herdman, a neighbour whose family operated a flour mill , the scene of many forays.
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alexandergrahambell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He and a friend, Benjamin Herdman, had been playing around the Herdman flour mill when Bens father admonished them to do something useful.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Young Aleck asked what needed to be done at the mill.^ Young Aleck asked what needed to be done at the mill.
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alexandergrahambell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He was told wheat had to be dehusked through a laborious process and at the age of 12, Bell built a homemade device that combined rotating paddles with sets of nail brushes, creating a simple dehusking machine that was put into operation and used steadily for a number of years.^ He was told wheat had to be dehusked through a laborious process and at the age of 12, Bell built a homemade device that combined rotating paddles with sets of nail brushes, creating a simple dehusking machine that was put into operation and used steadily for a number of years.
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alexandergrahambell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aleck surprised him when he produced a process to do just that, based on wire brushes on a set of rotating paddles in an existing machine.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since he was reaching affluent circumstances himself, Bell used the money from the Prize to create a number of social structures in and around Washington, D.C. using the symbolic "Volta": the "Volta Fund," "Volta Laboratories" and "Volta Bureau."
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[11] In return, John Herdman gave both boys the run of a small workshop within which to "invent".[11]
.From his early years, Bell showed a sensitive nature and a talent for art, poetry and music that was encouraged by his mother.^ From his early years, Bell showed a sensitive nature and a talent for art, poetry and music that was encouraged by his mother.
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alexandergrahambell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a child, young Aleck Bell displayed a natural curiosity about his world, resulting in gathering botanical specimens as well as experimenting even at an early age.
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alexandergrahambell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After a year or so, Alexander Graham Bell and his capitalist backers concluded that eerie music piped from nineteenth-century cyberspace was not the real selling- point of his invention.
  • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

.With no formal training, he mastered the piano and became the family's pianist.^ With no formal training, he mastered the piano and became the family's pianist.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] .Despite being normally quiet and introspective, he reveled in mimicry and "voice tricks" akin to ventriloquism that continually entertained family guests during their occasional visits.^ Despite being normally quiet and introspective, he revelled in mimicry and "voice tricks" akin to ventriloquism that constantly entertained family guests.
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alexandergrahambell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12] .Bell was also deeply affected by his mother's gradual deafness, (she began to lose her hearing when he was 12) and learned a manual finger language so he could sit at her side and tap out silently the conversations swirling around the family parlour.^ Bell was also deeply affected by his mother's gradual deafness (she began to lose her hearing when he was 12) and learned a manual finger language so he could sit at her side and tap out silently the conversations swirling around the family parlour.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bell was also deeply affected by his mother's gradual deafness, (she began to lose her hearing when he was 12) and learned a manual finger language so he could sit at her side and tap out silently the conversations swirling around the family parlour.

^ Losing her hearing after a bout of scarlet fever at age five, she had learned to read lips but her father, Gardiner Greene Hubbard, Bell's benefactor and personal friend, wanted her to work directly with her teacher.
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alexandergrahambell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[13] .He also developed a technique of speaking in clear, modulated tones directly into his mother's forehead wherein she would hear him with reasonable clarity.^ He also developed a technique of speaking in clear, modulated tones directly into his mother's forehead wherein she would hear him with reasonable clarity.
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alexandergrahambell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Working as a private tutor, one of his most famous pupils was Helen Keller , who came to him as a young child, unable to see, hear, or speak.

^ The book also inspired him to learn more about electromagnetism and electricity critical ingredients in his subsequent work on a speaking telegraph but he would have to do so in the New World.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14] .Bell's preoccupation with his mother's deafness led him to study acoustics.^ Bell's preoccupation with his mother's deafness led him to study acoustics .
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alexandergrahambell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This led him and Bell to the development of practical hydrofoil watercraft.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Have students browse the Family Papers and General Correspondence series and choose one person to study: Bell, his father, mother, wife or father-in-law.
  • Teacher Resources - Collection - Alexander Graham Bell Papers, 1862-1939 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC learning.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers at the Library of Congress, 1862-1939 - Collection Connections - For Teachers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.lcweb.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His family was long associated with the teaching of elocution: his grandfather, Alexander Bell, in London, his uncle in Dublin, and his father, in Edinburgh, were all elocutionists.^ His family was associated with the teaching of elocution : his grandfather, Alexander Bell, in London , his uncle in Dublin , and his father, in Edinburgh, were all elocutionists.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His family was long associated with the teaching of elocution : his grandfather, Alexander Bell, in London , his uncle in Dublin , and his father, in Edinburgh, were all elocutionists.

^ His father was Alexander Melville Bell , a leading authority in elocution and ...

.His father published a variety of works on the subject, several of which are still well known, especially his The Standard Elocutionist (1860),[12] which appeared in Edinburgh in 1868. The Standard Elocutionist appeared in 168 British editions and sold over a quarter of a million copies in the United States alone.^ His father published a variety of works on the subject, several of which are still well known, especially his The Standard Elocutionist (1860) [13] Mackay 1997, , which appeared in Edinburgh in 1868.

^ His father published a variety of works on the subject, several of which are still well known, especially his The Standard Elocutionist (1860) [13] [16] and treatise on Visible Speech , which appeared in Edinburgh in 1868.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Standard Elocutionist appeared in 168 British editions and sold over a quarter of a million copies in the United States alone.
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alexandergrahambell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In this treatise, his father explains his methods of how to instruct deaf-mutes (as they were then known) to articulate words and read other people's lip movements to decipher meaning.^ In this treatise, he explains his methods of how to instruct deaf-mutes (as they were then known) to articulate words and read other people's lip movements to decipher meaning.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bell, how are the deaf-mutes in Boston?'
  • The Baldwin Project: Great Inventors and Their Inventions by Frank P. Bachman 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In this treatise, his father explains his methods of how to instruct deaf-mutes (as they were then known) to articulate words and read other people's lip movements to decipher meaning.

.Aleck's father taught him and his brothers not only to write Visible Speech but also to identify any symbol and its accompanying sound.^ Aleck's father taught him and his brothers not only to write Visible Speech but also to identify any symbol and its accompanying sound.
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alexandergrahambell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Aleck became so proficient that he became a part of his father's public demonstrations and astounded audiences with his abilities in deciphering Latin , Gaelic and even Sanskrit symbols.

^ Assisting the Deaf: Visible Speech Bell and his father, Alexander Melville Bell were innovators in the field of educating the deaf.
  • Teacher Resources - Collection - Alexander Graham Bell Papers, 1862-1939 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC learning.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15] .Aleck became so proficient that he became a part of his father's public demonstrations and astounded audiences with his abilities in deciphering Latin, Gaelic and even Sanskrit symbols.^ Aleck became so proficient that he became a part of his father's public demonstrations and astounded audiences with his abilities in deciphering Latin , Gaelic and even Sanskrit symbols.

^ Aleck became so proficient that he became part of his father's public demonstrations and astounded audiences with his abilities in deciphering Latin , Gaelic and even Sanskrit symbols.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[15]

Education

.As a young child, Bell, like his brothers, received his early schooling at home from his father.^ As a young child, Bell, like his brothers, received his early schooling at home from his father.

^ As a young child Bell, like his brothers, received his early schooling at home from his father.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a child, young Aleck Bell displayed a natural curiosity about his world, resulting in gathering botanical specimens as well as experimenting even at an early age.
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alexandergrahambell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At an early age, however, he was enrolled at the Royal High School, Edinburgh, Scotland, which he left at age 15, completing only the first four forms.^ At an early age, however, he was enrolled at the Royal High School , Edinburgh, Scotland, which he left at age 15, completing the first four forms only.
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alexandergrahambell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And with the Crash of January 15 -- the first month of a new, high-tech decade -- their predictions, fears, and suspicions seemed at last to have entered the real world.
  • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He was educated at the Royal High School of Edinburgh, and also attended the University of Edinburgh and the University of London.
  • The Baldwin Project: Great Inventors and Their Inventions by Frank P. Bachman 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

[16] .His school record was undistinguished, marked by absenteeism and lacklustre grades.^ His school record was undistinguished, marked by absenteeism and lacklustre grades.
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alexandergrahambell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His main interest remained in the sciences, especially biology, while he treated other school subjects with indifference, to the dismay of his demanding father.^ His main interest remained in the sciences, especially biology, while he treated other school subjects with indifference, to the dismay of his demanding father.

^ Although his paramount interest was in the sciences, Bell had a keen mind and sense of curiosity that prohibited him from focusing on only one subject.
  • Teacher Resources - Collection - Alexander Graham Bell Papers, 1862-1939 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC learning.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers at the Library of Congress, 1862-1939 - Collection Connections - For Teachers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.lcweb.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition to helping other clerks and shopmen get shorter work hours and organizing acting classes and plays, he began treating stammerers, using his fathers methods.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[17] .Upon leaving school, Bell travelled to London to live with his grandfather, Alexander Bell.^ Upon leaving school, Bell travelled to London to live with his grandfather, Alexander Bell.

^ Upon leaving school, Bell went to London to live with his grandfather, Alexander Bell.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Traveling to Boston in April 1871, Bell provided a successful in servicing of the school's instructors.

.During the year he spent with his grandfather, a love of learning was born, with long hours spent in serious discussion and study.^ During the year he spent with his grandfather, a love of learning was born, with long hours spent in serious discussion and study.
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alexandergrahambell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His isolation was frequent at Beinn Bhreagh, where he spent long hours every weekend thinking in his beached houseboat, the Mabel of Beinn Bhreagh .
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During the nine long hours of frantic effort that it took to restore service, some seventy million telephone calls went uncompleted.
  • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The elder Bell took great efforts to have his young pupil learn to speak clearly and with conviction, the attributes that his pupil would need to become a teacher himself.^ The elder Bell took great efforts to have his young pupil learn to speak clearly and with conviction, the attributes that his pupil would need to become a teacher himself.
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alexandergrahambell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bell's investors would become millionaires while he fared well from residuals and at one point, had assets nearly reaching one million dollars.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What was thought by graham bell can be an example to change the world and become a great man .
  • The Alexander Graham Bell Guide to Changing the World | Copyblogger 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.copyblogger.com [Source type: General]

[18] .At age 16, Bell secured a position as a "pupil-teacher" of elocution and music, in Weston House Academy, at Elgin, Moray, Scotland.^ He secured a position as a pupil-teacher of elocution and music at an academy in Elgin.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At age 16, Bell secured a position as a "pupil-teacher" of elocution and music, in Weston House Academy, at Elgin , Moray , Scotland.
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alexandergrahambell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The family home was at 16 South Charlotte Street, Edinburgh, Scotland, and now has a commemorative marker at the doorstep, marking it as Alexander Graham Bell's birthplace.

.Although he was enrolled as a student in Latin and Greek, he instructed classes himself in return for board and £10 per session.^ Although he was enrolled as a student in Latin and Greek, he instructed classes himself in return for board and 10 per session.

^ Although he was enrolled as a student in Latin and Greek, he instructed in return for board and £10 per session.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[19] .The following year, he attended the University of Edinburgh; joining his older brother Melville who had enrolled there the previous year.^ The following year he attended the University of Edinburgh ; joining his older brother Melville who had enrolled there the previous year, and where Aleck intended to write exams but later graduated from the University of Toronto .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The following year, he attended the University of Edinburgh ; joining his older brother Melville who had enrolled there the previous year.

^ Her plea was successful but the following year Flora died of typhoid, and Muybridge - who always refused to acknowledge the child - had little Florado committed to an orphanage.

First experiments with sound

.Bell's father encouraged Aleck's interest in speech and, in 1863, took his sons to see a unique automaton, developed by Sir Charles Wheatstone based on the earlier work of Baron Wolfgang von Kempelen.^ Exploration interested Bell and his father-in-law.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bell's father encouraged Aleck's interest in speech and, in 1863, took his sons to see a unique automaton , developed by Sir Charles Wheatstone based on the earlier work of Baron Wolfgang von Kempelen .

^ Bell's father encouraged Aleck's interest in speech and in 1863, took his sons to see a unique automaton , developed by Sir Charles Wheatstone based on the earlier work of Baron Wolfgang von Kempelen .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[20] .The rudimentary "mechanical man" simulated a human voice.^ The rudimentary "mechanical man" simulated a human voice.
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alexandergrahambell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Aleck was fascinated by the machine and after he obtained a copy of von Kempelen's book, published in German, and had laboriously translated it, he and his older brother Melville built their own automaton head.^ Aleck was fascinated by the machine and after he obtained a copy of von Kempelen's book, published in German, and had laboriously translated it, he and his older brother Melville built their own automaton head.

^ Aleck was fascinated by the machine and after he obtained a copy of von Kempelen's book published in Germany and had laboriously translated it, Aleck and his older brother Melville built their own automaton head.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bell's father encouraged Aleck's interest in speech and, in 1863, took his sons to see a unique automaton , developed by Sir Charles Wheatstone based on the earlier work of Baron Wolfgang von Kempelen .

.Their father, highly interested in their project, offered to pay for any supplies and spurred the boys on with the enticement of a "big prize" if they were successful.^ Their father, highly interested in their project, offered to pay for any supplies and spurred the boys on with the enticement of a "big prize" if they were successful.
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alexandergrahambell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its loike big brother, full of ordinary joes and freaks , yet soon some people are paying them huge money …but for what….because they are celebs?
  • Boxing News - Comments on The WBA orders Khan vs. Maidana – News 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.boxingnews24.com [Source type: Original source]

[20] .While his brother constructed the throat and larynx, Aleck tackled the more difficult task of recreating a realistic skull.^ While his brother constructed the throat and larynx , Aleck tackled the more difficult task of recreating a realistic skull.

^ While his brother constructed the throat and larynx , Aleck tackled the more difficult task of recreating a realistic skull .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The device inspired Aleck and his brother Melville James (Melly) to build their own version of a talking larynx.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His efforts resulted in a remarkably lifelike head that could "speak", albeit only a few words.^ His efforts resulted in a remarkably lifelike head that could " speak ," albeit only a few words.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His efforts resulted in a remarkably lifelike head that could "speak", albeit only a few words.

^ You’re right, you could have a brilliant idea but if you never get out there and spread the word, it will only remain that, a brilliant idea.
  • The Alexander Graham Bell Guide to Changing the World | Copyblogger 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.copyblogger.com [Source type: General]

[20] .The boys would carefully adjust the "lips" and when a bellows forced air through the windpipe, a very recognizable "Mama" ensued, to the delight of neighbors who came to see the Bell invention.^ The boys would carefully adjust the "lips" and when a bellows forced air through the windpipe , a very recognizable "Mama" ensued, to the delight of neighbors who came to see the Bell invention.

^ The boys would carefully adjust the " lips " and when a bellows forced air through the windpipe , a very recognizable "Mama" ensued, to the delight of neighbors who came to see the Bell invention.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alexander Graham Bell ( 3 March 1847 – 2 August 1922 ) was an eminent scientist , inventor and innovator who is credited with the invention of the telephone .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21]
Intrigued by the results of the automaton, Bell continued to experiment with a live subject, the family's Skye Terrier, "Trouve".[22] After he taught it to growl continuously, Aleck would reach into its mouth and manipulate the dog's lips and vocal cords to produce a crude-sounding "Ow ah oo ga ma ma." With little convincing, visitors believed his dog could articulate "How are you grandma?" .More indicative of his playful nature, his experiments convinced onlookers that they saw a "talking dog."^ More indicative of his playful nature, his experiments convinced onlookers that they saw a "talking dog."
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alexandergrahambell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And worst of all they played clever tricks with the switchboard plugs: disconnecting calls, crossing lines so that customers found themselves talking to strangers, and so forth.
  • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ They heard each other much more distinctly than they did in their first talk thirty-eight years ago."
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23] .However, these initial forays into experimentation with sound led Bell to undertake his first serious work on the transmission of sound, using tuning forks to explore resonance.^ Helmholtz's device used a series of tuning forks and resonance chambers to simulate vowel sounds.
  • Mike Gorman: Bell's Path the the Telephone--Home Page 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.iath.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, these initial forays into experimentation with sound led Bell to undertake his first serious work on the transmission of sound , using tuning forks to explore resonance .
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alexandergrahambell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While working that summer in Brantford, Bell experimented with a "phonautograph," a pen-like machine that could draw shapes of sound waves on smoked glass by tracing their vibrations.
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alexandergrahambell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At the age of 19, he wrote a report on his work and sent it to philologist Alexander Ellis, a colleague of his father (who would later be portrayed as Professor Henry Higgins in Pygmalion).^ At the age of 19, he wrote a report on his work and sent it to Alexander Ellis, a colleague of his father.
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alexandergrahambell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not long after his father remarried, Melville, who had worked long hours as a drapers assistant in London, was sent to Newfoundland in 1838 to improve his health.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two years later, he told colleagues that if he could get the patent for $25 million he would consider it a bargain.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[23] .Ellis immediately wrote back indicating that the experiments were similar to existing work in Germany.^ Ellis immediately wrote back indicating that the experiments were similar to existing work in Germany .
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alexandergrahambell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the age of 19, he wrote a report on his work and sent it to Alexander Ellis, a colleague of his father.
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alexandergrahambell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And why not… I wrote a very similar post quite sometime back.
  • The Alexander Graham Bell Guide to Changing the World | Copyblogger 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.copyblogger.com [Source type: General]

.Dismayed to find that groundbreaking work had already been undertaken by Hermann von Helmholtz who had conveyed vowel sounds by means of a similar tuning fork "contraption", he pored over the German scientist's book, Sensations of Tone.^ Helmholtz had not only analyzed vowel sounds, but had reproduced them by tuning forks .
  • The Baldwin Project: Great Inventors and Their Inventions by Frank P. Bachman 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Dismayed to find that groundbreaking work had already been undertaken by Hermann von Helmholtz who had conveyed vowel sounds by means of a similar tuning fork " contraption ", he pored over the German scientist's book, Sensations of Tone .
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alexandergrahambell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From his translation of the original German edition, Aleck then made a deduction that would be the underpinning of all his future work on transmitting sound, "Without knowing much about the subject, it seemed to me that if vowel sounds could be produced by electrical means so could consonants , so could articulate speech ."
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alexandergrahambell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Working from his own errant mistranslation of the original German edition, Aleck fortuitously then made a deduction that would be the underpinning of all his future work on transmitting sound, reporting: "Without knowing much about the subject, it seemed to me that if vowel sounds could be produced by electrical means so could consonants, so could articulate speech", and also later remarking: "I thought that Helmhotz had done it ...^ From his translation of the original German edition, Aleck then made a deduction that would be the underpinning of all his future work on transmitting sound, "Without knowing much about the subject, it seemed to me that if vowel sounds could be produced by electrical means so could consonants , so could articulate speech ."
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alexandergrahambell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He designed a piano which, by means of electricity, could transmit its music at a distance.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He designed a piano , which, by means of electricity, could transmit its music at a distance.

and that my failure was due only to my ignorance of electricity. It was a valuable blunder ... If I had been able to read German in those days, I might never have commenced my experiments!"
[24][25]

Family tragedy

.In 1865, when the Bell family moved to London,[26] Bell returned to Weston House as an assistant master and, in his spare hours, continued experiments on sound using a minimum of laboratory equipment.^ In 1865, when the Bell family moved to London , [27] Bell returned to Weston House as an assistant master and in his spare hours, continued experiments on sound using a minimum of laboratory equipment.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1865, when the Bell family moved to London , [26] Bell returned to Weston House as an assistant master and, in his spare hours, continued experiments on sound using a minimum of laboratory equipment.

^ While working that summer in Brantford, Bell experimented with a "phonautograph," a pen-like machine that could draw shapes of sound waves on smoked glass by tracing their vibrations.
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alexandergrahambell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bell concentrated on experimenting with electricity to convey sound and later installed a telegraph wire from his room in Somerset College to that of a friend.^ "No, the electric telegraph is not a sound invention.
  • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Bell concentrated on experimenting with electricity to convey sound and later installed a telegraph wire from his room in Somerset College to that of a friend.
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alexandergrahambell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While working that summer in Brantford, Bell experimented with a "phonautograph," a pen-like machine that could draw shapes of sound waves on smoked glass by tracing their vibrations.
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alexandergrahambell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27] .Throughout late 1867, his health faltered mainly through exhaustion.^ Throughout the fall and winter, his health faltered mainly through exhaustion.
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alexandergrahambell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His younger brother, Edward "Ted," was similarly bed-ridden, suffering from tuberculosis.^ His younger brother, Edward "Ted," was similarly bed-ridden, suffering from tuberculosis .

^ His younger brother, Edward "Ted" was similarly bed-ridden, suffering from tuberculosis .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both of his brothers died of tuberculosis , Edward in 1867 and Melville in 1870.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While Bell recovered (by then referring to himself in correspondence as "A.G. Bell") and served the next year as an instructor at Somerset College, Bath, Somerset, England, his brother's condition deteriorated.^ While Bell recovered (now referring to himself in correspondence as "A.G. Bell") and served the next year as an instructor at Somerset College , Bath , Somerset , England , his brother's condition deteriorated.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While Bell recovered (by then referring to himself in correspondence as "A.G. Bell") and served the next year as an instructor at Somerset College , Bath , Somerset , England , his brother's condition deteriorated.

^ In contrast, Alexander Bell spent the next several years fighting to win his patent application, raise money from private investors, and evangelize his invention.
  • The Alexander Graham Bell Guide to Changing the World | Copyblogger 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.copyblogger.com [Source type: General]

.Edward would never recover.^ Edward would never recover.
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alexandergrahambell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Upon his brother's death, Bell returned home in 1867. His older brother, "Melly" had married and moved out.^ His older brother, "Melly" had married and moved out.
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alexandergrahambell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Upon his brother's passing, Bell returned home in 1867.
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alexandergrahambell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Returning home to Brantford after six months abroad, Bell continued his experiments with his "harmonic telegraph".

.With aspirations to obtain a degree at the University College London, Bell considered his next years as preparation for the degree examinations, devoting his spare time at his family's residence to studying.^ With aspirations to obtain a degree at the University College London , Bell considered his next years as preparation for the degree examinations, devoting his spare time at his family's residence to studying.
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alexandergrahambell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Until the end of his life Bell and his family would alternate between the two homes, but Beinn Bhreagh would, over the next 30 years, become more than a summer home as Bell became so absorbed in his experiments that annual stays lengthened.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While Bell recovered (now referring to himself in correspondence as "A.G. Bell") and served the next year as an instructor at Somerset College , Bath , Somerset , England , his brother's condition deteriorated.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Helping his father in Visible Speech demonstrations and lectures brought Bell to Susanna E. Hull's private school for the deaf in South Kensington, London.^ Helping his father in Visible Speech demonstrations and lectures brought Bell to Susanna E. Hull's private school for the deaf in South Kensington , London .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were many deaf children whose parents were willing to pay almost any sum to have them taught to speak, and Bell was so successful in doing this, that he opened a private school of his own in October, 1872.
  • The Baldwin Project: Great Inventors and Their Inventions by Frank P. Bachman 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Subsequently, his father was invited by Sarah Fuller, principal of the Boston School for Deaf Mutes (which continues today as the Horace Mann School for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing ), [40] in Boston , Massachusetts , United States , to introduce the Visible Speech System by providing training for Fuller's instructors but he declined the post, in favor of his son.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His first two pupils were "deaf mute" girls who made remarkable progress under his tutelage.^ His first two pupils were "deaf mute" girls who made remarkable progress under his tutelage.
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.alexandergrahambell.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is true that Bell, a teacher of the deaf-mute who worked alongside Helen Keller, was experimenting with forms of electro-audio stimulation.

^ What Bell first does in this remarkable statement is outline two goals.
  • Mike Gorman: Bell's Path the the Telephone--Home Page 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.iath.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While his older brother seemed to achieve success on many fronts including opening his own elocution school, applying for a patent on an invention, and starting a family, Bell continued as a teacher.^ While his older brother seemed to achieve success on many fronts including setting up his own school for elocution, applying for a patent on an invention, and beginning a family, Bell continued as a teacher.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There were many deaf children whose parents were willing to pay almost any sum to have them taught to speak, and Bell was so successful in doing this, that he opened a private school of his own in October, 1872.
  • The Baldwin Project: Great Inventors and Their Inventions by Frank P. Bachman 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What responsibilities did Bell have to his family, especially after the death of his brother?
  • Teacher Resources - Collection - Alexander Graham Bell Papers, 1862-1939 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC learning.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers at the Library of Congress, 1862-1939 - Collection Connections - For Teachers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.lcweb.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, in May 1870, Melville died from complications due to tuberculosis, causing a family crisis.^ However, in May 1870, Melville died from complications due to tuberculosis, causing a family crisis.

^ Both of his brothers died of tuberculosis , Edward in 1867 and Melville in 1870.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In May 1870, Melville died from complications of tuberculosis, causing a family crisis.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His father had also suffered a debilitating illness earlier in life and had been restored to health by a convalescence in Newfoundland.^ His father had also suffered a debilitating illness earlier in life and had been restored to health by a convalescence in Newfoundland .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not long after his father remarried, Melville, who had worked long hours as a drapers assistant in London, was sent to Newfoundland in 1838 to improve his health.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bell's parents embarked upon a long-planned move when they realized that their remaining son was also sickly.^ Bell's parents precipitated a long-planned move when they realized that their remaining son was also sickly.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Seth R. Beckwith in particular, gave a long dissertation on Meucci's priority [102,105], blaming the move of American Bell as follows: .
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He certainly did try to move the remains, even asking a member of staff to help with transporting them to his new premises - claiming they contained hair for his trade.

Acting decisively, Alexander Melville Bell asked Bell to arrange for the sale of all the family property,[28] conclude all of his brother's affairs (Bell took over his last student, curing a pronounced lisp),[29] and join his father and mother in setting out for the "New World."[30] Reluctantly, Bell also had to conclude a relationship with Marie Eccleston, who, he had surmised, was not prepared to leave England with him.[30]

Canada

.In 1870, at age 23, Bell, his brother's widow, Caroline (Margaret Ottaway),[31] and his parents travelled on the SS Nestorian to Canada.^ In 1870, at age 23, Bell, his brother's widow, Caroline (Margaret Ottaway), [33] and his parents travelled on the SS Nestorian to Canada.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1870, at age 23, Bell, his brother's widow, Caroline (Margaret Ottaway), [31] and his parents travelled on the SS Nestorian to Canada.

^ On 23 February 1909 , Bell was present as the Silver Dart flown by J.A.D. McCurdy from the frozen ice of Bras d'Or, made the first aircraft flight in Canada.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32] .After landing at Quebec City, the Bells boarded a train to Montreal and later to Paris, Ontario to stay with the Reverend Thomas Henderson, a family friend.^ Melville Bell appointed his friend Thomas Henderson as his sons agent in Ontario.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After landing at Quebec City, the Bells boarded a train to Montreal and later to Paris, Ontario to stay with the Reverend Thomas Henderson, a family friend.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After a brief stay with the Hendersons, the Bell family purchased a ten and a half acre farm at Tutelo Heights (now called Tutela Heights), near Brantford , Ontario .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After a brief stay with the Hendersons, the Bell family purchased a 10-and-a-half acre farm at Tutelo Heights (now called Tutela Heights), near Brantford, Ontario.^ After a brief stay with the Hendersons, the Bell family purchased a 10-and-a-half acre farm at Tutelo Heights (now called Tutela Heights), near Brantford , Ontario .

^ After landing at Quebec City , the Bells boarded a train to Montreal and later to Paris, Ontario to stay with the Reverend Thomas Henderson, a family friend.

^ They learned of a country cottage for sale outside nearby Brantford and, before the week was out, Melville Bell had bought the property, named Tutelo Heights, which overlooked the Grand River.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The property consisted of an orchard, large farm house, stable, pigsty, hen-house and a carriage house, which bordered the Grand River.^ The property consisted of an orchard, larger farm house, stable, pigsty, hen-house and carriage house, bordering the Grand River .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the homestead, Bell set up his own workshop in the converted carriage house [36] near to what he called his "dreaming place," a large hollow nestled in trees at the back of the property above the river.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[33]
.At the homestead, Bell set up his own workshop in the converted carriage house[34] near to what he called his "dreaming place", a large hollow nestled in trees at the back of the property above the river.^ At the homestead, Bell set up his own workshop in the converted carriage house [36] near to what he called his "dreaming place," a large hollow nestled in trees at the back of the property above the river.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After a brief stay with the Hendersons, the Bell family purchased a ten and a half acre farm at Tutelo Heights (now called Tutela Heights), near Brantford , Ontario .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The value of the Bell patent was acknowledged throughout the world, and when Bell had delayed the German patent application, the electrical firm of Siemens & Halske (S&H) managed to set up a rival manufacturer of Bell telephones under their own patent.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[35] .Despite his frail condition upon arriving in Canada, Bell found the climate and environs to his liking, and rapidly improved.^ Despite his frail condition upon arriving in Canada, Bell found the climate and environs to his liking, and rapidly improved.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Despite this declaration, Bell has been claimed as a "native son" by Canada , Scotland and the United States .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[36] .He continued his interest in the study of the human voice and when he discovered the Six Nations Reserve across the river at Onondaga, he learned the Mohawk language and translated its unwritten vocabulary into Visible Speech symbols.^ He continued his interest in the study of the human voice and when he discovered the Six Nations Reserve across the river at Onondaga , he learned the Mohawk language and translated its unwritten vocabulary into Visible Speech symbols.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ From this phonautograph, Bell gained a tactual, "hands-on" understanding of how speech is translated into sinusoidal or undulating waves.
  • Mike Gorman: Bell's Path the the Telephone--Home Page 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.iath.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Search on visible speech to read the Bells' thoughts on this method of instruction and the evolving interest in and use of this technique.
  • Teacher Resources - Collection - Alexander Graham Bell Papers, 1862-1939 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC learning.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers at the Library of Congress, 1862-1939 - Collection Connections - For Teachers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.lcweb.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.For his work, Bell was awarded the title of Honorary Chief and participated in a ceremony where he donned a Mohawk headdress and danced traditional dances.^ For his work, Bell was awarded the title of honorary chief and participated in a ceremony where he donned a Mohawk headdress and danced traditional dances.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Note: Bell was thrilled at his recognition by the Six Nations Reserve and throughout his life, would launch into a Mohawk war dance when he was excited.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[37]
.After setting up his workshop, Bell continued experiments based on Helmholtz's work with electricity and sound.^ After setting up his workshop, Bell continued experiments based on Helmholtz's work with electricity and sound.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bell's and Helmholtz's experiments were quite different.
  • Mike Gorman: Bell's Path the the Telephone--Home Page 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.iath.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While working that summer in Brantford, Bell experimented with a "phonautograph," a pen-like machine that could draw shapes of sound waves on smoked glass by tracing their vibrations.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[34] .He designed a piano, which, by means of electricity, could transmit its music at a distance.^ He designed a piano which, by means of electricity, could transmit its music at a distance.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like the strings of a piano, these reeds would theoretically reproduce any musical tone; like Helmholtz's tuning forks, they could theoretically reproduce vowel sounds as well.
  • Mike Gorman: Bell's Path the the Telephone--Home Page 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.iath.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I also look for it as a means of transmitting messages in times of war, when telegraph lines are down and the country is desolated, and where other electric forms would fall."
  • Teacher Resources - Collection - Alexander Graham Bell Papers, 1862-1939 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC learning.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers at the Library of Congress, 1862-1939 - Collection Connections - For Teachers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.lcweb.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Once the family was settled in, both Bell and his father made plans to establish a teaching practice and in 1871, he accompanied his father to Montreal, where Melville was offered a position to teach his System of Visible Speech.^ Once the family was settled in, both Bell and his father made plans to establish a teaching practice and in 1871, he accompanied his father to Montreal, where Melville was offered a position to teach his System of Visible Speech.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Assisting the Deaf: Visible Speech Bell and his father, Alexander Melville Bell were innovators in the field of educating the deaf.
  • Teacher Resources - Collection - Alexander Graham Bell Papers, 1862-1939 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC learning.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ George's father, Thomas Sanders, a wealthy businessman, offered Bell a place to stay at nearby Salem with Georgie's grandmother, complete with a room to "experiment."
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Work with the deaf

.Subsequently, his father was invited by Sarah Fuller, principal of the Boston School for Deaf Mutes (which continues today as the public Horace Mann School for the Deaf),[38] in Boston, Massachusetts, United States, to introduce the Visible Speech System by providing training for Fuller's instructors, but he declined the post, in favor of his son.^ Subsequently, his father was invited by Sarah Fuller, principal of the Boston School for Deaf Mutes (which continues today as the Horace Mann School for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing ), [40] in Boston , Massachusetts , United States , to introduce the Visible Speech System by providing training for Fuller's instructors but he declined the post, in favor of his son.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was subsequently asked to repeat the program at the American Asylum for Deaf-mutes in Hartford and the Clarke School for the Deaf in Northampton .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His lecture in Boston, at the Lowell Institute, led the citys school board to open a special day school for the deaf the following year, with Sarah Fuller as principal, to experiment with the new oral techniques of speech instruction.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Traveling to Boston in April 1871, Bell proved successful in training the school's instructors.^ In April 1871 Bell left his parents to teach at Fullers school in Boston.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Travelling to Boston in April 1871, Bell provided a successful inservicing of the school's instructors.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alexander Graham Bell to Alexander Melville Bell, April 15, 1871 Students will discover in the letters that Bell was not as totally committed to Visible Speech as was his father.
  • Teacher Resources - Collection - Alexander Graham Bell Papers, 1862-1939 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC learning.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39] .He was subsequently asked to repeat the program at the American Asylum for Deaf-mutes in Hartford, Connecticut and the Clarke School for the Deaf in Northampton, Massachusetts.^ He was subsequently asked to repeat the program at the American Asylum for Deaf-mutes in Hartford and the Clarke School for the Deaf in Northampton .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Subsequently, his father was invited by Sarah Fuller, principal of the Boston School for Deaf Mutes (which continues today as the Horace Mann School for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing ), [40] in Boston , Massachusetts , United States , to introduce the Visible Speech System by providing training for Fuller's instructors but he declined the post, in favor of his son.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His father helped him set up his private practise by contacting Gardiner Greene Hubbard , the president of the Clarke School for the Deaf for a recommendation.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Returning home to Brantford after six months abroad, Bell continued his experiments with his "harmonic telegraph".[40] The basic concept behind his device was that messages could be sent through a single wire if each message was transmitted at a different pitch, but work on both the transmitter and receiver as needed.^ Continuing his experiments in Brantford, Bell brought a working model of his telephone home.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Returning home to Brantford after six months abroad, Bell continued his experiments with his "harmonic telegraph."
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bell's and Helmholtz's experiments were quite different.
  • Mike Gorman: Bell's Path the the Telephone--Home Page 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.iath.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[41] .Unsure of his future, he first contemplated returning to London to complete his studies, but decided to return to Boston as a teacher.^ Unsure of his future, he first contemplated returning to London to complete his studies but decided to return to Boston as a teacher.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[42] .His father helped him set up his private practice by contacting Gardiner Greene Hubbard, the president of the Clarke School for the Deaf for a recommendation.^ His father helped him set up his private practise by contacting Gardiner Greene Hubbard , the president of the Clarke School for the Deaf for a recommendation.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A prominent patent attorney, Gardiner Greene Hubbard was president of the Clarke Institution.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was subsequently asked to repeat the program at the American Asylum for Deaf-mutes in Hartford and the Clarke School for the Deaf in Northampton .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Teaching his father's system, in October 1872 Alexander Bell opened his "School of Vocal Physiology and Mechanics of Speech" in Boston, which attracted a large number of deaf pupils with his first class numbering 30 students.^ His first class numbered 30 students.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bell had first met his future father-in-law on 8 April 1872.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bell and his father, Alexander Melville Bell were innovators in the field of educating the deaf.
  • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers at the Library of Congress, 1862-1939 - Collection Connections - For Teachers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.lcweb.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43][44] .While he was working as a private tutor, one of his most famous pupils was Helen Keller, who came to him as a young child unable to see, hear, or speak.^ Working as a private tutor, one of his most famous pupils was Helen Keller , who came to him as a young child, unable to see, hear or speak.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is true that Bell, a teacher of the deaf-mute who worked alongside Helen Keller, was experimenting with forms of electro-audio stimulation.

^ In reflection, Bell considered his most famous invention an intrusion on his real work as a scientist and refused to have a telephone in his study.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.She was later to say that Bell dedicated his life to the penetration of that "inhuman silence which separates and estranges."^ She later was to say that Bell dedicated his life to the penetration of that "inhuman silence which separates and estranges."
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gray also had a series of separate transmitters and receivers, and only used a "transceiver" in one of his later attempts to get around Bell's successful patent that included a speaking telegraph.
  • Mike Gorman: Bell's Path the the Telephone--Home Page 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.iath.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Later in life, what request did Keller make of Bell?
  • Teacher Resources - Collection - Alexander Graham Bell Papers, 1862-1939 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC learning.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers at the Library of Congress, 1862-1939 - Collection Connections - For Teachers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.lcweb.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[45]
.Several influential people of the time, including Bell, viewed deafness as something that ought to be eradicated, and also believed that with resources and effort they could teach the deaf to speak and avoid the use of sign language, thus enabling their integration within the wider society from which many were often being excluded.^ Now could you suggest to this committee some amendment to that language by which the present tools, the tools now in use for manufacturing machinery that is now being manufactured, could still continue to be used, and at the same time adopt the metric system as contemplated by this bill?
  • Alexander Graham Bell address to Congress 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lamar.colostate.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, they can search on telephone and construct a time line highlighting Bell’s work, from his first notes on the concept to his first success on March 10, 1876.
  • Teacher Resources - Collection - Alexander Graham Bell Papers, 1862-1939 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC learning.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But, for many poorer families, this would have been the single occasion on which they could justify the expense of a professional photographer.

[46] .However in several schools children were mistreated, for example by having their hands tied behind their backs so they could not communicate by signing —the only language they knew— and were therefore forced to attempt oral communication.^ When I mention this to certain white people they come back with examples of the Crips and the Bloods, alcohol, drug use, guns, and sexism, “How conservative is that?!” they say.
  • David Macaray: I am Blacker Than Rod Blagojevich 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

^ At an early age, however, he was enrolled at the Royal High School , Edinburgh, Scotland, which he left at age 15, completing the first four forms only.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was a leading proponent of the so-called oralist school, which held that the deaf could be taught to speak without the use of manual sign language, then the more widely used method.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Continuing experimentation

.In the following year, Bell became professor of Vocal Physiology and Elocution at the Boston University School of Oratory.^ In the following year, Bell became professor of Vocal Physiology and Elocution at the Boston University School of Oratory.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mabel was a bright, attractive girl who was ten years his junior but became the object of Bell's affection.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bells appointment as professor of vocal physiology and elocution at Boston University in early 1873 meant that he had to relegate his experimental work on the multiple telegraph to the night-time.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During this period, he alternated between Boston and Brantford, spending summers in his Canadian home.^ During this period, he alternated between Boston and Brantford, spending summers in his Canadian home.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Until the end of his life Bell and his family would alternate between the two homes, but Beinn Bhreagh would, over the next 30 years, become more than a summer home as Bell became so absorbed in his experiments that annual stays lengthened.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.At Boston University, Bell was "swept up" by the excitement engendered by the many scientists and inventors residing in the city.^ At Boston University, Bell was "swept up" by the excitement engendered by the many scientists and inventors resident in the city.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alexander Graham Bell ( 3 March 1847 – 2 August 1922 ) was an eminent scientist , inventor and innovator who is credited with the invention of the telephone .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bells appointment as professor of vocal physiology and elocution at Boston University in early 1873 meant that he had to relegate his experimental work on the multiple telegraph to the night-time.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He continued his research in sound and endeavored to find a way to transmit musical notes and articulate speech, but although absorbed by his experiments, he found it difficult to devote enough time to experimentation.^ He continued his research in sound and endeavoured to find a way to transmit musical notes and articulate speech, but although absorbed by his experiments, he found it difficult to devote enough time to experimentation.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Early years 1.1 First invention 1.2 Early work with speech 1.3 Education 1.4 First experiments with sound 1.5 Family tragedy 2 Canada 3 Work with the deaf 4 Continuing experimentation 5 Telephone 5.1 The race to the patent office 5.2 Later developments 5.3 Competitors 6 Family life 7 Later inventions 7.1 Metal detector 7.2 Hydrofoils 7.3 Aeronautics 8 Eugenics 9 Awards, honours and tributes 10 Death 11 References 11.1 Notes 11.2 Bibliography .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I therefore from this time (November, 1873) devoted less time to practical experiment than to the theoretical development of the details of the invention."
  • Mike Gorman: Bell's Path the the Telephone--Home Page 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.iath.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While days and evenings were occupied by his teaching and private classes, Bell began to stay awake late into the night, running experiment after experiment in rented facilities at his boarding house.^ While days and evenings were occupied by his teaching and private classes, Bell began to stay awake late into the night, running experiment after experiment in rented facilities at his boarding house.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As a child, young Aleck Bell displayed a natural curiosity about his world, resulting in gathering botanical specimens as well as experimenting even at an early age.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ George's father, Thomas Sanders, a wealthy businessman, offered Bell a place to stay at nearby Salem with Georgie's grandmother, complete with a room to "experiment."
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Keeping up "night owl" hours, he worried that his work would be discovered and took great pains to lock up his notebooks and laboratory equipment.^ Keeping up " night owl " hours, he worried that his work would be discovered and took great pains to lock up his notebooks and laboratory equipment.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The elder Bell took great efforts to have his young pupil learn to speak clearly and with conviction, the attributes that his pupil would need to become a teacher himself.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The work of translation of the department would thus be limited practically to imports from Great Britain and her colonies.
  • Alexander Graham Bell address to Congress 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC lamar.colostate.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Bell had a specially made table where he could place his notes and equipment inside a locking cover.^ Bell had a specially made table where he could place his notes and equipment inside a locking cover.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Note: In later years, Bell described the invention of the telephone and linked it to his "dreaming place."
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[47] .Worse still, his health deteriorated as he suffered severe headaches.^ Worse still, his health deteriorated as he suffered severe headaches.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[41] .Returning to Boston in fall 1873, Bell made a fateful decision to concentrate on his experiments in sound.^ Returning to Boston in fall 1873, Bell made a fateful decision to concentrate on his experiments in sound.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While working that summer in Brantford, Bell experimented with a "phonautograph," a pen-like machine that could draw shapes of sound waves on smoked glass by tracing their vibrations.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What is clear is that Bell saw his early multiple telegraph experiments as similar to Helmholtz's experiments with vowel sounds--"My knowledge of Helmholtz's apparatus for the artificial production of vowel sounds incited me to experiments of a similar character..."
  • Mike Gorman: Bell's Path the the Telephone--Home Page 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.iath.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Bell speaking into prototype model of the telephone
.Deciding to give up his lucrative private Boston practice, Bell only retained two students, six-year old "Georgie" Sanders, deaf from birth and 15-year old Mabel Hubbard.^ Bell speaking into prototype model of the telephone Deciding to give up his lucrative private Boston practise, Bell only retained two students, six-year old "Georgie" Sanders, deaf from birth and 15-year old Mabel Hubbard.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 11 July 1877 , a few days after the Bell Telephone Company was established, Bell married Mabel Hubbard (1857–1923) at the Hubbard estate in Cambridge , and shortly after, embarked on a year-long honeymoon in Europe.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mabel was a bright, attractive girl who was ten years his junior but became the object of Bell's affection.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Each pupil would serve to play an important role in the next developments.^ Each pupil would serve to play an important role in the next developments.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With this article we would like to reconstruct the little known history 1 of those important proceedings and to highlight the role that the United States Government had in favor of Antonio Meucci.
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

George's father, Thomas Sanders, a wealthy businessman, offered Bell a place to stay at nearby Salem with Georgie's grandmother, complete with a room to "experiment". Although the offer was made by George's mother and followed the year-long arrangement in 1872 where her son and his nurse had moved to quarters next to Bell's boarding house, it was clear that Mr. Sanders was backing the proposal. .The arrangement was for teacher and student to continue their work together with free room and board thrown in.^ The arrangement was for teacher and student to continue their work together with free room and board thrown in.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[48] .Mabel was a bright, attractive girl who was ten years his junior but became the object of Bell's affection.^ Mabel was a bright, attractive girl who was ten years his junior but became the object of Bell's affection.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A year before his marriage, Bell wrote Mabel , "I never suspected that you were one of these people who think women have rights".
  • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers at the Library of Congress, 1862-1939 - Collection Connections - For Teachers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.lcweb.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bell referred to this as an "undulating current", and it became the focus of his successful telephone patent two years later.
  • Mike Gorman: Bell's Path the the Telephone--Home Page 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.iath.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Losing her hearing after a bout of scarlet fever at age five, she had learned to read lips but her father, Gardiner Greene Hubbard, Bell's benefactor and personal friend, wanted her to work directly with her teacher.^ His daughter Mabel had lost her hearing to scarlet fever in 1863 at the age of five.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Losing her hearing after a bout of scarlet fever at age five, she had learned to read lips but her father, Gardiner Greene Hubbard, Bell's benefactor and personal friend, wanted her to work directly with her teacher.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bell was also deeply affected by his mother's gradual deafness (she began to lose her hearing when he was 12) and learned a manual finger language so he could sit at her side and tap out silently the conversations swirling around the family parlour.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[49]

Telephone

.By 1874, Bell's initial work on the harmonic telegraph had entered a formative stage with progress it made both at his new Boston "laboratory" (a rented facility) as well as at his family home in Canada a big success.^ Main article: Invention of the telephone By 1874, Bell's initial work on the harmonic telegraph had entered a formative stage with progress made both at his new Boston "laboratory" (a rented facility) as well as at his family home in Canada.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although the telephone appeared to be an "instant" success, it was not initially a profitable venture and Bell's main sources of income were from lectures until after 1897.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is true that Bell, a teacher of the deaf-mute who worked alongside Helen Keller, was experimenting with forms of electro-audio stimulation.

[50] .While working that summer in Brantford, Bell experimented with a "phonautograph," a pen-like machine that could draw shapes of sound waves on smoked glass by tracing their vibrations.^ While working that summer in Brantford, Bell experimented with a "phonautograph," a pen-like machine that could draw shapes of sound waves on smoked glass by tracing their vibrations.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is true that Bell, a teacher of the deaf-mute who worked alongside Helen Keller, was experimenting with forms of electro-audio stimulation.

^ The phonautograph, invented in France by Leon Scott, could trace a sound from a vibrating membrane onto a piece of smoked glass drawn past its bristle.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bell thought it might be possible to generate undulating electrical currents that corresponded to sound waves.^ Bell thought it might be possible to generate undulating electrical currents that corresponded to sound waves.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This undulating current was Bell's greatest innovation.
  • Mike Gorman: Bell's Path the the Telephone--Home Page 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.iath.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While working that summer in Brantford, Bell experimented with a "phonautograph," a pen-like machine that could draw shapes of sound waves on smoked glass by tracing their vibrations.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[51] .Bell also thought that multiple metal reeds tuned to different frequencies like a harp would be able to convert the undulatory currents back into sound.^ Bell also thought that multiple metal reeds tuned to different frequencies like a harp would be able to convert the undulatory currents back into sound.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The multiple reeds of the harp were not necessary.
  • Mike Gorman: Bell's Path the the Telephone--Home Page 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.iath.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Like the strings of a piano, these reeds would theoretically reproduce any musical tone; like Helmholtz's tuning forks, they could theoretically reproduce vowel sounds as well.
  • Mike Gorman: Bell's Path the the Telephone--Home Page 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.iath.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But he had no working model to demonstrate the feasibility of these ideas.^ But he had no working model to demonstrate the feasibility of these ideas.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Now I’m gonna go get to work finishing these ideas.
  • The Alexander Graham Bell Guide to Changing the World | Copyblogger 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.copyblogger.com [Source type: General]

^ Bell did not have the equipment needed to continue his experiments, nor the ability to create a working model of his ideas.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[52]
.In 1874, telegraph message traffic was rapidly expanding and in the words of Western Union President William Orton, had become "the nervous system of commerce". Orton had contracted with inventors Thomas Edison and Elisha Gray to find a way to send multiple telegraph messages on each telegraph line to avoid the great cost of constructing new lines.^ Orton had contracted with inventors Thomas Edison and Elisha Gray to find a way to send multiple telegraph messages on each telegraph line to avoid the great cost of constructing new lines.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1874, telegraph message traffic was rapidly expanding and in the words of Western Union President William Orton, had become "the nervous system of commerce."
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When however they saw the "Autograph Telegraph" developed from the multiple telegraph --they at once said that was a good proof of independent invention as Gray had no such idea.
  • Mike Gorman: Bell's Path the the Telephone--Home Page 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.iath.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[53] .When Bell mentioned to Gardiner Hubbard and Thomas Sanders that he was working on a method of sending multiple tones on a telegraph wire using a multi-reed device, the two wealthy patrons began to financially support Bell's experiments.^ It is true that Bell, a teacher of the deaf-mute who worked alongside Helen Keller, was experimenting with forms of electro-audio stimulation.

^ A few days earlier he and Thomas Sanders, a leather merchant and father of one of Bells students, had signed an agreement with Bell to share equally in the profits from any of his telegraphic inventions in return for their financial support.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On February 21, 1876, Bell made a statement and a sketch of the mental model that represented the synthesis of the phonautograph and his multiple telegraph experiments.
  • Mike Gorman: Bell's Path the the Telephone--Home Page 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.iath.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[54] .Patent matters would be handled by Hubbard's patent attorney, Anthony Pollok.^ Patent matters would be handled by Hubbard's patent attorney Anthony Pollok.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A prominent patent attorney, Gardiner Greene Hubbard was president of the Clarke Institution.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hubbard, who was paying for the costs of Bell's patents, told his patent lawyer Anthony Pollok to file Bell's application in the U.S. Patent Office.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[55]
.In March 1875, Bell and Pollok visited the famous scientist Joseph Henry, who was then director of the Smithsonian Institution, and asked Henry's advice on the electrical multi-reed apparatus that Bell hoped would transmit the human voice by telegraph.^ On 1 March he reported his findings to Joseph Henry, then head of the Smithsonian Institution in Washington.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In March 1875, Bell and Pollok visited the famous scientist Joseph Henry , who was then director of the Smithsonian Institution , and asked Henry's advice on the electrical multi-reed apparatus that Bell hoped would transmit the human voice by telegraph.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bell attached this mechanical representation to the autograph telegraph, in part, to avoid an interference with Gray; as he said in a letter to his mother and father, March 5th, 1875: My lawyers were at first doubtful whether the examiners would declare an interference between me and Gray as Gray's apparatus had been there for so long a time.
  • Mike Gorman: Bell's Path the the Telephone--Home Page 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.iath.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Henry replied that Bell had "the germ of a great invention". When Bell said that he did not have the necessary knowledge, Henry replied, "Get it!"^ Henry replied that Bell had "the germ of a great invention".
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You have the germ of a great invention, Henry replied when Bell outlined his vision for a working telephone.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When Bell said that he did not have the necessary knowledge, Henry replied, "Get it!"
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.That declaration greatly encouraged Bell to keep trying, even though he did not have the equipment needed to continue his experiments, nor the ability to create a working model of his ideas.^ Even when you tried to get them to join in a half-friendly group assault on another’s work habits, they’d avoid doing it….for whatever reason.
  • David Macaray: I am Blacker Than Rod Blagojevich 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC counterpunch.org [Source type: General]

^ It is true that Bell, a teacher of the deaf-mute who worked alongside Helen Keller, was experimenting with forms of electro-audio stimulation.

^ The result, in Bell's case, was a new mental model for the transmission of musical tones, vowel sounds, or even speech.
  • Mike Gorman: Bell's Path the the Telephone--Home Page 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.iath.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, a chance meeting in 1874 between Bell and Thomas A. Watson, an experienced electrical designer and mechanic at the electrical machine shop of Charles Williams, changed all that.^ A chance meeting in 1874 between Bell and Thomas A. Watson , an experienced electrical designer and mechanic at the electrical machine shop of Charles Williams , changed all that.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, if you want a chip to do something new, all you have to do is change its software, which is easy, fast and dirt-cheap.
  • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Frustrated at the delay in getting a multiple telegraph, Hubbard delivered Bell a stark ultimatum that spring: Bell had to choose between Mabel and his work on the electrical transmission of speech.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With financial support from Sanders and Hubbard, Bell was able to hire Thomas Watson as his assistant and the two of them experimented with acoustic telegraphy.^ With financial support from Sanders and Hubbard, Bell was able to hire Thomas Watson as his assistant and Bell and Watson experimented with acoustic telegraphy .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When Bell mentioned to Gardiner Hubbard and Thomas Sanders that he was working on a method of sending multiple tones on a telegraph wire using a multi-reed device, the two wealthy patrons began to financially support Bell's experiments.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ George's father, Thomas Sanders, a wealthy businessman, offered Bell a place to stay at nearby Salem with Georgie's grandmother, complete with a room to "experiment."
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On 2 June 1875, Watson accidentally plucked one of the reeds and Bell, at the receiving end of the wire, heard the overtones of the reed; overtones that would be necessary for transmitting speech.^ Instantaneously, Bell heard the twang of a vibrating reed in his receiver.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He heard the sound of Watsons reed.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Recognizing the significance of this phenomenon, an astounded Bell put his ear over one of his reeds.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.That demonstrated to Bell that only one reed or armature was necessary, not multiple reeds.^ The multiple reeds of the harp were not necessary.
  • Mike Gorman: Bell's Path the the Telephone--Home Page 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.iath.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gray also had a series of separate transmitters and receivers, and only used a "transceiver" in one of his later attempts to get around Bell's successful patent that included a speaking telegraph.
  • Mike Gorman: Bell's Path the the Telephone--Home Page 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.iath.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ When Bell depressed the telegraph key corresponding to one of the reeds at A, the corresponding reed at B vibrated well, but Watson, who was in another room with C, said it was stuck.
  • Mike Gorman: Bell's Path the the Telephone--Home Page 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.iath.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This led to the "gallows" sound-powered telephone, which was able to transmit indistinct, voice-like sounds, but not clear speech.^ Consequently, telephone operators are considerably less machine-like nowadays, and have been known to have accents and actual character in their voices.
  • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Telephones at a central source would transmit music, Sunday sermons, and important public speeches to a paying network of wired-up subscribers.
  • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Instead, the telephone was about speech -- individual, personal speech, the human voice, human conversation and human interaction.
  • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

The race to the patent office

.In 1875, Bell developed an acoustic telegraph and drew up a patent application for it.^ Back Bell filed an application for this patent on March 6, 1875.
  • Mike Gorman: Bell's Path the the Telephone--Home Page 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.iath.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The value of the Bell patent was acknowledged throughout the world, and when Bell had delayed the German patent application, the electrical firm of Siemens & Halske (S&H) managed to set up a rival manufacturer of Bell telephones under their own patent.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gray also had a series of separate transmitters and receivers, and only used a "transceiver" in one of his later attempts to get around Bell's successful patent that included a speaking telegraph.
  • Mike Gorman: Bell's Path the the Telephone--Home Page 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.iath.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Since he had agreed to share U.S. profits with his investors Gardiner Hubbard and Thomas Sanders, Bell requested that an associate in Ontario, George Brown, attempt to patent it in Britain, instructing his lawyers to apply for a patent in the U.S. only after they received word from Britain (Britain would issue patents only for discoveries not previously patented elsewhere).^ However, Hubbard and his daughter insisted and Bell agreed to display the telephone.
  • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers at the Library of Congress, 1862-1939 - Collection Connections - For Teachers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.lcweb.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fortunately for Bell, Hubbard, who had grown impatient waiting for Browns confirmation of the British filing, submitted the United States patent application on 14 February.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bells determination on both counts, Western Unions rejection of his multiple telegraph (because of Hubbards involvement), and important discoveries in telephony all contributed to winning Hubbard over.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[56]
.Meanwhile, Elisha Gray was also experimenting with acoustic telegraphy and thought of a way to transmit speech using a water transmitter.^ Search on visible speech to read the Bells' thoughts on this method of instruction and the evolving interest in and use of this technique.
  • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers at the Library of Congress, 1862-1939 - Collection Connections - For Teachers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.lcweb.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gray also had a series of separate transmitters and receivers, and only used a "transceiver" in one of his later attempts to get around Bell's successful patent that included a speaking telegraph.
  • Mike Gorman: Bell's Path the the Telephone--Home Page 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.iath.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And then there was Elisha Gray, Bells most famous rival, who, allied with Western Union, began experimenting with the telegraphing of tones in 1866.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On February 14, 1876, Gray filed a caveat with the U.S. Patent Office for a telephone design that used a water transmitter.^ On 14 February 1876 , Gray filed a caveat with the U.S. patent office for a telephone design that used a water transmitter.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 14 February 1876 , Bell was in Boston.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact in a letter from Bell to Gray, Bell admitted that he had learned several technical details about the telephone transmitter from patent examiner Zenas Fisk Wilber.
  • The Alexander Graham Bell Guide to Changing the World | Copyblogger 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.copyblogger.com [Source type: General]

.That same morning, Bell's lawyer filed Bell's application with the patent office.^ Back Bell filed an application for this patent on March 6, 1875.
  • Mike Gorman: Bell's Path the the Telephone--Home Page 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.iath.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ That same morning, Bell's lawyer filed an application with the patent office for the telephone.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fortunately for Bell, Hubbard, who had grown impatient waiting for Browns confirmation of the British filing, submitted the United States patent application on 14 February.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is considerable debate about who arrived first and Gray later challenged the primacy of Bell's patent.^ There is a debate about who arrived first and Gray later challenged the primacy of Bell's patent.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact in a letter from Bell to Gray, Bell admitted that he had learned several technical details about the telephone transmitter from patent examiner Zenas Fisk Wilber.
  • The Alexander Graham Bell Guide to Changing the World | Copyblogger 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.copyblogger.com [Source type: General]

^ Bells parents sold their Brantford home in April 1881 its name was later changed to Tutela Heights and moved to Georgetown (Washington) to be closer to Aleck, Mabel, and their first daughter, Elsie May, who had begun wintering in Washington in 1879 and took up permanent residence there in 1882.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Bell was in Boston on February 14, 1876.
.Bell's patent 174,465, was issued to Bell on March 7, 1876, by the U.S. Patent Office.^ Back Bell's sucessful patent was number 174,465.
  • Mike Gorman: Bell's Path the the Telephone--Home Page 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.iath.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For example, they can search on telephone and construct a time line highlighting Bell’s work, from his first notes on the concept to his first success on March 10, 1876.
  • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers at the Library of Congress, 1862-1939 - Collection Connections - For Teachers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.lcweb.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He arrived at the patent office a full two hours before Bell , and eventually filed a lawsuit claiming Bell stole the idea, but it never went anywhere.
  • The Alexander Graham Bell Guide to Changing the World | Copyblogger 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.copyblogger.com [Source type: General]

.Bell's patent covered "the method of, and apparatus for, transmitting vocal or other sounds telegraphically ...^ On December 4 th , 1883, Meucci signed another deed of transfer to the same Syndicate for his patent application " Marine Telegraph", filed on 8 July 1880 ([13], Part 1, p.70) and a (ready to be made) patent application "Method of and apparatus for transmitting sound telegraphically" derived from his caveat "Sound telegraph" 5 .
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I also look for it as a means of transmitting messages in times of war, when telegraph lines are down and the country is desolated, and where other electric forms would fall."
  • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers at the Library of Congress, 1862-1939 - Collection Connections - For Teachers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.lcweb.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What is clear is that Bell saw his early multiple telegraph experiments as similar to Helmholtz's experiments with vowel sounds--"My knowledge of Helmholtz's apparatus for the artificial production of vowel sounds incited me to experiments of a similar character..."
  • Mike Gorman: Bell's Path the the Telephone--Home Page 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.iath.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

by causing electrical undulations, similar in form to the vibrations of the air accompanying the said vocal or other sound"[57]
.Bell returned to Boston the same day and the next day resumed work, drawing in his notebook a diagram similar to that in Gray's patent caveat.^ In fact in a letter from Bell to Gray, Bell admitted that he had learned several technical details about the telephone transmitter from patent examiner Zenas Fisk Wilber.
  • The Alexander Graham Bell Guide to Changing the World | Copyblogger 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.copyblogger.com [Source type: General]

^ Gray also had a series of separate transmitters and receivers, and only used a "transceiver" in one of his later attempts to get around Bell's successful patent that included a speaking telegraph.
  • Mike Gorman: Bell's Path the the Telephone--Home Page 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.iath.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bells appointment as professor of vocal physiology and elocution at Boston University in early 1873 meant that he had to relegate his experimental work on the multiple telegraph to the night-time.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On March 10, 1876, three days after his patent was issued, Bell succeeded in getting his telephone to work, using a liquid transmitter similar to Gray's design.^ In fact in a letter from Bell to Gray, Bell admitted that he had learned several technical details about the telephone transmitter from patent examiner Zenas Fisk Wilber.
  • The Alexander Graham Bell Guide to Changing the World | Copyblogger 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.copyblogger.com [Source type: General]

^ For example, they can search on telephone and construct a time line highlighting Bell’s work, from his first notes on the concept to his first success on March 10, 1876.
  • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers at the Library of Congress, 1862-1939 - Collection Connections - For Teachers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.lcweb.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the telephone began to flourish, Bell was soon involved in violent lawsuits in the defense of his patents.
  • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Vibration of the diaphragm caused a needle to vibrate in the water, varying the electrical resistance in the circuit.^ A beam of sunlight was reflected onto the cell from a voice-vibrated mirror; the vibrations varyed the beams intensity and the cells resistance and made its current undulating.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If this is so, a continuous current of electricity passed through a vibrating wire should meet with a varying resistance, and hence a pulsatory action should be induced in the current.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In France, Charles Bourseul reported in 1854 that flexible plates would vibrate in sympathy with varying air pressures, which could be used to make the plates open or close an electric circuit.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When Bell spoke the famous sentence "Mr Watson—Come here—I want to see you" into the liquid transmitter,[58] Watson, listening at the receiving end in an adjoining room, heard the words clearly.^ The liquid experiments led to the famous "Watson--come here--I want you" result obtained on March 10th.
  • Mike Gorman: Bell's Path the the Telephone--Home Page 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.iath.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the 10th Bell transmitted the first intelligible sentence: Mr. Watson - Come here - I want to see you.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nice to see you here, Nate.
  • The Alexander Graham Bell Guide to Changing the World | Copyblogger 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.copyblogger.com [Source type: General]

[59]
.Although Bell was accused, and is still accused, of stealing the telephone from Gray,[60] Bell used Gray's water transmitter design only after Bell's patent was granted and only as a proof of concept scientific experiment[61] to prove to his own satisfaction that intelligible "articulate speech" (Bell's words) could be electrically transmitted.^ We are used to using telephones for individual person-to-person speech, because we are used to the Bell system.
  • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Bell's telephone transmitted its first intelligible complete sentence .
  • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Johann Philipp Reis conceived, in 1861, a make-and-break transmitter and a magnetostriction receiver, with which he could transmit musical tones and, with some difficulty, the vowels of the human speech.
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[62] .After March 1876, Bell focused on improving the electromagnetic telephone and never used Gray's liquid transmitter in public demonstrations or commercial use.^ In fact in a letter from Bell to Gray, Bell admitted that he had learned several technical details about the telephone transmitter from patent examiner Zenas Fisk Wilber.
  • The Alexander Graham Bell Guide to Changing the World | Copyblogger 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.copyblogger.com [Source type: General]

^ He organized the first public demonstration of a telephone in Canada on 29 August; the first telephone lease in Canada, signed on 18 October, connected Bakers home to those of two colleagues.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This, it is claimed, was used by the telegraph company, and was the basis of the contract between the Western Union Telegraph Company and the Bell Telephone Company, dated November 10, 1879.
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[63]
.The patent examiner, Zenas Fisk Wilber, later stated in a sworn affidavit[citation needed]that he was an alcoholic who was much in debt to Bell's lawyer, Marcellus Bailey, with whom he had served in the Civil War.^ Humphreys also read a sensational affidavit [71], sworn by Major Zenas Fisk Wilber 12 , former Chief Examiner of the Patent Office, only a month before the beginning of the hearings.
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If so, why does Bell state his mental model a year later?
  • Mike Gorman: Bell's Path the the Telephone--Home Page 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.iath.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fortunately for Bell, Hubbard, who had grown impatient waiting for Browns confirmation of the British filing, submitted the United States patent application on 14 February.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

He claimed he showed Gray's patent caveat to Bailey. .Wilber also claimed (after Bell arrived in Washington D.C. from Boston) that he showed Gray's caveat to Bell and that Bell paid him $100. Bell claimed they discussed the patent only in general terms, although in a letter to Gray, Bell admitted that he learned some of the technical details.^ In fact in a letter from Bell to Gray, Bell admitted that he had learned several technical details about the telephone transmitter from patent examiner Zenas Fisk Wilber.
  • The Alexander Graham Bell Guide to Changing the World | Copyblogger 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.copyblogger.com [Source type: General]

^ Ironcially, he sent details to The Western Union company who claimed the material had been lost - only then to sign a deal with Bell when he patented his own machine in 1876.

^ He arrived at the patent office a full two hours before Bell , and eventually filed a lawsuit claiming Bell stole the idea, but it never went anywhere.
  • The Alexander Graham Bell Guide to Changing the World | Copyblogger 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.copyblogger.com [Source type: General]

.Bell denied in a sworn affidavit that he ever gave Wilber any money.^ In his affidavit, Wilber denounced the irregularities committed by the Patent Office in favor of A.G. Bell, stating in particular: .
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Later developments

.Continuing his experiments in Brantford, Bell brought home a working model of his telephone.^ It is true that Bell, a teacher of the deaf-mute who worked alongside Helen Keller, was experimenting with forms of electro-audio stimulation.

^ Mabel Bell is credited with proposing that the five men create a formal organization, the Aerial Experiment Association, to finance their work and share in any patent profits.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to a growing body of research, Innocenzo Manzetti created the first working telephone in 1864, more than a full decade before Bell.
  • The Alexander Graham Bell Guide to Changing the World | Copyblogger 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.copyblogger.com [Source type: General]

.On August 3, 1876, from the telegraph office in Mount Pleasant five miles (8 km) away from Brantford, Bell sent a tentative telegram indicating that he was ready.^ In early October, Bell returned to Brantford with the idea of offering the rights to Sir Hugh Allan*, the powerful financier who ran the Montreal Telegraph Company.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ironcially, he sent details to The Western Union company who claimed the material had been lost - only then to sign a deal with Bell when he patented his own machine in 1876.

^ In 1876, the United States had 214,000 miles of telegraph wire, and 8500 telegraph offices.
  • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

With curious onlookers packed into the office as witnesses, faint voices were heard replying. .The following night, he amazed guests as well as his family when a message was received at the Bell home from Brantford, four miles (six km) distant along an improvised wire strung up along telegraph lines and fences, and laid through a tunnel.^ His tests culminated in an eight-mile-long trial between Brantford and Paris on the 10th, when listeners in Robert Whites boot and shoe store heard voices, music, and singing come in over the wire from the Bell home.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In early October, Bell returned to Brantford with the idea of offering the rights to Sir Hugh Allan*, the powerful financier who ran the Montreal Telegraph Company.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gray also had a series of separate transmitters and receivers, and only used a "transceiver" in one of his later attempts to get around Bell's successful patent that included a speaking telegraph.
  • Mike Gorman: Bell's Path the the Telephone--Home Page 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.iath.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This time, guests at the household distinctly heard people in Brantford reading and singing. .These experiments clearly proved that the telephone could work over long distances.^ They are amazed that the American telephone system still works at all, under these strange conditions.
  • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ PART ONE: Crashing the System On January 15, 1990, AT&T's long-distance telephone switching system crashed.
  • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Again, Bell had conducted experiments with such an arrangement, verifying that it could produce an undulatory current; he would later develop this mechanical representation into a telephone receiver.
  • Mike Gorman: Bell's Path the the Telephone--Home Page 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.iath.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[64]
.Bell and his partners, Hubbard and Sanders, offered to sell the patent outright to Western Union for $100,000. The president of Western Union balked, countering that the telephone was nothing but a toy.^ Fortunately for Bell, Hubbard, who had grown impatient waiting for Browns confirmation of the British filing, submitted the United States patent application on 14 February.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bells determination on both counts, Western Unions rejection of his multiple telegraph (because of Hubbards involvement), and important discoveries in telephony all contributed to winning Hubbard over.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ironcially, he sent details to The Western Union company who claimed the material had been lost - only then to sign a deal with Bell when he patented his own machine in 1876.

.Two years later, he told colleagues that if he could get the patent for $25 million he would consider it a bargain.^ Two years later, he told colleagues that if he could get the patent for $25 million he would consider it a bargain.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 1889, a large house, christened "The Lodge" was completed and two years later, a larger complex of buildings were begun that the Bells would name Beinn Bhreagh (Gaelic: beautiful mountain ) after Alec's ancestral Scottish highlands.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Retail sales reached $18 million within two years, and the trademark was sold in 2000 to Faulding Pharmaceuticals in Australia.
  • Bell Holdings Inc. , Venture Capital Fund: Robert Bell, Angel Investor 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.fundingpost.com [Source type: News]

.By then, the Bell company no longer wanted to sell the patent.^ Lamar, that "a suit is pending under the Bell patents in New York against Meucci and the Globe company" [118].
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bell eventually patented the general principle of using rotating magnets to induce a continuous current in a closed circuit; see A. G. Bell, "Generating Electric Currents," U.S. Patent No.
  • Mike Gorman: Bell's Path the the Telephone--Home Page 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.iath.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Petition of The Globe Telephone Company, of New York , dated 29 September 1885, to annul A. G. Bell's patents etc., Loc.
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[65] .Bell's investors would become millionaires while he fared well from residuals and at one point had assets of nearly one million dollars.^ When Bell depressed the telegraph key corresponding to one of the reeds at A, the corresponding reed at B vibrated well, but Watson, who was in another room with C, said it was stuck.
  • Mike Gorman: Bell's Path the the Telephone--Home Page 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.iath.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact, on January 31 st , 1884, the Globe Telephone Company of Baltimore was established with a capital of one million dollars.
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We would like to remind that representatives of American Bell, during a meeting with members of the Syndicate, hinted at an estimate for Meucci's invention of about one million dollars (affidavit of Robert R. Dearden, drawn up on the end of the affidavit [47] of Mr. Goodwin).
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[66]
.Bell began a series of public demonstrations and lectures in order to introduce the new invention to the scientific community as well as the general public.^ On its part, American Bell began to prepare itself for the inevitable confrontation with the Government and the new opponents.
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In particular, there were well founded suspicions [8,86,87,88] that it was reached in part to prevent Antonio Meucci's invention from becoming public.
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beinn Bhreagh, as well as Washington, became a centre for Bells scientific studies, which turned time and again to deafness.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Only one day after, his demonstration of an early telephone prototype at the 1876 Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia made the telephone the featured headline worldwide.^ Still in 1976, the Smithsonian Institution's publication [117], celebrating the Centennial of the invention of the telephone, featured only eight portraits, chosen among the many dozens of known inventors in the telegraph and telephone fields: one of them was that of Antonio Meucci.
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bell took a booth at the Philadelphia Centennial International Exhibition, at the urging of Mabel, now his fiance, and on 25 June 1876 he demonstrated a working version of his telephone.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Within days Watson had made primitive telephone sets using membrane diaphragms and undulatory currents.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[67] .Influential visitors to the exhibition included Emperor Pedro II of Brazil, and later Bell had the opportunity to demonstrate the invention personally to William Thomson, a renowned Scottish scientist and even Queen Victoria who had requested a private audience at Osborne House, her Isle of Wight home; she called the demonstration "most extraordinary". The enthusiasm surrounding Bell's public displays laid the groundwork for universal acceptance of the revolutionary device.^ Pedro II, emperor of Brazil .
  • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Kelvin, William Thomson, Baron For additional material see Containers 81-83, Biography of Alexander Graham Bell .
  • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ He organized the first public demonstration of a telephone in Canada on 29 August; the first telephone lease in Canada, signed on 18 October, connected Bakers home to those of two colleagues.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[68]
.The Bell Telephone Company was created in 1877, and by 1886, over 150,000 people in the U.S. owned telephones.^ For this reason, on June 8, 1886, American Bell sued the Meucci Telephone Company in New Jersey.
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At one point, Vail's AT&T bought Western Union itself, the very company that had derided Bell's telephone as a "toy."
  • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ But the new Bell holding company, American Telephone and Telegraph or AT&T, put in a new man at the helm, a visionary industrialist named Theodore Vail.
  • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Bell company engineers made numerous other improvements to the telephone, which emerged as one of the most successful products ever.^ Bell company engineers made numerous other improvements to the telephone which developed into one of the most successful products.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In reflection, Bell considered his most famous invention an intrusion on his real work as a scientist and refused to have a telephone in his study.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have been in the product business, had a very successful product that grew very fast, and there are numerous companies that have tried to knock it off, but have been stopped because of the patent protection that we were able to get.
  • The Alexander Graham Bell Guide to Changing the World | Copyblogger 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.copyblogger.com [Source type: General]

.In 1879, the Bell company acquired Edison's patents for the carbon microphone from Western Union.^ Bells determination on both counts, Western Unions rejection of his multiple telegraph (because of Hubbards involvement), and important discoveries in telephony all contributed to winning Hubbard over.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lamar, that "a suit is pending under the Bell patents in New York against Meucci and the Globe company" [118].
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This, it is claimed, was used by the telegraph company, and was the basis of the contract between the Western Union Telegraph Company and the Bell Telephone Company, dated November 10, 1879.
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This made the telephone practical for long distances and it was no longer necessary to shout to be heard at the receiving telephone.^ And the telegram had a much longer distance-range than Bell's early telephone.
  • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Bell returned to Canada later that summer and made the worlds first long-distance telephone call on 3 August, from Wallace Elliss general store in Mount Pleasant to Tutelo Heights, four miles away.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ PART ONE: Crashing the System On January 15, 1990, AT&T's long-distance telephone switching system crashed.
  • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

.On January 25, 1915, Bell made the first transcontinental telephone call.^ Bell's stage telephone seemed bizarre at first.
  • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ According to a growing body of research, Innocenzo Manzetti created the first working telephone in 1864, more than a full decade before Bell.
  • The Alexander Graham Bell Guide to Changing the World | Copyblogger 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.copyblogger.com [Source type: General]

^ Within the very first year of operation, 1878, Bell's company learned a sharp lesson about combining teenage boys and telephone switchboards.
  • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Calling from 15 Day Street in New York City, Bell was heard by Thomas Watson at 333 Grant Avenue in San Francisco.^ On 25 January 1915 , Alexander Graham Bell sent the first transcontinental telephone call, at 15 Day Street in New York City , which was received by Thomas Watson at 333 Grant Avenue in San Francisco .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Lamar, that "a suit is pending under the Bell patents in New York against Meucci and the Globe company" [118].
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After landing at Quebec City, the Bells boarded a train to Montreal and later to Paris, Ontario to stay with the Reverend Thomas Henderson, a family friend.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The New York Times reported:
.
On October 9, 1876, Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas A. Watson talked by telephone to each other over a two-mile wire stretched between Cambridge and Boston.^ On 14 February 1876 , Bell was in Boston.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The New York Times reported: "On October 9, 1876, Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas A. Watson talked by telephone to each other over a two-mile wire stretched between Cambridge and Boston.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alexander Graham Bell 1979, p.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

It was the first wire conversation ever held. .Yesterday afternoon [on January 25, 1915] the same two men talked by telephone to each other over a 3,400-mile wire between New York and San Francisco.^ Subscriber List of the Meucci Telephone Company of New Jersey, as of 1 August 1886 (Courtesy of AT&T Archives, Warren, NJ) The injunction was requested on April 20, 1886, in the Bell/Globe trial in New York, alleging ties between the two companies.
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bell delivered his specifications to him in New York City on 25 Jan.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The following year Bell drew in two other men whose expertise was crucial in moving the group toward powered flight.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Dr. Bell, the veteran inventor of the telephone, was in New York, and Mr. Watson, his former associate, was on the other side of the continent. They heard each other much more distinctly than they did in their first talk thirty-eight years ago.
[69]

Competitors

.As is sometimes common in scientific discoveries, simultaneous developments can occur, as evidenced by a number of inventors who were at work on the telephone.^ This is not, as the Reader will see, a scientific article nor does it have any legal pretense, but it will illustrate how all the people involved had perceived the importance of the discovery of the telephone and the role that Meucci had in it.
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the time, a young electrical engineer who worked for American Bell of New York, reported that in that city "there was an old Italian who could furnish conclusive evidence that he was the original inventor of the telephone".
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[3] .Over a period of 18 years, the Bell Telephone Company faced over 600 lawsuits posing legal challenges concerning the rights to the telephone, but none was successful in establishing priority over the original Bell patent[70][71] and the Bell Telephone Company never lost a case that had proceeded to a final trial stage.^ In the eighteen years of Bell's patents, the Bell company was involved in six hundred separate lawsuits.
  • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This lawsuit was aiming at invalidating the two original patents [2,3] of A. G. Bell on the telephone.
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This letter established Bells priority in conceiving variable resistance, the final key to the telephone.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[70] Bell's laboratory notes and family letters were the key to establishing a long lineage to his experiments.[70] .The Bell company lawyers successfully fought off myriad lawsuits generated initially around the challenges by Elisha Gray and Amos Dolbear.^ In the eighteen years of Bell's patents, the Bell company was involved in six hundred separate lawsuits.
  • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ And then there was Elisha Gray, Bells most famous rival, who, allied with Western Union, began experimenting with the telegraphing of tones in 1866.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Evening Post of November 10 [100] reported that the parties in the lawsuit were three: American Bell, a group of companies "which base their claims in considerable measure upon the patents of Reis and Meucci", and an "unknown interest which is represented by Professor Elisha Gray".
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In personal correspondence to Bell, both Gray and Dolbear had acknowledged his prior work, which considerably weakened their later claims.^ Correspondence to and from persons other than Alexander Graham Bell .
  • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Bell believed that both cities could rightly claim a critical share in its development, and he addressed the question on numerous occasions.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It’s generally accepted however that Alexander Graham Bell bribed/convinced someone in the patent office to date his patent application prior to Elisha Gray.
  • The Alexander Graham Bell Guide to Changing the World | Copyblogger 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.copyblogger.com [Source type: General]

[72]
.On 13 January 1887, the United States Government moved to annul the patent issued to Bell on the grounds of fraud and misrepresentation.^ Fortunately for Bell, Hubbard, who had grown impatient waiting for Browns confirmation of the British filing, submitted the United States patent application on 14 February.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Solicitor General, John Goode, assisted by a staff of lawyers, was representing the Government of the United States [91].
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With this article we would like to reconstruct the little known history 1 of those important proceedings and to highlight the role that the United States Government had in favor of Antonio Meucci.
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.After a series of decisions and reversals, the Bell company won a decision in the Supreme Court, though a couple of the original claims from the lower court cases were left undecided.^ The Bell company decisively won the landmark case.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The strain on Bell by his constant appearances in court necessitated by the legal battles, eventually resulted in his resignation from the company.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The lawyers for American Bell raised an objection concerning the Court jurisdiction and asked for a motion which was granted on December 7, 1886, obtaining at the same time that the case be closed.
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[73][74] .By the time that the trial wound its way through nine years of legal battles, the U.S. prosecuting attorney had died and the two Bell patents (No.^ The strain on Bell by his constant appearances in court necessitated by the legal battles, eventually resulted in his resignation from the company.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Two years later, he told colleagues that if he could get the patent for $25 million he would consider it a bargain.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I remeber seeing that fight and was shocked at the time, straight left through the middle every time, barreara could not get out of the way of it.
  • Boxing News - Comments on The WBA orders Khan vs. Maidana – News 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.boxingnews24.com [Source type: Original source]

174,465 and dated 7 March 1876 and No. .186,787 dated January 30, 1877) were no longer in effect, although the presiding judges agreed to continue the proceedings due to the case's importance as a "precedent." With a change in administration and charges of conflict of interest (on both sides) arising from the original trial, the U.S. Attorney General dropped the law suit on 30 November 1897 leaving several issues undecided on the merits.^ January 1877, granted 30 January 1877 .
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Whitman replied that in any case a sentence would have provided a reference point for issues of fundamental importance for the Country and continued to go ahead with the Government action.
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So, in the end, there were neither winner nor losers: the only ones who had gained from this long and complex trial were the lawyers from both sides who charged their clients stratospheric fees.
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[75]
.During a deposition filed for the 1887 trial, Italian inventor Antonio Meucci also claimed to have created the first working model of a telephone in Italy in 1834. In 1886, in the first of three cases in which he was involved, Meucci took the stand as a witness in the hopes of establishing his invention's priority.^ Antonio Meucci at the time of the trial.
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The proceedings contain a large and authoritative body of evidence in the case for the priority of Antonio Meucci's invention of the telephone.
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Still in 1976, the Smithsonian Institution's publication [117], celebrating the Centennial of the invention of the telephone, featured only eight portraits, chosen among the many dozens of known inventors in the telegraph and telephone fields: one of them was that of Antonio Meucci.
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Meucci's evidence in this case was disputed due to a lack of material evidence for his inventions as his working models were purportedly lost at the laboratory of American District Telegraph (ADT) of New York, which later, in 1901, was incorporated as a subsidiary of Western Union.^ Meucci lost his case due to lack of material evidence of his inventions.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The settlement provided for the division of the market between the two companies: the telephone market for American Bell and the telegraph market for Western Union, plus the official acknowledgment by Western Union of A.G. Bell's priority in the invention of the telephone.
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Meucci's working models were reportedly lost by exactly the same Western Union affiliate laboratory where Bell conducted his experiments, later being granted the patent [1] .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[76][77] .Meucci's work, like many other inventors of the period, was based on earlier acoustic principles and despite evidence of earlier experiments, the final case involving Meucci was eventually dropped upon Meucci's death.^ Furthermore, since the beginning of 1879, Meucci gathered as many affidavits as possible for his case, drawing up 24 of them between January and July 1880.
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is also evidence that as early as 1849, Antonio Meucci began experiments with electricity, with reference to the invention of a speaking telephone […] .
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ After many other legal squabbles, finally, on December 6, 1889, the depositions began.
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[78] .However, due to the efforts of Congressman Vito Fossella, the U.S. House of Representatives on 11 June 2002 stated that Meucci's "work in the invention of the telephone should be acknowledged", even though this did not put an end to a still contentious issue.^ US Congress on 11 June 2002.
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, due to the efforts of Congressman Vito Fossella , Resolution 269 the U.S. House of Representatives on 11 June 2002 stated that Meucci's "work in the invention of the telephone should be acknowledged," even though this did not put an end to a still contentious issue.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Still in 1976, the Smithsonian Institution's publication [117], celebrating the Centennial of the invention of the telephone, featured only eight portraits, chosen among the many dozens of known inventors in the telegraph and telephone fields: one of them was that of Antonio Meucci.
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[79][80][81] .Some modern scholars do not agree with the claims that Bell's work on the telephone was influenced by Meucci's inventions.^ The article continues with a detailed description of 18 affidavits, among those mentioned previously in support to Meucci's priority in the invention of the telephone, and concludes .
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jenks, only Philipp Reis and Antonio Meucci were mentioned as the inventors of the telephone that preceded Bell.
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another quite similar article, titled "The Telephone Claimed by Meucci," referring to the same exhibit, was published shortly afterward in the prestigious Scientific American [38].
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[82]
.The value of the Bell patent was acknowledged throughout the world, and patent applications were made in most major countries, but when Bell had delayed the German patent application, the electrical firm of Siemens & Halske (S&H) managed to set up a rival manufacturer of Bell telephones under their own patent.^ The value of the Bell patent was acknowledged throughout the world, and when Bell had delayed the German patent application, the electrical firm of Siemens & Halske (S&H) managed to set up a rival manufacturer of Bell telephones under their own patent.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In fact in a letter from Bell to Gray, Bell admitted that he had learned several technical details about the telephone transmitter from patent examiner Zenas Fisk Wilber.
  • The Alexander Graham Bell Guide to Changing the World | Copyblogger 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.copyblogger.com [Source type: General]

^ These managed to have a resolution passed, on February 26, 1886, to establish a federal investigation committee, made up of nine members, with the purpose "to investigate charges against certain public officers 14 relating to the Pan-Electric Telephone Company and to suits by the United States to annul the Bell telephone patents."
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Siemens company produced near-identical copies of the Bell telephone without having to pay royalties.^ The Siemens company produced near-identical copies of the Bell telephone without paying royalties.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bell company engineers made numerous other improvements to the telephone which developed into one of the most successful products.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Within the very first year of operation, 1878, Bell's company learned a sharp lesson about combining teenage boys and telephone switchboards.
  • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

[83] .A series of agreements in other countries eventually consolidated a global telephone operation.^ Similar measures were later adopted in other European Countries with the goal of gradually limiting the monopoly status of the national telephone companies in each particular Country.
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Telephone people from other countries are amazed by the American telephone system today.
  • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The strain put on Bell by his constant appearances in court, necessitated by the legal battles, eventually resulted in his resignation from the company.^ But the new Bell holding company, American Telephone and Telegraph or AT&T, put in a new man at the helm, a visionary industrialist named Theodore Vail.
  • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

[84]

Family life

Alexander Graham Bell, his wife Mabel Gardiner Hubbard, and their daughters Elsie (left) and Marian c.1885
.On July 11, 1877, a few days after the Bell Telephone Company was established, Bell married Mabel Hubbard (1857–1923) at the Hubbard estate in Cambridge.^ Aleck Bell married Mabel Hubbard on 11 July 1877 at her home in Cambridge.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Within the very first year of operation, 1878, Bell's company learned a sharp lesson about combining teenage boys and telephone switchboards.
  • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1880 National Bell would hire Charles Fleetford Sise* to incorporate and run the Bell Telephone Company of Canada.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His wedding present to his bride was to turn over 1,487 of his 1,497 shares in the newly created Bell Telephone Company.^ For this reason, on June 8, 1886, American Bell sued the Meucci Telephone Company in New Jersey.
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At one point, Vail's AT&T bought Western Union itself, the very company that had derided Bell's telephone as a "toy."
  • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ When he sold his share of stock in the graphophone holding company, for $100,000, he turned it over to his father as a trust fund for deaf research.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[85] Shortly thereafter, the newlyweds embarked on a year-long honeymoon in Europe. .During that excursion, Alec took a handmade model of his telephone with him, making it a "working holiday". The courtship had begun years earlier, however Alexander waited until he was more financially secure before marrying.^ Although the courtship had begun years earlier, Alexander waited until he was financially secure before marrying.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During that excursion, Alec took a handmade model of his telephone with him, making it a "working holiday."
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ According to a growing body of research, Innocenzo Manzetti created the first working telephone in 1864, more than a full decade before Bell.
  • The Alexander Graham Bell Guide to Changing the World | Copyblogger 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.copyblogger.com [Source type: General]

Although the telephone appeared to be an "instant" success, it was not initially a profitable venture and Bell's main sources of income were from lectures until after 1897.[86] One unusual request exacted by his fiancée was that he use "Alec" rather than the family's earlier familiar name of "Aleck." From 1876, he would sign his name "Alec Bell."[87][88] .They had four children: Elsie May Bell (1878–1964) who married Gilbert Grosvenor of National Geographic fame,[89][90] Marian Hubbard Bell (1880–1962) who was referred to as "Daisy",[91] and two sons who died in infancy.^ They had four children: Elsie May Bell (1878–1964) who married Gilbert Grosvenor of National Geographic fame, [82] [83] Marian Hubbard Bell (1880–1962) who was referred to as "Daisy", [84] and two sons who died in infancy.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Papers of Mabel Gardiner Hubbard Bell Fairchild, Marian, 1880-1962.
  • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Elsie May Bell Grosvenor, wife of Dr. Gilbert Grosvenor, chairman of the board of the National Geographic Society , died this evening at her home in Bethesda, Maryland .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Bell family home was located in Cambridge, Massachusetts until 1880 when Bell's father-in-law bought a house, and later in 1882 the Brohead Mansion, in Washington, D.C. for the Bell family, so that Alec's family could be with him while he attended to the numerous court cases involving patent disputes.^ Exploration interested Bell and his father-in-law.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bells parents sold their Brantford home in April 1881 its name was later changed to Tutela Heights and moved to Georgetown (Washington) to be closer to Aleck, Mabel, and their first daughter, Elsie May, who had begun wintering in Washington in 1879 and took up permanent residence there in 1882.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As the telephone began to flourish, Bell was soon involved in violent lawsuits in the defense of his patents.
  • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

[92]
.Bell was a British subject throughout his early life in Scotland and later in Canada until 1882, when he became a naturalized citizen of the United States.^ Langley became a close friend and, in 1898, was instrumental in obtaining Bells congressional appointment as a regent of his institution, an honorific post Bell held until his death.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fortunately for Bell, Hubbard, who had grown impatient waiting for Browns confirmation of the British filing, submitted the United States patent application on 14 February.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Because a British patent was key, and could not be granted if a patent was pending in the United States, Bell and Hubbard held off applying for the American patent.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1915, he characterized his status as: "I am not one of those hyphenated Americans who claim allegiance to two countries."[93] Despite this declaration, Bell has been claimed as a "native son" by Canada, Scotland and the United States.^ Yet the North American economy, in the midst of depression, gave little cause for celebration, and in both Canada and the United States, telecommunications remained dominated by the large telegraph companies.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Fortunately for Bell, Hubbard, who had grown impatient waiting for Browns confirmation of the British filing, submitted the United States patent application on 14 February.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ With this article we would like to reconstruct the little known history 1 of those important proceedings and to highlight the role that the United States Government had in favor of Antonio Meucci.
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[94] By 1885, a new summer retreat was contemplated. .That summer, the Bells had a vacation on Cape Breton Island in Nova Scotia, spending time at the small village of Baddeck.^ J.H. Parkin, Bell and Baldwin : their development of aerodromes and hydrodromes at Baddeck , Nova Scotia (Toronto, 1964).
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the next 36 years, until he died, Bell would divide his time between Washington and Nova Scotia.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bells tetrahedral experiments also spawned a cottage industry in Cape Breton as hundreds of farm homes helped make cell frames of spruce, bamboo, and metal.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Returning in 1886, Bell started building an estate on a point across from Baddeck, overlooking Bras d'Or Lake. .By 1889, a large house, christened The Lodge was completed and two years later, a larger complex of buildings were begun that the Bells would name Beinn Bhreagh (Gaelic: beautiful mountain) after Alec's ancestral Scottish highlands.^ Beinn Bhreagh Recorder , Bell's notes .
  • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ From 1876, he would sign his name "Alec Bell."
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 1889, a large house, christened "The Lodge" was completed and two years later, a larger complex of buildings were begun that the Bells would name Beinn Bhreagh (Gaelic: beautiful mountain ) after Alec's ancestral Scottish highlands.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[95] .Bell would spend his final, and some of his most productive, years in residence in both Washington, D.C., where he and his family initially resided for most of the year, and Beinn Bhreagh.^ Beinn Bhreagh Recorder , Bell's notes .
  • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Bell would spend his final, and some of his most productive years in residence in both Washington, D.C. and Beinn Bhreagh .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 1889, a large house, christened "The Lodge" was completed and two years later, a larger complex of buildings were begun that the Bells would name Beinn Bhreagh (Gaelic: beautiful mountain ) after Alec's ancestral Scottish highlands.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[96]
.Until the end of his life, Bell and his family would alternate between the two homes, but Beinn Bhreagh would, over the next 30 years, become more than a summer home as Bell became so absorbed in his experiments that annual stays lengthened.^ Until the end of his life Bell and his family would alternate between the two homes, but Beinn Bhreagh would, over the next 30 years, become more than a summer home as Bell became so absorbed in his experiments that annual stays lengthened.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Beinn Bhreagh Recorder , Bell's notes .
  • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ While working that summer in Brantford, Bell experimented with a "phonautograph," a pen-like machine that could draw shapes of sound waves on smoked glass by tracing their vibrations.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Both Mabel and Alec became immersed in the Baddeck community and were accepted by the villagers as "their own". The Bells were still in residence at Beinn Bhreagh when the Halifax Explosion occurred on 6 December 1917. Mabel and Alec mobilized the community to help victims in Halifax.^ The Bells were still in residence at Beinn Bhreagh when the Halifax Explosion occurred on 6 December 1917 .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Mabel and Alec mobilized the community to help victims in Halifax.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both Mabel and Alec became immersed in the Baddeck community and were accepted by the villagers as "their own."
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[97]

Later inventions

.Although Alexander Graham Bell is most often associated with the invention of the telephone, his interests were extremely varied.^ Centenary of Alexander Graham Bell's birth .
  • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Although Alexander Graham Bell is most often associated with the invention of the telephone, his interests were extremely varied.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Proofs by and about Alexander Graham Bell .
  • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.According to one of his biographers, Charlotte Gray, Bell's work ranged "unfettered across the scientific landscape" and he often went to bed voraciously reading the Encyclopædia Britannica, scouring it for new areas of interest.^ The Bell service ethos worked, and was often propagandized, in a rather saccharine fashion.
  • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ According to a growing body of research, Innocenzo Manzetti created the first working telephone in 1864, more than a full decade before Bell.
  • The Alexander Graham Bell Guide to Changing the World | Copyblogger 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.copyblogger.com [Source type: General]

^ Although the bulk of the items pertains to the invention of the telephone in 1876, Bell's contributions to the education of the deaf and his scientific and technological interests in a wide range of subjects are also amply represented, including eugenics, marine engineering, and aviation.
  • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

[98] .The range of Bell's inventive genius is represented only in part by the 18 patents granted in his name alone and the 12 he shared with his collaborators.^ Because a British patent was key, and could not be granted if a patent was pending in the United States, Bell and Hubbard held off applying for the American patent.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The riches from the telephone, which were ably tended by Mabel, allowed Bell to let his inventive genius run free.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Information requested as part of the online registration process may include a user's telephone number or a wireless email address, but only if specifically requested, and the carrier's name.
  • Alexander Graham Bell: Father of Modern Communication | SPIKE 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

.These included 14 for the telephone and telegraph, four for the photophone, one for the phonograph, five for aerial vehicles, four for "hydroairplanes" and two for selenium cells.^ These included 14 for the telephone and telegraph, four for the photophone , one for the phonograph , five for aerial vehicles, four for "hydroairplanes" and two for selenium cells.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To power a telephone circuit, they had developed a battery cell from selenium, a light-sensitive chemical.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The settlement provided for the division of the market between the two companies: the telephone market for American Bell and the telegraph market for Western Union, plus the official acknowledgment by Western Union of A.G. Bell's priority in the invention of the telephone.
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bell's inventions spanned a wide range of interests and included a metal jacket to assist in breathing, the audiometer to detect minor hearing problems, a device to locate icebergs, investigations on how to separate salt from seawater, and work on finding alternative fuels.^ Correspondence, diaries, journals, laboratory notebooks, patent records, speeches, writings, subject files, genealogical records, printed material, and other papers pertaining primarily to Bell's invention of the telephone in 1876, his contributions to the education of the deaf, and his interests in a wide range of scientific and technological fields, including aviation, eugenics, and marine engineering.
  • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Although the bulk of the items pertains to the invention of the telephone in 1876, Bell's contributions to the education of the deaf and his scientific and technological interests in a wide range of subjects are also amply represented, including eugenics, marine engineering, and aviation.
  • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ You have the germ of a great invention, Henry replied when Bell outlined his vision for a working telephone.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bell worked extensively in medical research and invented techniques for teaching speech to the deaf.^ According to a growing body of research, Innocenzo Manzetti created the first working telephone in 1864, more than a full decade before Bell.
  • The Alexander Graham Bell Guide to Changing the World | Copyblogger 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.copyblogger.com [Source type: General]

^ A key work in Bells early career is the book published by his father on Visible speech : the science .
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Frustrated at the delay in getting a multiple telegraph, Hubbard delivered Bell a stark ultimatum that spring: Bell had to choose between Mabel and his work on the electrical transmission of speech.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.During his Volta Laboratory period, Bell and his associates considered impressing a magnetic field on a record as a means of reproducing sound.^ The Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers span the years 1834-1970, with the bulk of the material concentrated during the period 1855-1922.
  • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Inadvertently they had successfully reproduced sound: using residual magnetism, the plucked reed had induced an undulating current, which activated the electromagnets in Bells room, making the reeds there vibrate audibly in the same way.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One, the graphophone, developed with his cousin Chichester A. Bell and Sumner Tainter at the Volta Laboratory in 1882, had a floating stylus that recorded on, and played from, a reusable wax cylinder.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Although the trio briefly experimented with the concept, they were unable to develop a workable prototype. .They abandoned the idea, never realizing they had glimpsed a basic principle which would one day find its application in the tape recorder, the hard disc and floppy disc drive and other magnetic media.^ Nine times out of ten, you’ll receive a kind but lukewarm response, and you’ll know that your idea is never going to be as big as you thought it would be.
  • The Alexander Graham Bell Guide to Changing the World | Copyblogger 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.copyblogger.com [Source type: General]

^ I mean if they suddenly agglomerated around sayu Mitchell day in day out he would be a household name and so be it.
  • Boxing News - Comments on The WBA orders Khan vs. Maidana – News 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.boxingnews24.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Aleck, never one to be intimidated by untested possibility, explored the extraordinary idea of a telegraph that would send numerous messages simultaneously along a single wire.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bell's own home used a primitive form of air conditioning, in which fans blew currents of air across great blocks of ice.^ Bell's own home used a primitive form of air conditioning , in which fans blew currents of air across great blocks of ice.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Within days Watson had made primitive telephone sets using membrane diaphragms and undulatory currents.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By 1875, Bell had learned to produce audible sounds - ugly shrieks and squawks -- by using magnets, diaphragms, and electrical current.
  • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

.He also anticipated modern concerns with fuel shortages and industrial pollution.^ He also anticipated modern concerns with fuel shortages and industrial pollution.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Methane gas, he reasoned, could be produced from the waste of farms and factories. .At his Canadian estate in Nova Scotia, he experimented with composting toilets and devices to capture water from the atmosphere.^ At his Canadian estate in Nova Scotia, he experimented with composting toilets and devices to capture water from the atmosphere.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Parks Canada maintains the Alexander Graham Bell National Historic Site which incorporates the Alexander Graham Bell Museum, in Baddeck, Nova Scotia , close to the Bell estate Beinn Bhreagh .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bell died of pernicious anemia on 2 August 1922 , at his private estate, Beinn Bhreagh, Nova Scotia, at age 75.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In a magazine interview published shortly before his death, he reflected on the possibility of using solar panels to heat houses.^ In a magazine interview published shortly before his death, he reflected on the possibility of using solar panels to heat houses.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Metal detector

.Bell is also credited with the invention of the metal detector in 1881. The device was quickly put together in an attempt to find the bullet in the body of U.S. President James Garfield.^ Bell is also credited with the invention of the metal detector in 1881.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The device was hurriedly put together in an attempt to find the bullet in the body of U.S. President James Garfield .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He developed a vacuum jacket (a precursor to the iron lung) and made headlines when he invented a metal detector (a forerunner to ultrasound), which used sound waves to detect a bullet in a body, in a bid to save President James Abram Garfield.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The metal detector worked flawlessly in tests but did not find the assassin's bullet partly because the metal bed frame on which the President was lying disturbed the instrument, resulting in static.^ He developed a vacuum jacket (a precursor to the iron lung) and made headlines when he invented a metal detector (a forerunner to ultrasound), which used sound waves to detect a bullet in a body, in a bid to save President James Abram Garfield.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[99] .The president's surgeons, who were skeptical of the device, ignored Bell's requests to move the president to a bed not fitted with metal springs.^ The president's surgeons, who were sceptical of the device, ignored Bell's requests to move the president to a bed not fitted with metal springs.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He signed the authorization requested by McCorry, who, on September 9, 1885, filed the bill of complaint of the United States Government against American Bell [95,96].
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition, the New York District Court was presided by the same judge, William J. Wallace, who had ruled four times in favor of American Bell.
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Alternatively, although Bell had detected a slight sound on his first test, the bullet may have been lodged too deeply to be detected by the crude apparatus.^ Alternately, although Bell had detected a slight sound on his first test, the bullet may have lodged too deeply to be detected by the crude apparatus.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Others transmitted a sound or a click or a buzz but our boys [Bell and Watson] were the first to transmit speech one could understand."
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[99] Bell gave a full account of his experiments in a paper read before the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) in August 1882.

Hydrofoils

.
Bell HD-4 on a test run c.
^ Main article: Hydrofoil Bell HD-4 on a test run c.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

1919
.The March 1906 Scientific American article by American hydrofoil pioneer William E. Meacham explained the basic principle of hydrofoils and hydroplanes.^ Another quite similar article, titled "The Telephone Claimed by Meucci," referring to the same exhibit, was published shortly afterward in the prestigious Scientific American [38].
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bell considered the invention of the hydroplane as a very significant achievement.^ Bell considered the invention of the hydroplane as a very significant achievement.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In reflection, Bell considered his most famous invention an intrusion on his real work as a scientist and refused to have a telephone in his study.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Based on information gained from that article he began to sketch concepts of what is now called a hydrofoil boat.^ Based on information gained from that article he began to sketch concepts of what is now called a hydrofoil boat.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Bell and assistant Frederick W. "Casey" Baldwin began hydrofoil experimentation in the summer of 1908 as a possible aid to airplane takeoff from water.^ Bell and assistant Frederick W. "Casey" Baldwin began hydrofoil experimentation in the summer of 1908 as a possible aid to airplane takeoff from water.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His assistant, Mr. Watson, heard his cry for help -- over Bell's experimental audiotelegraph.
  • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On returning to Baddeck, a number of initial concepts were built as experimental models, including the Dhonnas Beag , the first self-propelled Bell-Baldwin hydrofoil.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Baldwin studied the work of the Italian inventor Enrico Forlanini and began testing models.^ Baldwin studied the work of the Italian inventor Enrico Forlanini and began testing models.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One example of the legal action was by Italian inventor Antonio Meucci who claimed in 1834 to have created the first working model of a telephone in Italy .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This led him and Bell to the development of practical hydrofoil watercraft.
During his world tour of 1910–1911, Bell and Baldwin met with Forlanini in France. .They had rides in the Forlanini hydrofoil boat over Lake Maggiore.^ They had rides in the Forlanini hydrofoil boat over Lake Maggiore .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Baldwin described it as being as smooth as flying. On returning to Baddeck, a number of initial concepts were built as experimental models, including the Dhonnas Beag, the first self-propelled Bell-Baldwin hydrofoil.[100] The experimental boats were essentially proof-of-concept prototypes that culminated in the more substantial HD-4, powered by Renault engines. .A top speed of 54 miles per hour (87 km/h) was achieved, with the hydrofoil exhibiting rapid acceleration, good stability and steering along with the ability to take waves without difficulty.^ A top speed of 54 miles per hour (87 km/h) was achieved, with the hydrofoil exhibiting rapid acceleration, good stability and steering along with the ability to take waves without difficulty.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 9 September 1919 , the HD-4 set a world's marine speed record of 70.86 miles per hour (114.04 km/h).
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[101] In 1913, Dr. Bell hired Walter Pinaud, a Sydney yacht designer and builder as well as the proprietor of Pinaud's Yacht Yard in Westmount, Nova Scotia to work on the pontoons of the HD-4. Pinaud soon took over the boatyard at Bell Laboratories on Beinn Bhreagh, Bell's estate near Baddeck, Nova Scotia. .Pinaud's experience in boat-building enabled him to make useful design changes to the HD-4. After the First World War, work began again on the HD-4. Bell's report to the U.S. Navy permitted him to obtain two 350 horsepower (260 kW) engines in July 1919. On 9 September 1919, the HD-4 set a world marine speed record of 70.86 miles per hour (114.04 km/h),[102] a record which stood for ten years.^ What was thought by graham bell can be an example to change the world and become a great man .
  • The Alexander Graham Bell Guide to Changing the World | Copyblogger 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.copyblogger.com [Source type: General]

^ According to a growing body of research, Innocenzo Manzetti created the first working telephone in 1864, more than a full decade before Bell.
  • The Alexander Graham Bell Guide to Changing the World | Copyblogger 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.copyblogger.com [Source type: General]

^ Elisha Gray beat him by two hours.
  • The Alexander Graham Bell Guide to Changing the World | Copyblogger 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.copyblogger.com [Source type: General]

Aeronautics

AEA Silver Dart c. 1909
.In 1891, Bell had begun experiments to develop motor-powered heavier-than-air aircraft.^ In 1891, Bell began experiments to develop motor-powered heavier-than-air aircraft.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First Public Trip of Heavier-than-air Car in America.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The AEA's work progressed to heavier-than-air machines, applying their knowledge of kites to gliders.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The AEA was first formed as Bell shared the vision to fly with his wife, who advised him to seek "young" help as Alexander was at the graceful age of 60.
.In 1898, Bell experimented with tetrahedral box kites and wings constructed of multiple compound tetrahedral kites covered in silk.^ In 1898, Bell experimented with tetrahedral box kites and wings constructed of multiple compound tetrahedral kites covered in silk.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Moving to Hammondsport, the group then designed and built the Red Wing , framed in bamboo and covered in red silk and powered by a small air-cooled engine.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The tetrahedral wings were named Cygnet I, II and III, and were flown both unmanned and manned (Cygnet I crashed during a flight carrying Selfridge) in the period from 1907–1912. Some of Bell's kites are on display at the Alexander Graham Bell National Historic Site.^ The tetrahedral wings were named Cygnet I, II and III, and were flown both unmanned and manned ( Cygnet I crashed during a flight carrying Selfridge) in the period from 1907–1912.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Centenary of Alexander Graham Bell's birth .
  • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Some of Bell's kites are on display at the Alexander Graham Bell National Historic Site .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[103]
Bell was a supporter of aerospace engineering research through the Aerial Experiment Association (AEA), officially formed at Baddeck, Nova Scotia, in October 1907 at the suggestion of Mrs. Mabel Bell and with her financial support. .The AEA was headed by Bell and the founding members were four young men: American Glenn H. Curtiss, a motorcycle manufacturer at the time termed the "world's fastest man" having had ridden his self-constructed motor bicycle around in the shortest time, later was awarded the Scientific American Trophy for the first official one-kilometre flight in the Western hemisphere and became a world-renowned airplane manufacturer; Lieutenant Thomas Selfridge, an official observer from the U.S. government and the only person in the army who believed aviation was the future, Frederick W. Baldwin, the first Canadian and first British subject to pilot a public flight in Hammondsport, New York; and J.A.D. McCurdy; both engineering students at University of Toronto.^ At the time, a young electrical engineer who worked for American Bell of New York, reported that in that city "there was an old Italian who could furnish conclusive evidence that he was the original inventor of the telephone".
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ What was thought by graham bell can be an example to change the world and become a great man .
  • The Alexander Graham Bell Guide to Changing the World | Copyblogger 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.copyblogger.com [Source type: General]

^ In the Spring of 1881, Adolfo Rossi, who only a few months before had become Director of the Progresso Italo-Americano , joining the old and well established L'Eco d'Italia in New York, interviewed Meucci many times and printed a detailed history of his invention in a series of newspaper articles that were later summarized in his book [43].
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The AEA's work progressed to heavier-than-air machines, applying their knowledge of kites to gliders.^ The AEA's work progressed to heavier-than-air machines, applying their knowledge of kites to gliders.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1891, Bell began experiments to develop motor-powered heavier-than-air aircraft.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First Public Trip of Heavier-than-air Car in America.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Moving to Hammondsport, the group then designed and built the Red Wing, framed in bamboo and covered in red silk and powered by a small air-cooled engine.[104] On March 12, 1908, over Keuka Lake, the biplane lifted off on the first public flight in North America.[105] .The innovations that were incorporated into this design included a cockpit enclosure and tail rudder (later variations on the original design would add ailerons as a means of control).^ The innovations that were incorporated into this design included a cockpit enclosure and tail rudder (later variations on the original design would add ailerons as a means of control).
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One of the AEA project's inventions, the aileron, is a standard component of aircraft today.^ One of the AEA project's inventions, the aileron , is a standard component of aircraft today.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(The aileron was also invented independently by Robert Esnault-Pelterie.^ (The aileron was also invented independently by Robert Esnault-Pelterie .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) .The White Wing and June Bug were to follow and by the end of 1908, over 150 flights without mishap had been accomplished.^ The White Wing and June Bug were to follow and by the end of 1908, over 150 flights without mishap had been accomplished.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, the AEA had depleted its initial reserves and only a $10,000 grant from Mrs. Bell allowed it to continue with experiments.[106]
.Their final aircraft design, the Silver Dart embodied all of the advancements found in the earlier machines.^ Their final aircraft design, the Silver Dart embodied all of the advancements found in the earlier machines.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 23 February 1909 , Bell was present as the Silver Dart flown by J.A.D. McCurdy from the frozen ice of Bras d'Or, made the first aircraft flight in Canada.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On February 23, 1909, Bell was present as the Silver Dart flown by J.A.D. McCurdy from the frozen ice of Bras d'Or, made the first aircraft flight in Canada.^ (Editorial), The First Inventor of the Telephone , The Telegraphic Journal and Electrical Review, London and New York, 23 February 1884 .
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (Editorial) The First Inventor of the Telephone , The Telegraphic Journal and Electrical Review, 23 February 1884, p.
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Bell had worried that the flight was too dangerous and had arranged for a doctor to be on hand. With the successful flight, the AEA disbanded and the Silver Dart would revert to Baldwin and McCurdy who began the Canadian Aerodrome Company and would later demonstrate the aircraft to the Canadian Army.[107]

Eugenics

.Along with many very prominent thinkers and scientists of the time, Bell was connected with the eugenics movement in the United States.^ Along with many very prominent thinkers and scientists of the time, Bell was connected with the eugenics movement in the United States.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 13 January 1887 , the Government of the United States moved to annul the patent issued to Bell on the grounds of fraud and misrepresentation.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He signed the authorization requested by McCorry, who, on September 9, 1885, filed the bill of complaint of the United States Government against American Bell [95,96].
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In his lecture Memoir upon the formation of a deaf variety of the human race presented to the National Academy of Sciences on 13 November 1883 he noted that congenitally deaf parents were more likely to produce deaf children and tentatively suggested that couples where both parties were deaf should not marry.^ In his lecture Memoir upon the formation of a deaf variety of the human race presented to the National Academy of Sciences on 13 November 1883 he noted that congenitally deaf parents were more likely to produce deaf children and tentatively suggested that couples where both parties were deaf should not marry.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "Memoir upon the formation of a deaf variety of the human race."
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ McGowen, Mary For additional material see Container 193, Parents of Deaf Children, Association of .
  • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

[108] .However, it was his hobby of livestock breeding which led to his appointment to biologist David Starr Jordan's Committee on Eugenics, under the auspices of the American Breeders Association.^ However, it was his hobby of livestock breeding which led to his appointment to biologist David Starr Jordan 's Committee on Eugenics, under the auspices of the American Breeders Association .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1921, he was the honorary president of the Second International Congress of Eugenics held under the auspices of the American Museum of Natural History in New York.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The committee unequivocally extended the principle to man.[109] .From 1912 until 1918 he was the chairman of the board of scientific advisers to the Eugenics Record Office associated with Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in New York, and regularly attended meetings.^ From 1912 until 1918 he was the chairman of the board of scientific advisers to the Eugenics Record Office associated with Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in New York , and regularly attended meetings.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During his Volta Laboratory period, Bell and his associates considered impressing a magnetic field on a record as a means of reproducing sound.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bell, the veteran inventor of the telephone, was in New York, and Mr. Watson, his former associate, was on the other side of the continent.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1921, he was the honorary president of the Second International Congress of Eugenics held under the auspices of the American Museum of Natural History in New York.^ In 1921, he was the honorary president of the Second International Congress of Eugenics held under the auspices of the American Museum of Natural History in New York.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, it was his hobby of livestock breeding which led to his appointment to biologist David Starr Jordan 's Committee on Eugenics, under the auspices of the American Breeders Association .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Organisations such as these advocated passing laws (with success in some states) that established the compulsory sterilization of people deemed to be, as Bell called them, a "defective variety of the human race". By the late 1930s, about half the states in the U.S. had eugenics laws, and the California laws were used as a model for eugenics laws in Nazi Germany.^ The people of what used to be Ma Bell are not happy about their fate.
  • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ By the late 1930s, about half the states in the U.S. had eugenics laws, and the California laws were used as a model for eugenics laws in Nazi Germany .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Organisations such as these advocated passing laws (with success in some states) that established the compulsory sterilization of people deemed to be, as Bell called them, a "defective variety of the human race".
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Legacy and honors

Bell statue by A.E. Cleeve Horne, similar in style to the Lincoln Memorial, in the front portico of the Bell Telephone Building of Brantford, Ontario, The Telephone City (Courtesy: Brantford Heritage Inventory, City of Brantford, Ontario, Canada)
.Honors and tributes flowed to Bell in increasing numbers as his most famous invention became ubiquitous and his personal fame grew.^ In reflection, Bell considered his most famous invention an intrusion on his real work as a scientist and refused to have a telephone in his study.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although Alexander Graham Bell is most often associated with the invention of the telephone, his interests were extremely varied.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On that great day, Alexander Graham Bell became the first person to transmit intelligible human speech electrically.
  • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Bell received numerous honorary degrees from colleges and universities, to the point that the requests almost became burdensome.^ With aspirations to obtain a degree at the University College London , Bell considered his next years as preparation for the degree examinations, devoting his spare time at his family's residence to studying.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[110] During his life he also received dozens of major awards, medals and other tributes. These included statuary monuments to both him and the new form of communication his telephone created, notably the Bell Telephone Memorial erected in his honor in Brantford, Ontario's Alexander Graham Bell Gardens in 1917.[111]
.A large number of Bell's writings, personal correspondence, notebooks, papers and other documents reside at both the United States Library of Congress Manuscript Division (as the Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers), and at the Alexander Graham Bell Institute, Cape Breton University, Nova Scotia; major portions of which are available for online viewing.^ Alexander Bell can be the icon of spirit in writing!
  • The Alexander Graham Bell Guide to Changing the World | Copyblogger 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.copyblogger.com [Source type: General]

^ Another large collection of Bell's documents resides at the Alexander Graham Bell Institute .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A large number of Bell's writings, notebooks, papers and other documents rest at the United States Library of Congress Manuscript Devision, as the Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers ; the collection is available for online viewing.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A number of historic sites and other marks commemorate Bell in North America and Europe, including the first telephone companies of the United States and Canada.^ A number of historic sites and other marks commemorate Alexander Graham Bell, as well as the world's first telephone company: .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The National Historic Site in Baddeck is open to visitors, while Bell's descendant's still reside at Beinn Bhreagh; The world's first telephone company building, the Henderson Home , of the nascent Bell Telephone Company , originally built on Sheridan Street within the city of Brantford, Ontario, and then carefully relocated in 1969 to the historic Bell Homestead.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On 11 July 1877 , a few days after the Bell Telephone Company was established, Bell married Mabel Hubbard (1857–1923) at the Hubbard estate in Cambridge , and shortly after, embarked on a year-long honeymoon in Europe.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Among the major sites are:
.
  • Park's Canada's Alexander Graham Bell National Historic Site, which incorporates the Alexander Graham Bell Museum, in Baddeck, Nova Scotia, close to the Bell estate Beinn Bhreagh;
  • The Bell Homestead, also known as Melville House, overlooking Brantford, Ontario and the Grand River, which was the Bell family's first home in North America;
  • Canada's first telephone company building, the Henderson Home, of the nascent 1877 Bell Telephone Company of Canada, which was carefully relocated in 1969 to the historic Bell Homestead.^ Bell's stage telephone seemed bizarre at first.
    • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ According to a growing body of research, Innocenzo Manzetti created the first working telephone in 1864, more than a full decade before Bell.
    • The Alexander Graham Bell Guide to Changing the World | Copyblogger 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.copyblogger.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Thanks to the courtesy of AT&T Archives of Warren, NJ, we have been able to retrieve the first list of subscribers of the Meucci Telephone Company (Fig.
    • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Bell Homestead and the Bell Telephone Company Building are both maintained by the Bell Homestead Society in Brantford, Ontario;
  • The Alexander Graham Bell Memorial Park, which features a broad neoclassical monument built in 1917 by public subscription.^ Alexander Graham Bell 1979, p.
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Both the Bell Homestead and the Bell Telephone Company building, are maintained by the Bell Homestead Society and are open to visitors.
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Alexander Graham Bell (booklet).
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The monument graphically depicts mankind's ability to span the globe through telecommunications;
  • The Alexander Graham Bell Museum (opened in 1956), part of the Alexander Graham Bell National Historic Site which was completed in 1978 in Baddeck, Nova Scotia.^ Some of Bell's kites are on display at the Alexander Graham Bell National Historic Site .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Parks Canada maintains the Alexander Graham Bell National Historic Site which incorporates the Alexander Graham Bell Museum, in Baddeck, Nova Scotia , close to the Bell estate Beinn Bhreagh .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Alexander Graham Bell 1979, p.
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Many of the museum's artifacts were donated by Bell's daughters;
.In 1880, Bell received the Volta Prize with a purse of 50,000 francs (approximately US$10,000) for the invention of the telephone from the Académie française, representing the French government.^ Main article: Alexander Graham Bell honors and tributes In 1880, Bell received the Volta Prize of 50,000 francs ($10,000) for the invention of the telephone from L’ Académie française , representing the French government, in Paris .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alexander Graham Bell ( 3 March 1847 – 2 August 1922 ) was an eminent scientist , inventor and innovator who is credited with the invention of the telephone .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In reflection, Bell considered his most famous invention an intrusion on his real work as a scientist and refused to have a telephone in his study.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Among the luminaries who judged were Victor Hugo and père Alexandre Dumas.^ Among the luminaries who judged were Victor Hugo and Alexandre Dumas, fils.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Volta Prize was conceived by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1801, and named in honor of Alessandro Volta, with Bell receiving the third grand prize in its history.^ The Volta Prize was established by Napoleon Banaparte in 1803 to honor Alessandro Volta , an Italian physicist noted for developing the battery.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Main article: Alexander Graham Bell honors and tributes In 1880, Bell received the Volta Prize of 50,000 francs ($10,000) for the invention of the telephone from L’ Académie française , representing the French government, in Paris .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[112][113][114][115][116][117][118][119] .Since Bell was becoming increasingly affluent, he used his prize money to create endowment funds (the 'Volta Fund') and institutions in and around the United States capital of Washington, D.C..^ Since he was reaching affluent circumstances himself, Bell used the money from the Prize to create a number of social structures in and around Washington, D.C. using the symbolic "Volta": the "Volta Fund," "Volta Laboratories" and "Volta Bureau."
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bell donates funds and time to serving on boards and lecturing, as well as assisting the creation of the Environmental Health Foundation for Environmental Research.
  • Bell Holdings Inc. , Venture Capital Fund: Robert Bell, Angel Investor 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.fundingpost.com [Source type: News]

^ On 13 January 1887 , the Government of the United States moved to annul the patent issued to Bell on the grounds of fraud and misrepresentation.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These included the prestigious 'Volta Laboratory Association' (1880), also known as the 'Volta Laboratories' and as the 'Alexander Graham Bell Laboratory', and which eventually led to the Volta Bureau (1887) as a center for studies on deafness.^ After a year or so, Alexander Graham Bell and his capitalist backers concluded that eerie music piped from nineteenth-century cyberspace was not the real selling- point of his invention.
  • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ There would never be another Alexander Graham Bell, but in years to come there would be surprising numbers of people like him.
  • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ On that great day, Alexander Graham Bell became the first person to transmit intelligible human speech electrically.
  • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The Volta Laboratory became an experimental facility devoted to scientific discovery, and the very next year invented a wax phonograph cylinder that was later used by Thomas Edison;[120] The laboratory was also the site where he and his associate invented his 'proudest achievement', the photophone, the optical telephone which presaged fibre optical telecommunications, while the Volta Bureau would later evolve into the Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing (the AG Bell), a leading center for the research and pedagogy of deafness.^ Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf , 1883.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alexander Graham Bell 1979, p.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alexander Graham Bell (booklet).
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In partnership with Gardiner Hubbard, Bell helped established the publication Science during the early 1880s.^ Established the publication Science in cooperation with Gardiner G. Hubbard .
  • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ In partnership with Gardiner Hubbard, Bell established the publication Science in 1883.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ His father helped him set up his private practise by contacting Gardiner Greene Hubbard , the president of the Clarke School for the Deaf for a recommendation.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1888, Bell was one of the founding members of the National Geographic Society and became its second president (1897–1904), and also became a Regent of the Smithsonian Institution (1898–1922).^ In 1888, Alexander Graham Bell was one of the founding members of the National Geographic Society .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In 1888, Bell was one of the founding members of the National Geographic Society and became its second president (1897–1904) and Regent of the Smithsonian Institution (1898–1922).
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Family Papers series includes papers of Alexander Graham Bell's father, Alexander Melville Bell, a leader in the field of vocal physiology and elocution, and Mabel Gardiner Hubbard Bell's father, Gardiner Greene Hubbard, one of the founders of the telephone industry and the first president of the National Geographic Society.
  • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

The French government conferred on him the decoration of the Légion d'honneur (Legion of Honour); the Royal Society of Arts in London awarded him the Albert Medal in 1902; and the University of Würzburg, Bavaria, granted him a Ph.D. He was awarded the AIEE's Edison Medal in 1914 "For meritorious achievement in the invention of the telephone."
.The bel (B) and the smaller decibel (dB) are units of measurement of sound intensity invented by Bell Labs and named after him.^ The bel was too large for everyday use, so the decibel (dB), equal to 0.1 B, became more commonly used as a unit for measuring sound intensity.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The "decibel," the standard scientific measure of sound intensity, was named after Bell.
  • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The bel (B) is a unit of measurement invented by Bell Labs and named after Bell.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[121][122] .Since 1976 the IEEE's Alexander Graham Bell Medal has been awarded to honor outstanding contributions in the field of telecommunications.^ The IEEE 's Alexander Graham Bell Medal has been presented since 1976 to an individual or team, honoring outstanding contributions in the field of telecommunications.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Centenary of Alexander Graham Bell's birth .
  • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Proofs by and about Alexander Graham Bell .
  • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

.The 150th anniversary of Bell's birth in 1997 was marked by a special issue of commemorative £1 banknotes from the Royal Bank of Scotland.^ A number of historic sites and other marks commemorate Alexander Graham Bell, as well as the world's first telephone company: .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The family home was at 16 South Charlotte Street, Edinburgh and has a commemorative marker at the doorstep, marking this as Alexander Graham Bell's birthplace.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The illustrations on the reverse of the note include Bell's face in profile, his signature, and objects from Bell's life and career: users of the telephone over the ages; an audio wave signal; a diagram of a telephone receiver; geometric shapes from engineering structures; representations of sign language and the phonetic alphabet; the geese which helped him to understand flight; and the sheep which he studied to understand genetics.^ Bell's stage telephone was a large wooden box with a crude speaker-nozzle, the whole contraption about the size and shape of an overgrown Brownie camera.
  • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

[123] .Additionally, the Government of Canada honoured Bell in 1997 with a $100CAD gold coin, in tribute also to the 150th anniversary of his birth,[124] and with a silver dollar coin in 2009 to honour of the 100th anniversary of flight in Canada.^ On 23 February 1909 , Bell was present as the Silver Dart flown by J.A.D. McCurdy from the frozen ice of Bras d'Or, made the first aircraft flight in Canada.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

That first flight was made by an airplane designed under Dr. Bell's tutelage, named the Silver Dart[125] Bell's image, and also those of his many inventions have graced paper money, coinage and postal stamps in numerous countries worldwide for many dozens of years.
.Bell's name is widely known and still used as part of the names of dozens of educational institutes, corporate namesakes, street and place names around the world.^ Still in 1976, the Smithsonian Institution's publication [117], celebrating the Centennial of the invention of the telephone, featured only eight portraits, chosen among the many dozens of known inventors in the telegraph and telephone fields: one of them was that of Antonio Meucci.
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The range of Bell's inventive genius is represented only in part by the 18 patents granted in his name alone and the 12 he shared with his collaborators.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Alexander Graham Bell was also ranked 57th among the 100 Greatest Britons (2002) in an official BBC nationwide poll, and among the Top Ten Greatest Canadians (2004), and the 100 Greatest Americans (2005).^ Centenary of Alexander Graham Bell's birth .
  • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Proofs by and about Alexander Graham Bell .
  • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Stamps commemorating Alexander Graham Bell .
  • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

[126][127]

Honorary degrees

Alexander Graham Bell, who was unable to complete the university program of his youth, received numerous Honorary Degrees from academic institutions, including:

Death

.Bell died of diabetes on August 2, 1922, at his private estate, Beinn Bhreagh, Nova Scotia, at age 75.[129] Bell had also been afflicted with pernicious anemia.^ Beinn Bhreagh Recorder , Bell's notes .
  • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Beinn Bhreagh Recorder, 1909-1922 .
  • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Bell died of pernicious anemia on 2 August 1922 , at his private estate, Beinn Bhreagh, Nova Scotia, at age 75.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[130] While tending to her husband after a long illness, Mabel whispered, "Don't leave me." .By way of reply, Bell traced the sign for no—and then he expired.^ By way of reply, Bell traced the sign for "No" – and promptly expired.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[114][131]
.Upon Bell's death, during his funeral, "every phone on the continent of North America was silenced in honor of the man who had given to mankind the means for direct communication at a distance".^ During this hearing it [the American Bell] has shown disrespect to your Honors, for on the 3 d day of your sitting a suit has been entered against Antonio Meucci.
  • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ During his Volta Laboratory period, Bell and his associates considered impressing a magnetic field on a record as a means of reproducing sound.
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Upon Bell's death, all telephones throughout the United States "stilled their ringing for a silent minute in tribute to the man whose yearning to communicate made them possible."
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[132]
On learning of Bell's death, Canadian Prime Minister Mackenzie King cabled Mrs. Bell, saying:
.[The Government expresses] to you our sense of the world's loss in the death of your distinguished husband.^ TATTERS. no more excuses khan, lets see you in a real fight and if your a real world champion or not.
  • Boxing News - Comments on The WBA orders Khan vs. Maidana – News 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.boxingnews24.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Other: Please review our Terms of Use Agreement which governs your use of the Site.
  • Alexander Graham Bell: Father of Modern Communication | SPIKE 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ If you believe that the Site contains elements that infringe your copyrights in your work, please follow the procedures set forth in our Copyright Compliance Policy .
  • Alexander Graham Bell: Father of Modern Communication | SPIKE 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

It will ever be a source of pride to our country that the great invention, with which his name is immortally associated, is a part of its history. On the behalf of the citizens of Canada, may I extend to you an expression of our combined gratitude and sympathy.
[114]
Dr. Alexander Graham Bell was buried atop Beinn Bhreagh mountain, on his estate where he had resided increasingly for the last 35 years of his life, overlooking Bras d'Or Lake.[114] He was survived by his wife and his two daughters, Elisa May and Marion.[114][133]

See also

References

Notes
  1. ^ Bruce 1990, p. 419.
  2. ^ Black 1997, p. 18. Quote: "He thought he could harness the new electronic technology by creating a machine with a transmitter and receiver that would send sounds telegraphically to help people hear."
  3. ^ a b MacLeod 1999, p. 19.
  4. ^ National Geographic Website
  5. ^ Petrie 1975, p. 4.
  6. ^ Time Line of Alexander Graham Bell
  7. ^ "Alexander M. Bell Dead. Father of Prof. A.G. Bell Developed Sign Language for Mutes." New York Times Tuesday, August 8, 1905.
  8. ^ Call me Alexander Graham Bell Note: Bell typically signed his name in full on his correspondence.
  9. ^ Groundwater 2005, p. 23.
  10. ^ Bruce 1990, pp. 17–19.
  11. ^ a b Bruce 1990, p. 16.
  12. ^ a b c Gray 2006, p. 8.
  13. ^ Gray 2006, p. 9.
  14. ^ Mackay 1997, p.25.
  15. ^ a b Petrie 1975, p. 7.
  16. ^ Mackay 1997, p. 31.
  17. ^ Gray 2006, p. 11.
  18. ^ Town 1988, p. 7.
  19. ^ Bruce 1990, p. 37.
  20. ^ a b c Groundwater 2005, p. 25.
  21. ^ Petrie 1975, pp. 7–9.
  22. ^ Petrie 1975, p. 9.
  23. ^ a b Groundwater 2005, p. 30.
  24. ^ MacKenzie 2003, p. 41.
  25. ^ Groundwater 2005, p. 31.
  26. ^ Micklos 2006, p. 8.
  27. ^ Bruce 1990, p. 45.
  28. ^ Bruce 1990, pp. 67–68. Note: The family pet was given to his brother's family.
  29. ^ Bruce 1990, p. 68.
  30. ^ a b Groundwater 2005, p. 33.
  31. ^ Mackay 1997, p. 50.
  32. ^ Petrie 1975, p. 10.
  33. ^ Mackay 1997, p. 61. Note: The estate is today known as the "Bell Homestead".
  34. ^ a b Wing 1980, p. 10.
  35. ^ Groundwater 2005, p. 34.
  36. ^ Mackay 1997, p. 62. Note: Bell would later write that he had come to Canada a "dying man".
  37. ^ Groundwater 2005, p. 35. Note: Bell was thrilled at his recognition by the Six Nations Reserve and throughout his life would launch into a Mohawk war dance when he was excited.
  38. ^ Bruce 1990, p. 74.
  39. ^ Town 1988, p. 12.
  40. ^ Alexander Graham Bell 1979, p. 8. Note: In later years, Bell described the invention of the telephone and linked it to his "dreaming place".
  41. ^ a b Groundwater 2005, p. 39.
  42. ^ Petrina 1975, p. 14.
  43. ^ Petrel 1975, p. 15.
  44. ^ Town 1988, pp. 12–13.
  45. ^ Petrie 1975, p. 17.
  46. ^ Miller and Branson 2002, pp. 30–31, 152–153.
  47. ^ Town 1988, p. 15.
  48. ^ Town 1988, p. 16.
  49. ^ Dunn 1990, p. 20.
  50. ^ Alexander Graham Bell 1979, p. 8. Quote: "Brantford is justified in calling herself 'The Telephone City' because the telephone originated there. It was invented in Brantford at Tutela Heights in the summer of 1874."
  51. ^ Matthews 1999, pp. 19–21.
  52. ^ Matthews 1999, p. 21.
  53. ^ "A History of Electrical Engineering." ieee.cincinnati.fuse.net. Retrieved: December 29, 2009.
  54. ^ Town 1988, p. 17.
  55. ^ Evenson 2000, pp. 18–25.
  56. ^ Bruce 1990, pp.158-159
  57. ^ MacLeod 1999, pp. 12–13. Note: A copy of a draft of the patent application is shown, described as "probably the most valuable patent ever."
  58. ^ Bell's Lab notebook I, pp. 40–41 (image 22).
  59. ^ MacLeod 1999, p. 12.
  60. ^ Shulman 2008, p. 211.
  61. ^ Evenson 2000, p. 99.
  62. ^ Evenson 2000, p. 98.
  63. ^ Evenson 2000, p. 100.
  64. ^ MacLeod 1999, p. 14.
  65. ^ Fenster, Julie M. "Inventing the Telephone—And Triggering All-Out Patent War." AmericanHeritage.com, American Heritage, 2006.
  66. ^ Winfield 1987, p. 21.
  67. ^ Webb 1991, p. 15.
  68. ^ Ross 1995, pp. 21–22.
  69. ^ "Phone to Pacific From the Atlantic". New York Times, January 26, 1915. Retrieved: July 21, 2007.
  70. ^ a b c Groundwater 2005, p. 95.
  71. ^ Black 1997, p. 19.
  72. ^ Mackay 1997, p. 179.
  73. ^ "U.S. Supreme Court: U S v. AMERICAN BELL TEL CO, 167 U.S. 224 (1897)
  74. ^ United states V. American Bell Telephone Co., 128 U. S. 315 (1888)
  75. ^ Basilio Catania 2002 "The United States Government vs. Alexander Graham Bell. An important acknowledgment for Antonio Meucci." Bulletin of Science Technology Society, 2002; 22: pp. 426–442. Retrieved: December 29, 2009.
  76. ^ Catania, Basilio "Antonio Meucci – Questions and Answers: What did Meucci to bring his invention to the public?" Chezbasilio.it website. Retrieved: July 8, 2009.
  77. ^ "History of ADT Security." ADT.com website. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
  78. ^ Bruce 1990, pp. 271–272.
  79. ^ Resolution 269
  80. ^ "Congressional Record on Meucci." esanet.it. Retrieved: December 29, 2009. Note: Meucci was not involved in the final trial.
  81. ^ Italian Historical Society
  82. ^ "Antonio Meucci." inventors.about.com. Retrieved: December 29, 2009. Note: Tomas Farley also writes that, "Nearly every scholar agrees that Bell and Watson were the first to transmit intelligible speech by electrical means. Others transmitted a sound or a click or a buzz but our boys [Bell and Watson] were the first to transmit speech one could understand."
  83. ^ Mackay 1997, p. 178.
  84. ^ Parker 1995, p. 23. Note: Many of the lawsuits became rancorous with Elisha Gray becoming particularly bitter over Bell's ascendancy in the telephone debate but Alec refused to launch counter actions for libel.
  85. ^ Eber 1982, p. 44.
  86. ^ Dunn 1990, p. 28.
  87. ^ Mackay 1997, p. 120.
  88. ^ "Mrs. A.G. Bell Dies. Inspired Telephone. Deaf Girl's Romance With Distinguished Inventor Was Due to Her Affliction." New York Times, January 4, 1923.
  89. ^ "Dr. Gilbert H. Grosvenor Dies; Head of National Geographic, 90; Editor of Magazine 55 Years Introduced Photos, Increased Circulation to 4.5 Million." New York Times, February 5, 1966. Quote: Baddeck, Nova Scotia, February 4, 1964 (Canadian Press): Dr. Gilbert H. Grosvenor, chairman of the board and former president of the National Geographic Society and editor of the National Geographic magazine from 1899 to 1954, died on the Cape Breton Island estate once owned by his father-in-law, the inventor Alexander Graham Bell. He was 90 years old.
  90. ^ "Mrs. Gilbert Grosvenor Dead; Joined in Geographic's Treks; Married Professor's Son." New York Times, December 27, 1964. Quote: Washington, DC, 26 December 1964. Mrs. Elsie May Bell Grosvenor, wife of Dr. Gilbert Grosvenor, chairman of the board of the National Geographic Society, died this evening at her home in Bethesda, Maryland. She was 86 years old. Death was attributed to heart disease and old age.
  91. ^ "Mrs. David Fairchild, 82, Dead; Daughter of Bell, Phone Inventor." New York Times, September 25, 1962. Quote: Baddeck, Nova Scotia, September 24, 1962 (The Canadian Press) Mrs. Marian Bell Fairchild of Miami, widow of David Fairchild, noted plant explorer, and daughter of the telephone pioneer Alexander Graham Bell, died tonight at her summer home. She was 82 years old."
  92. ^ Gray 2006, pp. 202–205.
  93. ^ Bruce 1990, pp. 90.
  94. ^ Bruce 1990, 471–472.
  95. ^ Tulloch 2006, pp. 25–27. Note: Under the direction of the Boston architects, Cabot, Everett and Mead, a Nova Scotia company, Rhodes, Curry and Company, carried out the actual construction.
  96. ^ MacLeod 1999, p. 22.
  97. ^ Tulloch 2006, p. 42.
  98. ^ Gray 2006, p. 219.
  99. ^ a b Grosvenor and Wesson 1997, p. 107.
  100. ^ Boileau 2004, p. 18.
  101. ^ Boileau 2004, pp. 28–30.
  102. ^ Boileau 2004, p. 30.
  103. ^ "Nova Scotia's Electric Scrapbook." ns1763.ca. Retrieved: December 29, 2009.
  104. ^ Phillips 1977, p. 95.
  105. ^ "Selfridge Aerodrome Sails Steadily for 319 feet (97 m)." Washington Post May 13, 1908. Quote: At 25 to 30 Miles an Hour. First Public Trip of Heavier-than-air Car in America. Professor Alexander Graham Bell's New Machine, Built After Plans by Lieutenant Selfridge, Shown to Be Practicable by Flight Over Keuka Lake. Portion of Tail Gives Way, Bringing the Test to an End. Views of an Expert. Hammondsport, New York, March 12, 1908.
  106. ^ Phillips 1977, p. 96.
  107. ^ Phillips 1977, pp. 96–97.
  108. ^ Bell, Alexander Graham. "Memoir upon the formation of a deaf variety of the human race." Alexander Graham Bell Association for the Deaf, 1883.
  109. ^ Bruce 1990, pp. 410–417.
  110. ^ Library of Congress – Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers
  111. ^ Osborne, Harold S. (1943) "Biographical Memoir of Alexander Gramam Bell." National Academy of Sciences: Biographical Memoirs, Vol. XXIII, 1847–1922, presented to the Academy at its 1943 annual meeting.
  112. ^ Crosland, Maurice P. "Science Under Control: The French Academy of Sciences, 1795–1914", Cambridge University Press, 1992. As cited by James Love in KEI Issues Report on Selected Innovation Prizes and Reward Programs: The Volta Prize For Electricity, March 20, 2008, pg.16. Retrieved from Knowledge Ecology International website on January 5, 2010.
  113. ^ John L. Davis. Artisans and savants: The Role of the Academy of Sciences in the Process of Electrical Innovation in France, 1850–1880, Annals of Science, Volume 55, Issue 3, July 1998, pg.301. Retrieved from InformaWorld.com January 5, 2010.
  114. ^ a b c d e "Obituary: Dr. Bell, Inventor of Telephone, Dies: Sudden End, Due to Anemia, Comes in Seventy-Sixth Year at His Nova Scotia Home: Notables Pay Him Tribute." The New York Times, August 3, 1922. Retrieved: March 3, 2009.
  115. ^ "Honors to Professor Bell.", Boston Daily Evening Traveller, September 1, 1880, Library of Congress, Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers. Retrieved: April 5, 2009.
  116. ^ "Volta Prize of the French Academy Awarded to Prof. Alexander Graham Bell, September 1, 1880." Library of Congress, Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers. Retrieved: April 5, 2009.
  117. ^ "Telegram from Grossman to Alexander Graham Bell, August 2, 1880." Library of Congress, Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers. Retrieved: April 5, 2009.
  118. ^ "Telegram from Alexander Graham Bell to Count du Moncel, 1880." Library of Congress, Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers. Retrieved: April 5, 2009.
  119. ^ "Letter from Frederick T. Frelinghuysen to Alexander Graham Bell, January 7, 1882." Library of Congress, Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers. Retrieved: April 5, 2009.
  120. ^ "Letter from Mabel Hubbard Bell, February 27, 1880." Library of Congress, Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers. Retrieved: April 5, 2009. N.B.: last line of the typed note refers to the future disposition of award funds: "... and thus the matter lay till the paper turned up. He intends putting the full amount into his Laboratory and Library";
  121. ^ Decibel Note: The decibel is defined as one tenth of a bel.
  122. ^ "Definition: 'bel'." freedictionary.com, American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language by Houghton Mifflin Company, Fourth Edition, 2000. Retrieved: September 2, 2009.
  123. ^ "Royal Bank Commemorative Notes." Rampant Scotland. Retrieved: October 14, 2008.
  124. ^ Royal Canadian Mint Numismatic Coins (20th Century)
  125. ^ Royal Canadian Mint website
  126. ^ http://BBC News World Edition
  127. ^ "Beatlelinks: The Greatest Britons of All Times." news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved: December 29, 2009.
  128. ^ "Dartmouth graduates." New York Times. Retrieved: July 30, 2009.
  129. ^ Gray 2006, p. 419.
  130. ^ Gray 2006, p. 418.
  131. ^ Bruce 1990, p. 491.
  132. ^ Osborne, Harold S. "Biographical Memoir of Alexander Graham Bell, 1847–1922." National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Bibliographical Memoirs, Volume XXIII, First Memoir. Annual Meeting presentation, 1943, pp. 18–19.
  133. ^ "Dr. Bell, Inventor of Telephone, Dies." New York Times, August 3, 1922. Retrieved: July 21, 2007. Quote: Dr. Alexander Graham Bell, inventor of the telephone, died at 2 o'clock this morning at Beinn Breagh, his estate near Baddeck.
Bibliography
.
  • Alexander Graham Bell (booklet).^ Alexander Graham Bell 1979, p.
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Alexander Graham Bell (booklet).
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The IEEE 's Alexander Graham Bell Medal has been presented since 1976 to an individual or team, honoring outstanding contributions in the field of telecommunications.
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Halifax, Nova Scotia: Maritime Telegraph & Telephone Limited, 1979.
  • Bruce, Robert V. Bell: Alexander Bell and the Conquest of Solitude.^ Alexander Graham Bell ( 3 March 1847 – 2 August 1922 ) was an eminent scientist , inventor and innovator who is credited with the invention of the telephone .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Micklos, John Jr. Alexander Graham Bell: Inventor of the Telephone .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ This, it is claimed, was used by the telegraph company, and was the basis of the contract between the Western Union Telegraph Company and the Bell Telephone Company, dated November 10, 1879.
    • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Press, 1990. ISBN 0-80149691-8.
  • Black, Harry.^ A treatise on the Law of Patentability, Validity and Infringement , Matthew Bender, New York, 1990, Vol.
    • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ "Radiophony," Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y., 1890 .
    • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Schiavo G. E., Antonio Meucci, Inventor of the Telephone , The Vigo Press, New York, NY, 1958 .
    • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Canadian Scientists and Inventors: Biographies of People who made a Difference.^ Canadian Scientists and Inventors: Biographies of People who made a Difference .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Alexander Graham Bell ( 3 March 1847 – 2 August 1922 ) was an eminent scientist , inventor and innovator who is credited with the invention of the telephone .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Alexander Graham Bell (Scientists who Made History series).
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Markham, Ontario: Pembroke Publishers Limited, 1997. ISBN 1-55138-081-1.
  • Boileau, John.^ ISBN 1-55138-081-1 .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Markham, Ontario: Pembroke Publishers Limited, 1997.
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Fastest in the World: The Saga of Canada's Revolutionary Hydrofoils.^ Fastest in the World: The Saga of Canada's Revolutionary Hydrofoils .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Halifax, Nova Scotia: Formac Publishing Company Limited, 2004. ISBN 0-88780-621-X.
  • Dunn, Andrew.^ Institution for the Deaf and Dumb, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada .
    • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .Alexander Graham Bell (Pioneers of Science series).^ Alexander Graham Bell (Scientists who Made History series).
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Alexander Graham Bell (Pioneers of Science series).
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Alexander Graham Bell 1979, p.
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .East Sussex, UK: Wayland (Publishers) Limited, 1990. ISBN 1-85210-958-0.
  • Eber, Dorothy Harley.^ East Sussex, UK: Wayland (Publishers) Limited, 1990.
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Eber, Dorothy Harley.
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Genius at Work: Images of Alexander Graham Bell.^ Alexander Graham Bell ( 3 March 1847 – 2 August 1922 ) was an eminent scientist , inventor and innovator who is credited with the invention of the telephone .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Television Alexander Graham Bell: Father of Modern Communication .
    • Alexander Graham Bell: Father of Modern Communication | SPIKE 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Micklos, John Jr. Alexander Graham Bell: Inventor of the Telephone .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 1982. ISBN 0-7710-3036-3.
  • Evenson, A. Edward. .The Telephone Patent Conspiracy of 1876: The Elisha Gray — Alexander Bell Controversy.^ Alexander Graham Bell ( 3 March 1847 – 2 August 1922 ) was an eminent scientist , inventor and innovator who is credited with the invention of the telephone .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ As the telephone began to flourish, Bell was soon involved in violent lawsuits in the defense of his patents.
    • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Micklos, John Jr. Alexander Graham Bell: Inventor of the Telephone .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland Publishing, 2000. ISBN 0-7864-0138-9.
  • Gray, Charlotte.^ Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland Publishing, 2000.
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ ISBN 0-7864-0138-9 .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Reluctant Genius: Alexander Graham Bell and the Passion for Invention.^ Alexander Graham Bell ( 3 March 1847 – 2 August 1922 ) was an eminent scientist , inventor and innovator who is credited with the invention of the telephone .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Television Alexander Graham Bell: Father of Modern Communication .
    • Alexander Graham Bell: Father of Modern Communication | SPIKE 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Micklos, John Jr. Alexander Graham Bell: Inventor of the Telephone .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .New York: Arcade Publishing, 2006. ISBN 1-55970-809-3.
  • Grosvenor, Edwin S. and Morgan Wesson.^ This letter was published, among others, in the New York Herald [45], and the Telegraphic Journal and Electrical Review [46].
    • The United States Government vs Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.chezbasilio.it [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Alexander Graham Bell: The Life and Times of the Man Who Invented the Telephone.^ Alexander Graham Bell ( 3 March 1847 – 2 August 1922 ) was an eminent scientist , inventor and innovator who is credited with the invention of the telephone .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Thompson, Charles For additional material see Container 64, Death of Alexander Graham Bell .
    • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Kelvin, William Thomson, Baron For additional material see Containers 81-83, Biography of Alexander Graham Bell .
    • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .New York: Harry N. Abrahms, Inc., 1997. ISBN 0-8109-4005-1.
  • Groundwater, Jennifer.^ ISBN 0-8109-4005-1 .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York: Harry N. Abrahms, Inc., 1997.
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Alexander Graham Bell: The Spirit of Invention.^ Alexander Graham Bell ( 3 March 1847 – 2 August 1922 ) was an eminent scientist , inventor and innovator who is credited with the invention of the telephone .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Television Alexander Graham Bell: Father of Modern Communication .
    • Alexander Graham Bell: Father of Modern Communication | SPIKE 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Micklos, John Jr. Alexander Graham Bell: Inventor of the Telephone .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Calgary: Altitude Publishing, 2005. ISBN 1-55439-006-0.
  • Mackay, James. .Sounds Out of Silence: A life of Alexander Graham Bell.^ Alexander Graham Bell ( 3 March 1847 – 2 August 1922 ) was an eminent scientist , inventor and innovator who is credited with the invention of the telephone .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Television Alexander Graham Bell: Father of Modern Communication .
    • Alexander Graham Bell: Father of Modern Communication | SPIKE 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Micklos, John Jr. Alexander Graham Bell: Inventor of the Telephone .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Edinburgh: Mainstream Publishing Company, 1997. ISBN 1-85158-833-7.
  • MacKenzie, Catherine.^ Edinburgh: Mainstream Publishing Company, 1997.
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ ISBN 1-85158-833-7 .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Alexander Graham Bell. Whitefish, Montana: Kessinger Publishing, 2003. ISBN 978-0766143852. Retrieved: July 29, 2009.
  • MacLeod, Elizabeth.^ Alexander Graham Bell 1979, p.
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Alexander Graham Bell (booklet).
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The IEEE 's Alexander Graham Bell Medal has been presented since 1976 to an individual or team, honoring outstanding contributions in the field of telecommunications.
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Alexander Graham Bell: An Inventive Life.^ Television Alexander Graham Bell: Father of Modern Communication .
    • Alexander Graham Bell: Father of Modern Communication | SPIKE 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Posted: September 27, 2008 Description: http://suprememastertv.com/ - MODELS OF SUCCESS - Alexander Graham Bell:...
    • Alexander Graham Bell: Father of Modern Communication | SPIKE 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

    ^ You are commenting on: Alexander Graham Bell: Father of Modern Communication Flag this Content as Inappropriate .
    • Alexander Graham Bell: Father of Modern Communication | SPIKE 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

    .Toronto: Kids Can Press, 1999. ISBN 1-55074-456-9.
  • Matthews, Tom L. Always Inventing: A Photobiography of Alexander Graham Bell.^ Television Alexander Graham Bell: Father of Modern Communication .
    • Alexander Graham Bell: Father of Modern Communication | SPIKE 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Posted: September 27, 2008 Description: http://suprememastertv.com/ - MODELS OF SUCCESS - Alexander Graham Bell:...
    • Alexander Graham Bell: Father of Modern Communication | SPIKE 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

    ^ You are commenting on: Alexander Graham Bell: Father of Modern Communication Flag this Content as Inappropriate .
    • Alexander Graham Bell: Father of Modern Communication | SPIKE 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

    Washington, DC: National Geographic Society, 1999. ISBN 0-7922-7391-5.
  • Micklos, John Jr. .Alexander Graham Bell: Inventor of the Telephone.^ Alexander Graham Bell ( 3 March 1847 – 2 August 1922 ) was an eminent scientist , inventor and innovator who is credited with the invention of the telephone .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Television Alexander Graham Bell: Father of Modern Communication .
    • Alexander Graham Bell: Father of Modern Communication | SPIKE 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Micklos, John Jr. Alexander Graham Bell: Inventor of the Telephone .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .New York: Harper Collins Publishers Ltd., 2006. ISBN 978-0060576189.
  • Miller, Don and Jan Branson.^ New York: Arcade Publishing, 2006.
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1995.
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York: Harper Collins Publishers Ltd., 2006.
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Damned For Their Difference: The Cultural Construction Of Deaf People as Disabled: A Sociological History. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, 2002. ISBN 978-1563681219.
  • Mullett, Mary B. The Story of A Famous Inventor.^ Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, 1987.
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .New York: Rogers and Fowle, 1921.
  • Parker, Steve.^ In 1921, he was the honorary president of the Second International Congress of Eugenics held under the auspices of the American Museum of Natural History in New York.
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Alexander Graham Bell and the Telephone(Science Discoveries series).^ Alexander Graham Bell ( 3 March 1847 – 2 August 1922 ) was an eminent scientist , inventor and innovator who is credited with the invention of the telephone .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Thompson, Charles For additional material see Container 64, Death of Alexander Graham Bell .
    • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Kelvin, William Thomson, Baron For additional material see Containers 81-83, Biography of Alexander Graham Bell .
    • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    .New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1995. ISBN 0-7910-3004-0.
  • Petrie, A. Roy.^ ISBN 0-7910-3004-0 .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York: Harper Collins Publishers Ltd., 2006.
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1995.
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Alexander Graham Bell.^ Alexander Graham Bell ( 3 March 1847 – 2 August 1922 ) was an eminent scientist , inventor and innovator who is credited with the invention of the telephone .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Television Alexander Graham Bell: Father of Modern Communication .
    • Alexander Graham Bell: Father of Modern Communication | SPIKE 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Micklos, John Jr. Alexander Graham Bell: Inventor of the Telephone .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Don Mills, Ontario: Fitzhenry & Whiteside Limited, 1975. ISBN 0-88902-209-7.
  • Phillips, Allan.^ Don Mills, Ontario: Fitzhenry & Whiteside Limited, 1975.
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ ISBN 0-88902-209-7 .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Into the 20th Century: 1900/1910 (Canada's Illustrated Heritage).^ Into the 20th Century: 1900/1910 (Canada's Illustrated Heritage).
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Toronto: Natural Science of Canada Limited, 1977. ISBN 0-9196-4422-8.
  • Ross, Stewart.^ Toronto: Natural Science of Canada Limited, 1977.
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ ISBN 0-9196-4422-8 .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Alexander Graham Bell (Scientists who Made History series).^ After a year or so, Alexander Graham Bell and his capitalist backers concluded that eerie music piped from nineteenth-century cyberspace was not the real selling- point of his invention.
    • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There would never be another Alexander Graham Bell, but in years to come there would be surprising numbers of people like him.
    • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ On that great day, Alexander Graham Bell became the first person to transmit intelligible human speech electrically.
    • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .New York: Raintree Steck-Vaughn Publishers, 2001. ISBN 0-73984-415-6.
  • Shulman, Seth.^ New York: Arcade Publishing, 2006.
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York: Chelsea House Publishers, 1995.
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ New York: Harper Collins Publishers Ltd., 2006.
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Telephone Gambit: Chasing Alexander Bell's Secret.^ Alexander Graham Bell ( 3 March 1847 – 2 August 1922 ) was an eminent scientist , inventor and innovator who is credited with the invention of the telephone .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Micklos, John Jr. Alexander Graham Bell: Inventor of the Telephone .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ A number of historic sites and other marks commemorate Alexander Graham Bell, as well as the world's first telephone company: .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .New York: Norton & Company, 2008. ISBN 978-0393062069.
  • Town, Florida.^ New York: Norton & Company, 2008.
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Alexander Graham Bell.^ Alexander Graham Bell ( 3 March 1847 – 2 August 1922 ) was an eminent scientist , inventor and innovator who is credited with the invention of the telephone .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Television Alexander Graham Bell: Father of Modern Communication .
    • Alexander Graham Bell: Father of Modern Communication | SPIKE 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Micklos, John Jr. Alexander Graham Bell: Inventor of the Telephone .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Toronto: Grolier Limited, 1988. ISBN 0-7172-1950-X.
  • Tulloch, Judith.^ ISBN 0-7172-1950-X .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Toronto: Grolier Limited, 1988.
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .The Bell Family in Baddeck: Alexander Graham Bell and Mabel Bell in Cape Breton.^ Alexander Graham Bell ( 3 March 1847 – 2 August 1922 ) was an eminent scientist , inventor and innovator who is credited with the invention of the telephone .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Television Alexander Graham Bell: Father of Modern Communication .
    • Alexander Graham Bell: Father of Modern Communication | SPIKE 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Micklos, John Jr. Alexander Graham Bell: Inventor of the Telephone .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Halifax: Formac Publishing Company Limited, 2006. ISBN 978-0-88780-713-8.
  • Walters, Eric. The Hydrofoil Mystery. Toronto: Puffin Books, 1999. ISBN 0-14-130220-8.
  • Webb, Michael, ed. .Alexander Graham Bell: Inventor of the Telephone.^ Alexander Graham Bell ( 3 March 1847 – 2 August 1922 ) was an eminent scientist , inventor and innovator who is credited with the invention of the telephone .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Television Alexander Graham Bell: Father of Modern Communication .
    • Alexander Graham Bell: Father of Modern Communication | SPIKE 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Micklos, John Jr. Alexander Graham Bell: Inventor of the Telephone .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Mississauga, Ontario, Canada: Copp Clark Pitman Ltd., 1991. ISBN 0-7730-5049-3.
  • Winfield, Richard.^ Mississauga, Ontario, Canada: Copp Clark Pitman Ltd., 1991.
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ ISBN 0-7730-5049-3 .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Never the Twain Shall Meet: Bell, Gallaudet, and the Communications Debate. .Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, 1987. ISBN 0-913580-99-6.
  • Wing, Chris.^ ISBN 0-913580-99-6 .
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press, 1987.
    • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Alexander Graham Bell at Baddeck.^ Thompson, Charles For additional material see Container 64, Death of Alexander Graham Bell .
    • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Kelvin, William Thomson, Baron For additional material see Containers 81-83, Biography of Alexander Graham Bell .
    • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Drawings by Alexander Graham Bell .
    • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.loc.gov [Source type: Academic]

    Baddeck, Nova Scotia: Christopher King, 1980.

External links

.

Patents

U.S. patent images in TIFF format
  • U.S. Patent 161,739 Improvement in Transmitters and Receivers for Electric Telegraphs, filed March 1875, issued April 1875 (multiplexing signals on a single wire)
  • U.S. Patent 174,465 Improvement in Telegraphy, filed 14 February 1876, issued March 7, 1876 (Bell's first telephone patent)
  • U.S. Patent 178,399 Improvement in Telephonic Telegraph Receivers, filed April 1876, issued June 1876
  • U.S. Patent 181,553 Improvement in Generating Electric Currents (using rotating permanent magnets), filed August 1876, issued August 1876
  • U.S. Patent 186,787 Electric Telegraphy (permanent magnet receiver), filed 15 January 1877, issued January 30, 1877
  • U.S. Patent 235,199 Apparatus for Signalling and Communicating, called Photophone, filed August 1880, issued December 1880
  • U.S. Patent 757,012 Aerial Vehicle, filed June 1903, issued April 1904

Movie biographies

.
Preceded by
Gardiner Greene Hubbard
President of the National Geographic Society
1897–1904
Succeeded by
William John McGee

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

A man, as a general rule, owes very little to what he is born with — a man is what he makes of himself.
.Alexander Graham Bell (3 March 18472 August 1922) was an eminent scientist, inventor and innovator most noted as the inventor of the telephone.^ Alexander Graham Bell ( 3 March 1847 – 2 August 1922 ) was an eminent scientist , inventor and innovator who is credited with the invention of the telephone .
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ BBC History Historic Figures: Alexander Graham Bell (1847 1922) .

^ Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922) .
  • Picture History : Alexander Graham Bell (1847-1922) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.picturehistory.com [Source type: General]

Contents

Sourced

Mr. Watson — Come here — I want to see you.
  • Mr. Watson — Come here — I want to see you.
    • First intelligible words spoken over the telephone (10 March 1876), as recorded in Bell's Journal entry (10 March 1875). These are often misquoted as "Mr. Watson, come here, I want you." Watson later recounted that Bell had spilled battery acid and had called for him over the phone with these words, but this may have been in a separate incident.
  • The final result of our researches has widened the class of substances sensitive to light vibrations, until we can propound the fact of such sensitiveness being a general property of all matter.
    • Statement to the American Association for the Advancement of Science, in Boston, Massachusetts (27 August 1880): published as "On the Production and Reproduction of Sound by Light" in American Journal of Sciences, Third Series, vol. .XX, n°118 (October 1880), pp.^ XX, n°118 (October 1880), pp.
      • Alexander Graham Bell - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ XX , #118, October 1880, pp.
      • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC articles.gourt.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ XX , #118, October 1880 , pp.
      • Alexander Graham Bell - Exampleproblems 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.exampleproblems.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      305- 324.
.
There cannot be mental atrophy in any person who continues to observe, to remember what he observes, and to seek answers for his unceasing hows and whys about things.
  • I had made up my mind to find that for which I was searching even if it required the remainder of my life. After innumerable failures I finally uncovered the principle for which I was searching, and I was astounded at its simplicity.^ An excellent two-part video about the life of Alexander Graham Bell.
    • Telephone & Light Patent Drawings 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ There are some letters from Alexander Graham Bell in the Library of Congress that are addressed to a Carrie.

    ^ Search Journal by Alexander Graham Bell 1901 to find the 1901 and 1902 journals.
    • Teacher Resources - Collection - Alexander Graham Bell Papers, 1862-1939 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC learning.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Alexander Graham Bell Family Papers at the Library of Congress, 1862-1939 - Collection Connections - For Teachers (Library of Congress) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.lcweb.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .I was still more astounded to discover the principle I had revealed not only beneficial in the construction of a mechanical hearing aid but it served as well as means of sending the sound of the voice over a wire.^ I was still more astounded to discover the principle I had revealed not only beneficial in the construction of a mechanical hearing aid but it served as well as means of sending the sound of the voice over a wire.
    • Alexander Graham Bell - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Alexander Graham Bell quote-Don't keep forever on the public road. Leave the beaten track behind occasionally... 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.iwise.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ However Bell couldn't read German very well, and mistakenly believed that Von Helmholtz's had written that vowel sounds could be transmitted over a wire.
    • Computer Science for Fun - cs4fn: It's good to talk: Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cs4fn.org [Source type: General]

    ^ His dreams of transmitting voices over a wire were still spinning round in his creative head.
    • Computer Science for Fun - cs4fn: It's good to talk: Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.cs4fn.org [Source type: General]

    .Another discovery which came out of my investigation was the fact that when a man gives his order to produce a definite result and stands by that order it seems to have the effect of giving him what might be termed a second sight which enables him to see right through ordinary problems.^ Another discovery which came out of my investigation was the fact that when a man gives his order to produce a definite result and stands by that order it seems to have the effect of giving him what might be termed a second sight which enables him to see right through ordinary problems.
    • Alexander Graham Bell - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Alexander Graham Bell quote-Don't keep forever on the public road. Leave the beaten track behind occasionally... 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.iwise.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ With the telephone, Bell wrote in 1878, "It is possible to connect every man's house, office or factory with a central station, so as to give him direct communication with his neighbors."
    • On This Day: Alexander Graham Bell Patents Telephone 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.findingdulcinea.com [Source type: General]
    • Telephone & Light Patent Drawings 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.archives.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I’m feeling more comfortable sharing my ideas every day, but it’s still nice to see you lay it out so well.
    • The Alexander Graham Bell Guide to Changing the World | Copyblogger 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.copyblogger.com [Source type: General]

    .What this power is I cannot say; all I know is that it exists and it becomes available only when a man is in that state of mind in which he knows exactly what he wants and is fully determined not to quit until he finds it.
    • As quoted in Making a Habit of Success: How to Make a Habit of Succeeding, How to Win With High Self-Esteem (1999) by MacK R. Douglas, p.^ Unsourced variant: What this power is, I cannot say.
      • Alexander Graham Bell - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Iv been saying all this for the past god knows how long.
      • Boxing News - Comments on The WBA orders Khan vs. Maidana – News 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.boxingnews24.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ What this power is I cannot say; all I know is that it exists and it becomes available only when a man is in that state of mind in which he knows exactly what he wants and is fully determined not to quit until he finds it.
      • Alexander Graham Bell - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      .45. Unsourced variant: What this power is, I cannot say.^ Unsourced variant: What this power is, I cannot say.
      • Alexander Graham Bell - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      .All I know is that it exists...^ All I know is that it exists...
      • Alexander Graham Bell - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      and it becomes available only when you are in that state of mind in which you know exactly what you want...and are fully determined not to quit until you get it.
    • .
  • Before anything else, preparation is the key to success.
    • As quoted in Sophia's Fire (2005) by Sango Mbella , p.^ "Before anything else, preparation is the key to success."
      • Alexander Graham Bell - News, photos, topics, and quotes 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.daylife.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Before anything else, preparation is the key to success.
      • Alexander Graham Bell - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      ^ As quoted in Sophia's Fire (2005) by Sango Mbella , p.
      • Alexander Graham Bell - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

      .133
  • Neither the Army nor the Navy is of any protection, or very little protection, against aerial raids.
    • As quoted in The Military Quotation Book by James Charlton, p.^ Bookmark · Source wikiquote · Powerpoint Wallpaper Alexander Graham Bell: " Neither the Army nor the Navy is of any protection, or very little protection, against aerial raids.
      • Alexander Graham Bell quote-Don't keep forever on the public road. Leave the beaten track behind occasionally... 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.iwise.com [Source type: Original source]

      .37
  • The inventor...looks upon the world and is not contented with things as they are.^ The inventor...looks upon the world and is not contented with things as they are.
    • Alexander Graham Bell - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Bell would explain the restless motivations he experienced in arriving at such inventions in a speech to a patent congress in Washington in 1891: The inventor is a man who looks around upon the world and is not contented with things as they are.
    • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ I followed the judges around, while they looked at this thing and that thing.
    • The Baldwin Project: Great Inventors and Their Inventions by Frank P. Bachman 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

    .He wants to improve whatever he sees, he wants to benefit the world; he is haunted by an idea.^ He wants to improve whatever he sees, he wants to benefit the world; he is haunted by an idea.
    • Alexander Graham Bell - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ But if you really want an idea to become something, you need to expose it to the world.
    • The Alexander Graham Bell Guide to Changing the World | Copyblogger 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.copyblogger.com [Source type: General]

    The spirit of invention possesses him, seeking materialization.

Bell Telephone Talk (1901)

.Interview with Bell published in How They Succeeded (1901) by Orison Swett Marden, Ch.^ Interview with Bell published in How They Succeeded (1901) by Orison Swett Marden, Ch.
  • Alexander Graham Bell - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the 1880s, when Bell was rather wealthy and had a lot of time on his hands, he became worried about the numbers of deaf people in America and how they were increasing.

^ But the term draws our attention to the way Bell imagines devices and how they work.
  • Mike Gorman: Bell's Path the the Telephone--Home Page 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www2.iath.virginia.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

2.
.
  • I begin my work at about nine or ten o'clock in the evening and continue until four or five in the morning.^ That declaration greatly encouraged Bell to keep trying, even though he did not have the equipment needed to continue his experiments, nor the ability to create a working model of his ideas.

    ^ After four or five years of this work, you get married, and you have to quit your job, this being the natural order of womanhood in the American 1920s.
    • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ His daily routine included sleeping until 10 or 11, walks with Mabel, meals, dictation, and work in the lab up until three or four in the morning.
    • Bell, Alexander Graham - Overview, Personal Life, Career Details, Chronology: Alexander Graham Bell, Social and Economic Impact 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC encyclopedia.jrank.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Night is a more quiet time to work.^ Night is a more quiet time to work.
    • Alexander Graham Bell - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Bells appointment as professor of vocal physiology and elocution at Boston University in early 1873 meant that he had to relegate his experimental work on the multiple telegraph to the night-time.
    • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .It aids thought.
  • Perseverance must have some practical end, or it does not avail the man possessing it.^ The idea must have received practical expression in the sense that it was completed in fact, either physically or on paper, or was communicated to some other person.

    A person without a practical end in view becomes a crank or an idiot. Such persons fill our asylums.
  • I am a believer in unconscious cerebration. .The brain is working all the time, though we do not know it.^ Wrote Watson: "All the experimenting that followed that discovery, up to the time the telephone was put into practical use, was largely a matter of working out the details."
    • The Message of Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.atlassociety.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ In all truth, he was a citizen of Scotland (by birth), Canada, and because he worked so extensively in the U.S. (and lived there for long periods of time), he was also granted an American citizenship.
    • forum.canadians.ca :: View topic - Alexander Graham Bell, please 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC forum.canadians.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Bell is also hard working because of all the time he spent to finish one.
    • The My Hero Project - Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.myhero.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .At night it follows up what we think in the daytime.^ At night it follows up what we think in the daytime.
    • Alexander Graham Bell - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Follow it up, explore all around it, and before you know it, you will have something worth thinking about to occupy your mind.
    • Alexander Graham Bell - The Inventor 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.fitzgerald.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Follow it up, explore around it, and before you know it,something worth thinking about to occupy your mind.
    • Alexander Graham Bell - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .When I have worked a long time on one thing, I make it a point to bring all the facts regarding it together before I retire; I have often been surprised at the results...^ When I have worked a long time on one thing, I make it a point to bring all the facts regarding it together before I retire; I have often been surprised at the results...
    • Alexander Graham Bell - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Wrote Watson: "All the experimenting that followed that discovery, up to the time the telephone was put into practical use, was largely a matter of working out the details."
    • The Message of Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.atlassociety.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ He always encouraged me in making collections of all sorts, and that is a most important thing in the case of a boy.
    • The Baldwin Project: Great Inventors and Their Inventions by Frank P. Bachman 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mainlesson.com [Source type: Original source]

    .We are thinking all the time; it is impossible not to think.
  • You cannot force ideas.^ Follow it up, explore all around it, and before you know it, you will have something worth thinking about to occupy your mind.
    • Alexander Graham Bell - The Inventor 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.fitzgerald.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Nine times out of ten, you’ll receive a kind but lukewarm response, and you’ll know that your idea is never going to be as big as you thought it would be.
    • The Alexander Graham Bell Guide to Changing the World | Copyblogger 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.copyblogger.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The common denominator with all three is that, whatever you think of them, nobody could ever question that they give 100 per cent to every game they ever play.
    • Piers Morgan: Graham Alexander the Great, Owen Coyle the betrayer | Mail Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.dailymail.co.uk [Source type: General]

    .Successful ideas are the result of slow growth.
    Ideas do not reach perfection in a day, no matter how much study is put upon them.
  • Concentrate all your thoughts upon the work at hand.^ Concentrate all your thoughts upon the work at hand.
    • Alexander Graham Bell - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Successful ideas are the result of slow growth.
    • Alexander Graham Bell - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Ideas do not reach perfection in a day, no matter how much study is put upon them.
    • Alexander Graham Bell - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    .The sun's rays do not burn until brought to a focus.
  • Man is the result of slow growth; that is why he occupies the position he does in animal life.^ What more does this repulsive little man need to do before he IS banned for life?
    • Piers Morgan: Graham Alexander the Great, Owen Coyle the betrayer | Mail Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.dailymail.co.uk [Source type: General]

    .What does a pup amount to that has gained its growth in a few days or weeks, beside a man who only attains it in as many years.
  • The most successful men in the end are those whose success is the result of steady accretion. That intellectuality is more vigorous that has attained its strength gradually.^ What does a pup amount to that has gained its growth in a few days or weeks, beside a man who only attains it in as many years.
    • Alexander Graham Bell - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The most successful men in the end are those whose success is the result of steady accretion.
    • Alexander Graham Bell - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Successful ideas are the result of slow growth.
    • Alexander Graham Bell - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    It is the man who carefully advances step by step, with his mind becoming wider and wider — and progressively better able to grasp any theme or situation — persevering in what he knows to be practical, and concentrating his thought upon it, who is bound to succeed in the greatest degree.
  • If a man is not bound down, he is sure to succeed.
  • A man, as a general rule, owes very little to what he is born with — a man is what he makes of himself.

Leave the beaten track...

This quotation has numerous sourced variants, and as yet no original sourcing. This might be because Bell stated it in slightly different ways on a number of occasions, or because published versions are derived from second hand accounts that have been recalled differently.
.
Don't keep forever on the public road, going only where others have gone.
^ Don't keep forever on the public road.
  • Alexander Graham Bell - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ We should not keep forever on the public road, going only where others have gone; we should leave the beaten track occasionally and enter the woods.
  • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Don't keep forever on the public road, going only where others have gone.
  • Alexander Graham Bell - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

.Leave the beaten track occasionally...
  • Don't keep forever on the public road.^ Leave the beaten track occasionally and dive into the woods.
    • Alexander Graham Bell - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Don't keep forever on the public road.
    • Alexander Graham Bell - Wikiquote 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We should not keep forever on the public road, going only where others have gone; we should leave the beaten track occasionally and enter the woods.
    • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Leave the beaten track behind occasionally and dive into the woods.
    You will be certain to find something you have never seen before, and something worth thinking about to occupy your mind.^ You will never find a finer one written about him.
    • Reluctant Genius: The Passions and Inventions of Alexander Graham Bell by Gray, Charlotte 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.harpercollins.ca [Source type: General]

    ^ Can we help you find something?

    ^ Every time you do that you will be certain to find something that you have never seen before.
    • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .All really big discoveries are the result of thought.^ All really big discoveries are the results of thought."
    • Alexander Graham Bell - The Inventor 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.fitzgerald.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Follow it up, explore all around it; one discovery will lead to another, and before you know it you will have something worth thinking about to occupy your mind, for all really big discoveries are the results of thought.
    • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    • As quoted in "The Chemistry of Life" by Ralph Whiteside Kerr in Rosicrucian Digest (1947) p. .131
  • Don't keep forever on the public road, going only where others have gone. Leave the beaten track behind occasionally and dive into the woods.^ We should not keep forever on the public road, going only where others have gone; we should leave the beaten track occasionally and enter the woods.
    • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Alexander Graham Bell once summed up his approach to life and invention: "Leave the beaten track occasionally and dive into the woods.
    • Alexander Graham Bell - The Inventor 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.fitzgerald.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .You will be certain to find something you have never seen before, and something worth thinking about to occupy your mind.^ You will never find a finer one written about him.
    • Reluctant Genius: The Passions and Inventions of Alexander Graham Bell by Gray, Charlotte 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.harpercollins.ca [Source type: General]

    ^ Every time you do that you will be certain to find something that you have never seen before.
    • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Every time you do so you will be certain to find something that you have never seen before.
    • Alexander Graham Bell - The Inventor 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.fitzgerald.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .All really big discoveries are the result of thought.^ All really big discoveries are the results of thought."
    • Alexander Graham Bell - The Inventor 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.fitzgerald.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Follow it up, explore all around it; one discovery will lead to another, and before you know it you will have something worth thinking about to occupy your mind, for all really big discoveries are the results of thought.
    • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    • Quoted in Design of Devices and Systems (1998) by William H. Middendorf, p. .177
  • Don't keep forever on the public road, going only where others have gone.^ We should not keep forever on the public road, going only where others have gone; we should leave the beaten track occasionally and enter the woods.
    • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Leave the beaten track occasionally and dive into the woods.^ We should not keep forever on the public road, going only where others have gone; we should leave the beaten track occasionally and enter the woods.
    • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Alexander Graham Bell once summed up his approach to life and invention: "Leave the beaten track occasionally and dive into the woods.
    • Alexander Graham Bell - The Inventor 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.fitzgerald.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .You will be certain to find something you have never seen before.^ Every time you do that you will be certain to find something that you have never seen before.
    • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Every time you do so you will be certain to find something that you have never seen before.
    • Alexander Graham Bell - The Inventor 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.fitzgerald.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Follow it up, explore all around it, and before you know it, you will have something worth thinking about to occupy your mind.
    • Alexander Graham Bell - The Inventor 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.fitzgerald.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Of course it will be a little thing, but do not ignore it. .Follow it up, explore around it; one discovery will lead to another, and before you know it you will have something worth thinking about to occupy your mind.^ Follow it up, explore all around it, and before you know it, you will have something worth thinking about to occupy your mind.
    • Alexander Graham Bell - The Inventor 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.fitzgerald.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Follow it up, explore all around it; one discovery will lead to another, and before you know it you will have something worth thinking about to occupy your mind, for all really big discoveries are the results of thought.
    • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It was early discovered that exposure to sunlight (4) hastens the change of selenium from one allotropic form to another; and this observation is significant in the light of recent discoveries.
    • Alexander Graham BELL, Ph.D., "On the Production and Reproduction of Sound byLight" 2 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC histv2.free.fr [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .All really big discoveries are the result of thought.
    • Advanced Device Modeling and Simulation (2003) by Tibor Grasser.^ All really big discoveries are the results of thought."
      • Alexander Graham Bell - The Inventor 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.fitzgerald.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Follow it up, explore all around it; one discovery will lead to another, and before you know it you will have something worth thinking about to occupy your mind, for all really big discoveries are the results of thought.
      • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      p. 719
.
  • Don't keep forever on the public road.^ We should not keep forever on the public road, going only where others have gone; we should leave the beaten track occasionally and enter the woods.
    • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Leave the beaten path occasionally and dive into the woods.^ We should not keep forever on the public road, going only where others have gone; we should leave the beaten track occasionally and enter the woods.
    • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Alexander Graham Bell once summed up his approach to life and invention: "Leave the beaten track occasionally and dive into the woods.
    • Alexander Graham Bell - The Inventor 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.fitzgerald.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .You will be certain to find something you have never seen before, and something worth thinking about to occupy your mind.^ You will never find a finer one written about him.
    • Reluctant Genius: The Passions and Inventions of Alexander Graham Bell by Gray, Charlotte 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.harpercollins.ca [Source type: General]

    ^ Every time you do that you will be certain to find something that you have never seen before.
    • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Every time you do so you will be certain to find something that you have never seen before.
    • Alexander Graham Bell - The Inventor 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.fitzgerald.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .All really big discoveries are the result of thought.^ All really big discoveries are the results of thought."
    • Alexander Graham Bell - The Inventor 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.fitzgerald.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Follow it up, explore all around it; one discovery will lead to another, and before you know it you will have something worth thinking about to occupy your mind, for all really big discoveries are the results of thought.
    • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    • Worth Repeating: More Than 5000 Classic and Contemporary Quotes (2003) by Bob Kelly, p. .87
  • Leave the beaten track occasionally and dive into the woods.^ We should not keep forever on the public road, going only where others have gone; we should leave the beaten track occasionally and enter the woods.
    • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Alexander Graham Bell once summed up his approach to life and invention: "Leave the beaten track occasionally and dive into the woods.
    • Alexander Graham Bell - The Inventor 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.fitzgerald.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Every time you do so you will be certain to see something you have never seen before.^ Every time you do that you will be certain to find something that you have never seen before.
    • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Every time you do so you will be certain to find something that you have never seen before.
    • Alexander Graham Bell - The Inventor 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.fitzgerald.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Follow it up, explore all around it, and before you know it, you will have something worth thinking about to occupy your mind.
    • Alexander Graham Bell - The Inventor 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.fitzgerald.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Of course it will be a little thing, but do not ignore it. .Follow it up, explore around it, and before you know it,something worth thinking about to occupy your mind.^ Follow it up, explore all around it, and before you know it, you will have something worth thinking about to occupy your mind.
    • Alexander Graham Bell - The Inventor 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.fitzgerald.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Follow it up, explore all around it; one discovery will lead to another, and before you know it you will have something worth thinking about to occupy your mind, for all really big discoveries are the results of thought.
    • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The U.S. wasn't really buying but, you know, so they were tied up with their own idea of how to bring this technology out, and it [had] gone on for years, and they still had not demonstrated it.
    • Whose Phone Is It, Anyway: Did Bell Steal The Invention? : Scientific American Podcast 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.scientificamerican.com [Source type: General]

    • A Treasury of Inspirational Thoughts (2004) by S.P. Sharma, p. .41
  • Leave the beaten track occasionally and dive into the woods.^ We should not keep forever on the public road, going only where others have gone; we should leave the beaten track occasionally and enter the woods.
    • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Alexander Graham Bell once summed up his approach to life and invention: "Leave the beaten track occasionally and dive into the woods.
    • Alexander Graham Bell - The Inventor 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.fitzgerald.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Every time you do so you will find something you have never seen before.^ Every time you do that you will be certain to find something that you have never seen before.
    • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Every time you do so you will be certain to find something that you have never seen before.
    • Alexander Graham Bell - The Inventor 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.fitzgerald.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Follow it up, explore all around it, and before you know it, you will have something worth thinking about to occupy your mind.
    • Alexander Graham Bell - The Inventor 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.fitzgerald.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Follow it up, explore around it, and before you know it, you will have something to think about to occupy your mind.^ Follow it up, explore all around it, and before you know it, you will have something worth thinking about to occupy your mind.
    • Alexander Graham Bell - The Inventor 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.fitzgerald.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Follow it up, explore all around it; one discovery will lead to another, and before you know it you will have something worth thinking about to occupy your mind, for all really big discoveries are the results of thought.
    • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Thank you for supporting scientists, thinking musicians and LEAD guitar players with your so kind a gesture, Charles Michael Collins .
    • MySpace - Alexander Graham Bell - 101 - Male - Edinburgh, Channel Islands - myspace.com/alexgbell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.myspace.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .All really big discoveries are the result of thought.
    • Engraving at Bell Labs as quoted in Comprehending And Decoding the Cosmos: Discovering Solutions to Over a Dozen Cosmic Mysteries by Jerome Drexler (2006).^ All really big discoveries are the results of thought."
      • Alexander Graham Bell - The Inventor 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.fitzgerald.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Bells determination on both counts, Western Unions rejection of his multiple telegraph (because of Hubbards involvement), and important discoveries in telephony all contributed to winning Hubbard over.
      • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      ^ Bell Labs are world-famous for generating "a patent a day," and have even made vital discoveries in astronomy, physics and cosmology.
      • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

      p. viii
Unsourced variants:
.
  • Don't keep forever on the public road.^ We should not keep forever on the public road, going only where others have gone; we should leave the beaten track occasionally and enter the woods.
    • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Leave the beaten track behind occasionally and dive into the woods.^ We should not keep forever on the public road, going only where others have gone; we should leave the beaten track occasionally and enter the woods.
    • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Alexander Graham Bell once summed up his approach to life and invention: "Leave the beaten track occasionally and dive into the woods.
    • Alexander Graham Bell - The Inventor 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.fitzgerald.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Follow it up, explore around it, one discovery will lead to another.
.
  • Don't keep forever on the public road.^ We should not keep forever on the public road, going only where others have gone; we should leave the beaten track occasionally and enter the woods.
    • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .Leave the beaten track behind occasionally and dive into the woods.^ We should not keep forever on the public road, going only where others have gone; we should leave the beaten track occasionally and enter the woods.
    • Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.biographi.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Alexander Graham Bell once summed up his approach to life and invention: "Leave the beaten track occasionally and dive into the woods.
    • Alexander Graham Bell - The Inventor 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.fitzgerald.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    Every time you do you will be certain to find something you have never seen before.

External links

Wikipedia
Wikipedia has an article about:

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL (1847-), American inventor and physicist, son of Alexander Melville Bell, was born in Edinburgh, Scotland, on the 3rd of March 1847. He was educated at the university of Edinburgh and the university of London, and removed with his father to Canada in 1870. In 1872 he became professor of vocal physiology in Boston University.^ Alexander graham bell Translations .
  • Alexander graham bell definition by Babylon's free dictionary 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC dictionary.babylon.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Login to contact Alexander Graham Bell.
  • Alexander Graham Bell - Singapore | Facebook 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.facebook.com [Source type: General]
  • Alexander Graham Bell | Facebook 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.facebook.com [Source type: General]

^ Home / catalogue Alexander Graham Bell .
  • Alexander Graham Bell | Canadian Children's Book Centre 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.bookcentre.ca [Source type: General]
  • Alexander Graham Bell | Canadian Children's Book Centre 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.bookcentre.ca [Source type: General]

.In 1876 he exhibited an apparatus embodying the results of his studies in the transmission of sound by electricity, and this invention, with improvements and modifications, constitutes the modern commercial telephone.^ "No, the electric telegraph is not a sound invention.
  • PART ONE: Crashing the System 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mit.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Today, my assistant and I will be demonstrating my new invention, the telephone, which will allow people to speak to each other over long distances through electrical wire.

^ After his invention of the telephone in 1875, Bell continued with many experiments in communication, including the invention of the photophone-transmission of sound on a beam of light - a precursor to current optical fiber systems.
  • World's best website on Alexander Graham Bell: Selected by Beesker 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.beesker.com [Source type: News]

.He was the inventor also of the photophone, an instrument for transmitting sound by variations in a beam of light, and of phonographic apparatus.^ He also designed the 'photophone' that could transmit speech using a light beam.
  • Sons of Scotland - Famous Sons > Alexander Graham Bell... 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.sonsofscotland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He also invented a way to transmit sound using vibrations in a beam of light.
  • A Brief Biography of Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: General]

^ A device that can transmit a message on a beam if light.
  • Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mrnussbaum.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Later, he interested himself in the problem of mechanical flight.^ He was also interested in the problem of mechanical flight and experimented with kites.
  • A Brief Biography of Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.localhistories.org [Source type: General]

^ With the enormous technical and later financial success of his telephone invention, Bell's future was secure, and he was able to arrange his life so that he could devote himself to his scientific interests.
  • Bell Family Papers: Alexander Graham Bell as Inventor and Scientist 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC memory.loc.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Alexander Graham Bell - Biography 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.russiannewsnetwork.com [Source type: General]

^ Bell also became interest in flight in his later years.
  • Sons of Scotland - Famous Sons > Alexander Graham Bell... 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.sonsofscotland.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.He published many scientific monographs, including a memoir on the formation of a deaf variety in the human race.^ "Memoir upon the formation of a deaf variety of the human race."
  • Transwiki:Alexander Graham Bell - Wikibooks, collection of open-content textbooks 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.wikibooks.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He examined data from many American schools for the deaf and wrote a paper entitled Memoir upon the Formation of a Deaf Variety of the Human Race .

^ His work with organizations such as this helped to pass laws in many states to sterilize people deemed to be a, "defective variety of the human race" which he described as the deaf , the criminally insane and the mentally defective.
  • Bambooweb: Alexander Graham Bell 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.bambooweb.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]



Simple English

File:Alexander Graham
Alexander Graham Bell

Alexander Graham Bell (March 3, 1847 - August 2, 1922) was a teacher, scientist, and inventor. He was the founder of the Bell Telephone Company.

Bell was born in Edinburgh, Scotland. His family was known for teaching people how to speak English clearly (elocution). His grandfather taught in China, his uncle in Dublin, and his father, Mr. Alexander Melville Bell, in Edinburgh. His father wrote often about this and is most known for his book on Visible Speech. In this, he explains a way of teaching people who are deaf and mute. It shows how these people can learn to speak words by using their eyes to read what other people are saying, and by watching their lips.

Alexander Graham Bell went to the Royal High School of Edinburgh. He graduated at the age of fourteen. At the age of sixteen, he got a job as a student and teacher of elocution and music in Weston House Academy, at Elgin in Morayshire. He spent the next year at the University of Edinburgh. While still in Scotland, he became more interested in the science of sound (acoustics). He hoped to help his deaf mother. From 1866 to 1867, he was a teacher at Somersetshire College in Bath, Somerset.

In 1870 when he was 23 years old, he moved with his family to Canada where they settled at Brantford, Ontario. Bell began to study communication machines. He made a piano that could be heard far away by using electricity. In 1873, he went with his father to Montreal, Quebec in Canada, where he took a job teaching about "visible speech". Bell was strongly disliked among women in Quebec. His father was asked to teach about it at a large school for deaf mutes in Boston, but instead he gave the job to his son. He began teaching there in 1871. Alexander Graham Bell soon became famous in the United States for this important work. He published many writings about it in Washington, D.C.. Because of this work, thousands of deaf mutes in America are now able to speak, even though they cannot hear.

In 1876, Bell was first inventor to patent the telephone and started the Bell Telephone Company with others in July, 1877. In 1879, this company joined with the New England Telephone Company to form the National Bell Telephone Company. In 1880, they formed the American Bell Telephone Company, and in 1885, American Telephone and Telegraph Company (AT&T), still a large company today. Along with Thomas Edison, Bell formed the Oriental Telephone Company on January 25, 1881.

Bell married Mabel Hubbard on July 11, 1877 who had previously hated Bell. It is a surprise that they had children. He died in Baddeck, Nova Scotia in 1922.

Contents

Inventions

Bell's genius is seen in part by the eighteen patents granted in his name alone and the twelve that he shared with others. These included fifteen for the telephone and telegraph, four for the photophone, one for the phonograph, five for aerial vehicles, four for hydroairplanes, and two for a selenium cell.
In 2002, the United States Congress ruled that the Italian inventor Antonio Meucci is the real inventor of the telephone.
In 1888, he was one of the original members of the National Geographic Society and became its second president.

He was the recipient of many honors.

  • The French government gave him the decoration of the Legion of Honor.
  • The Royal Society of Arts in London awarded him the Albert medal in 1902.
  • The University of Würzburg, Bavaria, granted him the Degree of Ph.D.

Telephone

His past experience made him ready to work more with sound and electricity. He began his studies in 1874 with a musical telegraph, in which he used an electric circuit and a magnet to make an iron reed or tongue vibrate. One day, it was found that a reed failed to respond to the current. Mr. Bell desired his assistant, who was at the other end of the line, to pluck the reed, thinking it had stuck to the magnet. Mr. Watson complied, and to his surprise, Bell heard the corresponding reed at his end of the line vibrate and sound the same - without any electric current to power it. A few experiments soon showed that his reed had been set in vibration by the changes in the magnetic field that the moving reed produced in the line. This discovery led him to stop using the electric battery current. His idea was that, since the circuit was never broken, all the complex vibrations of speech might be converted into currents, which in turn would reproduce the speech at a distance.

Bell, with his assistant Watson, devised a receiver, consisting of a stretched film or drum with a bit of magnetised iron attached to its middle, and free to vibrate in front of the pole of an electromagnet in circuit with the line. This apparatus was completed on June 2, 1875. On July 7th, he instructed his assistant to make a second receiver which could be used with the first, and a few days later they were tried together, at each end of the line, which ran from a room in the inventor's house at Boston to the cellar underneath. Bell, in the room, held one instrument in his hands, while Watson in the cellar listened at the other. The inventor spoke into his instrument, "Do you understand what I say?" and Mr. Watson rushed back into the upstairs and answered "Yes." The first successful two-way telephone call was not made until March 10, 1876 when Bell spoke into his device, "Mr. Watson, come here, I want to see you." and Watson answered back. The first long distance telephone call was made on August 10, 1876 by Bell from the family home in Brantford, Ontario to his assistant located in Paris, Ontario, some 16 km (10 mi.) away.

On March 7, 1876, the U.S. Patent Office gave him patent #174465 for the telephone.

Photophone

After that, Bell continued his experiments in communication, which led to the invention of the photophone – sending of sound on a beam of light. Bell worked with Charles Sumner Tainter. In his paper on the phonophone, Bell gave credit to A. C. Browne of London with the discovery in 1878. Bell and Tainter, however, were likely the first to perform a successful experiment. It was not an easy task, as they had to produce selenium cells with the desired properties themselves.

In one experiment in Washington, D.C., the sender and the receiver were placed in different buildings some 830 ft. (about 250 meters) apart. The sender had a mirror directing sunlight onto the mouthpiece, where the light beam was changed by a vibrating mirror. It was focused by a lens and sent at the receiver, which was a curved mirror with the selenium cells in the focus and a telephone attached. With this setup, Bell and Tainter succeeded to communicate clearly.

The photophone was patented on December 18, 1880. However, since the light beam was not shielded in any way against external interference, the quality of communication was not always good, and it only worked within line-of-sight. It is still considered a precursor of the much later fiber optic technology, which is based on the same ideas, but remove these limits.

Metal detector

Bell is also credited with the invention of the metal detector in 1881. The device was quickly put together in an attempt to find the bullet in the body of U.S. President James Garfield. The metal detector worked, but did not find the bullet because of the metal bedframe the President was lying on. Bell gave a full description of his experiments in a paper read before the "American Association for the Advancement of Science" in August, 1882.

Eugenics

Bell was an active supporter of the eugenics movement in the United States. He was the honorary president of the "Second International Congress of Eugenics" held at the American Museum of Natural History in New York in 1921. He did not want deaf people to be allowed to teach in schools for the deaf. He also worked to pass laws that would not allow deaf people to marry others who were deaf. He was also against the use of sign language. These things mean that he is not appreciated by some deaf people in the present day.

Other websites


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 18, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Alexander Graham Bell, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message