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Alexander Hamilton


In office
September 11, 1789 – January 31, 1795
President George Washington
Succeeded by Oliver Wolcott, Jr.

In office
1788–1789

Delegate from New York to the Constitutional Convention
In office
1787–1787

In office
1787–1788

Delegate from New York to the Annapolis Convention
In office
1786–1786

In office
1782–1783

Born January 11, 1755 or 1757
Nevis, Caribbean (now Saint Kitts and Nevis)
Died July 12, 1804 (aged 49 or 47)
New York City, New York
Political party Federalist
Spouse(s) Elizabeth Schuyler Hamilton
Profession military officer, lawyer, financier, political theorist
Religion Episcopal at his death
Signature
Military service
Allegiance Province of New York (began 1775)
State of New York (began 1776)
United States of America (began 1777)
Service/branch New York Provincial Company of Artillery
Continental Army
United States Army
Years of service 1775–1776 (Militia)
1776–1781
1798–1800
Rank Beginning:
US-OF1A.svg Lieutenant (Artillery)
Highest:
US-O8 insignia.svg Major General (Senior Officer of the United States Army)
Battles/wars American Revolutionary War
Battle of Harlem Heights
Battle of White Plains
Battle of Trenton
Battle of Princeton
Battle of Monmouth
Battle of Yorktown
Quasi-War
.Alexander Hamilton (January 11, 1755 or 1757 – July 12, 1804) was the first United States Secretary of the Treasury, a Founding Father, economist, and political philosopher.^ The first treasury secretary, Hamilton was for all practical purposes the creator of modern American finance and the founding wealth of the United States.
  • Boston Review — hogeland.php 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bostonreview.net [Source type: Original source]

^ THE CREATOR Alexander Hamilton (1755–1804) .
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ During Alexander Hamilton's term as Treasury secretary, the United States managed to avoid a European war.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.Aide-de-camp to General George Washington during the American Revolutionary War, he was a leader of nationalist forces calling for a new Constitution; he was one of America's first lawyers, and wrote most of the Federalist Papers, a primary source for Constitutional interpretation.^ The most critical relationship forged during the Revolutionary War years is without a doubt that forged with General Washington (future first president).
  • Geometry.Net - Authors Books: Hamilton Alexander 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Burr joined the revolutionary army and served as aide-de-camp to one of Washington's rival Generals, Israel Putnam.

^ We shall never know what percentage of the American electorate wished to see adoption, but we do know what happened in each state convention, and that Hamilton was the leader of the victorious pro-Constitutional forces in New York's ratifying convention.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.He was the financial expert of Washington's administration; the Federalist Party formed to support his policies.^ Despite its role in provoking the split between Federalists and Republicans, the funding act introduced policies and institutions of debt management that outlived the Federalist administrations of George Washington and John Adams.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the early days of George Washington's administration, Thomas Jefferson shared the Federalists' belief in the importance of restoring public credit.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It was during this time that the already steaming Federalist and Republican press hostilities boiled over, galvanizing the intensity of feelings within each party, and animosity within the Washington cabinet.

.He was the creator of the National Bank, which was opened in 1791 as part of his financial plan for the United States after the Revolutionary War.^ He promoted the chartering of the Bank of the United States as the keystone to his financial plan.
  • Geometry.Net - Authors Books: Hamilton Alexander 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This lead of course to his plan for chartering the Bank of the United States.
  • Geometry.Net - Authors Books: Hamilton Alexander 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The growth of manufacturing in the United States, in Hamilton's view, would parallel the growth of great population centers, thus creating more of a market for the produce of farms.

.Born and raised in the Caribbean, Hamilton attended King's College (now Columbia University) in New York.^ Hamilton reached New York Harbor in early 1773, entered King's College (now Columbia University) in 1774, and began his studies in medicine.

^ Columbia, then King's College, was more accommodating.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He was a graduate of King's College, or as it is known to through conservatives, or Columbia to you neocons co-founded the city's first local bank in the year 1784, the Bank of New York, and founded the New York Post.

.At the start of the American Revolutionary War, he organized an artillery company and was chosen as its captain.^ His role in the commercial sphere of American life and the Revolutionary War play hugely important roles in the shaping of the man to become such a predominant force in American politics.
  • Geometry.Net - Authors Books: Hamilton Alexander 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hamilton became the senior[1] aide-de-camp and confidant to General George Washington, the American commander-in-chief.^ He served in the Revolution as General Washington s chief aide-de-camp and as an officer in combat units.
  • Geometry.Net - Authors Books: Hamilton Alexander 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As secretary and aide to Washington, the Virginian being for all intents and purposes secretary of war as well as commanding general of the army, Hamilton soon became privy to the inner workings of the Articles of Confederation government and the military system, both of which he now sought to purge of their defects by constructive reforms.
  • Alexander Hamilton: From Caesar to Christ 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC catholiceducation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ General Washington himself was impressed, although in the end it was Hamiltons other talentshis gift for writing and keen intelligencewhich led the commander-in-chief on March 1, 1777 to name the young captain his aide-de-camp with the rank of lieutenant-colonel.
  • Alexander Hamilton: From Caesar to Christ 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC catholiceducation.org [Source type: Original source]

.After the war, Hamilton was elected to the Continental Congress from New York, but he resigned to practice law and found the Bank of New York.^ More on Hamilton's war on Congress.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hamilton went to university, joined the army, and practiced law in New York.

^ He was a graduate of King's College, or as it is known to through conservatives, or Columbia to you neocons co-founded the city's first local bank in the year 1784, the Bank of New York, and founded the New York Post.

.He served in the New York Legislature, and he was the only New Yorker who signed the U.S. Constitution.^ The pro-constitution, or Federalist, attendees were outnumbered two to one by Clinton's minions, indicating that Publius was largely ineffective in turning the political tide in New York.

^ The purpose of this onslaught was to put the case for the Constitution before the New York public for its review.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As Hamilton had predicted early on, it was only when Virginia ratified that the New York resistance began to crack.

.He wrote about half the Federalist Papers, which secured its ratification by New York; they are still the most important unofficial interpretation of the Constitution.^ He also knew that it was desperately important for New York to ratify the constitution.

^ With his then-friend James Madison and John Jay (whom rheumatism soon sidelined), he began the greatest propaganda campaign ever in favor of the Constitution’s ratification— The Federalist Papers , 85 newspaper columns, some 50 of which Hamilton wrote, sometimes two, occasionally five or even six, a week.
  • Alexander Hamilton, Modern America’s Founding Father by Myron Magnet, City Journal Winter 2009 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The pro-constitution, or Federalist, attendees were outnumbered two to one by Clinton's minions, indicating that Publius was largely ineffective in turning the political tide in New York.

.In the new government under President Washington he became Secretary of the Treasury.^ Hamilton was a supremely ambitious man, yet his aspirations propelled him not to be a king or a president or a conquering general.When the new American government formed following the revolution, the only post he desired - easily granted to him by Washington - was Treasury Secretary.
  • Geometry.Net - Authors Books: Hamilton Alexander 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To ensure the safety of the government's deposits, the Secretary of the Treasury was empowered to inspect the state of the Bank as frequently as once a week.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Soon after Congress created the Treasury Department in September 1789, Washington offered Hamilton the post of Treasury secretary, and the Senate concurred.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.An admirer of British political systems, Hamilton was a nationalist who emphasized strong central government and successfully argued that the implied powers of the Constitution could be used to fund the national debt, assume state debts, and create the government-owned Bank of the United States.^ ALEXANDER HAMILTON state governments had contracted debts.
  • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hamilton signed the constitution of the United States on September 17, 1787.

^ So why did Hamilton argue that the national government should "service" this debt?
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.These programs were funded primarily by a tariff on imports and a highly controversial whiskey tax.^ He favored import duties and excise duties, such as the whiskey and carriage tax, but he feared that direct taxes on land would incite rapid settlement to new lands.
  • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Revenue, the most important issue, was to be generated primarily through a tax on imports, and an excise.

.By 1792, the coalition led by Hamilton was opposed by a coalition led by Thomas Jefferson and James Madison.^ Hamilton's views "almost led him to despair," Madison noted, "that a republican government could be established over so great an extent."
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He and James Madison were the prime movers behind the summoning of the Constitutional Convention and the chief authors of that classic gloss on the national charter, The Federalist , which Hamilton supervised.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Washington, and Martha, and John Jay, and that Duane guy, and Madison, and an incredible one of Thomas Jefferson that I don't think I had seen before.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

.Hamilton's Federalist now had to compete with Jefferson's Democratic-Republican Party.^ Hamilton headed the rightists, the Federalists; Jefferson headed the leftists, the Republicans.
  • Geometry.Net - Authors Books: Hamilton Alexander 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Burr had alienated Jefferson and the triumphant Republican party by his disloyalty as a vice president and had lost by a landslide in his bid to become a Federalist governor of New York.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Again, Hamilton supported his Republican rival, John Lansing (and later Morgan Lewis when Lansing bowed out), and because of his stance, was all but ostracized by his own party.

.The parties fought over Hamilton's fiscal goals and national bank, as well as his foreign policy of extensive trade and friendly relations with Britain, especially the Jay Treaty which was ratified, by a single vote, after a lengthy struggle between the two coalitions.^ Fearing the consequences of a trade war with Britain, Hamilton communicated to Beckwith, in a series of meetings, his wish to see improved relations and a commercial treaty between the United States and Britain.

^ Hamilton understood that the Jay Treaty was the best a new nation could expect from a world power, which was not obligated in the least to even consider its trading rights let alone treat with it like an equal.

^ The principle which divided the parties in Hamilton's day was not socialistic but national- istic.
  • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

.Embarrassed by a blackmail affair that became public, Hamilton resigned as the Secretary of the Treasury in 1795 and returned to the practice of law in New York.^ Hamilton went to university, joined the army, and practiced law in New York.

^ Hamilton died in New York City, surrounded by his wife and seven children and mourned by a nation.
  • Alexander Hamilton: From Caesar to Christ 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC catholiceducation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In February of 1784, he wrote the charter for and became a founding member of the Bank of New York, the state's first bank.

.In 1798, the Quasi-War with France led Hamilton to argue for and attempt to raise and organize an army to fight the French (by invading the colonies of Spain, then a French ally).^ A wealthy landowner, he served with distinction in the French and Indian War, and in 1768 was made a member of the Colonial Assembly.
  • Our Aaron Burr / Alexander Hamilton Connections 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC ntgen.tripod.com [Source type: General]

^ President Adams called Washington out of retirement to act as commander-in-chief for raising the forces requisite for the war with France.

^ The Quasi-War was a roughly two-year period of severe friction between France and the United States during which war seemed inevitable.

[2]
.Hamilton's opposition to his fellow Federalist John Adams hurt the party in the 1800 elections.^ As the leader of the Federalists during the election season of 1800, Hamilton headed a party in crisis.

^ Again, Hamilton supported his Republican rival, John Lansing (and later Morgan Lewis when Lansing bowed out), and because of his stance, was all but ostracized by his own party.

^ The voice of the opposition came from James Madison, whom Hamilton considered a friend and ardent fellow Federalist.

.When Thomas Jefferson and Aaron Burr tied in the electoral college, Hamilton helped defeat his bitter personal enemy Burr and elect Jefferson as president.^ The duel between Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton is a famous piece of American history, which we are all taught in our history classes.
  • Our Aaron Burr / Alexander Hamilton Connections 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC ntgen.tripod.com [Source type: General]

^ When he stops, my article is completed.” And when Vice President Aaron Burr, knowing that Jefferson would drop him from the ticket in the 1804 election, decided to run for governor of New York instead, Hamilton roused all his political skill and passion to stop him.
  • Alexander Hamilton, Modern America’s Founding Father by Myron Magnet, City Journal Winter 2009 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thereafter, Hamilton likely considered Burr his most dangerous enemy.

.With his party's defeat, Hamilton's nationalist and industrialization ideas lost their former national prominence.^ The principle which divided the parties in Hamilton's day was not socialistic but national- istic.
  • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hamilton waited anxiously, and monitored the proceedings with mounting anguish as his former ally denounced his work and endeavored to defeat it.

^ Some writers have noticed that Hamilton seemed in his report to be famihar with the state of industry in this country but they give no expla- nation of how he obtained his information.
  • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

.Hamilton's intense rivalry with Burr resulted in a duel, in which Hamilton was mortally wounded.^ The duel between Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton is a famous piece of American history, which we are all taught in our history classes.
  • Our Aaron Burr / Alexander Hamilton Connections 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC ntgen.tripod.com [Source type: General]

^ A current historian believes the duel was sparked by a remark that Alexander Hamilton made that suggested that Aaron Burr's relationship with his daughter was so close, that it suggested an incestuous relationship.
  • Our Aaron Burr / Alexander Hamilton Connections 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC ntgen.tripod.com [Source type: General]

^ Hamilton and Burr: Infinite Shades of Ambition The Hamilton/Burr rivalry is one of the most famous in American politics, and certainly their duel is the most notorious in history.

.Hamilton was always denounced by the Jeffersonians and later the Jacksonians, but his economic ideas, especially support for a protective tariff and a national bank, were promoted by the Whig Party and after the 1850s by the newly created Republican Party, which hailed him as the nation's greatest Secretary of the Treasury.^ Appointed Treasury secretary in September—the startled Washington had only recently learned that his ex-aide was a financial whiz—Hamilton, now 34 and the administration’s chief policymaker, turned to the financial crisis undermining the nation.
  • Alexander Hamilton, Modern America’s Founding Father by Myron Magnet, City Journal Winter 2009 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As a military aide to George Washington, forceful critic of the Articlesof Confederation, persuasive proponent of ratification of the Constitution,first Secretary of the Treasury, and leader of the Federalist party, Hamiltondevoted himself to the creation of a militarily and economically powerfulAmerican nation guided by a strong republican government.
  • Geometry.Net - Authors Books: Hamilton Alexander 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The impetus for of the funding act came right after Hamilton's appointment as secretary of the Treasury in September 1789, when the House of Representatives asked him to prepare a plan "for the support of the public credit, as a matter of high importance to the national honor and prosperity."
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

[3]

Contents

Childhood in the Caribbean

.Hamilton was born in Charlestown, the capital of Nevis in the British West Indies.^ He was most likely born on the island of Nevis in the British West Indies in 1755.

^ On this day, in 1755, Alexander Hamilton was born in the British West Indies.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Especially insulting to the American people was a seventy ton limit on American ships trading in the British West Indies, effectively locking Americans out of the lucrative lumber trade.

.He was born out of wedlock to Rachel Faucett Lavien, of partial French Huguenot descent, and James A. Hamilton, the fourth son of Scottish laird Alexander Hamilton of Grange, Ayrshire.^ Hamilton's father, James Hamilton, was the fourth son of a Scottish aristocrat.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Son of James Hamilton and Rachel (Faucette) Hamilton; married 1780 to Elizabeth Schuyler (daughter of Philip John Schuyler ; sister of Philip Jeremiah Schuyler ); father of William Stephen Hamilton ; ancestor of Robert Hamilton Woodruff .
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Born around 1718, he was the fourth of eleven children (nine sons, two daughters) of Alexander Hamilton, the laird of Grange in Stevenston Parish in Ayrshire, Scotland, southwest of Glasgow.
  • WNYC - Books: Alexander Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wnyc.org [Source type: Original source]

[4] .There is some question about whether the year of Hamilton's birth was 1757 or 1755. Most historical evidence after Hamilton's arrival in New England suggests a year of 1757, and as such, most historians had accepted it.^ For a long time, historians accepted 1757, the year used by Hamilton himself and his family.
  • WNYC - Books: Alexander Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wnyc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The mass of evidence from the period after Hamilton's arrival in North America does suggest 1757 as his birth year, but, preferring the integrity of contemporary over retrospective evidence, we will opt here for a birthday of January 11, 1755.
  • WNYC - Books: Alexander Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wnyc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This new biography introduces the general reader to some of the challenges and controversies of the early days of the Republic and highlights Hamilton's brilliant contributions to US policy and structure.
  • Geometry.Net - Authors Books: Hamilton Alexander 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, new evidence from Hamilton's life in the Caribbean has caused more recent historians to opt for a birth year of 1755.[5] Hamilton listed his birth year as 1757 when he first arrived in the Thirteen Colonies.^ Yet several cogent pieces of evidence from his Caribbean period have caused many recent historians to opt for 1755.
  • WNYC - Books: Alexander Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wnyc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hamilton's principal aim, most historians agree, was to ensure the stability of the new regime by giving the elite a reason to support it.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ A couple years ago, the New York Historical Society had a massive Alexander Hamilton exhibit and Bill McCabe and I went - it was so so terrific.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

However, probate papers from St. Croix in 1768 after the death of Hamilton's mother list him as 13 years old,[6] a date that would support a birth year of 1755. If Hamilton's birth year were, in fact, 1755, there would be a number of possible explanations. .Hamilton may have been trying to appear younger than his college classmates or to avoid standing out as older; the probate document indicating a birth year of 1755 may have misreported; or Hamilton may have been passing as 13 to be more employable after his mother's death.^ This argument Hamilton refers to as "both quaint and superficial."^ The skill of man, he argues, laid out on manufactured products may be more productive of value than the labor of nature and man combined.
  • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His French Huguenot mother may also have instructed Hamilton, for he was comfortably bilingual and later was more at ease in French than Franklin, Adams, Jefferson, and other American diplomats who had spent years struggling to master the tongue in Paris.
  • WNYC - Books: Alexander Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wnyc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As we shall see, there is a possible reason why James Hamilton may have felt less than paternal toward his son and Alexander less than filial toward him.
  • WNYC - Books: Alexander Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wnyc.org [Source type: Original source]

[7]
Hamilton in his youth
Hamilton's mother had been separated previously from Johann Michael Lavien of St. Croix ("a much older German Jewish merchant-planter"[4]);[8] to escape an unhappy marriage, Rachel left her husband and first son for St. Kitts in 1750, where she met James.[9] .They moved together to Rachel's birthplace of Nevis, where she had inherited property from her father.^ With no chance of inheriting his father's property, he traveled the Caribbean seeking his fortune.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ From her father, Rachel had inherited a waterfront property on the main street in Charlestown, the Nevis capital, where legend proclaims that Alexander was born and lived as a boy.
  • WNYC - Books: Alexander Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wnyc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His second wife had died just a month before Rachel, and the couple had already lost the two children they had together.
  • WNYC - Books: Alexander Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wnyc.org [Source type: Original source]

[10] .Their two sons were James, Jr., and Alexander.^ Undaunted, Rachael bore two sons, James and Alexander.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ She bore two more sons, James, Jr. January 11, 1755, Alexander.
  • Alexander Hamilton, Modern America’s Founding Father by Myron Magnet, City Journal Winter 2009 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They had two sons: James, Jr., and, two years later, Alexander.
  • WNYC - Books: Alexander Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wnyc.org [Source type: Original source]

.Because Hamilton's parents were not legally married, the Church of England denied him membership or education in the church school.^ Hamilton neither admitted nor denied Reynolds' accusation, but pressed him to name the terms of his "satisfaction."

^ But the ideal of Hamilton was a strong Union; and the powers in the central gov- ernment which had been denied him in the Con- *^ vention, he proposed to get from the document by implication.
  • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hamilton favored greater ties to England because the United States needed the English navy for its protection and England was the main market for American goods.
  • Geometry.Net - Authors Books: Hamilton Alexander 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Instead, he received "individual tutoring"[10] and classes in a private Jewish school.^ Hamiliton probably did not have formal schooling on Nevis-his illegitimate birth may well have barred him from Anglican instruction-but he seems to have had individual tutoring.
  • WNYC - Books: Alexander Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wnyc.org [Source type: Original source]

[11] .Hamilton supplemented his education with a family library of thirty-four books,[12] including Greek and Roman classics.^ Of most compelling interest to our saga, the upstairs living quarters held thirty-four books-the first unmistakable sign of Hamilton's omnivorous, self-directed reading.
  • WNYC - Books: Alexander Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wnyc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To supplement the family's income, young Hamilton apprenticed as a clerk in the New York trading firm of Nicholas Cruger, Cornelius Kortright, and David Beekman.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.James then abandoned Rachel and their two sons, allegedly to "spar[e] [Rachel] a charge of bigamy .^ Having to fend for herself and her two children after James left, Rachel opened a store and employed her youngest son as clerk and bookkeeper.

^ Undaunted, Rachael bore two sons, James and Alexander.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In one swiftly effective stroke, Lavien had safeguarded his son's inheritance and penalized Rachel, making it impossible for her two innocent sons ever to mitigate the stigma of illegitimacy.
  • WNYC - Books: Alexander Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wnyc.org [Source type: Original source]

. . [after finding out that her first husband] intend[ed] to divorce her under Danish law on grounds of adultery and desertion."[4] Rachel supported the family by keeping a small store in Christiansted. .However, she contracted a severe fever and died on February 19, 1768, 1:02 am, leaving Hamilton effectively orphaned.^ (Since Hamilton spoke of his mother's bearing "several children," other siblings may have died in childhood.
  • WNYC - Books: Alexander Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wnyc.org [Source type: Original source]

.This may have had severe emotional consequences for him, even by the standards of an eighteenth-century childhood.^ (Since Hamilton spoke of his mother's bearing "several children," other siblings may have died in childhood.
  • WNYC - Books: Alexander Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wnyc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Following conventional eighteenth-century usage, Washington called his staff of aides his “family,” and, convention aside, that word catches the emotional tone.
  • Alexander Hamilton, Modern America’s Founding Father by Myron Magnet, City Journal Winter 2009 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Such was his personal identification with the administration that even the slightest changes in his policies pushed him close to the emotional edge.

[13] .In probate court, Rachel's "first husband seized her estate"[4] and obtained the few valuables Rachel had owned, including some household silver.^ Rachel's husband, who had had her imprisoned in Christiansted some years before for adultery, had posted a public summons for her to appear before a divorce court, declaring her a whore who had given birth to illegitimate children.

^ While he was awaiting settlement of the small estate-principally Rachel's slaves and a stock of business supplies-the court auctioned off her personal effects.
  • WNYC - Books: Alexander Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wnyc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Less than a week after Rachel died, the probate officers again trooped to the house to appraise the estate.
  • WNYC - Books: Alexander Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wnyc.org [Source type: Original source]

.Many items were auctioned off, but a friend purchased the family books and returned them to the studious young Hamilton.^ Hamilton rued the day that his grandmother was "captivated by the glitter" of Lavien's appearance and auctioned her daughter off, as it were, to the highest bidder.
  • WNYC - Books: Alexander Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wnyc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hamilton had certainly gone off to war but he had not really been studying law at the time: though later showered with honorary degrees, he never officially graduated from college.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Cruger, Knox, and other wealthy islanders, sent Hamilton off in June of 1773 to New York to study medicine, most likely in the hope that he would return to the island and set up his practice there.

[14]
.Hamilton then became a clerk at a local import-export firm, Beekman and Cruger, which traded with New England; he was left in charge of the firm for five months in 1771, while the owner was at sea.^ To supplement the family's income, young Hamilton apprenticed as a clerk in the New York trading firm of Nicholas Cruger, Cornelius Kortright, and David Beekman.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ At 13, Hamilton had begun clerking for the island outpost of Beekman and Cruger, a New York trading firm owned by two of the city’s great Dutch mercantile families, key players in that business for generations.
  • Alexander Hamilton, Modern America’s Founding Father by Myron Magnet, City Journal Winter 2009 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By contrast, even before Peter Lytton's death, Alexander had begun to clerk for the mercantile house of Beekman and Cruger, the New York traders who had supplied his mother with provisions.
  • WNYC - Books: Alexander Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wnyc.org [Source type: Original source]

.He and his older brother James were adopted briefly by a cousin, Peter Lytton, but when Lytton committed suicide, Hamilton was separated from his brother.^ Already on August 1, 1765, her wealthy brother-in-law, James Lytton, had bought her six walnut chairs with leather seats and agreed to foot the bill for her rent.
  • WNYC - Books: Alexander Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wnyc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ James Hamilton had continued to feed off his brother's Glasgow business connections.
  • WNYC - Books: Alexander Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wnyc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His brother later insisted that Peter was "insane."49 Life as a ward of Peter Lytton proved yet another merciless education in the tawdry side of life for Alexander Hamilton.
  • WNYC - Books: Alexander Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wnyc.org [Source type: Original source]

[15] .James apprenticed with a local carpenter, while Hamilton was adopted by Nevis merchant Thomas Stevens.^ While James went off to train with the elderly carpenter, Hamilton, in a dreamlike transition worthy of a Dickens novel, was whisked off to the King Street home of Thomas Stevens, a well-respected merchant, and his wife, Ann.
  • WNYC - Books: Alexander Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wnyc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It would also explain why Thomas Stevens sheltered Hamilton soon after Rachel's death but made no comparable gesture to his brother, James.
  • WNYC - Books: Alexander Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wnyc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The latter was apprenticed to an aging Christiansted carpenter, Thomas McNobeny, which tells us much about his limited abilities.
  • WNYC - Books: Alexander Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wnyc.org [Source type: Original source]

.Some evidence suggests that Stevens may have been Hamilton's biological father: his son, Edward Stevens, became a close friend of Hamilton.^ This parentage would also explain why Hamilton formed an infinitely more enduring bond with Edward Stevens than with his own brother.
  • WNYC - Books: Alexander Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wnyc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hamilton told his friends that he would “throw away” his shot: just what he’d advised his son to do.
  • Alexander Hamilton, Modern America’s Founding Father by Myron Magnet, City Journal Winter 2009 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ That Hamilton blamed himself for his son's death there can be no doubt, because it is equally doubtless that Philip fell defending his father's honor on the dueling ground.

.The two boys looked much alike, both were fluent in French, and both shared similar interests.^ Both were exceedingly quick and clever, disciplined and persevering, fluent in French, versed in classical history, outraged by slavery, and mesmerized by medicine.
  • WNYC - Books: Alexander Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wnyc.org [Source type: Original source]

[16]
.Hamilton continued clerking, remained an avid reader, developed an interest in writing, and began to long for a life off his small island.^ James Hamilton had continued to feed off his brother's Glasgow business connections.
  • WNYC - Books: Alexander Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wnyc.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Only the small entrepreneur and the small holder of property, marginal in Hamiltons theory of the state, remain in the low condition to which he relegated them and continue to decrease in number as huge, international corporations multiply.
  • Alexander Hamilton: From Caesar to Christ 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC catholiceducation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, Mr. Hogeland seems to suggest that Hamilton's concern for his interests and those of his allies trumped his interest in securing the long-term viability of free and mobile society.
  • Boston Review — hogeland.php 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bostonreview.net [Source type: Original source]

.Hamilton wrote an essay published in the Royal Danish-American Gazette, with a detailed account of a hurricane that had devastated Christiansted on August 30, 1772. The essay impressed community leaders, who collected a fund to educate the young Hamilton in the much larger American colonies.^ Hamilton, who had early fancied himself a writer, published an occasional poem in the local paper, and impressed the residents of the island with a particularly vivid and florid account of a hurricane in 1772.

^ In response to a loyalist pamphletist who criticized the actions of the continental congress, Hamilton wrote A Full Vindication of the Measures of Congress , which gained the young revolutionary much notoriety among rebels and loyalists alike.

^ In a revealing passage, Hamilton wrote that funding was necessary "to guard the Government and the Creditors against the danger of inconstancy in the public Councils."
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

Education

Statue of Hamilton outside Hamilton Hall overlooking Hamilton Lawn at his alma mater, Columbia University in New York City.
Hamilton Lawn separates Hamilton Hall and John Jay Hall (back) at Columbia University.
.Hamilton arrived, by way of Boston, at a grammar school (Elizabethtown Academy) in Elizabethtown, New Jersey, in the autumn of 1772. In 1773, he studied with Francis Barber at Elizabethtown, in preparation for college work; there he came under the influence of a leading intellectual and revolutionary, William Livingston.^ Hamilton did the lion's share of the work (no surprise there - the man was unbelievable.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For the remainder of his life Hamilton worried that his work would be destroyed, his system dismantled, under the opposition.

^ So instead of twiddling away the hours in the wilderness of New Jersey, Hamilton, after living with Elias Boudinot in northern New Jersey as he raced through some preparatory work at a grammar school, settled in the bustling metropolis of Manhattan.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

[17] .Hamilton may have applied to the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University) with the request that he be allowed to study at a quicker pace and complete his studies in a shorter time; if so, John Witherspoon refused his request.^ As a nominal Presbyterian, Hamilton had his heart set on Princeton, then the College of New Jersey.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He joined the board of the now-renamed Columbia College, helped create the New York Board of Regents, and founded the Bank of New York—all within the first year or so of his return.
  • Alexander Hamilton, Modern America’s Founding Father by Myron Magnet, City Journal Winter 2009 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hamilton had certainly gone off to war but he had not really been studying law at the time: though later showered with honorary degrees, he never officially graduated from college.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

[4][18] Eventually Hamilton made a similar request to King's College in New York City (now Columbia University), was accepted, and entered the college in late 1773 or early 1774.[19]
.When Church of England clergyman Samuel Seabury published a series of pamphlets promoting the Loyalist cause the following year, Hamilton struck back with his first political writings, A Full Vindication of the Measures of Congress and The Farmer Refuted.^ The following is from Hamiton's 1774 pamphlet "The Farmer Refuted" - his first piece of Revolutionary writing.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A quote from Hamilton's 1775 pamphlet "The Farmer Refuted" : .
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was this last resolution which caused Hamilton to defend the Continental Congress, meeting in Philadelphia, in another pamphlet, and to attack the liberal Quebec Bill of 1774, which recognized the Roman Catholic Church in Canada, as a ministerial conspiracy to destroy the Protestantism of the colonist by establishing popery among their neighbors to the north.
  • Alexander Hamilton: From Caesar to Christ 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC catholiceducation.org [Source type: Original source]

.He published two additional pieces attacking the Quebec Act[20] as well as fourteen anonymous installments of "The Monitor" for Holt's New York Journal.^ The pro-constitution, or Federalist, attendees were outnumbered two to one by Clinton's minions, indicating that Publius was largely ineffective in turning the political tide in New York.

^ James Madison was aware of the importance of New York as well.

^ Well, the "bastard brat" is only going to be at the New York Historical Society for a week longer, so McCabe and I are going tomorrow.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although Hamilton was a supporter of the Revolutionary cause at this prewar stage, he did not approve of mob reprisals against Loyalists.^ Although Kings College was known for its loyalist leanings, Hamilton's American benefactors, the Elias Boudinot family, were Presbyterians of the Whig persuasion who supported rebellion against England.

^ Hamilton's strategy was not directly aimed against Adams at that point, but was calculated to win southern support for the Federalists, and to lessen Jefferson's chances for the presidency.

^ Although Marx did not formulate the socialist theory until almost a half century after Hamilton's death, modern writers have endeavored to interpret Hamilton In the light of it.
  • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

.Hamilton on May 10, 1775, saved his college president, Loyalist Myles Cooper, from an angry mob, by speaking to the crowd long enough for Cooper to escape the danger.^ In addition, Hamilton had long demonstrated a distaste for mob violence and uprisings.

^ Heated opposition to the excise tax on distilled liquors which had been simmering as long as the tax had been in effect, broke out into open insurrection after tax collectors were attacked by an angry mob.

^ Hamilton's pamphlet "The Farmer Refuted" - written when he was 20 years old - a student at King's College (a loyalist college) - and yet getting swept away by revolutionary politics.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

[21]

During the Revolutionary War

Alexander Hamilton in the Uniform of the New York Artillery by Alonzo Chappel (1828–1887)

Early military career

.In 1775, after the first engagement of American troops with the British in Boston, Hamilton joined a New York volunteer militia company called the Hearts of Oak, which included other King's College students.^ We shall never know what percentage of the American electorate wished to see adoption, but we do know what happened in each state convention, and that Hamilton was the leader of the victorious pro-Constitutional forces in New York's ratifying convention.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ A couple years ago, the New York Historical Society had a massive Alexander Hamilton exhibit and Bill McCabe and I went - it was so so terrific.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He joined the board of the now-renamed Columbia College, helped create the New York Board of Regents, and founded the Bank of New York—all within the first year or so of his return.
  • Alexander Hamilton, Modern America’s Founding Father by Myron Magnet, City Journal Winter 2009 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: Original source]

He drilled with the company before classes, in the graveyard of nearby St. Paul's Chapel. Hamilton studied military history and tactics on his own and achieved the rank of lieutenant. Under fire from HMS Asia, he led a successful raid for British cannon in the Battery, the capture of which resulted in the Hearts of Oak becoming an artillery company thereafter. .Through his connections with influential New York patriots like Alexander McDougall and John Jay, he raised the New York Provincial Company of Artillery of sixty men in 1776, and was elected captain.^ New York attorney John Jay was responsible for it.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ In the summer of 1776, as the British fleet sailed toward New York harbor, Hamilton responded to a call for recruits, and after assiduously studying the science of artillery, was appointed Captain of the Provincial Company of Artillery.

^ All the while that the little New York artillery company was with Washington, Hamilton was making an indelible impression on the General.

.It took part in the campaign of 1776 around New York City, particularly at the Battle of White Plains; at the Battle of Trenton, it was stationed at the high point of town, the meeting of the present Warren and Broad Streets, to keep the Hessians pinned in the Trenton Barracks.^ Hamilton and his company fought with Washington's army at Long Island in August of 1776, followed him on campaign to White Plains, and took part in the Delaware river crossing to participate in the victories at Trenton and Princeton that closed out the heady year of 1776.

^ Following the war, both Hamilton and Burr had thriving law practices in New York City, and both were rising stars at the bar.

^ When the British finally left New York City, leaving behind a half-burned-out town stinking of sewage, Hamilton moved back with Eliza and brand-new baby Philip to a rented house at 57 Wall Street and became one of the city fathers who rebuilt Gotham.
  • Alexander Hamilton, Modern America’s Founding Father by Myron Magnet, City Journal Winter 2009 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: Original source]

[22]

Washington's staff

.Hamilton was invited to become an aide to Nathanael Greene and to Henry Knox; however, he declined these invitations in the hopes of obtaining a place on Washington's staff.^ An excellent commander and superb organizer, he won the admiration of a quartet of generals, including Washington, who invited him to join his staff as an aide-de-camp and lieutenant colonel.
  • Alexander Hamilton, Modern America’s Founding Father by Myron Magnet, City Journal Winter 2009 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hamilton had earlier refused similar positions with Knox and General Nathaniel Greene, preferring the independence of his own command.

^ Washington, who was building up his personal staff as administrative details became ever more cumbersome, offered Hamilton the position of aide-de-camp with the rank of Lieutenant Colonel.

.Hamilton did receive such an invitation and joined as Washington's aide on March 1, 1777 with the rank of Lieutenant Colonel.^ An excellent commander and superb organizer, he won the admiration of a quartet of generals, including Washington, who invited him to join his staff as an aide-de-camp and lieutenant colonel.
  • Alexander Hamilton, Modern America’s Founding Father by Myron Magnet, City Journal Winter 2009 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Washington, who was building up his personal staff as administrative details became ever more cumbersome, offered Hamilton the position of aide-de-camp with the rank of Lieutenant Colonel.

^ General Washington himself was impressed, although in the end it was Hamiltons other talentshis gift for writing and keen intelligencewhich led the commander-in-chief on March 1, 1777 to name the young captain his aide-de-camp with the rank of lieutenant-colonel.
  • Alexander Hamilton: From Caesar to Christ 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC catholiceducation.org [Source type: Original source]

[23] .Hamilton served for four years, in effect, as Washington's Chief of Staff; he handled letters to Congress, state governors, and the most powerful generals in the Continental Army; he drafted many of Washington's orders and letters at the latter's direction; he eventually issued orders from Washington over Hamilton's own signature.^ Here, in his Remarks on the Quebec Bill, which reflected the thinking of the Continental Congress itself, the eighteen-year-old Hamilton revealed not only the Whig sentiments of his West Indian tutor, Dr. Knox, but his prejudices as well.
  • Alexander Hamilton: From Caesar to Christ 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC catholiceducation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Even at this early date, Hamilton called for a constitutional convention, apparently the first proposal of its kind, to centralize power in Congress; and urged the establishment of a national bank in a letter to Robert Morris, the new nations superintendent of finance.
  • Alexander Hamilton: From Caesar to Christ 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC catholiceducation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His intellectual stature and distinguished public service -- author of the Declaration of Independence, member of the Virginia House of Burgesses at the age of 26, wartime governor of Virginia, delegate to the Continental Congress, minister to France, secretary of state under George Washington, vice president under John Adams -- left them unimpressed.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

[1] .Hamilton was involved in a wide variety of high-level duties, including intelligence, diplomacy, and negotiation with senior army officers as Washington's emissary.^ His childhood and youth are dispensed with in about 15 pages, and the American Revolution - in which Hamilton participated as an senior aid to Washington and as combat officer - is already over by page 25,bypassing what one assumes should have been a wealth of fascinating material.
  • Geometry.Net - Authors Books: Hamilton Alexander 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Both ambitious and brilliant, equally knowledgeable on a wide variety of subjects, Hamilton and Madison sparked immediately when they met in the continental congress in 1783.

^ During this last year in Washington's cabinet, Hamilton reached the pinnacle of his power and influence, advising on and directing a wide range of foreign and domestic policy.

[24] The important duties with which he was entrusted attest to Washington's deep confidence in his abilities and character, then and afterward. .At the points in their relationship where there was little personal attachment, there was still always a reciprocal confidence and respect.^ He pointed out the domestic and international implications of the official but still impotent congress, -- "the people have lost all confidence .

.During the war, Hamilton became close friends with several fellow officers.^ The voice of the opposition came from James Madison, whom Hamilton considered a friend and ardent fellow Federalist.

^ Hamilton, the immigrant with no grounding in a particular state, understood only the destructiveness of localist politics from his time as a staff officer in the war, and during his tenure as a government employee and congressional delegate.

^ Hamilton's image as a champion of American nationalism caused his reputation to soar during the Civil War, at least in the North.
  • Geometry.Net - Authors Books: Hamilton Alexander 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His letters to the Marquis de Lafayette[25] and to John Laurens, employing the sentimental literary conventions of the late eighteenth century and alluding to Greek history and mythology,[26] have been read as revealing a homosocial or perhaps homosexual relationship, but few historians agree.^ This is from a letter to his good friend John Laurens: .
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Stone's critique pointed to the origins of funding systems in what one late-eighteenth-century British writer called "the prevalence and extension of the war-system throughout Europe."
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ New institutionalist history should be distinguished from old institutionalist history as practiced by the first generation of professional American historians in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

[27]

Marriage

.Hamilton married Elizabeth Schuyler on December 14, 1780. She was the daughter of Philip Schuyler, a General and wealthy businessman from one of the most prominent families in the state of New York.^ The dilemma for Hamilton was a new one and the most formidable of his life.
  • Alexander Hamilton: From Caesar to Christ 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC catholiceducation.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hamilton also married during the war, in December 1780.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The Schyuler family was one of the wealthy Dutch dynasties of New York.

.The marriage took place at Schuyler Mansion in Albany, New York.^ His bride, his little "nut brown maid," was the sweet and petite Elizabeth Schuyler, daughter of New York patroon (manorial baron) General Philip Schuyler.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ When Virginia followed suit on June 25, 1788, the remaining holdouts—Rhode Island, North Carolina, and New York—took on the appearance of rogue states.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Hamilton, Isaac — of Albany County , N.Y. Member of New York state assembly from Albany County, 1827.
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hamilton grew extremely close to Eliza's sister, Angelica Church, who was married to John Barker Church, a Member of Parliament in Great Britain.^ Son of James Hamilton and Rachel (Faucette) Hamilton; married 1780 to Elizabeth Schuyler (daughter of Philip John Schuyler ; sister of Philip Jeremiah Schuyler ); father of William Stephen Hamilton ; ancestor of Robert Hamilton Woodruff .
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hamilton had left the Treasury by then and been succeeded by his close collaborator, Oliver Wolcott Jr., who set up an amortization plan for the foreign debt, the 6 percent debt, and the deferred 6 percent debt.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hamilton was greatly influenced by the great 18th century Scottish economists, primarily David Hume, who considered the consequences and possibilities of the merger of their comparatively backwards, agrarian country with Britain, whose economy was largely mercantile.

.Some historians argue that the two may have had an affair, although it is impossible to know for sure due to extensive editing of their correspondence by Hamilton's later descendants.^ Neither Hamilton nor Burr revealed the nature of the "more despicable opinion;" but both apparently knew to what it referred; and it seems that they will be the only ones who will ever know for sure despite some interesting guesses by historians.

^ The propriety of Hamilton's meetings with Beckwith, and later with official British minister, George Hammond, has been a matter of intense debate among historians.

^ Knowing full well how his plan would be received by the bulk of Americans, Hamilton opines: "There are epochs in human affairs, when novelty even is useful."

[28]

Command and the Battle of Yorktown

Surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown by John Trumbull, oil on canvas, 1820
.While on Washington's staff, Hamilton had long been seeking a commanding position in an active combat situation.^ Disillusioned with Washington, and doubly determined to get away from headquarters and improve upon his "military reputation," Hamilton began in earnest his own campaign to acquire a field command.

^ Though much younger than Washington, Hamilton would not long outlive the general.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ This time, Washington gave Hamilton his long-awaited command, that of the New York and Connecticut light infantry battalion, with orders to lead an assault on British redoubt number 10 at Yorktown.

As the war drew ever nearer to a close, he knew that opportunities for military glory were fading. .In February 1781, Hamilton was mildly reprimanded by Washington, and used this as an excuse for resigning his staff position.^ Washington, who was building up his personal staff as administrative details became ever more cumbersome, offered Hamilton the position of aide-de-camp with the rank of Lieutenant Colonel.

^ Hamilton was often mistaken as Washington's prime minister by foreign visitors; in fact, because of his close advisory position to the President, he in essence was.

^ More than anyone else, George Washington understood Hamilton's unique abilities, and put him in situations where his talents could be developed and used.

.He immediately began to ask Washington and others incessantly for a field command.^ Disillusioned with Washington, and doubly determined to get away from headquarters and improve upon his "military reputation," Hamilton began in earnest his own campaign to acquire a field command.

This continued until early July of 1781, when Hamilton submitted a letter to Washington with his commission enclosed, "thus tacitly threatening to resign if he didn't get his desired command".[29]
.On July 31, 1781, Washington relented, and Hamilton was given command of a New York light infantry battalion.^ Shot and mortally wounded in a duel with Aaron Burr on July 11, 1804, and died the next day in New York, New York County , N.Y., July 12, 1804 .
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This time, Washington gave Hamilton his long-awaited command, that of the New York and Connecticut light infantry battalion, with orders to lead an assault on British redoubt number 10 at Yorktown.

^ All the while that the little New York artillery company was with Washington, Hamilton was making an indelible impression on the General.

.In the planning for the assault on Yorktown, Hamilton was given command of three battalions, which were to fight in conjunction with French troops in taking Redoubts #9 and #10 of the British fortifications at Yorktown.^ This time, Washington gave Hamilton his long-awaited command, that of the New York and Connecticut light infantry battalion, with orders to lead an assault on British redoubt number 10 at Yorktown.

^ Washington and Rochambeau were planning a decisive strike on the British; and Hamilton, ever hopeful of seeing action, rode off to Dobbs Ferry NY to rejoin the army.

^ On the way back to headquarters from meetings with the French commanders, Washington and Hamilton were due to stop at West Point, commanded by major general Benedict Arnold .

.Hamilton and his battalions fought bravely and took Redoubt #10 with bayonets, as planned.^ This time, Washington gave Hamilton his long-awaited command, that of the New York and Connecticut light infantry battalion, with orders to lead an assault on British redoubt number 10 at Yorktown.

^ Hamilton and his men fought bravely in several early battles, including the unsuccessful attempt to hold Manhattan from the British.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The French also fought bravely, took heavy casualties, and successfully took Redoubt #9. This action forced the British surrender at Yorktown of an entire army, effectively ending major British military operations in North America.^ Washington and Rochambeau were planning a decisive strike on the British; and Hamilton, ever hopeful of seeing action, rode off to Dobbs Ferry NY to rejoin the army.

^ That same month, General Horatio Gates, who led the American forces in the north, accepted the surrender of General Burgoyne's entire army at Saratoga in a brilliant and morale-boosting victory.

^ Similarly, Alan Taylor argues that "Americans proved worthy heirs to the British as the predominant colonizers of North America" (Taylor, American Colonies , 477).
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

[30]

Under the Confederation

Hamilton enters Congress

.While on Washington's staff, Hamilton became frustrated with the decentralized nature of the wartime Continental Congress, particularly its dependence upon the states for financial support: it had no power to collect taxes, or to demand money from the states; this had caused serious problems in Army supplies and pay.^ Hamilton, who shared the army's frustrations, decided to leave congress.

^ Hamilton went to Philadelphia in November of 1782 with the pocketful of reforms he had collected while in the army and during his recent stint as Continental tax receiver with no authority to collect the money due him, and only excuses forthcoming from state collection agents.

^ Both ambitious and brilliant, equally knowledgeable on a wide variety of subjects, Hamilton and Madison sparked immediately when they met in the continental congress in 1783.

.Congress had given up printing unsupported paper money back in September 1779; it obtained what money it had from subsidies from the King of France, aid requested from the several states (which were often unable or unwilling to contribute), and loans from Europe against these uncertain revenues.^ It took him a while to perceive that things had taken a chilling and horrific turn in France, because he was so against monarchies, he was so against kings and queens of any kind.
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^ The Quasi-War was a roughly two-year period of severe friction between France and the United States during which war seemed inevitable.

^ Governments borrowed by issuing bills of credit—fiat paper money—that often lost value.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

[31] After Yorktown, Hamilton resigned his commission. .He was elected to the Congress of the Confederation as a New York representative beginning in November 1782;[32] he supported such Congressmen as superintendent of finance Robert Morris, his assistant Gouverneur Morris (no relation), James Wilson, and James Madison, who had already been trying to provide the Congress with the independent source of revenue it lacked under the Articles of Confederation.^ James Madison was aware of the importance of New York as well.

^ The affairs of nation building were never far from his mind, however, and he returned to his musings on financial reform in a letter to Robert Morris , who had just been appointed Superintendent of Finance under the recently ratified Articles of Confederation.

^ They returned with a party -- which would shortly become the Republican party -- complete with a national network of supporters and functionaries, including a journalist named Philip Freneau, recruited from New York to begin publishing the official party newspaper.

.An amendment to the Articles had been proposed by Thomas Burke, in February 1781, to give Congress the power to collect a 5% impost or duty on all imports, but this required ratification by all states; securing its passage as law proved impossible after it was rejected by Rhode Island in November 1782. Madison joined Hamilton in convincing Congress to send a delegation to persuade Rhode Island to change its mind.^ To Hamilton, all the defects lay with the states.
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^ Even at this early date, Hamilton called for a constitutional convention, apparently the first proposal of its kind, to centralize power in Congress; and urged the establishment of a national bank in a letter to Robert Morris, the new nations superintendent of finance.
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^ While Hamilton in his doctrine of implied powers argued that Congresss power to establish the bank was implied in the Constitution as a necessary means to the collection of taxes and regulation of trade, Jefferson and Madison defended the principle of subsidiarity here by pointing out that Hamiltons loose constructionist view of the Constitution could be reduced to the absurdity of saying that Congress had the total power to do whatever it thought good for the people of the United States.
  • Alexander Hamilton: From Caesar to Christ 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC catholiceducation.org [Source type: Original source]

.Their report recommending the delegation argued the federal government needed not just some level of financial autonomy, but also the ability to make laws that supersede those of the individual states.^ There needed to be a federal government.
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^ Not every delegate brought to Philadelphia a comprehension of how thirteen independent states could share a government of tripartite powers: legislative, judicial, executive.
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^ That same report urged the states to send delegates to a general convention in Philadelphia in May of the following year.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Hamilton transmitted a letter arguing that Congress already had the power to tax, since it had the power to fix the sums due from the several states; but Virginia's rescission of its own ratification ended the Rhode Island negotiations.^ Hamilton wrote the first article returning home on a sloop from Albany, where he had been arguing cases before the state supreme court, and he ended up contributing more than 50 of the 85 pieces.
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^ Again, Hamilton's thought, which did not conceive of power as a finite sum, was decades ahead of its time.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ If he did not have a full enough plate already, Hamilton was appointed a delegate to the Continental Congress.

[33]

Congress and the Army

.While Hamilton was in Congress, discontented soldiers began to pose a danger to the young United States.^ The growth of manufacturing in the United States, in Hamilton's view, would parallel the growth of great population centers, thus creating more of a market for the produce of farms.

^ When Hamilton presented his report, Congress was still auditing the respective contributions made by state governments to the American War of Independence.
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^ These works divided Hamilton from Jefferson and Madison and became the basis of partisan politics in the United States.
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.Most of the army was then posted at Newburgh, New York.^ Hamilton's adopted state of New York was traditionally the most independent of the colonies, and there was a strong opposition to the revolt.

^ The professionalism of the New York artillery company and its commander impressed all the senior officers who had dealings with it, including Henry Knox, artillery commander of the Continental army.

^ Even his own newspaper, the New York Evening Post, criticized Hamilton's break from the party mainstream.

.The army was paying for much of their own supplies, and they had not been paid in eight months.^ Hamilton was a strict disciplinarian but just as fiercely fought with the New York assembly for decent pay and supplies for his men, and even exhausted his own savings to pay for their uniforms.

^ Madison believed that Virginia had paid off much of its debt and therefore that assumption would force his own state to pay more than its fair share of the total war costs.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Madison and the opposition did not object to the funding of the debt, rather they disagreed as to who should be paid and how much.

.Furthermore, the Continental officers had been promised, in May 1778, after Valley Forge, a pension of half their pay when they were discharged.^ They were therefore redeemable at the pleasure of the government, and as long as the government took care to pay the promised interest the creditor had no legitimate right to claim repayment of the principal.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Rhode Island's resistance of the impost, which was preventing the passage of the law; and an army petition for back pay and half-pay pensions.

[34] .It was at this time that a group of officers organized under the leadership of General Henry Knox sent a delegation to lobby Congress, led by Capt.^ The professionalism of the New York artillery company and its commander impressed all the senior officers who had dealings with it, including Henry Knox, artillery commander of the Continental army.

^ Compare that with the staff of five at State under Jefferson, and three at Henry Knox's War Department.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

Alexander MacDougall (see above). .The officers had three demands: the Army's pay, their own pensions, and commutation of those pensions into a lump-sum payment.^ Whatever their choice, the liabilities could be turned into gold or silver coins upon demand, or tendered in payment of federal taxes.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Rhode Island's resistance of the impost, which was preventing the passage of the law; and an army petition for back pay and half-pay pensions.

.Several Congressmen, including Hamilton and the Morrises, attempted to use this Newburgh conspiracy as leverage to secure independent support for funding for the federal government in Congress and from the states.^ But, then, Hamilton in his utopian scheme for a great Federal power was prepared to use immoral means, and, as pointed out above, he had never subscribed to the Declaration of Independence with its doctrine of the natural rights of the person.
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^ Despite the fact that he attempted to stay out of the political arena, Hamilton was propelled back by a series of events in which states attempted to assert their sovereignty over federal law.

^ For all their later opposition, the funding act would never have passed Congress without the support of both Madison and Jefferson.
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.They encouraged MacDougall to continue his aggressive approach, threatening unknown consequences if their demands were not met, and defeated proposals that would have resolved the crisis without establishing general federal taxation: that the states assume the debt to the army, or that an impost be established dedicated to the sole purpose of paying that debt.^ Hamilton parried to Burr's thrusts; while Burr demanded an admission that the thing had been said, Hamilton continually pointed to the vagueness of the reporter's assertions, and indignantly objected to Burr's hostile approach.

^ In the end the federal government assumed $18 million owed by the states, thereby nationalizing almost the entire revolutionary debt.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ State debts would be assumed by the federal government with interest payments deferred until 1792.

[35] .Hamilton suggested using the Army's claims to prevail upon the states for the proposed national funding system.^ Hamilton proposed to use them w^ for national purposes.
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^ Hamilton dismissed Hume's warnings and instead focused on the positive aspects of national credit; the continuing vitality of the British economy was enough to prove the efficacy of their system.

^ In 1779, and again in 1781, as the war raged, Hamilton drew up proposals for a national bank.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

[36] .The Morrises and Hamilton contacted Knox to suggest he and the officers defy civil authority, at least by not disbanding if the army were not satisfied; Hamilton wrote Washington to suggest that he covertly "take direction" of the officers' efforts to secure redress, to secure continental funding but keep the army within the limits of moderation.^ In November 1791, European-based broker John Fry assured Hamilton that American credit overseas was secure and that European funds would stabilize securities prices.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Washington and Rochambeau were planning a decisive strike on the British; and Hamilton, ever hopeful of seeing action, rode off to Dobbs Ferry NY to rejoin the army.

^ In a revealing passage, Hamilton wrote that funding was necessary "to guard the Government and the Creditors against the danger of inconstancy in the public Councils."
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

[37] .Washington wrote Hamilton back, declining to introduce the army;[38] after the crisis had ended, he warned of the dangers of using the army as leverage to gain support for the national funding plan.^ This national plan was early in Hamilton's mind.
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^ He wrote in 1780: "The only plan that can preserve the currency is one that will make it to the immediate interest of the monied men to cooperate with the government in its support.

^ They denounced the standing federal army, warning that it could be used to quash domestic dissent.
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[39]
.On March 15, Washington defused the Newburgh situation by giving a speech to the officers.^ Washington recognized that talent, giving ever-increasing responsibility to the young officer, now a lieutenant colonel.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

[35] .Congress ordered the Army officially disbanded in April 1783. In the same month, Congress passed a new measure for a twenty-five-year impost, which Hamilton voted against,[40] and that again required the consent of all the states; it also approved a commutation of the officers' pensions to five years of full pay.^ To Hamilton, all the defects lay with the states.
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^ Back then, faced with a restive and unpaid remnant of the victorious army quartered in Newburgh, New York, he had suddenly appeared at a meeting of officers who were contemplating insurrection; the murky plot involved marching on the Congress and then seizing a tract of land for themselves in the West, all presumably with Washington as their leader.
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^ Both ambitious and brilliant, equally knowledgeable on a wide variety of subjects, Hamilton and Madison sparked immediately when they met in the continental congress in 1783.

.Rhode Island again opposed these provisions, and Hamilton's robust assertions of national prerogatives in his previous letter were widely held to be excessive.^ In these letters he had shown, not only a wide knowledge of finance, but also a grasp of the nation's needs.
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^ Burr was opposing Hamilton on two fronts: locally, as an agent of the Clinton/Livingston faction; and nationally as a cohort of the Virginia opposition.

^ To conclude his second letter, Hamilton eloquently reminded his readers of the scope of their responsibility as citizens of a new nation: "The world has its eye upon America.

[41] .The Continental Congress was never able to secure full ratification for back pay, pensions, or their own independent sources of funding.^ For all their later opposition, the funding act would never have passed Congress without the support of both Madison and Jefferson.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If he did not have a full enough plate already, Hamilton was appointed a delegate to the Continental Congress.

^ Congress accepted this proposal, but the funding act converted them into securities bearing 3, rather than 6, percent interest.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.In June 1783, a different group of disgruntled soldiers from Lancaster, Pennsylvania, sent Congress a petition demanding their back pay.^ Rhode Island's resistance of the impost, which was preventing the passage of the law; and an army petition for back pay and half-pay pensions.

^ Still Hamilton had to borrow to finance Indian wars and to pay for the army sent against the whiskey rebels in western Pennsylvania.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.When they began to march toward Philadelphia, Congress charged Hamilton and two others to intercept the mob.^ Both ambitious and brilliant, equally knowledgeable on a wide variety of subjects, Hamilton and Madison sparked immediately when they met in the continental congress in 1783.

^ When they began inquiring into Hamilton's background, they found out that he was not from a respected American family, nor even an American by birth.

^ There are quotations (from Hamilton, from others about Hamilton) painted on the walls - they're everywhere.
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[42] .Hamilton requested militia from Pennsylvania's Supreme Executive Council, but was turned down.^ Hamilton was the supreme double threat among the founding fathers, at once thinker and doer, sparkling theoretician and masterful executive.
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^ Hamilton sent a request to a leading citizen, usually an official, in each of the large states, for information on manufactures; these persons, in turn, requested the information from leading citi- zens and manufacturers in the towns.
  • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When the militia, with Washington and Hamilton at its head, reached western Pennsylvania, it became clear that there would be no armed resistance.

.Hamilton instructed Assistant Secretary of War William Jackson to intercept the men.^ During Alexander Hamilton's term as Treasury secretary, the United States managed to avoid a European war.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He continued on as a back-door advisor to the Adams cabinet, mostly through the Secretary of War James McHenry, who regularly asked Hamilton for his advice on policy.

^ As a sort of supplement to his plan for manufactures, Hamilton and his former Treasury Department assistant, William Duer, founded the "Society for the Establishment of Useful Manufactures."

Jackson was unsuccessful. The mob arrived in Philadelphia, and proceeded to harangue Congress for their pay. .The President of Congress, John Dickinson, feared the Pennsylvania state militia was unreliable, and refused their help.^ The final resolution read: " Resolved, That the Secretary of the Treasury has been guilty of maladministration in the duties of his office, and should, in the opinion of Congress, be removed from his office by the President of the United States."

^ Shays' Rebellion prompted fears of similar uprisings in other states, and citizens and congress alike warmed up to the Annapolis proposal.

.Hamilton argued that Congress ought to adjourn to Princeton, New Jersey.^ Hamilton and his unit covered Washington's retreat across New Jersey.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Hamilton submitted "a sketch of his plan" to the Committee of the Whole, warning that "the people" outside the convention's walls would not adopt either the Virginia or the New Jersey plans.
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^ Hamilton felt he was "obliged therefore to declare himself unfriendly" to both the Virginia and the New Jersey plans.
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Congress agreed, and relocated there.[43]
.Frustrated with the weakness of the central government, Hamilton drafted a call to revise the Articles of Confederation while in Princeton.^ Hamilton spoke out once again for a convention, called by Congress, to revise the Articles of Confederation .

^ Hamilton then enumerated the weaknesses of the current government, and offered a very forward-thinking solution: ".

^ Hamilton had triumphed; and the entire central government packed their bags for Philadelphia.

.This resolution contained many features of the future U.S. Constitution, including a strong federal government with the ability to collect taxes and raise an army.^ Debt repudiation was not an attractive alternative because governments feared that such action would ruin their ability to borrow in the future.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hamilton's plan to restore public credit began with the need to restore the faith of present and future creditors in the ability and readiness of the government to service its debts according to contract.
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^ Republicans pounded home their message: a simple government, low taxes, state militias instead of a standing army, repeal of the Sedition Act, and free schools.
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.It also included the separation of powers into the Executive, Legislative and Judicial branches.^ Not every delegate brought to Philadelphia a comprehension of how thirteen independent states could share a government of tripartite powers: legislative, judicial, executive.
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^ But it planted the seeds that later grew into that check or block against abuse of legislative power.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Hamilton's plan coincided with the Virginia Plan on the major premise that there should be three branches of a national government, legislative, executive, and judiciary.
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[44]

Return to New York

.Hamilton resigned from Congress, and in July 1783 was admitted to the New York Bar after several months of self-directed education.^ Shot and mortally wounded in a duel with Aaron Burr on July 11, 1804, and died the next day in New York, New York County , N.Y., July 12, 1804 .
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^ Both ambitious and brilliant, equally knowledgeable on a wide variety of subjects, Hamilton and Madison sparked immediately when they met in the continental congress in 1783.

^ All the while that the little New York artillery company was with Washington, Hamilton was making an indelible impression on the General.

[45] .He soon began a law practice in New York City.^ The Jay Treaty Controversy April - August 1795 Hamilton moved his family back to New York City and immediately began to rebuild his private law practice.

^ Following the war, both Hamilton and Burr had thriving law practices in New York City, and both were rising stars at the bar.

^ As Hamilton had predicted early on, it was only when Virginia ratified that the New York resistance began to crack.

He specialized in defending Tories and British subjects, as in Rutgers v. .Waddington, in which he defeated a claim for damages done to a brewery by the Englishmen who held it during the military occupation of New York.^ New Yorker Elizabeth Rutgers, a well-to-do elderly widow who fled the British army in 1776, sued Joshua Waddington for £8,000 in damages caused by Waddington's use of her brewery during the British occupation.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The professionalism of the New York artillery company and its commander impressed all the senior officers who had dealings with it, including Henry Knox, artillery commander of the Continental army.

^ In the New York Ratifying Convention held in Poughkeepsie in 1788, Hamilton showed at least a general knowledge of the current development of indigenous manufactures.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.He pleaded that the Mayor's Court should interpret state law to be consistent with the 1783 Treaty of Paris, which had ended the Revolutionary War.^ In the end the federal government assumed $18 million owed by the states, thereby nationalizing almost the entire revolutionary debt.
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^ Consistent with his general philosophy of treaties, Hamilton pointed out that signing would be in the interest of the United States by preventing a war which would "give a serious wound to our growth and prosperity."

^ He funded the national debt and even engineered the "assumption" by the new federal government of all the various state debts accrued during the Revolutionary War and its aftermath.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

[46]
.In 1784, he founded the Bank of New York, now the oldest ongoing banking organization in the United States.^ In February of 1784, he wrote the charter for and became a founding member of the Bank of New York, the state's first bank.

^ Candidate for New York state assembly from Livingston County, 1902.
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^ "You are invited to deliberate upon a new Constitution for the United States of America" .
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.Hamilton was one of the men who restored King's College, which had been suspended since the Battle of Long Island in 1776 and severely damaged during the War, as Columbia College.^ Columbia, then King's College, was more accommodating.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ New Yorker Elizabeth Rutgers, a well-to-do elderly widow who fled the British army in 1776, sued Joshua Waddington for £8,000 in damages caused by Waddington's use of her brewery during the British occupation.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The author, while not overlooking Hamilton's personal foibles, has done an excellent job of restoring him to his proper place as one of the preeminent founders.
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.His public career resumed when he attended the Annapolis Convention as a delegate in 1786. While there, he drafted its resolution for a Constitutional convention, and in doing so brought his longtime desire to have a more powerful, more financially independent federal government one step closer to reality.^ There needed to be a federal government.
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^ Not every delegate brought to Philadelphia a comprehension of how thirteen independent states could share a government of tripartite powers: legislative, judicial, executive.
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^ The United States is one of a handful of nations that for more than two centuries has enjoyed the blessings of a modern financial system and the economic growth it helped to create.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

Constitution and Federalist Papers

Hamilton shortly after the American Revolution
.In 1787, Hamilton served as assemblyman from New York County in the New York State Legislature and was the first delegate chosen to the Constitutional Convention.^ And then there was the delegation from New York.

^ Rather, the decision for adoption was delegated to special constitutional conventions in each state.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Hamilton signed the constitution of the United States on September 17, 1787.

.In spite of the fact that Hamilton had been a leader in calling for a new Constitutional Convention, his direct influence at the Convention itself was quite limited.^ We shall never know what percentage of the American electorate wished to see adoption, but we do know what happened in each state convention, and that Hamilton was the leader of the victorious pro-Constitutional forces in New York's ratifying convention.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ As far as anyone has been able to ascertain, Hamilton's role in the Constitutional Convention proper was relatively minor.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Cries of a monarchical conspiracy by Hamilton were heard and most likely originated from anti-Hamiltonians, like Madison, who were present for Hamilton's speech at the constitutional convention.

Governor George Clinton's faction in the New York legislature had chosen New York's other two delegates, John Lansing and Robert Yates, and both of them opposed Hamilton's goal of a strong national government. .Thus, while the other two members of the New York delegation were present, they decided New York's vote; and when they left the convention in protest, Hamilton remained with no vote (two representatives were required for any state to cast a vote).^ And then there was the delegation from New York.

^ Alternate delegate to Democratic National Convention from New York, 1952 .
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ We shall never know what percentage of the American electorate wished to see adoption, but we do know what happened in each state convention, and that Hamilton was the leader of the victorious pro-Constitutional forces in New York's ratifying convention.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Early in the Convention he made a speech proposing a President-for-Life; it had no effect upon the deliberations of the convention.^ Alexander Hamilton made a SIX HOUR speech at the Constitutional Convention ...
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Another excerpt from a speech Alexander Hamilton made at the Constitutional Convention in 1787.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander Hamilton made a six hour speech at the Constitutional Convention ...
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

.He proposed to have an elected President and elected Senators who would serve for life contingent upon "good behavior", and subject to removal for corruption or abuse; this idea contributed later to the hostile view of Hamilton as a monarchist sympathizer, held by James Madison.^ Judges also would be elected by the people and serve during good behavior.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He and James Madison were the prime movers behind the summoning of the Constitutional Convention and the chief authors of that classic gloss on the national charter, The Federalist , which Hamilton supervised.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For the remainder of his life Hamilton worried that his work would be destroyed, his system dismantled, under the opposition.

.During the convention, Hamilton constructed a draft for the Constitution on the basis of the convention debates, but he never presented it.^ We shall never know what percentage of the American electorate wished to see adoption, but we do know what happened in each state convention, and that Hamilton was the leader of the victorious pro-Constitutional forces in New York's ratifying convention.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ He and James Madison were the prime movers behind the summoning of the Constitutional Convention and the chief authors of that classic gloss on the national charter, The Federalist , which Hamilton supervised.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When Hamilton returned to New York, an fervent anti-constitution movement was operating, fueled by Lansing's and Yates' alarmist stories from the convention.

.This draft had most of the features of the actual Constitution, including such details as the three-fifths clause.^ Among other things, he spends three pages in a less than 200-page book detailing Jack Kemp's personal and political history, including his football career.
  • Geometry.Net - Authors Books: Hamilton Alexander 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In this draft, the Senate was to be elected in proportion to the population, being two-fifths the size of the House, and the President and Senators were to be elected through complex multistage elections, in which chosen electors would elect smaller bodies of electors; they would hold office for life, but were removable for misconduct.^ Senators were to be elected by electors, chosen by voters with property qualifications.
  • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He believed that the complex life which manufactures create would instill in the nation the spirit of enterprise and efficiency.
  • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The final resolution read: " Resolved, That the Secretary of the Treasury has been guilty of maladministration in the duties of his office, and should, in the opinion of Congress, be removed from his office by the President of the United States."

.The President would have an absolute veto.^ This "governor" -- Hamilton did not use the word "president" -- would be able to veto "all laws about to be passed" and would be in charge of executing the laws.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Supreme Court was to have immediate jurisdiction over all law suits involving the United States, and State governors were to be appointed by the federal government.^ In the end the federal government assumed $18 million owed by the states, thereby nationalizing almost the entire revolutionary debt.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I am grateful to Richard Buel for stressing Hamilton's belief that the state creditor interest had to be attached to the federal government to facilitate taxation.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Despite the fact that he attempted to stay out of the political arena, Hamilton was propelled back by a series of events in which states attempted to assert their sovereignty over federal law.

[47]
.At the end of the Convention, Hamilton was still not content with the final form of the Constitution, but signed it anyway as a vast improvement over the Articles of Confederation, and urged his fellow delegates to do so also.^ In his last remarks to the convention, Hamilton urged everyone assembled to sign it.

^ He and James Madison were the prime movers behind the summoning of the Constitutional Convention and the chief authors of that classic gloss on the national charter, The Federalist , which Hamilton supervised.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That same report urged the states to send delegates to a general convention in Philadelphia in May of the following year.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

[48] .Since the other two members of the New York delegation, Lansing and Yates, had already withdrawn, Hamilton was the only New York signer to the United States Constitution.^ And then there was the delegation from New York.

^ Hamilton signed the constitution of the United States on September 17, 1787.

^ The Rutgers case applied to New York's 1777 state constitution.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.He then took a highly active part in the successful campaign for the document's ratification in New York in 1788, which was a crucial step in its national ratification.^ Alternate delegate to Democratic National Convention from New York, 1952 .
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A ruthless and very successful New York businessman, he became the first secretary of the treasury and created the first federal bank.
  • Geometry.Net - Authors Books: Hamilton Alexander 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bill and I met on the front steps of the New York Historical Society (I was half an hour late due to NO UPTOWN TRAINS ...
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

.Hamilton recruited John Jay and James Madison to write a defense of the proposed Constitution, now known as the Federalist Papers, and made the largest contribution to that effort, writing 51 of 85 essays published (Madison wrote 29, Jay only five).^ In fact, were it not for the efforts of Hamilton, James Madison, and, to a lesser extent, John Jay, the Constitutional Convention might have become a mere footnote in world history.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Hamilton and Madison: the Partnership that Never Was (1783-1789) The Federalist Papers, considered a political classic and the definitive statement on the principles underlying the United States constitution, appear on the surface the product of two minds in complete concord about the subject at hand.

^ But these changes and additions have all been in accord with the outline and conclusions of the original manuscript and the essay as now published is substantially as it won the prize.
  • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

.Hamilton's essays and arguments were influential in New York state, and elsewhere, during the debates over ratification.^ We shall never know what percentage of the American electorate wished to see adoption, but we do know what happened in each state convention, and that Hamilton was the leader of the victorious pro-Constitutional forces in New York's ratifying convention.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Candidate for New York state assembly from Livingston County, 1902.
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In February of 1784, he wrote the charter for and became a founding member of the Bank of New York, the state's first bank.

.The Federalist Papers are more often cited than any other primary source by jurists, lawyers, historians, and political scientists as the major contemporary interpretation of the Constitution.^ They accepted the importance of sound public credit as much as the Federalists and made much more use of it than their predecessors.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Raising money had been a major problem for the Confederation Congress since its inception, and fiscal reform was central to the agenda of the nationalists and later the Federalists during the ratification of the Constitution.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Burr, whose ambitions had been squelched more by his political vacillations than the brickbats of a Federalist has-been, found Hamilton as good a target for his repressed anger as anyone.

[49]
.In 1788, Hamilton served yet another term in what proved to be the last time the Continental Congress met under the Articles of Confederation.^ Both ambitious and brilliant, equally knowledgeable on a wide variety of subjects, Hamilton and Madison sparked immediately when they met in the continental congress in 1783.

^ If he did not have a full enough plate already, Hamilton was appointed a delegate to the Continental Congress.

^ Hamilton spoke out once again for a convention, called by Congress, to revise the Articles of Confederation .

.He remained involved in the politics of New York: the ratification of the Constitution had been a success for two of the family cliques that constituted New York State politics, against a third led by George Clinton.^ The Rutgers case applied to New York's 1777 state constitution.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ We shall never know what percentage of the American electorate wished to see adoption, but we do know what happened in each state convention, and that Hamilton was the leader of the victorious pro-Constitutional forces in New York's ratifying convention.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ The pro-constitution, or Federalist, attendees were outnumbered two to one by Clinton's minions, indicating that Publius was largely ineffective in turning the political tide in New York.

.The Legislature of 1789 had a majority of those two factions, one led by Hamilton's father-in-law, the other by the Livingston family.^ But when Hamilton was 12, one of the tropical fevers that plagued European fortune hunters felled her, and a sea of troubles engulfed her two boys.
  • Alexander Hamilton, Modern America’s Founding Father by Myron Magnet, City Journal Winter 2009 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ John Miller Book Description Alexander Hamilton is one of the least understood, most important, and most impassioned and inspiring of the founding fathers.
  • Geometry.Net - Authors Books: Hamilton Alexander 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ See also Livingston-Lee-Clay-Williams family Hamilton, William Thomas (1820-1888) — also known as William T. Hamilton — of Hagerstown, Washington County , Md.
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They had agreed to each select one of New York's first Senators: Phillip Schuyler was to be one, and James Duane, whose wife was a Livingston, was to be the other.^ The pro-constitution, or Federalist, attendees were outnumbered two to one by Clinton's minions, indicating that Publius was largely ineffective in turning the political tide in New York.

^ Candidate for New York state assembly from Livingston County, 1902.
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In February of 1784, he wrote the charter for and became a founding member of the Bank of New York, the state's first bank.

Hamilton, however, persuaded the Legislature to elect Schuyler and his friend Rufus King instead. .The Livingstons responded by breaking the alliance and supporting the Clintons instead; this new coalition was to be the basis for the Democratic-Republican Party in New York.^ The pro-constitution, or Federalist, attendees were outnumbered two to one by Clinton's minions, indicating that Publius was largely ineffective in turning the political tide in New York.

^ Candidate for New York state assembly from Livingston County, 1902.
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Again, Hamilton supported his Republican rival, John Lansing (and later Morgan Lewis when Lansing bowed out), and because of his stance, was all but ostracized by his own party.

.When Phillip Schuyler's term ended in 1791, they began by electing, in his place, the attorney-general of New York, one Aaron Burr.^ In his spare time, he married Elizabeth Schuyler, a member of one of the premier Dutch Hudson Valley families, and thanks to this connection, and his talents, he was sent by New York State to Congress in 1782, where he served for eight months.
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Shot and mortally wounded in a duel with Aaron Burr on July 11, 1804, and died the next day in New York, New York County , N.Y., July 12, 1804 .
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The pro-constitution, or Federalist, attendees were outnumbered two to one by Clinton's minions, indicating that Publius was largely ineffective in turning the political tide in New York.

.Hamilton blamed Burr for this result, and ill characterizations of Burr appear in his correspondence thereafter, although they did work together from time to time on various projects, including Hamilton's army of 1798 and the Manhattan Water Company.^ Did Hamilton, as some have postulated, voluntarily sacrifice himself knowing that his death on the dueling ground would completely destroy Burr, and with him all of his schemes?

^ Thereafter, Hamilton likely considered Burr his most dangerous enemy.

^ The American people, he thought, would work together with the same enthusiasm to pay off their debt as they had fought together to oust European danger.
  • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

[50]

Secretary of the Treasury

.President George Washington appointed Hamilton as the first Secretary of the Treasury on September 11, 1789. He left office on the last day of January 1795, and much of the structure of the Government of the United States was worked out in those five years, beginning with the structure and function of the Cabinet itself.^ Alexander Hamilton, of course, was appointed the first Secretary of the Treasury, under George Washington.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hamilton's appointment was approved by the senate on September 11, 1789.

^ Several years earlier, in 1789, Hamilton had been appointed the first ever Secretary of the Treasury.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Forrest McDonald argues that Hamilton saw his office, like the British Chancellor of the Exchequer, as that of a Prime Minister; Hamilton would oversee his colleagues under the elective reign of George Washington.^ For the remainder of his life Hamilton worried that his work would be destroyed, his system dismantled, under the opposition.

^ The Death of Washington December 14, 1799 Perhaps most symbolic of the disappointments and decline Alexander Hamilton would face in the new century was the death of George Washington on December 14, 1799.

^ An excerpt from George Washington's farewell speech (which actually, it was later discovered, was written by Alexander Hamilton): .
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

.Washington did request Hamilton's advice and assistance on matters outside the purview of the Treasury Department.^ Reynolds terms, in lieu of a treasury department position, which Hamilton refused to grant him, were a thousand dollars and the obligation to continue the affair with Maria -- for additional payments.

^ Although Congress ultimately held the purse strings, many viewed Hamilton with suspicion because he headed the powerful Treasury Department.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Soon after Congress created the Treasury Department in September 1789, Washington offered Hamilton the post of Treasury secretary, and the Senate concurred.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

Within two years, Hamilton submitted five reports:
.
  • First Report on the Public Credit: Communicated to the House of Representatives, January 14, 1790.
  • Operations of the Act Laying Duties on Imports: Communicated to the House of Representatives, April 23, 1790.
  • Second Report on Public Credit: Report on a National Bank.^ Yet, Hamilton's report and the subsequent Mint Act of 1792 were important parts in the early credit system, for the act defined the U.S. dollar as a unit of account.
    • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The report thus clearly identified public credit as an instrument of war.
    • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In the 1790 "Report on Public Credit," Hamilton had declared his wish to eventually extinguish the public debt, yet he had also said that "the proper funding of the present debt, will render it a national blessing."
    • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    Communicated to the House of Representatives, December 14, 1790.
  • Report on the Establishment of a Mint: Communicated to the House of Representatives, January 28, 1791.
  • Report on Manufactures: Communicated to the House of Representatives, December 5, 1791.

Report on Public Credit

.In the Report on Public Credit, the Secretary made a controversial proposal that would have the federal government assume state debts incurred during the Revolution.^ In the Report on Public Credit, his first and arguably most famous report, Hamilton proposed that the new national government take responsibility for all state and national debts left over from the war.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Debt repudiation was not an attractive alternative because governments feared that such action would ruin their ability to borrow in the future.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To ensure the safety of the government's deposits, the Secretary of the Treasury was empowered to inspect the state of the Bank as frequently as once a week.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.This would, in effect, give the federal government much more power by placing the country's most serious financial obligation in the hands of the federal, rather than the state governments.^ [M]inds of the strongest and most active powers for their proper objects, wrote Hamilton, fall below mediocrity, and labor without effect, if confined to uncongenial pursuits.
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not every delegate brought to Philadelphia a comprehension of how thirteen independent states could share a government of tripartite powers: legislative, judicial, executive.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Fry noted that Europeans at that time had more money than local investment opportunities and were looking to employ their capital in the United States.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.The primary criticism of the plan was spearheaded by Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson and Representative James Madison.^ James Madison was crucial to the creation of the Treasury Department and especially to the elevation of the Treasury secretary to a powerful position.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Washington, and Martha, and John Jay, and that Duane guy, and Madison, and an incredible one of Thomas Jefferson that I don't think I had seen before.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Freneau, recruited to the Republican party cause during Jefferson's and Madison's "botany tour," was also employed by Jefferson as a translator for the state department.

.Some states, like Jefferson's Virginia, had paid almost half of their debts, and felt that their taxpayers should not be assessed again to bail out the less provident.^ In reality the federal government paid off around $4 million of the 6 percent debt, about $2 million of the foreign debt, and around $5.5 million of its short-term loans as well as the debt to the Bank of the United States.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But sentiment in larger states like Massachusetts, New York, Pennsylvania, and Virginia was mixed.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ Madison believed that Virginia had paid off much of its debt and therefore that assumption would force his own state to pay more than its fair share of the total war costs.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.They further argued that the plan passed beyond the scope of the new Constitutional government.^ Time would pass before members realized how far the plans of such men as Madison and Hamilton reached, and what the Constitution promised to be.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After a full experience of the insufficiency of the existing federal government, you are invited to deliberate upon a new Constitution for the United States of America.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This quality constitutes a material part of its value" ("Report on a Plan for the Further Support of Public Credit," ibid., 18: 120).
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.Madison objected to Hamilton's proposal to cut the rate of interest and postpone payments on federal debt, as not being payment in full; he also objected to the speculative profits being made.^ For this reason Hamilton proposed that the combined annual payment on interest and principal should not exceed $7 on every $100 subscribed to the new loan.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ I am grateful to Richard Buel for stressing Hamilton's belief that the state creditor interest had to be attached to the federal government to facilitate taxation.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If the government's right to redeem the debt was not restricted, however, nothing would stop it from taking advantage of the falling interest rate to refinance the debt at lower cost.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.Much of the national debt had been bonds issued to Continental veterans, in place of wages the Continental Congress did not have the money to pay; as these continued to go unpaid, many of these bonds had been pawned for a small fraction of their value.^ During the course of the war and afterward, many holders of continental bonds, often veterans and farmers who had contributed goods and services to the war effort, sold their certificates at depreciated prices for much needed cash.

^ If he did not have a full enough plate already, Hamilton was appointed a delegate to the Continental Congress.

^ Over time customs duties would generate large incomes, but in 1790 these duties were new and Hamilton did not expect them to yield enough to pay the revolutionary debt's stipulated interest of 6 percent, much less the principal.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.Madison proposed to pay in full, but to divide payment between the original recipient and the present possessor.^ Madison favored a plan of discrimination, paying the original bearers the nominal value of the certificates they once held, while paying the current bearer the highest market value plus interest.

^ Madison's proposal was to give the present holders the equivalent of the highest market price for securities and to give the difference between the market price and the par value to the original holder.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Support for Madison was only lukewarm in the House of Representatives, which voted thirty-six to thirteen against his proposal to discriminate between present and original security holders.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.Others, like Samuel Livermore of New Hampshire, wished to curb speculation, and save taxation, by paying only part of the bond.^ On every new loan, the House of Commons now pledged not only the means necessary to pay interest charges but also money for the gradual repayment of the principal.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His idea was that the more complex the national life was, the more the parts would be dependent on each other and that, united with the bonds of mutual needs, we would become a strong coherent nation.
  • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hamilton was a strict disciplinarian but just as fiercely fought with the New York assembly for decent pay and supplies for his men, and even exhausted his own savings to pay for their uniforms.

.The disagreements between Madison and Hamilton extended to other proposals Hamilton made to Congress, and drew in Jefferson when he returned from France.^ The duel between Hamilton and Burr -- George Washington's Farewell Address -- The Adams administration -- The heated debate about where to place the capital -- Benjamin Franklin trying to force Congress to deal with the issue of slavery and James Madison's resistance to that -- The correspondence between John Adams and Thomas Jefferson .
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Both ambitious and brilliant, equally knowledgeable on a wide variety of subjects, Hamilton and Madison sparked immediately when they met in the continental congress in 1783.

^ For all their later opposition, the funding act would never have passed Congress without the support of both Madison and Jefferson.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.Hamilton's supporters became known as Federalists and Jefferson's as Republicans.^ Hamilton headed the rightists, the Federalists; Jefferson headed the leftists, the Republicans.
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^ Burr had alienated Jefferson and the triumphant Republican party by his disloyalty as a vice president and had lost by a landslide in his bid to become a Federalist governor of New York.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Again, Hamilton supported his Republican rival, John Lansing (and later Morgan Lewis when Lansing bowed out), and because of his stance, was all but ostracized by his own party.

As Madison put it:
"I deserted Colonel Hamilton, or rather Colonel H. deserted me; in a word, the divergence between us took place from his wishing to administration, or rather to administer the Government into what he thought it ought to be..."[51]
.Hamilton eventually secured passage of his assumption plan by striking a deal with Jefferson and Madison.^ Jefferson invited Madison and Hamilton to dinner, and offered to cut a deal.

^ Jefferson proposed to Hamilton that he and Madison would conjure the extra votes needed to pass his plan if it were tied in with a bill to place the national capitol on the Potomac -- near Virginia, and more accessible to the south as a whole.

^ These works divided Hamilton from Jefferson and Madison and became the basis of partisan politics in the United States.
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.According to the terms, Hamilton was to use his influence to place the permanent national capital on the Potomac River, and Jefferson and Madison were to encourage their friends to back Hamilton's assumption plan.^ This national plan was early in Hamilton's mind.
  • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hamilton proposed to use them w^ for national purposes.
  • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Jefferson proposed to Hamilton that he and Madison would conjure the extra votes needed to pass his plan if it were tied in with a bill to place the national capitol on the Potomac -- near Virginia, and more accessible to the south as a whole.

In the end, Hamilton's assumption, together with his proposals for funding the debt, overcame legislative opposition and narrowly passed the House on July 26, 1790.[52]

Founding the U.S. Mint

.Hamilton helped found the United States Mint; the first national bank; a "System of Cutters", forming the Revenue Cutter Service, (now the United States Coast Guard) and an elaborate system of duties, tariffs, and excises.^ Hamilton's plan for revenue was based upon an import tariff and an excise.

^ In contriving the smoothly running machinery of a modern nation-state - including a budget system, a funded debt, a tax system, a central bank, a customs service, and a coast guard - and justifying them in some of America's most influential state papers, he set a high-water mark for administrative competence that has never been equaled.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The final resolution read: " Resolved, That the Secretary of the Treasury has been guilty of maladministration in the duties of his office, and should, in the opinion of Congress, be removed from his office by the President of the United States."

.In five years, the complete Hamiltonian program replaced the chaotic financial system of the confederation era with a modern apparatus that gave the new government financial stability, and gave investors sufficient confidence to invest in government bonds.^ Confidence in the stability and solvency of the new government gave the securities value.
  • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ His objective, in addition to defending his program thus far, was a plan "for the Redemption of the public debt," to complete and stabilize the current system of funding, and to "prevent that progressive accumulation of Debt which must ultimately endanger all Government."

^ How did it pay interest on a U.S. government bond held by an investor in London?
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

Sources of revenue

.One of the principal sources of revenue Hamilton prevailed upon Congress to approve was an excise tax on whiskey.^ Hamilton's plan for revenue was based upon an import tariff and an excise.

^ On the other hand, Hamilton saw that Madison's strategy would do great harm to his short-term goals by reducing revenues from the impost and excise taxes upon which his system depended.

^ Upon hearing of Hamilton's recent availability, Morris appointed him Continental receiver of taxes for the state of New York in April of 1782.

.Strong opposition to the whiskey tax by cottage producers in remote, rural regions erupted into the Whiskey Rebellion in 1794; in Western Pennsylvania and western Virginia, whiskey was the basic export product and was basic to the local economy.^ The first serious attack on the authority of the ^ Union was the Whiskey Rebellion in Western ■; Pennsylvania In 1794.
  • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Whiskey Rebellion August 1794 While John Jay journeyed to Britain, trouble was brewing in western Pennsylvania.

^ They condemned the dispatching of federal troops in 1799 to crush a tax revolt -- Fries's Rebellion -- in Pennsylvania.
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.In response to the rebellion, believing compliance with the laws was vital to the establishment of federal authority, he accompanied to the rebellion's site President Washington, General Henry "Light Horse Harry" Lee, and more federal troops than were ever assembled in one place during the Revolution.^ Our relations with France were more compli- cated and more hostile to our nationality than our relations with England.
  • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The compe- tition of numbers does not stimulate them to new enterprise and one generation passes on to the next little more than it received.
  • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ To become law, President George Washington would have to sign it, and do so before February 26, the time limit imposed by the Constitution.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

This overwhelming display of force intimidated the leaders of the insurrection, ending the rebellion virtually without bloodshed.[53]

Manufacturing and industry

Statue of Hamilton by Franklin Simmons, overlooking the Great Falls of the Passaic River in Paterson, New Jersey, where Hamilton envisioned using the falls to power new factories
.Hamilton's next report was his "Report on Manufactures". Congress shelved the report without much debate, except for Madison's objection to Hamilton's formulation of the General Welfare clause, which Hamilton construed liberally as a legal basis for his extensive programs.^ Report on Manufactures Submitted to Congress December 5, 1791 During the summer and fall of 1791, while Madison and Jefferson were building up the Republican resistance, Hamilton was hard at work in Philadelphia on a number of projects, the most absorbing of which was his Report on Manufactures.

^ Both ambitious and brilliant, equally knowledgeable on a wide variety of subjects, Hamilton and Madison sparked immediately when they met in the continental congress in 1783.

^ For all their later opposition, the funding act would never have passed Congress without the support of both Madison and Jefferson.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

It has been often quoted by protectionists since.[54]
.In 1791, while still Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton worked in a private capacity to help found the Society for the Establishment of Useful Manufactures, a private corporation that would use the power of the Great Falls of the Passaic River to operate mills.^ As a sort of supplement to his plan for manufactures, Hamilton and his former Treasury Department assistant, William Duer, founded the "Society for the Establishment of Useful Manufactures."

^ During Hamilton's tenure as Secretary of the Treasury, that position would be the most powerful in the government.

^ Hamilton, with help from Coxe, William Duer, and others, founded the Society for the Establishment of Useful Manufactures (SEUM) to demonstrate that America could create its own indigenous manufacturing base.
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Although the company did not succeed in its original purpose, it leased the land around the falls to other mill ventures and continued to operate for over a century and a half.^ Although Marx did not formulate the socialist theory until almost a half century after Hamilton's death, modern writers have endeavored to interpret Hamilton In the light of it.
  • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

Emergence of parties

.During Hamilton's tenure as Treasury Secretary, political factions began to emerge.^ During Hamilton's tenure as Secretary of the Treasury, that position would be the most powerful in the government.

^ During Alexander Hamilton's term as Treasury secretary, the United States managed to avoid a European war.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ However, in the wake of Gilded Age excesses, progressive and populist political leaders branded Hamilton as the patron saint of Wall Street, and his reputation began to disintegrate.
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.A Congressional caucus, led by James Madison and William Giles, began as an opposition group to Hamilton's financial programs, and Thomas Jefferson joined this group when he returned from France.^ He and James Madison were the prime movers behind the summoning of the Constitutional Convention and the chief authors of that classic gloss on the national charter, The Federalist , which Hamilton supervised.
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^ Washington, and Martha, and John Jay, and that Duane guy, and Madison, and an incredible one of Thomas Jefferson that I don't think I had seen before.
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^ The duel between Hamilton and Burr -- George Washington's Farewell Address -- The Adams administration -- The heated debate about where to place the capital -- Benjamin Franklin trying to force Congress to deal with the issue of slavery and James Madison's resistance to that -- The correspondence between John Adams and Thomas Jefferson .
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

.Hamilton and his allies began to call themselves Federalists.^ Federalism and Republicanism are each called different things today and both sides, Democrat and Republican, quickly wrap themselves in the mantra of Hamilton and Jefferson whenever they can.
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^ Madison and Jefferson began increasingly to see Hamilton's victories as serious losses for themselves and the interests of their constituents, the southern planter class.

^ Hamilton lost, in the name of Federalist politics, both the son on whom he had showered the fatherly attention and affection he had been denied, and the daughter he called his Angel.

.The opposition group, now referred to as the Democratic-Republican Party, was then known by several names, including Republicans,[55] republicans,[56] Jeffersonians, and Democrats.^ Their alliance with the Virginians created the Republican (later, the Democratic) Party.
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^ They returned with a party -- which would shortly become the Republican party -- complete with a national network of supporters and functionaries, including a journalist named Philip Freneau, recruited from New York to begin publishing the official party newspaper.

^ The opposite party, on the contrary, Rabbeno says, consisted of the "mass of the people, agricultural, democratic, and individual- a Works, vol.
  • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Federalists assembled a nationwide coalition to garner support for the Administration, including the expansive financial programs Hamilton had made Administration policy; the Democratic-Republicans built their own national coalition to oppose these Federalist programs.^ Hamiltons fundamental point, made early in numbers 9 and 11, refutes a chestnut of republican theory: that free states must be small (and, implicitly, homogeneous).
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Jefferson's requests of Genet to cease his privateering activities were rebuffed by the obnoxious minister, who was engaged in his own bizarre efforts to secure the support of the American people for his cause, and spurred by the shrill pro-French/ anti-administration press, to oppose the policies of the Washington administration "in the interest of liberty."

^ One of Hamilton's talks in particular, given at a private dinner, was attended by a Burr supporter whose synopsis made its way into print.

.Both sides gained the support of local political factions; each side developed its own partisan newspapers.^ In contrast to the political interpretation of his aims, this interpretation finds much support in Hamilton's own writings on the funding and assumption of the revolutionary debt.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He had depended upon Madison's support for his plans, and his former collaborator's opposition was to Hamilton a shocking blow both personally and politically.

.Noah Webster, John Fenno, and eventually William Cobbett were prominent editors for the Federalists.^ Hamilton established a Federalist publication -- John Fenno's Gazette of the United States -- and the newspaper wars commenced.

.Benjamin Franklin Bache and Philip Freneau edited major publications for the Democratic-Republicans.^ Far from rejecting the use of government loans, Republicans and later Democrats made much greater use of public credit as an instrument of statecraft than Federalists ever did.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

Newspapers of both parties were characterized by frequent personal attacks and information of questionable veracity.
.In 1801, Hamilton established a daily newspaper the New York Evening Post under editor William Coleman.^ In 1801 he founded the New York Evening Post , which was, in effect, the Voice of Hamilton .
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Even his own newspaper, the New York Evening Post, criticized Hamilton's break from the party mainstream.

^ All the while that the little New York artillery company was with Washington, Hamilton was making an indelible impression on the General.

.It is now known as the New York Post.^ The impost was also reemerging as an issue, this time in New York, which was now the lone holdout against the tax.

^ In 1801 he founded the New York Evening Post , which was, in effect, the Voice of Hamilton .
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hamilton reached New York Harbor in early 1773, entered King's College (now Columbia University) in 1774, and began his studies in medicine.

[57]

French Revolutionary wars

.When France and Britain went to war in early 1793, all four members of the Cabinet were consulted on what to do.^ They applauded France's declaration of war against Britain and viewed it as yet another blow to monarchy and tyranny.

^ In Britain the redemption of the public debt was a means to preserve public credit to secure the nation's ability to continue its wars with France.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Colonel in the U.S. Army during the Black Hawk War; member of Wisconsin territorial legislature ; went to California for the 1849 Gold Rush .
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.They unanimously agreed to remain neutral, and both Hamilton and Jefferson were major architects in working out the specific provisions that maintained and enforced that neutrality.^ Again, Hamilton and Jefferson agreed on the principle but not on the manner in which it was to be carried out.

^ Both ambitious and brilliant, equally knowledgeable on a wide variety of subjects, Hamilton and Madison sparked immediately when they met in the continental congress in 1783.

^ The Clintonian/Antifederalists knew this, and the fact buoyed their efforts; they had a clear majority over the Federalists in all parts of the state except Manhattan, Hamilton's district.

[58]
.During Hamilton's last year in office, policy toward Britain became a major point of contention between the two parties.^ Hamilton's last communications with party members were emotional pleas to stop the secessionist movement.

^ The Quasi-War was a roughly two-year period of severe friction between France and the United States during which war seemed inevitable.

^ Great Britain as would necessarily render us dependent upon France."'^ France was trying to use the United States to gain back that which she had lost in the Seven Years War; but Hamilton understood the struggle be- tween England and France for empire, and the keystone of his foreign policy became protection from them both.
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.Hamilton and the Federalists wished for more trade with Britain, which would provide more revenue from tariffs; the Democratic-Republicans preferred an embargo to compel Britain to respect the rights of the United States and give up the forts they still held on American soil, contrary to the Treaty of Paris.^ They would see a possibility of making a conquest of [the] United States."
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hamilton wrote the first article returning home on a sloop from Albany, where he had been arguing cases before the state supreme court, and he ended up contributing more than 50 of the 85 pieces.
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^ Hamilton would have agreed with Madison that, since Americans were the leading consumers of British goods, impaired commerce between Britain and the United States would be more harmful to the former -- he had used that argument when supporting the measures of the Continental Congress in 1774.

[59]
.To avoid war, Washington sent Chief Justice John Jay, late in 1794, to negotiate with the British; Hamilton helped to draw up his instructions.^ When Madison attacked a treaty with Britain negotiated by his friend John Jay, Hamilton defended it in a series of articles that ran to 100,000 words and that overwhelmed even his allies.
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^ Years later, Chief Justice John Marshall said that Hamiltons reach of thought was so far beyond his own that, compared to Hamilton, he felt like a candle before the sun at noonday.
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Washington, and Martha, and John Jay, and that Duane guy, and Madison, and an incredible one of Thomas Jefferson that I don't think I had seen before.
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.The result was Jay's Treaty, which, as the State Department says, "addressed few U.S. interests, and ultimately granted Britain additional rights".[60] The treaty was extremely unpopular, and the Democratic-Republicans opposed it for its failure to redress previous grievances, and for its failure to address British violations of American neutrality during the war.^ When France’s ambassador, “Citizen” Genêt, arrived in America in April 1793 and, flouting U.S. neutrality, enlisted American vessels as privateers against British shipping, Hamilton was scandalized, as he was by Genêt’s stirring up pro-French democratic-republican clubs in U.S. cities to demonstrate in favor of the Revolution.
  • Alexander Hamilton, Modern America’s Founding Father by Myron Magnet, City Journal Winter 2009 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During Alexander Hamilton's term as Treasury secretary, the United States managed to avoid a European war.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The war had been hard on the city: during the British occupation, a third of it burned down, and it lost over half its population.
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.Several European nations had formed a League of Armed Neutrality against incursions on their neutral rights; the Cabinet was also consulted on whether the United States should join it, and decided not to, but kept that decision secret.^ The mere idea of being a great nation, able to de- fend our rights against others, added to the con- fidence of the people.
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^ By 1800 the United States debt was less than eight times the annual tax revenue, lower than the debt of most European states.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The final resolution read: " Resolved, That the Secretary of the Treasury has been guilty of maladministration in the duties of his office, and should, in the opinion of Congress, be removed from his office by the President of the United States."

.Hamilton revealed this decision in private to George Hammond, the British Minister to the United States, without telling Jay—or anyone else; it was unknown until Hammond's dispatches were read in the 1920s.^ If we have an embryo-Caesar in the United States, Hamilton wrote, tis Burr.
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^ The growth of manufacturing in the United States, in Hamilton's view, would parallel the growth of great population centers, thus creating more of a market for the produce of farms.

^ I replied without petulancy, but with decision "I am not conscious of it Sir, but since you have thought it necessary to tell me so we part."

.This "amazing revelation" may have had limited effect on the negotiations; Jay did threaten to join the League at one point, but the British had other reasons not to view the League as a serious threat.^ One ploy was to threaten that if the state declined to ratify, New York City would secede and join the new government on its own.
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^ On the other hand, rent from the point of view of the entre- preneur is a sum of money paid for a peculiar » Works, vol.
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^ Stone's critique pointed to the origins of funding systems in what one late-eighteenth-century British writer called "the prevalence and extension of the war-system throughout Europe."
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

[61]

Retirement from federal service

.Hamilton's conduct as Secretary was repeatedly investigated in Congress; some of the most serious charges emerged in the spring of 1794. In addition to the Reynolds affair, mentioned below, an incident from 1790 then came to light: Congress had appropriated money to pay the European creditors of the United States, and Hamilton had diverted part of the sum to domestic expenditure.^ This came from his 1790 proposal (he was Secretary of the Treasury) to create a Bank of the United States.
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^ Hamilton did not want to discriminate among creditors, for he believed that opinion is the soul of credit, and he wanted the world to have a high opinion of the new governments willingness to pay.
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To defend and promote American national interests it was essential that the Republic acquire some of the features of contemporary European states.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.Hamilton claimed that he had been authorized to act by Washington, but could provide no evidence.^ In a letter to Washington, he claimed to have been "duped" by Hamilton and "made a tool for forwarding his schemes."
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Reynolds claimed that Hamilton had given him treasury funds to play the stock market, and further, that he possessed evidence that the money had changed hands.

^ When the militia, with Washington and Hamilton at its head, reached western Pennsylvania, it became clear that there would be no armed resistance.

.When Washington was consulted, he could not remember the transaction, but was certain that he would have made the condition that the change be consistent with legislation.^ The certain effect of such a change was rising prices that would benefit the public creditors.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.Hamilton wrote an irate letter to Washington; he was very angry not to be trusted unconditionally.^ This is from a letter Alexander Hamilton wrote in 1780.
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^ On July 10, 1804, Alexander Hamilton wrote the following letter to his wife Eliza: .
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He was very concerned, when he left Washington's employ, that the real reasons be kept private (he mentions this in a couple of letters).
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[62] Hamilton resigned as Secretary of the Treasury on December 1, 1794, immediately before Congress met again; his resignation was effective on January 31, 1795.[63]

Affair

.In 1791, Hamilton became involved in an affair with Maria Reynolds that badly damaged his reputation.^ He plays Alexander Hamilton, and she plays three different roles (Hamilton's mother, Hamilton's wife, and the extortionist floozy Maria Reynolds).
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^ And despite assurances from the three that Hamilton's secret was safe with them, it was only a matter of time until the Reynolds affair came back to haunt him.

^ Reynolds terms, in lieu of a treasury department position, which Hamilton refused to grant him, were a thousand dollars and the obligation to continue the affair with Maria -- for additional payments.

.Reynolds' husband, James, blackmailed Hamilton for money, threatening to inform Hamilton's wife.^ Yes, Hamilton admitted, he had given James Reynolds money, but it was his own, not treasury funds; and, no, the money was not for speculation, but to pay him off following an affair Hamilton had with Reynolds' wife, Maria, during the summer of 1791.

^ Reynolds claimed that Hamilton had given him treasury funds to play the stock market, and further, that he possessed evidence that the money had changed hands.

.When James Reynolds was arrested for counterfeiting, he contacted several prominent members of the Democratic-Republican Party, most notably James Monroe and Aaron Burr, touting that he could expose a top level official for corruption.^ Aaron Burr , the leader of the Republicans in New York, managed to organize a party majority in that state's congressional elections.

^ Their alliance with the Virginians created the Republican (later, the Democratic) Party.
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He felt that, at most, states could be helpful in the administration of federal objectives on the local level, but state sovereignty had long been an absurdity to him.

.When they interviewed Hamilton with their suspicions (presuming that James Reynolds could implicate Hamilton in an abuse of his position in Washington's Cabinet), Hamilton insisted he was innocent of any misconduct in public office and admitted to an affair with Maria Reynolds.^ He plays Alexander Hamilton, and she plays three different roles (Hamilton's mother, Hamilton's wife, and the extortionist floozy Maria Reynolds).
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^ He continued on as a back-door advisor to the Adams cabinet, mostly through the Secretary of War James McHenry, who regularly asked Hamilton for his advice on policy.

^ On December 15, 1792, three congressmen, James Monroe, Abraham Venable, and Frederick Muhlenberg, confronted Hamilton in his Treasury Department office with charges of shady dealings with one James Reynolds, currently in jail.

.Since this was not germane to Hamilton's conduct in office, Hamilton's interviewers did not publish about Reynolds.^ It was a story that Hamilton could have easily and with dignity ignored, having left office after the most rigorous inquisitions into his conduct and coming out blameless.

^ At some point, Reynolds found out about their affair, and confronted Hamilton, requesting "satisfaction" for the wrong done to him.

^ Most books about Hamilton publish excerpts of it only, to give you a taste for it (they always include the "Oh!
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

.When rumors began spreading after his retirement, Hamilton published a confession of his affair, shocking his family and supporters by not merely confessing but also by narrating the affair in detail, thus injuring Hamilton's reputation for the rest of his life.^ He returned then to the practice of the law, in order to support his [1] ALEXANDER HAMILTON ^ large family; but he continued, until he was shot by Burr on July ii, 1804, to take an active inter- est in public affairs.
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^ When they began inquiring into Hamilton's background, they found out that he was not from a respected American family, nor even an American by birth.

^ Protection 127 [xiii] CHAPTER FIRST Introduction The facts of the life of Alexander Hamilton are so familiar that a mere catalogue of them will serve to refresh the mind of the reader.
  • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

1796 presidential election

.Hamilton's resignation as Secretary of the Treasury in 1795 did not remove him from public life.^ Hamilton did not see itthe Poughkeepsie convention was still in sessionbut Nicholas Cruger, the man who first shipped him to New York, did.
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Did Hamilton, as some have postulated, voluntarily sacrifice himself knowing that his death on the dueling ground would completely destroy Burr, and with him all of his schemes?

^ The final resolution read: " Resolved, That the Secretary of the Treasury has been guilty of maladministration in the duties of his office, and should, in the opinion of Congress, be removed from his office by the President of the United States."

With the resumption of his law practice, he remained close to Washington as an advisor and friend. .Hamilton influenced Washington in the composition of his Farewell Address; Washington and members of his Cabinet often consulted with him.^ During this last year in Washington's cabinet, Hamilton reached the pinnacle of his power and influence, advising on and directing a wide range of foreign and domestic policy.

^ At wars end, Hamilton was one of the small group of officers to whom Washington emotionally bade farewell at Fraunces Tavern.
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ALEXANDER HAMILTON \ The specter of foreign influence in western affairs haunted him.
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.In the election of 1796, under the Constitution as it stood then, each of the presidential Electors had two votes, which they were to cast for different men.^ As votes were not at that time distinguished between presidential and vice presidential candidates, electors' votes had to be cast strategically to ensure that the right man got the top spot.

^ Hamilton revived his proposal from the previous election: that Federalist electors vote equally for Pinckney and Adams.

^ Under the Confederation they reaped very different results from those anticipated.
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.The one with most votes would be President, the second, Vice President.^ AS its second session drew to a close, the first Congress passed one of its most controversial acts of legislation.
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This system was not designed for parties, which had been thought disreputable and factious. .The Federalists planned to deal with this by having all their Electors vote for John Adams, the Vice President, and all but a few for Thomas Pinckney of South Carolina (who was on his way home from being Minister to Spain, where he had negotiated a popular treaty); Jefferson chose Aaron Burr as his vice presidential running mate.^ A final reason for Jeffersons and Madisons suspicions was their deep hatred of England and anyone who admired its ways.
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At another dinner chez Jefferson, after the capital had moved to Philadelphia, Vice President John Adams observed that the British Constitution, if purge[d] of corruptionthat is, buying supporters by doling out officeswould be the most perfect constitution ever devised by the wit of man.
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hamilton, to whom Adams contemptuously referred as "his puppyhood," had maneuvered electoral votes in the 1789 election so that Adams would not accidentally become president over Washington, a position which Adams had felt himself equally deserving.

.Hamilton, however, disliked Adams and saw an opportunity.^ The Quasi War with Adams 1789-1800 Meanwhile, Adams was nourishing a healthy dislike for Hamilton.

.He urged all the Northern Electors to vote for Adams and Pinckney, lest Jefferson get in.^ Hamilton had directed Federalist electors to vote equally for Adams and the southerner, which could easily have derailed Adams' bid for the executive.

^ Jefferson's gonna get all the glory - at least intellectually - I really should warn you about that - is John Adams here?
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^ I've read about it from all sides: Hamilton's side, of course - but then John Adams' analysis of it, his letters to his wife, Jefferson's side of it, Washington's side of it ...
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.He cooperated with Edward Rutledge to have South Carolina's Electors vote for Jefferson and Pinckney.^ Hamilton revived his proposal from the previous election: that Federalist electors vote equally for Pinckney and Adams.

^ Once again, on June 21, he rose to challenge Charles Cotesworth Pinckney of South Carolina, who wanted Congress to be elected by the state legislation.
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.If all this worked, Pinckney would have more votes than Adams; Pinckney would be President, and Adams would remain Vice President.^ Since the United States possessed "little monied capital," it would be even more dependent on this resource than other nations.
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^ Working himself to exhaustion, he stunned his opposition by handing over more than 200 pages of spotless records and reports in less than a month.

^ In 1790 Hamilton calculated that the income of the federal government would be no more than $2.8 million.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

It did not work. .The Federalists found out about it (even the French minister to the United States knew), and Northern Federalists voted for Adams but not for Pinckney, in sufficient numbers that Pinckney came in third and Jefferson became Vice President.^ At another dinner chez Jefferson, after the capital had moved to Philadelphia, Vice President John Adams observed that the British Constitution, if purge[d] of corruptionthat is, buying supporters by doling out officeswould be the most perfect constitution ever devised by the wit of man.
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The final resolution read: " Resolved, That the Secretary of the Treasury has been guilty of maladministration in the duties of his office, and should, in the opinion of Congress, be removed from his office by the President of the United States."

^ Strained loyalties: the French Revolution 1789-1799 Hamilton's reservations about an alliance with France were only intensified by the French Revolution , which was met with sweeping adulation throughout the United States.

[64] .Adams resented the intrigue, since he felt his service to the nation was much more extensive than Pinckney's.^ They accepted the importance of sound public credit as much as the Federalists and made much more use of it than their predecessors.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The idea that state or nation Is something more than the sum of the individuals who compose It, has been denied.
  • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ More than any other American political leader, except Lincoln, his devotion both to the national aiid to the democratic ideas is thorough-going and absolute."
  • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

[65] .Adams also resented Hamilton's influence with Washington and considered him overambitious and scandalous in his private life; Hamilton compared Adams unfavorably with Washington and thought him too emotionally unstable to be President.^ Adams had made Hamilton's job as inspector general after the death of Washington almost impossible, and the president, who had never made a secret of his hatred for Hamilton, was becoming increasingly outspoken about it.

^ Resentful of the commander-in-chief for what he considered a belated increase in rank, Burr supported General Horatio Gates in his attempt to oust Washington as commander of the Continental army.

^ During this last year in Washington's cabinet, Hamilton reached the pinnacle of his power and influence, advising on and directing a wide range of foreign and domestic policy.

Quasi-War

.During the Quasi-War of 1798–1800, and with Washington's strong endorsement, Adams reluctantly appointed Hamilton a major general of the army (essentially placing him in command since Washington could not leave Mt.^ The Quasi War with Adams 1789-1800 Meanwhile, Adams was nourishing a healthy dislike for Hamilton.

^ Hamilton had a busy war, serving on George Washingtons staff, quarreling with him (Washington, he wrote, was neither remarkable for delicacy nor good tempercriticisms that could sometimes be applied to himself), then reconciling.
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All the while that the little New York artillery company was with Washington, Hamilton was making an indelible impression on the General.

Vernon). .If full scale war broke out with France, Hamilton argued that the army should conquer the North American colonies of France's ally, Spain, bordering the United States.^ President Adams called Washington out of retirement to act as commander-in-chief for raising the forces requisite for the war with France.

^ The final resolution read: " Resolved, That the Secretary of the Treasury has been guilty of maladministration in the duties of his office, and should, in the opinion of Congress, be removed from his office by the President of the United States."

^ From the struggle for independence to the Second World War, American statesmen and political thinkers have often claimed that the United States differs from Europe largely because it is far removed from European wars and power politics.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

[66]
To fund this army, Hamilton had been writing incessantly to Oliver Wolcott, Jr., his successor at the Treasury; William Loughton Smith, of the House Ways and Means Committee; and Senator Theodore Sedgwick of Massachusetts. He directed them to pass a direct tax to fund the war. .Smith resigned in July of 1797, as Hamilton scolded him for slowness, and told Wolcott to tax houses instead of land.^ So embarrassed by his admissions were the inquisitors, that they told Hamilton there was no need for him to tell the whole story.

^ Upon hearing of Hamilton's recent availability, Morris appointed him Continental receiver of taxes for the state of New York in April of 1782.

^ This was dubious as a matter of economic theory (Hamilton had read Adam Smith but disagreed with him on the question of the invisible hand).
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[67]
.The eventual program included a Stamp Act, like that of the British before the Revolution, and an array of taxes on land, houses, and slaves, calculated at different rates in different states, and requiring difficult and intricate assessment of houses.^ By renegotiating interest rates and terms of repayment, the United States could reduce the cost of indebtedness and avoid a heavy tax burden.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hamilton argued that the rate of interest in the United States was likely to fall to 4 percent in twenty years' time.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He believed that payment of the stipulated interest rate of 6 percent would require tax levels the people were unlikely to accept.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.This provoked resistance in southeastern Pennsylania, led primarily by men who had marched with Washington against the Whiskey Rebellion, such as John Fries.^ Washington, who had already decided upon his course of action, issued a proclamation of neutrality which included a prohibition against private citizens engaging in actions that violated the neutrality.

^ Anyway - the memory of Shays Rebellion was fresh, and vivid to the men who gathered in the Pennsylvania State House, on May 25th, 1787.
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^ The Whiskey Rebellion and Fries's Rebellion may of course suggest otherwise.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

[68]
.Hamilton aided in all areas of the Army's development, and officially served as the Senior Officer of the United States Army as a Major General from December 14, 1799 to June 15, 1800. The army was to guard against invasion from France.^ To Hamilton, all the defects lay with the states.
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^ Strained loyalties: the French Revolution 1789-1799 Hamilton's reservations about an alliance with France were only intensified by the French Revolution , which was met with sweeping adulation throughout the United States.

^ If we have an embryo-Caesar in the United States, Hamilton wrote, tis Burr.
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hamilton also suggested that its strategy should involve marching into the possessions of Spain, then allied with France, and potentially even taking Louisiana and Mexico.^ When the plan was moved in Congress, Rufus King, a senator from New York and an ally of Hamiltons, burst into tears.
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.His correspondence further suggests that when he returned in military glory, he dreamed of setting up a properly energetic government, without any Jeffersonians.^ Hamilton read aloud from his notes - what HE proposed as the set-up for the national government.
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^ They set out to explain to the reluctant public (who were, in general, horrified at this idea of an "energetic" national government) why a Constitution was necessary, and the whys and wherefores of each part of it.
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^ Hamilton read aloud from his notes - and what HE proposed as the set-up for the national government is basically what we have to this day (except for the "executive for life" thing.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

.Adams, however, derailed all plans for war by opening negotiations with France.^ President Adams called Washington out of retirement to act as commander-in-chief for raising the forces requisite for the war with France.

[69] .Adams had also held it right to retain Washington's cabinet, except for cause; he found, in 1800 (after Washington's death), that they were obeying Hamilton rather than himself, and fired several of them.^ Washington finally lost his iron control, Jefferson reported, and exploded in a cabinet meeting: “By God he had rather be in his grave than in his present situation; .
  • Alexander Hamilton, Modern America’s Founding Father by Myron Magnet, City Journal Winter 2009 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Did Hamilton, as some have postulated, voluntarily sacrifice himself knowing that his death on the dueling ground would completely destroy Burr, and with him all of his schemes?

^ The two passed each other on the stairs, Washington told Hamilton he wanted to speak to him, and Hamilton said he’d be right back and went to finish his errand, returning, “I sincerely believe,” in less than two minutes.
  • Alexander Hamilton, Modern America’s Founding Father by Myron Magnet, City Journal Winter 2009 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: Original source]

[70]

1800 presidential election

Statue of Hamilton in the United States Capitol rotunda
.In the 1800 election, Hamilton worked to defeat not only the rival Democratic-Republican candidates, but also his party's own nominee, John Adams.^ Their alliance with the Virginians created the Republican (later, the Democratic) Party.
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The election, declared Massachusetts Republican Elbridge Gerry, was a battle between the people and a party "utterly devoted to a monarchical system."
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^ Never one to let an insult go by unrevenged, Hamilton resolved to destroy the career of John Adams.

.In New York, which Burr had won for Jefferson in May, Hamilton proposed a rerun of the election under different rules, with carefully drawn districts, each choosing an elector,[71] so that the Federalists would split the electoral vote of New York.^ Hamilton revived his proposal from the previous election: that Federalist electors vote equally for Pinckney and Adams.

^ Before his election was confirmed, as Congress struggled to break the deadlock between Jefferson and Aaron Burr, Alexander Hamilton had suggested that Federalist Congressmen "make it a ground of exploration with Mr. Jefferson or his confidential friends" to obtain "some assurances of his future conduct."
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^ James Kent, a fellow New York lawyer, described Hamilton's superiority in the courtroom: "The mighty mind of Hamilton would at times bear down all opposition by its comprehensive grasp and the strength of his reasoning powers."

.John Jay, a Federalist, who had given up the Supreme Court to be Governor of New York, wrote on the back of the letter the words, "Proposing a measure for party purposes which it would not become me to adopt," and declined to reply.^ In private, the Federalist governor of New York, John Jay, was just as blunt.
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^ John Jay wrote the following in a letter: .
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^ He also founded with John Jay , his good friend and future "Federalist" collaborator, the Society for Promoting the Manumission of Slaves, whose primary purpose was to propose a "line of conduct" with respect to humane treatment of slaves, and to create a register of freed slaves to ensure that they were not deprived of their liberty.

[72]
.John Adams was running this time with Pinckney's elder brother Charles Cotesworth Pinckney.^ In the election of 1796, knowing Adams' unpopularity and the need for a southern Federalist on the ticket, Hamilton had preferred Charles Pinckney as the party candidate.

^ Once again, on June 21, he rose to challenge Charles Cotesworth Pinckney of South Carolina, who wanted Congress to be elected by the state legislation.
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.On the other hand, Hamilton toured New England, again urging Northern Electors to hold firm for this Pinckney, in the renewed hope to make Pinckney President; and he again intrigued in South Carolina.^ Burr, on the other hand, was Hamilton's photo negative in that regard.

^ All the while that the little New York artillery company was with Washington, Hamilton was making an indelible impression on the General.

^ "I chose a seat," he afterward wrote, "in front of the presiding member, with the other members on my right and left hand.
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.This time, the important reaction was from the Jeffersonian Electors, all of whom voted both for Jefferson and Burr to ensure that no such deal would result in electing a Federalist.^ Thomas Jefferson had no such confidante.
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^ Time would pass before members realized how far the plans of such men as Madison and Hamilton reached, and what the Constitution promised to be.
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^ Hamilton, to whom Adams contemptuously referred as "his puppyhood," had maneuvered electoral votes in the 1789 election so that Adams would not accidentally become president over Washington, a position which Adams had felt himself equally deserving.

(Burr had received only one vote from Virginia in 1796.)
.In September, Hamilton wrote a pamphlet called Letter from Alexander Hamilton, Concerning the Public Conduct and Character of John Adams, Esq.^ On July 10, 1804, Alexander Hamilton wrote the following letter to his wife Eliza: .
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^ In a revealing passage, Hamilton wrote that funding was necessary "to guard the Government and the Creditors against the danger of inconstancy in the public Councils."
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^ The following is a letter the 17-year-old Alexander Hamilton wrote to his father, describing the hurricane that hit St. Croix on August 31, 1772 - one of the worst in the recorded history of the island.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

.President of the United States
that was highly critical of Adams, though it closed with a tepid endorsement.^ The final resolution read: " Resolved, That the Secretary of the Treasury has been guilty of maladministration in the duties of his office, and should, in the opinion of Congress, be removed from his office by the President of the United States."

^ Robert Goodloe Harper was one of the few who criticized suggested tax increases intended to pay back the debt owed to the Bank of the United States.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.He mailed this to two hundred leading Federalists; when a copy fell into Democratic-Republican hands, they printed it.^ They had the pages of the newspaper with Federalist # 1 printed.
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^ There was a deep suspicion and hatred of "parties" and "factions" (I know how they feel) - and yet, inevitably, two sides emerged - the Federalists and the Republicans - with two different philosophies, plans of action.
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^ Jefferson's press accused Hamilton and the Federalists of monarchical designs; Hamilton's press contended that the Republicans were bent on dragging the United States into war with Britain.

.This hurt Adams's 1800 reelection campaign and split the Federalist Party, virtually assuring the victory of the Democratic-Republican Party, led by Jefferson, in the election of 1800; it destroyed Hamilton's position among the Federalists.^ As the leader of the Federalists during the election season of 1800, Hamilton headed a party in crisis.

^ The election, declared Massachusetts Republican Elbridge Gerry, was a battle between the people and a party "utterly devoted to a monarchical system."
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^ Burr had alienated Jefferson and the triumphant Republican party by his disloyalty as a vice president and had lost by a landslide in his bid to become a Federalist governor of New York.
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[73]
.On the Federalist side, Governor Arthur Fenner of Rhode Island denounced these "jockeying tricks" to make Pinckney President, and one Rhode Island Elector voted for Adams and Jay.^ Hamilton, to whom Adams contemptuously referred as "his puppyhood," had maneuvered electoral votes in the 1789 election so that Adams would not accidentally become president over Washington, a position which Adams had felt himself equally deserving.

^ Burr had alienated Jefferson and the triumphant Republican party by his disloyalty as a vice president and had lost by a landslide in his bid to become a Federalist governor of New York.
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^ These measures were a part of his plan for making a great cooperating nation; they were the financial side of his nationalism.
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.Jefferson and Burr tied for first and second; and Pinckney came in fourth.^ Midway through Washington's first term, however, Jefferson had developed second thoughts.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Jefferson's first attempt to oust the Secretary of the Treasury came in the form of 21 objections he sent to Washington in May of 1792.

[74]
.Jefferson had beaten Adams, but both he and his running mate, Aaron Burr, received 73 votes in the Electoral College.^ Both the ideas put by Jefferson in the preamble of the Declaration of Independ- ence and the principles of natural liberty in the writings of Adam Smith, are expressions of this great movement.
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^ Hamilton had directed Federalist electors to vote equally for Adams and the southerner, which could easily have derailed Adams' bid for the executive.

^ If capable of numerous close friendships, he also entered into titanic feuds with Jefferson, Madison, Adams, Monroe, and Burr.
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.With Jefferson and Burr tied, the United States House of Representatives had to choose between the two men.^ If we have an embryo-Caesar in the United States, Hamilton wrote, tis Burr.
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Served in the U.S. Army during World War II; member of Pennsylvania Republican State Committee ; member of Pennsylvania state house of representatives .
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^ Candidate for Michigan state house of representatives 104th District, 1976, 1980; candidate for Presidential Elector for Michigan, 1980 , 1984 , 2000 ; candidate for U.S. Representative from Michigan 9th District, 1984.
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(As a result of this election, the Twelfth Amendment was proposed and ratified, adopting the method under which presidential elections are held today.^ Regardless of Hamilton's Herculean efforts of oratory, New York held out until the bitter end, stalling with proposals for amendments and conditional acceptances.

) .Several Federalists who opposed Jefferson supported Burr, and for the first 35 ballots, Jefferson was denied a majority.^ Burr had alienated Jefferson and the triumphant Republican party by his disloyalty as a vice president and had lost by a landslide in his bid to become a Federalist governor of New York.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hence Hamilton's support of Jefferson over the more Federalist-friendly and easily manipulated Burr: Hamilton at least knew where Jefferson stood.

^ Hamilton's strategy was not directly aimed against Adams at that point, but was calculated to win southern support for the Federalists, and to lessen Jefferson's chances for the presidency.

.Before the 36th ballot, Hamilton threw his weight behind Jefferson, supporting the arrangement reached by James A. Bayard of Delaware, in which five Federalist Representatives from Maryland and Vermont abstained from voting, allowing those states' delegations to go for Jefferson, ending the impasse and electing Jefferson President rather than Burr.^ The vote ended in a tie between Jefferson and Burr.

^ Before his election was confirmed, as Congress struggled to break the deadlock between Jefferson and Aaron Burr, Alexander Hamilton had suggested that Federalist Congressmen "make it a ground of exploration with Mr. Jefferson or his confidential friends" to obtain "some assurances of his future conduct."
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hamilton wrote the first article returning home on a sloop from Albany, where he had been arguing cases before the state supreme court, and he ended up contributing more than 50 of the 85 pieces.
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Even though Hamilton did not like Jefferson and disagreed with him on many issues, he was quoted as saying, "At least Jefferson was honest."^ Hamilton did not see itthe Poughkeepsie convention was still in sessionbut Nicholas Cruger, the man who first shipped him to New York, did.
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Did Hamilton, as some have postulated, voluntarily sacrifice himself knowing that his death on the dueling ground would completely destroy Burr, and with him all of his schemes?

^ Hamilton understood that the Jay Treaty was the best a new nation could expect from a world power, which was not obligated in the least to even consider its trading rights let alone treat with it like an equal.

.Hamilton felt that Burr was dangerous.^ Thereafter, Hamilton likely considered Burr his most dangerous enemy.

^ In Hamilton's view, no more dangerous a person could be found for the presidency than Aaron Burr.

.Burr then became Vice President of the United States.^ The final resolution read: " Resolved, That the Secretary of the Treasury has been guilty of maladministration in the duties of his office, and should, in the opinion of Congress, be removed from his office by the President of the United States."

^ If we have an embryo-Caesar in the United States, Hamilton wrote, tis Burr.
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When it became clear that he would not be asked to run again with Jefferson, Burr sought the New York governorship in 1804 with Federalist support, against the Jeffersonian Morgan Lewis, but was defeated by forces including Hamilton.^ Shot and mortally wounded in a duel with Aaron Burr on July 11, 1804, and died the next day in New York, New York County , N.Y., July 12, 1804 .
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ James Kent, a fellow New York lawyer, described Hamilton's superiority in the courtroom: "The mighty mind of Hamilton would at times bear down all opposition by its comprehensive grasp and the strength of his reasoning powers."

^ In 1786, with the help of his father-in-law, Hamilton became one of the New York delegates to a convention of the states in Annapolis, whose main accomplishment was a call (which Hamilton wrote) for a second meeting in Philadelphia.
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[75]

Duel with Aaron Burr and death

Hamilton fighting his fatal duel with Vice President Aaron Burr (the depiction is inaccurate: only the two seconds actually witnessed the duel)
.Soon after the gubernatorial election in New York—in which Morgan Lewis, greatly assisted by Hamilton, defeated Aaron Burr—the Albany Register published Charles D. Cooper's letter, citing Hamilton's opposition to Burr and alleging that Hamilton expressed "a still more despicable opinion" of the Vice President at an upstate New York dinner party.^ Burr, who at the time of the disclosure had been defeated by Hamilton's candidate in the gubernatorial election, wrote an ominous letter to Hamilton demanding an explanation of the "still more despicable opinion."

^ Shot and mortally wounded in a duel with Aaron Burr on July 11, 1804, and died the next day in New York, New York County , N.Y., July 12, 1804 .
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ James Kent, a fellow New York lawyer, described Hamilton's superiority in the courtroom: "The mighty mind of Hamilton would at times bear down all opposition by its comprehensive grasp and the strength of his reasoning powers."

[76][77] Burr, sensing an attack on his honor, and surely still stung by the political defeat, demanded an apology. Hamilton refused on the grounds that he could not recall the instance.
.Following an exchange of three testy letters, and despite attempts of friends to avert a confrontation, a duel was scheduled for July 11, 1804, along the west bank of the Hudson River on a rocky ledge in Weehawken, New Jersey.^ But then he was killed in a duel on July 11 ...
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Today in history: July 11, 1804 .
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^ On July 10, 1804, Alexander Hamilton wrote the following letter to his wife Eliza: .
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

.This was the same dueling site where Hamilton's eldest son, Philip, was killed three years earlier.^ When Philip was killed in a duel, years later, Hamilton never really recovered from the loss.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ That Hamilton blamed himself for his son's death there can be no doubt, because it is equally doubtless that Philip fell defending his father's honor on the dueling ground.

^ Still alive, but paralyzed from the waist down, Hamilton was brought to the home of a friend where he slowly died from internal bleeding, much like Philip had two and a half years earlier.

Hamilton's tomb in the graveyard of Trinity Church at Wall Street and Broadway
Grave of Eliza Schuyler Hamilton (1757-1854) at Trinity Church
.At dawn, the duel began, and Vice President Aaron Burr shot Hamilton.^ Shot and mortally wounded in a duel with Aaron Burr on July 11, 1804, and died the next day in New York, New York County , N.Y., July 12, 1804 .
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Did Hamilton, as some have postulated, voluntarily sacrifice himself knowing that his death on the dueling ground would completely destroy Burr, and with him all of his schemes?

^ When he stops, my article is completed.” And when Vice President Aaron Burr, knowing that Jefferson would drop him from the ticket in the 1804 election, decided to run for governor of New York instead, Hamilton roused all his political skill and passion to stop him.
  • Alexander Hamilton, Modern America’s Founding Father by Myron Magnet, City Journal Winter 2009 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: Original source]

.Hamilton's shot broke a tree branch directly above Burr's head.^ Burr received satisfaction at Weehawken on July 11, 1804, when he mortally wounded Hamilton on the first shot.

.A letter that he wrote the night before the duel states, "I have resolved, if our interview [duel] is conducted in the usual manner, and it pleases God to give me the opportunity, to reserve and throw away my first fire, and I have thoughts even of reserving my second fire", thus asserting an intention to miss Burr.^ He wrote this letter in 1780 - 7 years before the Constitutional Convention - long before the convention was even thought of ...
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This is my second letter.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At 14, he wrote to Ned Stevens, in his earliest surviving letter, “my Ambition is prevalent that I contemn the grov’ling and condition of a Clerk or the like, to which my Fortune &c.
  • Alexander Hamilton, Modern America’s Founding Father by Myron Magnet, City Journal Winter 2009 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: Original source]

The circumstances of the duel, and Hamilton's actual intentions, are still disputed. Neither of the seconds, Pendleton or Van Ness, could determine who fired first. .Soon after, they measured and triangulated the shooting, but could not determine from which angle Hamilton fired.^ They determined that emergency measures needed to be taken to prevent Hamilton and his "monarchists" from taking over.

^ He could not hear the commotion downstairs when a note arrived from Aaron Burr, asking about his condition, and worrying about a rumor that Hamilton had never intended to fire at him.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even if Hamilton were to hand over spotless books when congress reconvened after the summer, they could contend that Hamilton had used the time to sanitize his records.

.Burr's shot, however, hit Hamilton in the lower abdomen above the right hip.^ If the government's right to redeem the debt was not restricted, however, nothing would stop it from taking advantage of the falling interest rate to refinance the debt at lower cost.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander Hamilton lasted thirty-one hours after Aaron Burr shot him.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Burr received satisfaction at Weehawken on July 11, 1804, when he mortally wounded Hamilton on the first shot.

.The bullet ricocheted off Hamilton's second or third false rib, fracturing it and caused considerable damage to his internal organs, particularly his liver and diaphragm before becoming lodged in his first or second lumbar vertebra.^ The ball had lodged inside his second lumbar disk, which had shattered, paralyzing his legs.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The great men who composed our first council -- are they dead, have they deserted the cause, or what has become of them?
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

Chernow considers the circumstances to have indicated Burr to have fired second, and taken deliberate aim.
If a duelist decided not to aim at his opponent there was a well-known procedure, available to everyone involved, for doing so. .According to Freeman, Hamilton apparently did not follow this procedure; if he had, Burr might have followed suit, and Hamilton's death may have been avoided.^ Hamilton fired in the air; Burr did not.
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Following the war, both Hamilton and Burr had thriving law practices in New York City, and both were rising stars at the bar.

^ Despite the remarkable parallels in their careers which might normally have attracted them as friends, Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr were at odds almost from the outset.

It was a matter of honor among gentlemen to follow these rules. Because of the high incidence of septicemia and death resulting from torso wounds, a high percentage of duels employed this procedure of throwing away fire.[76] .Years later, when told that Hamilton may have misled him at the duel, the ever-laconic Burr replied, "Contemptible, if true."^ So embarrassed by his admissions were the inquisitors, that they told Hamilton there was no need for him to tell the whole story.

^ Hamilton and Burr: Infinite Shades of Ambition The Hamilton/Burr rivalry is one of the most famous in American politics, and certainly their duel is the most notorious in history.

^ He could not hear the commotion downstairs when a note arrived from Aaron Burr, asking about his condition, and worrying about a rumor that Hamilton had never intended to fire at him.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

[78]
.The paralyzed Hamilton, who knew himself to have been mortally wounded, was ferried back to New York.^ Shot and mortally wounded in a duel with Aaron Burr on July 11, 1804, and died the next day in New York, New York County , N.Y., July 12, 1804 .
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All the while that the little New York artillery company was with Washington, Hamilton was making an indelible impression on the General.

^ The Jay Treaty Controversy April - August 1795 Hamilton moved his family back to New York City and immediately began to rebuild his private law practice.

[79] .After final visits from his family and friends and considerable suffering, Hamilton died on the following afternoon, July 12, 1804. Gouverneur Morris, a political ally of Hamilton's, gave the eulogy at his funeral and secretly established a fund to support his widow and children.^ Shot and mortally wounded in a duel with Aaron Burr on July 11, 1804, and died the next day in New York, New York County , N.Y., July 12, 1804 .
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On July 10, 1804, Alexander Hamilton wrote the following letter to his wife Eliza: .
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This was a blow to Hamilton -- and not a little humiliating on the family front -- who thought that his political influence would ensure his father-in-law's victory.

.Hamilton was buried in the Trinity Churchyard Cemetery in Manhattan.^ Hamilton was buried, with military honors, in Trinity churchyard.
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Interment at Trinity Churchyard , Manhattan, N.Y.; statue at Treasury Building Grounds , Washington, D.C. Hamilton counties in Fla.
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Legacy

Alexander Hamilton on the Series 2004A $10 Federal Reserve Note, based on an 1805 portrait by John Trumbull
.From the start, Hamilton set a precedent as a Cabinet member by formulating federal programs, writing them in the form of reports, pushing for their approval by appearing in person to argue them on the floor of the United States Congress, and then implementing them.^ The final resolution read: " Resolved, That the Secretary of the Treasury has been guilty of maladministration in the duties of his office, and should, in the opinion of Congress, be removed from his office by the President of the United States."

^ "Report Relative to a Provision for the Support of Public Credit," in Syrett et al., Papers of Alexander Hamilton , 6: 84–85 (quotation, 84); "An Act for Making Provision for the [Payment of the] Debt of the United States," Aug.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ During Alexander Hamilton's term as Treasury secretary, the United States managed to avoid a European war.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.Hamilton and the other Cabinet members were vital to Washington, as there was no president before him (under the Constitution) to set precedents for him to follow in national situations such as seditions and foreign affairs.^ It was the capstone of the Washington/Hamilton political collaboration, and the concluding statement on how their shared experiences evolved into a political system for the nation they had fought for and helped to solidify under the new constitution, and which they administered so capably in its first heady years of existence.

^ Hamilton did the lion's share of the work (no surprise there - the man was unbelievable.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Time would pass before members realized how far the plans of such men as Madison and Hamilton reached, and what the Constitution promised to be.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

.Another of Hamilton's legacies was his pro-federal interpretation of the U.S. Constitution.^ The pro-constitution rebuttals were scattershot and inadequate in Hamilton's view, so he wrote a defense of his own.

.Though the Constitution was drafted in a way that was somewhat ambiguous as to the balance of power between national and state governments, Hamilton consistently took the side of greater federal power at the expense of states.^ The first element of Hamiltons scheme was for the federal government to assume state debtsmostly Northernstill outstanding from the war, and to treat all creditors equally, whether they were the original holders of the debt or speculators who had bought debts at a discount.
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Not every delegate brought to Philadelphia a comprehension of how thirteen independent states could share a government of tripartite powers: legislative, judicial, executive.
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^ Alexander Hamilton was great as a financier, but he was still greater as a nation-builder.
  • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

.As Secretary of the Treasury, he established—against the intense opposition of Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson—the country's first national bank.^ The final resolution read: " Resolved, That the Secretary of the Treasury has been guilty of maladministration in the duties of his office, and should, in the opinion of Congress, be removed from his office by the President of the United States."

^ In February of 1784, he wrote the charter for and became a founding member of the Bank of New York, the state's first bank.

^ During Alexander Hamilton's term as Treasury secretary, the United States managed to avoid a European war.
  • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.Hamilton justified the creation of this bank, and other increased federal powers, with Congress's constitutional powers to issue currency, to regulate interstate commerce, and anything else that would be "necessary and proper". Jefferson, on the other hand, took a stricter view of the Constitution: parsing the text carefully, he found no specific authorization for a national bank.^ The bank had the power to issue paper money - the federal government should not have that power.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The bank had the power to issue paper money - not the federal government.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ [M]inds of the strongest and most active powers for their proper objects, wrote Hamilton, fall below mediocrity, and labor without effect, if confined to uncongenial pursuits.
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This controversy was eventually settled by the Supreme Court of the United States in McCulloch v. .Maryland, which in essence adopted Hamilton's view, granting the federal government broad freedom to select the best means to execute its constitutionally enumerated powers, specifically the doctrine of implied powers.^ Not every delegate brought to Philadelphia a comprehension of how thirteen independent states could share a government of tripartite powers: legislative, judicial, executive.
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^ Hamilton's powerful vision of American nationalism, with states subordinate to a strong central government and led by a vigorous executive branch, aroused fears of a reversion to royal British ways.
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^ Should Burr ascend to the governer's seat in New York, Hamilton feared that he would use his popularity and the power of that position to lead the secession with a view to becoming the "chief of the Northern portion."

.Hamilton's policies as Secretary of the Treasury have had an immeasurable effect on the United States Government and still continue to influence it.^ By modern standards, the Treasury Department was small-timethe secretary worked at a plain pine table covered with green clothbut it was the largest department of the executive branch of the government.
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The final resolution read: " Resolved, That the Secretary of the Treasury has been guilty of maladministration in the duties of his office, and should, in the opinion of Congress, be removed from his office by the President of the United States."

^ Currently, Hamilton observed, the United States was pretty much precluded from "foreign Commerce."

.In 1962 during the Cuban Missile Crisis, the United States Navy was still using intership communication protocols written by Hamilton for the original U.S. Coast Guard.^ Currently, Hamilton observed, the United States was pretty much precluded from "foreign Commerce."

^ If we have an embryo-Caesar in the United States, Hamilton wrote, tis Burr.
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The growth of manufacturing in the United States, in Hamilton's view, would parallel the growth of great population centers, thus creating more of a market for the produce of farms.

.His constitutional interpretation, specifically of the Necessary and Proper Clause, set precedents for federal authority that are still used by the courts and are considered an authority on constitutional interpretation.^ They set out to explain to the reluctant public (who were, in general, horrified at this idea of an "energetic" national government) why a Constitution was necessary, and the whys and wherefores of each part of it.
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.The prominent French diplomat Charles Maurice de Talleyrand, who spent 1794 in the United States, wrote "I consider Napoleon, Fox, and Hamilton the three greatest men of our epoch, and if I were forced to decide between the three, I would give without hesitation the first place to Hamilton", adding that Hamilton had intuited the problems of European conservatives.^ If we have an embryo-Caesar in the United States, Hamilton wrote, tis Burr.
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ "I consider Napoleon, Fox, and Hamilton the three greatest men of our epoch, and if I were forced to decide between the three, I would give without hesitation the first place to Hamilton.

^ The first element of Hamiltons scheme was for the federal government to assume state debtsmostly Northernstill outstanding from the war, and to treat all creditors equally, whether they were the original holders of the debt or speculators who had bought debts at a discount.
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Talleyrand, who helped demolish the First French Republic, would have preferred to have a coalition of European monarchies curtail the solitary republicanism of the United States, which would permit the peaceful recreation of the French colonial empire of Louis XIV; he found himself and Hamilton in general agreement.^ The first element of Hamiltons scheme was for the federal government to assume state debtsmostly Northernstill outstanding from the war, and to treat all creditors equally, whether they were the original holders of the debt or speculators who had bought debts at a discount.
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hamiltons fundamental point, made early in numbers 9 and 11, refutes a chestnut of republican theory: that free states must be small (and, implicitly, homogeneous).
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hamiltons first controversies displayed what would be enduring character traits, good and not so good.
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[80]
.Opinions of Hamilton have run the gamut: both John Adams and Thomas Jefferson viewed him as unprincipled and dangerously aristocratic.^ The administration of John Adams (1797-1801) was a great disappointment to him, and the triumph of the Jeffersonians thereafter was an even greater one.
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Washington, and Martha, and John Jay, and that Duane guy, and Madison, and an incredible one of Thomas Jefferson that I don't think I had seen before.
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^ The duel between Hamilton and Burr -- George Washington's Farewell Address -- The Adams administration -- The heated debate about where to place the capital -- Benjamin Franklin trying to force Congress to deal with the issue of slavery and James Madison's resistance to that -- The correspondence between John Adams and Thomas Jefferson .
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

.Herbert Croly, Henry Cabot Lodge, and Theodore Roosevelt directed attention to him at the end of the 19th century in the interest of an active federal government, whether or not supported by tariffs.^ By this interest, we must govern him.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He wrote in 1780: "The only plan that can preserve the currency is one that will make it to the immediate interest of the monied men to cooperate with the government in its support.

^ The debt would be funded; that is, the federal government would convert its debts into interest bearing bonds which would mature after an assigned period of time.

.Several nineteenth and twentieth century Republicans entered politics by writing laudatory biographies of Hamilton.^ ALEXANDER HAMILTON Bismarck in the nineteenth century and, in the meantime, she suffered all the evils of a political and economic organization which was worn out and fitted to the needs of another age.
  • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This essay is addressed to those who are interested in knowing the relation of Hamilton to one of the great historic move- ments of thought of the nineteenth century.
  • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Chernow's biography of Alexander Hamilton -- Willard Sterne Randall's biography of Alexander Hamilton -- my Library of America copy of The Federalist Papers -- my Library of America copy of Hamilton's writings -- my Library of America copy of Washington's writings .
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

[81]
.He was sufficiently admired by the time of the American Civil War that his portrait began to appear on U.S. currency, including the $2, $5, $10, and $50 notes.^ His portrait appears on the U.S. $10 bill ; from the 1860s to the 1920s, his portrait also appeared on U.S. notes and certificates of various denominations from $2 to $1,000 .
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At this time the temper of the American people began to change from the easy-going temper which characterized the colonialV times to the strenuous, nervous, and enterprising spirit which is now the proverbial feature of American life.
  • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

.His face continues to appear on the $10 bill; after the Civil War, a time of high tariffs, he was highly praised.^ His portrait appears on the U.S. $10 bill ; from the 1860s to the 1920s, his portrait also appeared on U.S. notes and certificates of various denominations from $2 to $1,000 .
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[82] Hamilton also appears on the $500 Series EE Savings Bond. .The source of the face on the $10 bill is John Trumbull's 1805 portrait of Hamilton, in the portrait collection of New York City Hall.^ His portrait appears on the U.S. $10 bill ; from the 1860s to the 1920s, his portrait also appeared on U.S. notes and certificates of various denominations from $2 to $1,000 .
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hamilton did not see itthe Poughkeepsie convention was still in sessionbut Nicholas Cruger, the man who first shipped him to New York, did.
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ All the while that the little New York artillery company was with Washington, Hamilton was making an indelible impression on the General.

[83] .On the south side of the Treasury Building in Washington, D.C. is a statue of Hamilton.^ Interment at Trinity Churchyard , Manhattan, N.Y.; statue at Treasury Building Grounds , Washington, D.C. Hamilton counties in Fla.
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alexander Hamilton, of course, was appointed the first Secretary of the Treasury, under George Washington.
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^ Of course, Hamilton's presence in uniform at Washington's side as they rode out to engage the "traitors," had little but the opposite effect.

.Hamilton's upper Manhattan home is preserved as Hamilton Grange National Memorial, with a statue of Hamilton at the entrance.^ The following year, the Hamilton family moved into a country house, the Grange, which still stands on Convent Avenue in upper Manhattan.
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^ Not content to simply ask questions, Hamilton began formulating a plan of what needed to be done to improve the working of the central government, and thus preserve the nation.

[84] .The historic structure, already removed from its original location many years ago, was moved in 2008 to a spot in a park on land that was once part of the Hamilton estate.^ Or was Hamilton simply taking advantage of an easy way out -- the "blaze of glory" he had pined for so many years ago?

^ A couple years ago, the New York Historical Society had a massive Alexander Hamilton exhibit and Bill McCabe and I went - it was so so terrific.
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^ The following year, the Hamilton family moved into a country house, the Grange, which still stands on Convent Avenue in upper Manhattan.
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[85] It is expected to reopen to the public in 2009.
.Many towns throughout the United States have been named after Hamilton.^ Strained loyalties: the French Revolution 1789-1799 Hamilton's reservations about an alliance with France were only intensified by the French Revolution , which was met with sweeping adulation throughout the United States.

^ If we have an embryo-Caesar in the United States, Hamilton wrote, tis Burr.
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^ Economy and industry are evidently gaining ground."^ "Many blessings," he writes to Lafayette in the same a Callender, G. S., Economic History of the United States, p.
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Family

.Hamilton's widow, Elizabeth (known as Eliza or Betsy), survived him for fifty years, until 1854; Hamilton had referred to her as "best of wives and best of women". An extremely religious woman, Eliza spent much of her life working to help widows and orphans.^ Adieu best of wives and best of Women."

^ For the remainder of his life Hamilton worried that his work would be destroyed, his system dismantled, under the opposition.

^ And despite assurances from the three that Hamilton's secret was safe with them, it was only a matter of time until the Reynolds affair came back to haunt him.

.After Hamilton's death, Eliza sold the country house, the Grange, that she and Hamilton had built together from 1800 to 1802. She co-founded New York's first private orphanage, the New York Orphan Asylum Society.^ In February of 1784, he wrote the charter for and became a founding member of the Bank of New York, the state's first bank.

^ All the while that the little New York artillery company was with Washington, Hamilton was making an indelible impression on the General.

^ The Jay Treaty Controversy April - August 1795 Hamilton moved his family back to New York City and immediately began to rebuild his private law practice.

.Despite the Reynolds affair, Alexander and Eliza were very close, and as a widow she always strove to guard his reputation and enhance his standing in American history.^ Next book in my American history section is Alexander Hamilton : A Life by Willard Sterne Randall.
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^ And despite assurances from the three that Hamilton's secret was safe with them, it was only a matter of time until the Reynolds affair came back to haunt him.

^ And finally, here is an excerpt from Ron Chernow's magesterial biography of Alexander Hamilton: Few figures in American history aroused such visceral love or loathing as Alexander Hamilton.
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.Hamilton and Elizabeth had eight children, including two named Phillip.^ He often had left Angelica alone in their Manhattan mansion near Hamilton's town house while Elizabeth Schuyler stayed in the country with the children.
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^ Alexander Hamilton left behind him Elizabeth, their seven children, and a mountain of debts.

^ It was noontime on the twelfth, more than twenty-four hours after the duel, before Elizabeth Hamilton arrived with their seven children.
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.The elder Philip, Hamilton's first child (born January 22, 1782), was killed in 1801 in a duel with George I. Eacker, whom he had publicly insulted in a Manhattan theater.^ Alexander Hamilton's first child - Philip - was born in 1782.
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^ On November 20, 1801, Hamilton's eldest son, nineteen year-old Philip, was challenged to a duel by a Republican orator, George I. Eacker, following a heated argument at a theater.

^ That Hamilton blamed himself for his son's death there can be no doubt, because it is equally doubtless that Philip fell defending his father's honor on the dueling ground.

.The second Philip, Hamilton's last child, was born on June 2, 1802, right after the first Philip was killed.^ Alexander Hamilton's first child - Philip - was born in 1782.
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^ Hamilton took part in the surrender ceremonies, and then departed for Albany to rejoin his wife, who was due to have their first child, Philip, in January.

^ When Philip was killed in a duel, years later, Hamilton never really recovered from the loss.
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Their other children were Angelica, born September 25, 1784; Alexander, born May 16, 1796; James Alexander (April 14, 1788 – September 1878);[86] John Church, born August 22, 1792; William Stephen, born August 4, 1797; and Eliza, born November 26, 1799.[citation needed]

On slavery

.Rob Weston has described modern scholarly views on Hamilton's attitude to slavery as viewing Hamilton as anything from a "steadfast abolitionist" to a "hypocrite"; Weston's view is that he was deeply ambivalent.^ Hamilton came away with a deep hatred of slavery, and he eventually co-founded an abolitionist society in New York.

.Hamilton's first polemic against King George's ministers contains a paragraph that speaks of the evils that "slavery" to the British would bring upon the Americans.^ Hamiltons first controversies displayed what would be enduring character traits, good and not so good.
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Since Hamilton was staunchly loyal to the chief, and deeply resented the members of the Gates faction, this was probably Hamilton's first black stroke against Colonel Aaron Burr.

^ In Hamilton's view, a Franco-American alliance at the expense of relations with Britain would be a disaster to his economic plan.

McDonald sees this as an attack on actual slavery; such hostility was quite common in 1776.[87]
.During the Revolutionary War, there was a series of proposals to arm slaves, free them, and compensate their masters.^ It began during the Revolutionary War, and he fired off letter after letter to officials and politicians, criticizing Congress' mishandling of the Army.
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^ Burr had fought bravely in the Revolutionary War, in many of the same battles as Hamilton; they first met in Brooklyn Heights during the grim summer of 1776.
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Again, he's only 23 years old here, but he's in the thick of the Revolutionary War, and aware that there are some huge problems with how Congress deals with things.
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.In 1779, Hamilton's friend John Laurens suggested such a unit be formed under his command, to relieve besieged Charleston, South Carolina; Hamilton proposed to the Continental Congress to create up to four battalions of slaves for combat duty, and free them.^ This is from a letter to his good friend John Laurens: .
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^ In the following letter to his good friend John Laurens in South Carolina, Hamilton describes what he wants in a wife.
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^ He also founded with John Jay , his good friend and future "Federalist" collaborator, the Society for Promoting the Manumission of Slaves, whose primary purpose was to propose a "line of conduct" with respect to humane treatment of slaves, and to create a register of freed slaves to ensure that they were not deprived of their liberty.

.Congress recommended that South Carolina (and Georgia) acquire up to three thousand slaves, if they saw fit; they did not, even though the South Carolina governor and Congressional delegation had supported the plan in Philadelphia.^ Instead of immediately traveling to Philadelphia and presenting his credentials as was diplomatic protocol, Genet tarried in the south, enjoying a warm reception and drumming up support for the French cause.

^ Another delegate to the Congress described Hamilton as "praised by everybody but supported by none".
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^ See also Bee family of South Carolina See also : congressional biography ; National Governors Association biography .
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[88]
.Hamilton argued that blacks' natural faculties were as good as those of free whites, and he answered objections by citing Frederick the Great and others as praising stupidity in soldiers; he argued that if the Americans did not do this, the British would (as they had elsewhere).^ Did Hamilton, as some have postulated, voluntarily sacrifice himself knowing that his death on the dueling ground would completely destroy Burr, and with him all of his schemes?

^ The American people, he thought, would work together with the same enthusiasm to pay off their debt as they had fought together to oust European danger.
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^ He did not mean to shock public opinion but he favored "extinguishing" the state governments: "they are not necessary for any of the great purposes of commerce, revenue or agriculture."
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.One of his biographers has cited this incident as evidence that Hamilton and Laurens saw the Revolution and the struggle against slavery as inseparable.^ Rabbeno, in his search for evidence of Loria's theory in America, does not strengthen his chosen faith by citing Hamilton.
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^ But Washington, Madison, Hamilton - and a couple of other far-seeing gentlemen - saw the need for an even greater revolution, an even more daring task.
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^ He felt disrespected by Washington - there is one famous incident where Hamilton kept Washington waiting for 5 minutes, because he had to talk to somebody else - and Washington was very angry and publicly told Hamilton so.
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[89] .Hamilton later attacked his political opponents as demanding freedom for themselves and refusing to allow it to blacks.^ That had been done long ago, in July of 1776 and later, when colony after colony created its state constitution, flinging out its particular preamble of political and religious freedom.
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^ It demands the largest possible amount of individual freedom, which meant in politics a weak, decentralized government and in economics freedom in industry and trade.
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^ For example, he was saying in the mid-1770s: Perhaps it is not that the black population is not as smart, or not able to handle freedom -- Perhaps that is just what happens to a man when you do not allow him freedom or education.
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[90]
.In January 1785, he attended the second meeting of the New York Manumission Society (NYMS).^ In 1786, with the help of his father-in-law, Hamilton became one of the New York delegates to a convention of the states in Annapolis, whose main accomplishment was a call (which Hamilton wrote) for a second meeting in Philadelphia.
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A couple years ago, the New York Historical Society had a massive Alexander Hamilton exhibit and Bill McCabe and I went - it was so so terrific.
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^ Bill and I met on the front steps of the New York Historical Society (I was half an hour late due to NO UPTOWN TRAINS ...
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.John Jay was president and Hamilton was secretary; he later became president.^ Again, Hamilton supported his Republican rival, John Lansing (and later Morgan Lewis when Lansing bowed out), and because of his stance, was all but ostracized by his own party.

^ Late in the 1800 presidential campaign three years later, he wrote the Letter from Alexander Hamilton, Concerning the Public Conduct and Character of John Adams, Esq.
  • Alexander Hamilton, Modern America’s Founding Father by Myron Magnet, City Journal Winter 2009 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: Original source]

^ John Jay, with whom Hamilton initially collaborated, became ill and withdrew from the project after four essays.

[91] .He was a member of the committee of the society, which put a bill through the New York Legislature banning the export of slaves from New York;[92] three months later, Hamilton returned a fugitive slave to Henry Laurens of South Carolina.^ In his spare time, he married Elizabeth Schuyler, a member of one of the premier Dutch Hudson Valley families, and thanks to this connection, and his talents, he was sent by New York State to Congress in 1782, where he served for eight months.
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Hamilton did not see itthe Poughkeepsie convention was still in sessionbut Nicholas Cruger, the man who first shipped him to New York, did.
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In February of 1784, he wrote the charter for and became a founding member of the Bank of New York, the state's first bank.

[93]
.Hamilton never supported forced emigration for freed slaves; it has been argued from this that he would be comfortable with a multiracial society, and this distinguished him from his contemporaries.^ He could not hear the commotion downstairs when a note arrived from Aaron Burr, asking about his condition, and worrying about a rumor that Hamilton had never intended to fire at him.
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^ Hamilton was supportive of the Louisiana Purchase for reasons of his own expansionist philosophy, and because the acquisition would eliminate the possibility of costly border wars with the French.

^ If Hamilton survived, would he vow never to duel again and use his influence to oppose the "barbaric custom"?
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[94] In international affairs, he supported Toussaint L'Ouverture's black government in Haiti after the revolt that overthrew French control, as he had supported aid to the slaveowners in 1791—both measures hurt France.[95]
He may have owned household slaves himself (the evidence for this is indirect; McDonald interprets it as referring to paid employees). .He supported a gag rule to keep divisive discussions of slavery out of Congress, and he supported the compromise by which the United States could not abolish the slave trade for 20 years.^ 'That an adequate provision for the support of the Public Credit is a matter of high importance to the honor and prosperity of the United States.'"

^ The United States had signed a treaty of alliance with France in 1778, but any support of France during its current war might drag the United States into a conflict in which it could ill afford, monetarily or otherwise, to participate.

^ The new government could not pay its soldiers or its debts to foreign creditors: Congress could not levy taxes but could only request payments from the states.
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[96] .When the Quakers of New York petitioned the First Congress (under the Constitution) for the abolition of the slave trade, and Benjamin Franklin and the Pennsylvania Abolition Society petitioned for the abolition of slavery, the NYMS did not act.^ Hamilton did not see itthe Poughkeepsie convention was still in sessionbut Nicholas Cruger, the man who first shipped him to New York, did.
  • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The pro-constitution, or Federalist, attendees were outnumbered two to one by Clinton's minions, indicating that Publius was largely ineffective in turning the political tide in New York.

^ In February of 1784, he wrote the charter for and became a founding member of the Bank of New York, the state's first bank.

[97]

On economics

Alexander Hamilton is sometimes considered the "patron saint" of the American School of economic philosophy that, according to one historian, dominated economic policy after 1861.[98] He firmly supported government intervention in favor of business, after the manner of Jean-Baptiste Colbert, as early as the fall of 1781.[99]
.Hamilton opposed the British ideas of free trade, which he believed skewed benefits to colonial/imperial powers, in favor of U.S. protectionism, which he believed would help develop the fledgling nation's emerging economy.^ He believed that the complex life which manufactures create would instill in the nation the spirit of enterprise and efficiency.
  • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Hamilton dismissed Hume's warnings and instead focused on the positive aspects of national credit; the continuing vitality of the British economy was enough to prove the efficacy of their system.

^ Hamilton's powerful vision of American nationalism, with states subordinate to a strong central government and led by a vigorous executive branch, aroused fears of a reversion to royal British ways.
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Henry C. Carey was inspired by his writings. Some say he influenced the ideas and work of German Friedrich List.
.From the 1860s onwards Japan's Meiji leadership embraced Hamilton's words and work as being valid to their own modernization requirement after touring America's post-Civil War political and industrial landscape.^ But in the rebuilding of industry and in the commercial rivalry which will follow the war, Hamilton's policy of protection will have its place.
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^ Throughout the war and during the post-war struggles, Hamilton had frequently admitted to personal mortification at the country's stumblings and failures.

^ If the constitution were not adopted, Hamilton saw civil war in the future; if it were, he presaged that Washington would be president.

.Within the Grant Administration they found Hamiltonian advocates who opened up American financial and manufacturing operations for Japanese inspection.^ What they ended up with was something quite different, and was to become one of the more bizarre incidents in American political history.

^ When they began inquiring into Hamilton's background, they found out that he was not from a respected American family, nor even an American by birth.

.The Meiji leadership sent their sons to study American finance and industry in New York, New Jersey, Philadelphia and other centres of commerce.^ Cruger, Knox, and other wealthy islanders, sent Hamilton off in June of 1773 to New York to study medicine, most likely in the hope that he would return to the island and set up his practice there.

^ Hamilton reached New York Harbor in early 1773, entered King's College (now Columbia University) in 1774, and began his studies in medicine.

^ Though New York had slaves too, it was a bustling hub of coastal and oceangoing shipping, with a population of almost 25,000smaller than Philadelphia, but growing fast.
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.These same Japanese leaders found Hamilton's words and work also being utilized by Bismarck's administration in Germany, having been brought to Germany by Friedrich List in the 1840s after List had spent time in exile in Philadelphia.^ Here the same struggle which was Germany's in the seven- teenth century, and which Bismarck had to face in *List, F., Das Nationale System der Politischen Oekonomie, ch.
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^ Valuable works already exist on the life of Hamilton and on the history of his times.
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^ These exchangeable securities, which are claims on the wealth of the community in the same sense that a bank note is a claim on the assets of a bank, served, Hamilton thought, in a community where specie was scarce, as a circulating medium.
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.Later Hamilton's reports to Congress could be found in libraries not only in Japan, but Taiwan and Korea, as they came under the colonial rule of Meiji Japan.^ Alexander Hamilton, as Secretary of Treasury, put forth a monumental report to Congress calling for a national bank (this is something he had been pondering for years ).
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^ At the time he entered college the first Continental Congress was meeting to decide the future of the colonies under the increasingly tyrannical rule of the English government.

^ Both ambitious and brilliant, equally knowledgeable on a wide variety of subjects, Hamilton and Madison sparked immediately when they met in the continental congress in 1783.

.Post-1945 leaders in both countries (South Korea is a divided nation) utilized Hamilton's Report on Credit to establish their own modern financial systems [Austin.^ Alexander Hamilton was great as a financier, but he was still greater as a nation-builder.
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^ Hamilton dismissed Hume's warnings and instead focused on the positive aspects of national credit; the continuing vitality of the British economy was enough to prove the efficacy of their system.

^ The principle which divided the parties in Hamilton's day was not socialistic but national- istic.
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2009].

Hamilton's religion

In his early life, he was an orthodox and conventional, though not deeply pious, Presbyterian. .From 1777 to 1792, Hamilton appears to have been completely indifferent, and made jokes about God at the Constitutional Convention.^ Alexander Hamilton made a SIX HOUR speech at the Constitutional Convention ...
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^ Alexander Hamilton made a six hour speech at the Constitutional Convention ...
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^ He and James Madison were the prime movers behind the summoning of the Constitutional Convention and the chief authors of that classic gloss on the national charter, The Federalist , which Hamilton supervised.
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.During the French Revolution, he had an "opportunistic religiosity", using Christianity for political ends and insisting that Christianity and Jefferson's democracy were incompatible.^ He saw the French Revolution begin in bloodshed and terror; he saw it end in despotism.
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.After his misfortunes of 1801, Hamilton began to assert the truth of Christianity; he also proposed a Christian Constitutional Society in 1802, to take hold of "some strong feeling of the mind" to elect "fit men" to office, and he wrote of "Christian welfare societies" for the poor.^ Later in life, though, Hamilton was unable to hold his personal feelings back, in such situations ...
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^ The state assembly granted Hamilton the five man delegation he requested, which he had planned to fill out with other federally-minded men.

^ He wrote a paper on John Adams, when Adams was president - which basically said that Adams was mentally incompetent, and not fit for office.
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He was not a member of any denomination, but led his family in the Episcopal service the Sunday before the duel. .After he was shot, Hamilton requested communion first from Benjamin Moore, the Episcopal Bishop of New York, who initially declined to administer the Sacrament chiefly because he did not wish to sanction the practice of dueling.^ Shot and mortally wounded in a duel with Aaron Burr on July 11, 1804, and died the next day in New York, New York County , N.Y., July 12, 1804 .
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^ He knew he had little time left to live: he asked Bayard to summon the Reverend Benjamin Moore, Episcopal bishop of New York and president of Columbia College, where Hamilton had once been a scholarship boy.
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^ In February of 1784, he wrote the charter for and became a founding member of the Bank of New York, the state's first bank.

.Hamilton then requested communion from Presbyterian pastor John Mason, who declined on the grounds that Presbyterians did not reserve the Sacrament.^ Hamilton, clearheaded and determined now, asked the Bayards to send for the Reverend John M. Mason, pastor of the Presbyterian church and son of th eman who had once sponsored him for a place at a Presbyterian academy when he had arrived in New York, an orphan from the West Indies.
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^ Did Hamilton, as some have postulated, voluntarily sacrifice himself knowing that his death on the dueling ground would completely destroy Burr, and with him all of his schemes?

^ Hamilton as a boy had undergone a strong Presbyterian conversion experience - although, as a bastard, he had not been allowed to receive Presbyterian communion.
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.After Hamilton spoke of his belief in God's mercy, and of his desire to renounce dueling, Bishop Moore reversed his decision, and administered communion to Hamilton.^ When Bishop Moore called again, he lectured Hamilton once more on his own "delicate" situation.
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^ Hamilton pleaded for Bayard to go once more to Bishop Moore and try to persuade him.
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^ When the bishop arrived, he refused Hamilton Holy Communion after he learened that Hamilton not only had never been baptized an Episcopalian, but had been wounded in a duel, something Moore considered a mortal sin.
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[100]

Memorial at colleges

.Alexander Hamilton served as one of the first trustees of the Hamilton-Oneida Academy.^ Protection 127 [xiii] CHAPTER FIRST Introduction The facts of the life of Alexander Hamilton are so familiar that a mere catalogue of them will serve to refresh the mind of the reader.
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^ ALEXANDER HAMILTON true ; but as an exclusive one, it is false, and leads to error in the administration of public affairs.""
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^ One of the duties of the state was the J well-being of its citizens, but the duty of every citizen was the well-being of the state."* * Oliver, F. S., Alexander Hamilton: An essay on American Union, pp.
  • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

.When the academy received a college charter in 1812 the school was formally renamed Hamilton College.^ The letter was so well-received that Knox set the wheels in motion to send Hamilton to the colonies, so that he could get a college-level education.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

.There is a prominent statue of Alexander Hamilton in front of the school's chapel (commonly referred to as the "Al-Ham" statue) and the Burke Library has an extensive collection of Hamilton's personal documents.^ The unpublished letters which I have used are referred to by the volume and page in Hamilton's papers in the Library of Con- gress.
  • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

^ So he must have been BAFFLED when the person who WAS Alexander Hamilton's mother suddenly was in a wild passionate embrace with her own son!!!
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A couple of days later, Hamilton showed a copy of this letter to Reverend Knox (a very very important person in the story of Alexander Hamilton - a real father figure to the boy.
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

.Columbia College, Hamilton's alma mater, has official memorials to Hamilton.^ Hamilton reached New York Harbor in early 1773, entered King's College (now Columbia University) in 1774, and began his studies in medicine.

.The college's main classroom building for the humanities is Hamilton Hall, and a large statue of Hamilton stands in front of it.^ Interment at Trinity Churchyard , Manhattan, N.Y.; statue at Treasury Building Grounds , Washington, D.C. Hamilton counties in Fla.
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The university press has published his complete works in a multivolume letterpress edition.
.The main administration building of the Coast Guard Academy is named Hamilton Hall to commemorate Hamilton's creation of the United States Revenue Cutter Service, one of the entities that was combined to form the United States Coast Guard.^ Currently, Hamilton observed, the United States was pretty much precluded from "foreign Commerce."

^ The growth of manufacturing in the United States, in Hamilton's view, would parallel the growth of great population centers, thus creating more of a market for the produce of farms.

^ Hamilton hoped that the Jay mission would culminate in the alliance he considered so important for the future of the United States.

References

"The long tradition of Hamilton biography has, almost without exception, been laudatory in the extreme. Facts have been exaggerated, moved around, omitted, misunderstood and imaginatively created. .The effect has been to produce a spotless champion...Those little satisfied with this reading of American history have struck back by depicting Hamilton as a devil devoted to undermining all that was most characteristic and noble in American life." James Thomas Flexner, The Young Hamilton, pp.^ Later in life, though, Hamilton was unable to hold his personal feelings back, in such situations ...
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hamilton and Burr: Infinite Shades of Ambition The Hamilton/Burr rivalry is one of the most famous in American politics, and certainly their duel is the most notorious in history.

^ If you don't know all the ins and outs of this debate, I highly recommend you go back and check it out, read a biography of Hamilton, read his financial essays ...
  • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

3–4.

Secondary sources

.
  • Henry Adams, History of the United States of America under the Administrations of Thomas Jefferson, Library of America 1986, ISBN 0521324831
  • Stanley Elkins and Eric McKitrick: Age of Federalism (New York, Oxford University Press, 1993).^ Aaron Burr , the leader of the Republicans in New York, managed to organize a party majority in that state's congressional elections.

    ^ The professionalism of the New York artillery company and its commander impressed all the senior officers who had dealings with it, including Henry Knox, artillery commander of the Continental army.

    ^ Born illegitimate (in the immortal words of one of his many enemies, John Adams: "the bastard brat of a Scotch peddler"), in the Caribbean - he came to the United States at the age of 15 to further his education.
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    online edition

Biographies

  • Brookhiser, Richard. .Alexander Hamilton, American.^ Next book in my American history section is Alexander Hamilton : A Life by Willard Sterne Randall.
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And finally, here is an excerpt from Ron Chernow's magesterial biography of Alexander Hamilton: Few figures in American history aroused such visceral love or loathing as Alexander Hamilton.
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    Free Press, (1999) (ISBN 0-684-83919-9).
  • Chernow, Ron. Alexander Hamilton. Penguin Books, (2004) (ISBN 1-59420-009-2). full length detailed biography
  • .
  • Ellis, Joseph J. Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation (2002), won Pulitzer Prize.
  • Ellis, Joseph J. His Excellency: George Washington.^ The Books: "Founding Brothers" (Joseph Ellis) .
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Joseph Ellis, in his wonderful book Founding Brothers , opens the book with the story of the duel between Hamilton and Aaron Burr on the riverside plain of Weehawken.
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Next book in my American history section is the marvelous Founding Brothers: The Revolutionary Generation , by Joseph Ellis.
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    (2004).
  • Flexner, James Thomas. The Young Hamilton: A Biography. Fordham University Press, (1997) (ISBN 0-8232-1790-6).
  • Fleming, Thomas. .Duel: Alexander Hamilton, Aaron Burr, and the Future of America.^ I cannot even describe how happy it makes me that on my daily run I pass the spot (sort of) where the duel between Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr took place.
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It was erected on July 11, 2004 - the 200th anniversary of the Hamilton-Burr duel.
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Did Hamilton, as some have postulated, voluntarily sacrifice himself knowing that his death on the dueling ground would completely destroy Burr, and with him all of his schemes?

    (2000) (ISBN 0-465-01737-1).
  • McDonald, Forrest. .Alexander Hamilton: A Biography(1982) (ISBN 0-393-30048-X), biography focused on intellectual history esp on AH's republicanism.
  • Miller, John C. Alexander Hamilton: Portrait in Paradox (1959), full-length scholarly biography; online edition
  • Mitchell, Broadus.^ Alexander Hamilton Biography 1755 - 1804 .

    ^ It's quoted at length in various Hamilton biographies - but it sure is worth it to go and read the whole thing.
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Again, Hamilton supported his Republican rival, John Lansing (and later Morgan Lewis when Lansing bowed out), and because of his stance, was all but ostracized by his own party.

    .Alexander Hamilton (2 vols., 1957–62), the most detailed scholarly biography; also published in abridged edition
  • Randall, Willard Sterne.^ Alexander Hamilton Biography 1755 - 1804 .

    ^ ALEXANDER HAMILTON bursed by an increase both in the capital value and the income of its land.* Hamilton found the most insistent opposition to manufactures coming from the South.
    • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Death of Washington December 14, 1799 Perhaps most symbolic of the disappointments and decline Alexander Hamilton would face in the new century was the death of George Washington on December 14, 1799.

    .Alexander Hamilton: A Life.^ The Books: "Alexander Hamilton : A Life" (Willard Sterne Randall) .
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ From Alexander Hamilton : A Life by Willard Sterne Randall.
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Next book in my American history section is Alexander Hamilton : A Life by Willard Sterne Randall.
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    HarperCollins, (2003) (ISBN 0-06-019549-5). Popular.
  • Don Winslow Alexander Hamilton: In Worlds Unknown (Script and Film New York Historical Society).

Specialized studies

.
  • Adair, Douglas, and Marvin Harvey: "Was Alexander Hamilton a Christian Statesman?]" The William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Ser., Vol.^ His White House successor, William Howard Taft, likewise embracedf Hamilton as "our greatest constructive statesman."
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Charles Maurice de Talleyrand Before earning such a glowing acclamation from the French statesman, Alexander Hamilton would have a rocky road to travel.

    12, No. .2, Alexander Hamilton: 1755–1804. (Apr., 1955), pp.^ On July 10, 1804, Alexander Hamilton wrote the following letter to his wife Eliza: .
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Hamilton, Alexander (1757-1804) — of New York County , N.Y. Born in Charles Town, Nevis , January 11, 1757 .
    • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Alexander Hamilton Biography 1755 - 1804 .

    .308–29. in JSTOR
  • Austin, Ian Patrick.Common Foundations of American and East Asian Modernisation: From Alexander Hamilton to Junichero Koizumi.^ ALEXANDER HAMILTON / f ^ istic in tendency."* Hamilton was, he concludes, the representative of the former class, and laid the foundation of his schemes on it and at the expense of the farmers and non-commercial class.
    • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ ALEXANDER HAMILTON ^ burst them, but out of the ruins of the old Hamil- ton reconstructed the new, and thereby became the founder and prophet of modern protection.
    • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Next book in my American history section is Alexander Hamilton : A Life by Willard Sterne Randall.
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    Select Books. Singapore (2009)
  • Brown, Christopher Leslie, and Philip D. Morgan, eds. Arming slaves: from classical times to the modern age, esp. 180–208 on the American Revolution, by Morgan and A. J. O'Shaubhnessy.
  • Douglas Ambrose and Robert W. T. Martin, eds. .The Many Faces of Alexander Hamilton: The Life & Legacy of America's Most Elusive Founding Father (2006).
  • Brant, Irving: The Fourth President: a Life of James Madison.^ Most of the commentary at the time from his contemporaries (all brilliant men in their own right) is all along the lines of: "Alexander Hamilton is frightening."
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He and James Madison were the prime movers behind the summoning of the Constitutional Convention and the chief authors of that classic gloss on the national charter, The Federalist , which Hamilton supervised.
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The British statesman Lord Bryce singled out Hamilton as the one founding father who had not received his due from posterity.
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    Bobbs-Merill, 1970. A one-volume recasting of Brant's six-volume life.
  • Burns, Eric. .Infamous Scribblers: The Founding Fathers and the Rowdy Beginnings of American Journalism. (2007).
  • Chan, Michael D. "Alexander Hamilton on Slavery."^ A couple of days later, Hamilton showed a copy of this letter to Reverend Knox (a very very important person in the story of Alexander Hamilton - a real father figure to the boy.
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Hamilton was the supreme double threat among the founding fathers, at once thinker and doer, sparkling theoretician and masterful executive.
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I believe in my heart that Hamilton was the most far-seeing of all of our founding fathers.
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    Review of Politics 66 (Spring 2004): 207–31.
  • Fatovic, Clement. "Constitutionalism and Presidential Prerogative: Jeffersonian and Hamiltonian Perspectives." American Journal of Political Science 2004 48(3): 429–44. Issn: 0092-5853 Fulltext in Swetswise, Ingenta, Jstor, Ebsco.
  • Flaumenhaft; Harvey. .The Effective Republic: Administration and Constitution in the Thought of Alexander Hamilton Duke University Press, 1992.
  • Flexner, James Thomas.^ He and James Madison were the prime movers behind the summoning of the Constitutional Convention and the chief authors of that classic gloss on the national charter, The Federalist , which Hamilton supervised.
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Alexander Hamilton made a SIX HOUR speech at the Constitutional Convention ...
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Books: "The Federalist Papers" (Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay) .
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    George Washington. Little Brown, 1965–72. Four volumes, with various subtitles, cited as "Flexner, Washington". Vol. IV. ISBN 0316286028.
  • Levine, Yitzchok. ."The Jews Of Nevis And Alexander Hamilton." Glimpses Into American Jewish History, The Jewish Press.^ Hamilton and Burr: Infinite Shades of Ambition The Hamilton/Burr rivalry is one of the most famous in American politics, and certainly their duel is the most notorious in history.

    ^ Can't seem to get enough of Alexander Hamilton, no matter how much I try to segue out into other interests.
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ When they began inquiring into Hamilton's background, they found out that he was not from a respected American family, nor even an American by birth.

    May 2, 2007.
  • Harper, John Lamberton. .American Machiavelli: Alexander Hamilton and the Origins of U.S. Foreign Policy. (2004).
  • Horton, James Oliver.^ He continued on as a back-door advisor to the Adams cabinet, mostly through the Secretary of War James McHenry, who regularly asked Hamilton for his advice on policy.

    ^ During this last year in Washington's cabinet, Hamilton reached the pinnacle of his power and influence, advising on and directing a wide range of foreign and domestic policy.

    ^ The final straw for Hamilton was most likely when James McHenry sent him a report on a meeting at which Adams had called him a foreigner and a bastard.

    ."Alexander Hamilton: Slavery and Race in a Revolutionary Generation" New York Journal of American History 2004 65(3): 16–24. ISSN 1551-5486 online version.
  • Kennedy, Roger G. ; Burr, Hamilton, and Jefferson: A Study in Character Oxford University Press (2000).
  • Knott, Stephen F. Alexander Hamilton and the Persistence of Myth University Press of Kansas, (2002) ISBN 0-7006-1157-6.
  • Kohn, Richard H. "The Inside History of the Newburgh Conspiracy: America and the Coup d'Etat"; The William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series, Vol.^ Books about Alexander Hamilton: Richard Brookhiser, Alexander Hamilton, American ; Forrest McDonald, Alexander Hamilton: A Biography ; Gertrude Atherton, Conqueror : Dramatized Biography of Alexander Hamilton ; Ron Chernow, Alexander Hamilton ; Thomas Fleming, Duel: Alexander Hamilton, Aaron Burr, and the Future of America ; Arnold A. Rogow, A Fatal Friendship: Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr ; Willard Sterne Randall, Alexander Hamilton: A Life ; John Harper, American Machiavelli : Alexander Hamilton and the Origins of U.S. Foreign Policy ; Stephen F. Knott, Alexander Hamilton and the Persistence of Myth ; Charles Cerami, Young Patriots: The Remarkable Story of Two Men.
    • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ All the while that the little New York artillery company was with Washington, Hamilton was making an indelible impression on the General.

    ^ Burr had alienated Jefferson and the triumphant Republican party by his disloyalty as a vice president and had lost by a landslide in his bid to become a Federalist governor of New York.
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    27, No. 2 (Apr., 1970), pp. 188–220. JSTOR link. .A review of the evidence on Newburgh; despite the title, Kohn is doubtful that a coup d'état was ever seriously attempted.
  • Larsen, Harold.^ Despite the fact that he attempted to stay out of the political arena, Hamilton was propelled back by a series of events in which states attempted to assert their sovereignty over federal law.

    ."Alexander Hamilton: The Fact and Fiction of His Early Years]" The William and Mary Quarterly, 3rd Ser., Vol.^ A couple years ago, the New York Historical Society had a massive Alexander Hamilton exhibit and Bill McCabe and I went - it was so so terrific.
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    ^ Alexander Hamilton, as Secretary of Treasury, put forth a monumental report to Congress calling for a national bank (this is something he had been pondering for years ).
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    ^ Protection 127 [xiii] CHAPTER FIRST Introduction The facts of the life of Alexander Hamilton are so familiar that a mere catalogue of them will serve to refresh the mind of the reader.
    • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

    9, No. 2. (Apr., 1952), pp. 139–51. [in JSTOR
  • Littlefield, Daniel C. "John Jay, the Revolutionary Generation, and Slavery." New York History 2000 81(1):91–132. ISSN 0146-437X.
  • Milton Lomask, Aaron Burr, the Years from Princeton to Vice President, 1756–1805. .Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 1979. ISBN 0374100160. First volume of two, but this contains Hamilton's lifetime.
  • Martin, Robert W.T. "Reforming Republicanism: Alexander Hamilton's Theory of Republican Citizenship and Press Liberty."^ Alexander Hamilton, of course, was appointed the first Secretary of the Treasury, under George Washington.
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In a pairing of two of the most powerful minds of the age, Hamilton and Madison turned out the first and most enduring American political masterwork.

    ^ Jefferson's press accused Hamilton and the Federalists of monarchical designs; Hamilton's press contended that the Republicans were bent on dragging the United States into war with Britain.

    .Journal of the Early Republic 2005 25(1):21–46. Issn: 0275-1275 Fulltext online in Project Muse and Ebsco.
  • McManus, Edgar J. History of Negro Slavery in New York.^ As Hamilton had predicted early on, it was only when Virginia ratified that the New York resistance began to crack.

    ^ Hamilton reached New York Harbor in early 1773, entered King's College (now Columbia University) in 1774, and began his studies in medicine.

    ^ Hamilton came away with a deep hatred of slavery, and he eventually co-founded an abolitionist society in New York.

    .Syracuse University Press, 1966.
  • Mitchell, Broadus: "The man who 'discovered' Alexander Hamilton". Proceedings of the New Jersey Historical Society 1951. 69:88–115.
  • Stryker, William S[cudder]: The Battles of Trenton and Princeton; Houghton Mifflin, 1898.
  • Monaghan, Frank: John Jay.^ ALEXANDER HAMILTON ^ burst them, but out of the ruins of the old Hamil- ton reconstructed the new, and thereby became the founder and prophet of modern protection.
    • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The delegates moved their operation to Princeton New Jersey.

    ^ ALEXANDER HAMILTON laborer in particular, who was being exploited under the regime of free competition, could find his only salvation in furthering class solidarity.
    • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Bobbs-Merrill (1935).
  • Nettels, Curtis P. The Emergence of a National Economy, 1775–1815 (1962).
  • Newman, Paul Douglas: Fries's Rebellion; The Enduring Struggle for the American Revolution.^ This prob- lem of transition from territorial to national economy was the same problem that the American States were facing in the eighties of the eighteenth century.
    • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

    .University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004.
  • Jack N. Rakove: The beginnings of National Politics: an interpretive history of the Continental Congress, Knopf, 1979.
  • Rossiter, Clinton.^ The pamphlet was Hamilton's first foray into local and national politics, and his impressive beginning as a courageous debater and master propagandist.

    .Alexander Hamilton and the Constitution (1964).
  • Sharp, James.^ Their Impossible Plan and The Revolution That Created The Constitution Hamilton, Alexander — U.S. Attorney for the Eastern District of Florida , 1822-23.
    • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .American Politics in the Early Republic: The New Nation in Crisis. (1995), survey of politics in 1790s.
  • Sheehan, Colleen.^ More than any other American political leader, except Lincoln, his devotion both to the national aiid to the democratic ideas is thorough-going and absolute."
    • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The revolution-related events of early 1793 quickly made the French crisis an American one.

    ^ The Continentalist , as he named his six-part series, was published in the New York Packet and the American Advertiser , and treated the public to their first taste of Hamiltonian politics.

    ."Madison V. Hamilton: The Battle Over Republicanism And The Role Of Public Opinion" American Political Science Review 2004 98(3): 405–24.
  • Smith, Robert W. Keeping the Republic: Ideology and Early American Diplomacy. (2004).
  • Staloff, Darren.^ That Hamilton did not perceive these differences early on is puzzling and probably due to a combination of his own self-absorption and Madison's characteristic evasiveness.

    ^ Hamilton and Burr: Infinite Shades of Ambition The Hamilton/Burr rivalry is one of the most famous in American politics, and certainly their duel is the most notorious in history.

    ^ Hamilton, Robert J. (1890-1967) — of Battle Creek, Calhoun County , Mich.
    • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ."Hamilton, Adams, Jefferson: The Politics of Enlightenment and the American Founding."^ Hamilton and Burr: Infinite Shades of Ambition The Hamilton/Burr rivalry is one of the most famous in American politics, and certainly their duel is the most notorious in history.

    ^ Hamilton, Aaron Burr, Jefferson, Adams, Washington, Madison, Franklin 6 episodes: .
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    ^ There are rounded-out niches in the walls - with gleaming marble busts - of Hamilton, one of Jefferson, a couple other founding gents.
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    (2005).
  • Stourzh, Gerald. .Alexander Hamilton and the Idea of Republican Government (1970).
  • Thomas, Charles Marion: American neutrality in 1793; a study in cabinet government, Columbia, 1931.
  • Trees, Andrew S. "The Importance of Being Alexander Hamilton."^ Here's an excerpt from the chapter on Washington's farewell address (props to Alexander Hamilton) - and why it continuees to be studied, picked apart, interpreted and re-interpreted.
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Hamilton's views "almost led him to despair," Madison noted, "that a republican government could be established over so great an extent."
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Next book in my American history section is Alexander Hamilton : A Life by Willard Sterne Randall.
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Reviews in American History 2005 33(1): 8–14. Issn: 0048-7511 Fulltext: in Project Muse.
  • Trees, Andrew S. The Founding Fathers and the Politics of Character. (2004).
  • Wallace, David Duncan: Life of Henry Laurens, with a sketch of the life of Lieutenant-Colonel John Laurens Putnam (1915).
  • Weston, Rob N. "Alexander Hamilton and the Abolition of Slavery in New York". Afro-Americans in New York Life and History 1994 18(1): 31–45. ISSN 0364-2437 An undergraduate paper, which concludes that Hamilton was ambivalent about slavery.
  • White, Leonard D. The Federalists (1949), coverage of how the Treasury and other departments were created and operated.
  • Richard D. White; "Political Economy and Statesmanship: Smith, Hamilton, and the Foundation of the Commercial Republic" Public Administration Review, Vol.^ To ensure Federalist opposition to Adams, Hamilton engaged in some creative character assassination by issuing a confidential circular entitled "Letter from Alexander Hamilton concerning the Public Conduct and Character of John Adams, Esq.," which contained an unbridled, vitriolic attack on the character and political shortcomings of the president.

    ^ The pro-constitution, or Federalist, attendees were outnumbered two to one by Clinton's minions, indicating that Publius was largely ineffective in turning the political tide in New York.

    ^ In February of 1784, he wrote the charter for and became a founding member of the Bank of New York, the state's first bank.

    60, 2000.
  • Wood, Gordon s. Empire of Liberty: A History of the Early Republic, 1789-1815 (2009), the most recent synthesis of the era
  • Wright, Robert E. Hamilton Unbound: Finance and the Creation of the American Republic (2002).
  • Wright, Robert E. One Nation Under Debt: Hamilton, Jefferson, and the History of What We Owe New York: McGraw-Hill (2008).

Primary sources

  • Hamilton, Alexander. (Joanne B. Freeman, ed.) .Alexander Hamilton: Writings (2001), The Library of America edition, 1108 pages.^ The unpublished letters which I have used are referred to by the volume and page in Hamilton's papers in the Library of Con- gress.
    • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Chernow's biography of Alexander Hamilton -- Willard Sterne Randall's biography of Alexander Hamilton -- my Library of America copy of The Federalist Papers -- my Library of America copy of Hamilton's writings -- my Library of America copy of Washington's writings .
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In addition to that - I have my writing schedule I have to keep up - as well as tearing my way through a biography of Alexander Hamilton.
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    .ISBN 978-1-93108204-4; all of Hamilton's major writings and many of his letters
  • Syrett, Harold C.; Cooke, Jacob E.; and Chernow, Barbara, eds.^ The Clintonian/Antifederalists knew this, and the fact buoyed their efforts; they had a clear majority over the Federalists in all parts of the state except Manhattan, Hamilton's district.

    ^ Chernow's biography of Alexander Hamilton -- Willard Sterne Randall's biography of Alexander Hamilton -- my Library of America copy of The Federalist Papers -- my Library of America copy of Hamilton's writings -- my Library of America copy of Washington's writings .
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Hamilton and Lafayette exchanged many letters, Hamilton sharing with Lafayette the bad feeling he got about the French Revolution already.
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The Papers of Alexander Hamilton (27 vol, Columbia University Press, 1961–87); includes all letters and writing by Hamilton, and all important letters written to him; this is the definitive edition of Hamilton's works, intensively annotated.
  • Goebel, Julius, Jr., and Smith, Joseph H., eds., The Law Practice of Alexander Hamilton (5 vols., Columbia University Press, 1964–80); the legal counterpart to the Papers of Alexander Hamilton.
  • Morris, Richard.^ This is from a letter Alexander Hamilton wrote in 1780.
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ On July 10, 1804, Alexander Hamilton wrote the following letter to his wife Eliza: .
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Following the war, both Hamilton and Burr had thriving law practices in New York City, and both were rising stars at the bar.

    ed. .Alexander Hamilton and the Founding of the Nation (1957), excerpts from AH's writings
  • Selected Writings and Speeches of Alexander Hamilton. Morton J. Frisch ed.^ Alexander Hamilton was great as a financier, but he was still greater as a nation-builder.
    • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ We will find it helpful, before proceeding to a study of Hamilton's writings, to enlarge on the idea of nationalism as it has been understood both before and since Hamilton's day.
    • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ ALEXANDER HAMILTON of national rivalry, which began in the seventies, at least seriously checked the movement for univer- sal peace which characterized the fifties and sixties.
    • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

    .(1985).
  • The Works of Alexander Hamilton edited by Henry Cabot Lodge (1904) full text online at Google Books online in HTML edition.^ Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" .
    • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ See other formats Full text of " Alexander Hamilton, an essay " .
    • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Next book in my American history section is Alexander Hamilton : A Life by Willard Sterne Randall.
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    .This is the only online collection of Hamilton's writings and letters.^ It's from Hamilton's letters, his writings, and also the writings of Jefferson, Madison, John Adams, George Washington ...
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Published in 10 volumes, containing about 1.3 million words.
  • Federalist Papers under the shared pseudonym "Publius" by Alexander Hamilton (c.^ ALEXANDER HAMILTON about Europe.
    • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ ALEXANDER HAMILTON laborer in particular, who was being exploited under the regime of free competition, could find his only salvation in furthering class solidarity.
    • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "As the perusal of the political papers under the signature of Publius," he writes to Hamilton, August 28, 1788, "has afforded me great satisfaction, I shall certainly consider them as claiming a most distinguished place in my library.
    • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

    52 articles), James Madison (28 articles) and John Jay (five articles)
  • Report on Manufactures, his economic program for the United States.
  • Report on Public Credit, his financial program for the United States.
  • Cooke, Jacob E. ed., Alexander Hamilton: A Profile (1967), short excerpts from AH and his critics.
  • Cunningham, Noble E. Jefferson vs. Hamilton: Confrontations that Shaped a Nation (2000), short collection of primary sources with commentary.
  • Taylor, George Rogers, ed., Hamilton and the National Debt, 1950, excerpts from all sides in 1790s.

Notes

  1. ^ a b Chernow, p. 90.
  2. ^ Forrest McDonald, Alexander Hamilton: a biography, repr. 1982, p. 342
  3. ^ Knott (2002), pp 47, 67, 85; Arthur H Vandenberg, The Greatest American, Alexander Hamilton: an historical analysis of his life and works together with a symposium of opinions by distinguished Americans (1922)
  4. ^ a b c d e Practical Proceedings in the Supreme Court of the State of New York. Alexander Hamilton. Forward by Williard Sterne Randall. p. ix. 2004. New York Law Journal.
  5. ^ Chernow, p. 17.
  6. ^ From St. Croix records. Ramsing's 1930 Danish publication entered late among Hamilton literature.
  7. ^ Chernow; Flexner; Mitchell's Concise Life. McDonald, p. 366, n. 8, favors 1757 but acknowledges its minority status, saying that the probate clerk's alternate spelling of "Lavien" suggests unreliability.
  8. ^ Chernow, p. 10; Hamilton's spelling "Lavien" may be a Sephardic version of "Levine". The couple may have lived apart from one another under an order of legal separation, with Rachel as the guilty party, meaning remarriage was not permitted on St. Croix.
  9. ^ Chernow, p. 12.
  10. ^ a b Chernow, p. 17.
  11. ^ Levine, Yitzchok (2007-05-02). "The Jews Of Nevis And Alexander Hamilton". The Jewish Press. http://www.jewishpress.com/content.cfm?contentid=21464. Retrieved 2008-10-18. 
  12. ^ Chernow, p. 24.
  13. ^ E.g., Flexner, passim.
  14. ^ Chernow, p. 25.
  15. ^ Chernow, p. 26.
  16. ^ Chernow, pp. 27–30.
  17. ^ Adair and Harvey.
  18. ^ The earliest source for this anecdote is a posthumous collection of anecdotes about Hamilton by an acquaintance of his, one Hercules Mulligan, who wrote that John Witherspoon refused Hamilton's demand to advance from class to class at his own speed. Mulligan's collection has been found unreliable by some biographers, including Mitchell and Flexner. Elkins and McKitrick comment that Witherspoon may have refused because he had just overseen similar programs for James Madison, whose health may have suffered from overwork, and Joseph Ross, who had died less than two years after his graduation. (See Princetonians, 1769-1775. Ross was in Madison's class of 1771, and died before October 13, 1772. Madison's ill-health depends on his recollections in old age; his letters home at the time do not mention it.) Randall suggests that Witherspoon denied Hamilton admission because of his illegitimate birth.
  19. ^ Chernow, p. 51.
  20. ^ Mitchell 1:65-73; Miller, p. 19.
  21. ^ McDonald, p. 14; Mitchell, p. I:74-75; Chernow, p. 63. Flexner, p. 78, noting that Cooper's poem about the incident did not mention Hamilton, suggests that Hamilton was in front of the building and that Cooper did not see him while escaping out the back.
  22. ^ Stryker, p. 158.
  23. ^ Lefkowitz, Arthur S., George Washington's Indispensable Men: The 32 Aides-de-Camp Who Helped Win the Revolution, Stackpole Books, 2003, pp. 15 & 108.
  24. ^ Lodge, pp. 1:15–20; Miller, pp. 23–6.
  25. ^ Flexner, Young Hamilton, p. 316.
  26. ^ Trees, Andrew S., "The Importance of Being Alexander Hamilton", Reviews in American History 2005, pp. 33(1):8–14, finding Chernow's inferences to be overreading the contemporary style.
  27. ^ Katz, Jonathan Ned, Gay American History: Lesbians and Gay Men in the U.S.A., Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1976, ISBN 978-0690011647, p. 445.
  28. ^ Chernow, p. 133–4.
  29. ^ Chernow, p. 159.
  30. ^ Mitchell, pp. I:254–60
  31. ^ Kohn; Brant, p. 45; Rakove, p. 324.
  32. ^ Syrett, p. III:117; he was elected in July 1782 for a one-year term beginning the "first Monday in November next", arrived in Philadelphia between the 18th and 25th of November, and resigned July 1783.
  33. ^ Brant, p. 100; Chernow, p. 176.
  34. ^ Martin and Lender, pp. 109, 160: at first for seven years, increased to life after Arnold's treason.
  35. ^ a b Kohn; Ellis 2004, pp. 141–4.
  36. ^ Kohn, p. 196; Congressional minutes of January 28, 1783.
  37. ^ Hamilton's letter of February 13, 1783; Syrett, pp. III:253–5. For interpretation, see Chernow, p. 177; cf. Martin and Lender, pp. 189–90.
  38. ^ Washington to Hamilton, March 4 and March 12, 1783; Kohn; Martin and Lender, pp. 189–90.
  39. ^ Chernow, pp. 177–80, citing Washington to Hamilton, April 4, 1783. Retrieved on May 20, 2008.
  40. ^ Rakove, pp. 322, 325.
  41. ^ Brant, p. 108.
  42. ^ Chernow, p. 180.
  43. ^ Chernow, p. 182.
  44. ^ Chernow, p. 183.
  45. ^ Chernow, p. 160.
  46. ^ Chernow, pp. 197–9; McDonald, pp. 64–9.
  47. ^ Mitchell, pp. I:397 ff.
  48. ^ Brant, p. 195.
  49. ^ Lupu, Ira C., "The Most-Cited Federalist Papers", Constitutional Commentary 1998, pp. 403 ff.; using Supreme Court citations, the five most cited were Federalist No. 42 (Madison, 33 decisions), Federalist No. 78 (Hamilton, 30 decisions), Federalist No. 81 (Hamilton, 27 decisions), Federalist No. 51 (Madison, 26 decisions), Federalist No. 32 (Hamilton, 25 decisions).
  50. ^ Lomask, pp. 139–40, 216–7, 220.
  51. ^ Farrand, Max, ed., The Records of the Federal Convention of 1787, 4 vols. (New Haven, CT, 1937), 3:533–4.
  52. ^ Miller, John (2003). Alexander Hamilton and the Growth of the New Nation. New Brunswick, USA, and London, UK: Transaction Publishers. p. 251. ISBN 0765805510. 
  53. ^ Mitchell, I:308-31.
  54. ^ Stephen F. Knott, Alexander Hamilton and the Persistence of Myth (2002), pp 43, 54, 56, 83, 108
  55. ^ "Madison to Jefferson". 1794-03-02. http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/ampage?collId=mjm&fileName=05/mjm05.db&recNum=591. Retrieved 2006-10-14. "I see by a paper of last evening that even in New York a meeting of the people has taken place, at the instance of the Republican party, and that a committee is appointed for the like purpose."  See also Smith, p. 832.
  56. ^ "Jefferson to Washington". 1792-05-23. http://memory.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/r?ammem/mtj:@field%28DOCID+@lit%28tj060237%29%29. "The republican party, who wish to preserve the government in its present form, are fewer in number. They are fewer even when joined by the two, three, or half dozen anti-federalists...." 
  57. ^ Emery, Michael, and Emery, Edward, The Press and America, 7th ed., Simon & Schuster, 1992, p. 74.
  58. ^ Thomas, Charles Marion, American neutrality in 1793; a study in cabinet government, Columbia, 1931, a survey of the process before Jefferson resigned at the end of 1793.
  59. ^ Combs, Jerald A., "John Jay", American National Biography (ANB), February 2000. Retrieved on May 14, 2008.
  60. ^ John Jay’s Treaty, 1794–95, U.S. State Department.
  61. ^ Bemis, Samuel Flagg, Jay's Treaty (quoted); Elkins and McKitrick, pp. 411 ff.
  62. ^ Flexner, Washington, pp. IV:153–4.
  63. ^ Chernow, p. 479; ANB, "Alexander Hamilton".
  64. ^ Elkins and McKitrick; Age of Federalism, pp. 523–8, 859. Rutledge had his own plan, to have Pinckney win with Jefferson as Vice President.
  65. ^ Elkins and McKitrick, p. 515.
  66. ^ Morison and Commager, p 327; Mitchell II:445
  67. ^ Newman, pp. 72–3.
  68. ^ Newman, pp. 44, 76–8.
  69. ^ Mitchell II:483
  70. ^ ANB, "James McHenry"; he also fired Timothy Pickering.
  71. ^ The May 1800 election chose the New York legislature, which would in turn choose electors; Burr had won this by making it a referendum on the presidency, and by persuading better-qualified candidates to run, who declared their candidacy only after the Federalists had announced their ticket. Hamilton asked Jay and the lame-duck legislature to pass a law declaring a special federal election, in which each district would choose an elector. He also supplied a map, with as many Federalist districts as possible.
  72. ^ Monaghan, pp. 419–421.
  73. ^ Elkins and McKitrick, like other historians, speak of Hamilton's self-destructive tendencies in this connection.
  74. ^ Elkins and McKitrick, pp. 734–40.
  75. ^ ANB, "Aaron Burr".
  76. ^ a b Freeman, Joanne B (April 1996 1996). "Dueling as Politics: Reinterpreting the Burr–Hamilton Duel" (subscription). The William and Mary Quarterly, Third Series (Omohundro Institute of Early American History and Culture) 53 (2): 289–318. doi:10.2307/2947402. http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0043-5597%28199604%293%3A53%3A2%3C289%3ADAPRTB%3E2.0.CO%3B2-S. 
  77. ^ Kennedy, Burr, Hamilton, and Jefferson, p. 72.
  78. ^ Wheelan, Joseph, Jefferson's Vendetta: The Pursuit of Aaron Burr and the Judiciary, New York, Carroll & Graf Publishers, 2005, ISBN 0786714379, p. 90.
  79. ^ Dr. David Hosack to William Coleman, August 17, 1804
  80. ^ Adams, pp. 238–43, quoting Talleyrand from Études sur la République: Je considère Napoleon, Fox, et Hamilton comme les trois plus grands hommes de notre époque, et si je devais me prononcer entre les trois, je donnerais sans hesiter la première place à Hamilton. Il avait deviné l'Europe.
  81. ^ Flexner, Introduction; Lodge, Henry Cabot, Alexander Hamilton, written while a junior professor; Vandenburg, Arthur H., The Greatest American, 1922, while still a newspaper editor; for the effect on his career of his "advocacy of his party's views", see ANB, "Arthur H. Vandenburg".
  82. ^ The word "apotheosis" in Brant, p. 201, may in context refer to historians, such as James Ford Rhodes.
  83. ^ The New York Times, "In New York, Taking Years Off the Old, Famous Faces Adorning City Hall", December 6, 2006.
  84. ^ "Hamilton Grange National Memorial (U.S. National Park Service)". Nps.gov. http://www.nps.gov/hagr/. Retrieved 2009-03-14. 
  85. ^ Hamilton Home Heads to a Greener Address
  86. ^ James Alexander Hamilton obituary, The New York Times, September 26, 1878.
  87. ^ McManus; "Many national leaders including Washington, Franklin, Jefferson, Madison, Hamilton, John Adams, John Jay, Gouverneur Morris, and Rufus King, saw slavery as an immense problem, a curse, a blight, or a national disease"; David Brion Davis, Inhuman Bondage, p. 156.
  88. ^ Mitchell, pp. I:175–7, I:550 n. 92, citing the Journals of the Continental Congress, March 29, 1779; Wallace, p. 455. Congress offered to compensate the masters after the war.
  89. ^ Hamilton to Jay, March 14, 1779; Chernow, p. 121; McManus, pp. 154–7.
  90. ^ McDonald, p. 34; Flexner, pp. 257–8.
  91. ^ McManus, p. 168.
  92. ^ Chernow, p. 216.
  93. ^ Littlefield, p. 126, citing Syrett, pp. 3:605–8. Mention in Wills, p. 209, that as Treasury Secretary Hamilton arranged to recapture one of Washington's slaves a decade later, is a chronological error; it was his successor, Oliver Wolcott of Connecticut.
  94. ^ Horton, p. 22.
  95. ^ Horton; Kennedy, pp. 97–8; Littlefield; Wills, pp. 35, 40.
  96. ^ Flexner, p. 39.
  97. ^ McDonald, p. 177.
  98. ^ Lind, Michael, Hamilton's Republic, 1997, pp. xiv–xv, 229–30.
  99. ^ Chernow, p. 170, citing Continentalist V, published April 1782, but written in fall 1781; Syrett, p. 3:77.
  100. ^ Adair and Harvey, "Christian Statesman?", passim. Hamilton's early faith is a deduction: Livingstone and Knox would have chosen to sponsor only an orthodox young man. Quotes on the Christian Constitutional Society are from Hamilton's letter to James A. Bayard of April 1802, quoted by Adair and Harvey, who see this as a great change from the military preparations and Sedition Act of 1798. For Bishop Moore, see also Chernow, p. 707. See McDonald, p. 3, on Hamilton's secular ambition, who adds, p. 356, that Hamilton's faith "had not entirely departed" him before the crisis of 1801.

External links

Political offices
Preceded by
New office
United States Secretary of the Treasury
Served under: George Washington

1789–1795
Succeeded by
Oliver Wolcott, Jr.
Military offices
Preceded by
George Washington
Senior Officer of the United States Army
1799–1800
Succeeded by
James Wilkinson
Preceded by
Thomas H. Cushing (acting)
Inspector General of the U. S. Army
July 18, 1798-June 15, 1800
Succeeded by
Thomas H. Cushing (acting)

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

.
I never expect to see a perfect work from imperfect man.
^ Never did see a man so completely overwhelmed with grief as Hamilton, a friend of many years remembered.
  • Alexander Hamilton: From Caesar to Christ 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC catholiceducation.org [Source type: Original source]

The result of the deliberations of all collective bodies must necessarily be a compound, as well of the errors and prejudices, as of the good sense and wisdom, of the individuals of whom they are composed.
.Alexander Hamilton (1755-01-11 or 1757-01-111804-07-12) was an American politician, statesman, writer, lawyer, and soldier.^ Alexander Hamilton ( January 11, 1755 or 1757 — July 12, 1804) was an American politician, leading statesman, financier, intellectual, military officer, and founder of the Federalist party.

^ The place of Alexander Hamilton in American history.
  • Hoover Institution - Uncommon Knowledge with Peter Robinson - ALEXANDER THE GREAT: Alexander Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.hoover.org [Source type: Original source]

^ THE CREATOR Alexander Hamilton (1755–1804) .
  • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

.He was the principal author of the Federalist Papers, the first U.S. Secretary of the Treasury, the son-in-law of Philip Schuyler, and was killed in a duel by Aaron Burr.^ Killed by Aaron Burr in a duel.
  • Our Aaron Burr / Alexander Hamilton Connections 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC ntgen.tripod.com [Source type: General]

^ Shot and mortally wounded in a duel with Aaron Burr on July 11, 1804, and died the next day in New York, New York County , N.Y., July 12, 1804 .
  • The Political Graveyard: Index to Politicians: Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC politicalgraveyard.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ron Chernow's book brings Hamilton to life with all his brilliance, and all his numerous faults, particularly his argumentative nature which contributed to the duel with Aaron Burr.
  • Alexander Hamilton: Amazon.co.uk: Ron Chernow: Books 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.amazon.co.uk [Source type: General]

Contents

Sourced

.
  • A national debt, if it is not excessive, will be to us a national blessing.
  • For my own part, I sincerely esteem it a system which without the finger of God, never could have been suggested and agreed upon by such a diversity of interests.^ "A national debt, if it is not excessive, will be to us a national blessing."
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]
    • The Sheila Variations: Happy birthday to my dead boyfriend - Alexander Hamilton! 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]
    • The Sheila Variations: Happy birthday to my dead boyfriend - Alexander Hamilton 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I could never have said such a thing.
    • Manhattan Institute 2003 Alexander Hamilton Award Dinner 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.manhattan-institute.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A national debt, if it is not excessive, will be to us a national blessing.
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]
    • The Sheila Variations: Happy birthday to my dead boyfriend - Alexander Hamilton! 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]
    • The Sheila Variations: Happy birthday to my dead boyfriend - Alexander Hamilton 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Statement after the Constitutional Convention (1787)
  • It has been observed that a pure democracy if it were practicable would be the most perfect government.^ Speech in the Constitutional Convention on a Plan of Government, June 18, 1787 .
    • Alexander Hamilton, Library of America Series, Alexander Hamilton, Book - Barnes & Noble 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC search.barnesandnoble.com [Source type: General]

    ^ At a dinner, Vice President John Adams observed that the British Constitution, if “purged of corruption would be the most perfect constitution ever devised by the wit of man.” Hamilton paused and said, “purge it of its corruption .
    • Boston Review — hogeland.php 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bostonreview.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In Stock Miracle At Philadelphia: The Story of the Constitutional Convention May - September 1787 by Catherine Drinker Bowen ( 35 ) 19 used & new from $2.96 .
    • Lists & Guides tagged with alexander hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

    .Experience has proved that no position is more false than this.
    The ancient democracies in which the people themselves deliberated never possessed one good feature of government.^ Hamilton "envisioned a system that would allow penniless immigrants to rise to the top, a system far more dynamic than the one Jefferson had in mind," he says.
    • Alexander Hamilton Is Man of the Hour At Treasury Again - WSJ.com 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC online.wsj.com [Source type: News]

    ^ I will here express but one sentiment, he condensed his political philosophy into one final testament, which is, that dismemberment of our empire will be a clear sacrifice of great positive advantages without any counter-balancing good, administering no relief to our real disease, which is democracy, the poison of which, by a subdivision, will only be the more concentrated in each part, and consequently the more virulent.
    • Alexander Hamilton: From Caesar to Christ 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC catholiceducation.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ There may be in every government a few choice spirits, who may act from more worthy motives [but] one great error is that we suppose mankind more honest than they are.
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]
    • The Sheila Variations: Happy birthday to my dead boyfriend - Alexander Hamilton! 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]
    • The Sheila Variations: Happy birthday to my dead boyfriend - Alexander Hamilton 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    Their very character was tyranny; their figure deformity. .
    • Speech in New York, urging ratification of the U.S. Constitution (1788-06-21)
  • Here, sir, the people govern; here they act by their immediate representatives.^ And they are growing right here in New York City.

    ^ Speech in the New York Ratifying Convention on Interests and Corruption, June 21, 1788 .
    • Alexander Hamilton, Library of America Series, Alexander Hamilton, Book - Barnes & Noble 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC search.barnesandnoble.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Speech in the New York Ratifying Convention on Representation, June 21, 1788 .
    • Alexander Hamilton, Library of America Series, Alexander Hamilton, Book - Barnes & Noble 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC search.barnesandnoble.com [Source type: General]

    .
    • Remarks on the U.S. House of Representatives, at the New York state convention on the adoption of the Federal Constitution, Poughkeepsie, New York (1788-07-27)
  • Every power vested in a government is in its nature sovereign, and includes by force of the term a right to employ all the means requisite...to the attainment of the ends of such power.^ Rather, the decision for adoption was delegated to special constitutional conventions in each state.
    • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Rutgers case applied to New York's 1777 state constitution.
    • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In the first clear articulation of the broad or loose interpretation of the Constitution, Hamilton argued that the Bank, though not explicitly mentioned in the Constitution, was clearly constitutional because "every power vested in a Government is in its nature sovereign, and includes by force of the term, a right to employ all means requisite and fairly applicable to the attainment of the ends of such power."
    • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • Opinion on the Constitutionality of the Bank (1791-02-23)
  • If the end be clearly comprehended within any of the specified powers, and if the measure have an obvious relation to that end, and is not forbidden by any particular provision of the Constitution, it may safely be deemed to come within the compass of the national authority.^ On the Constitutionality of the Bank, February 23, 1791.
    • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If the end be clearly comprehended within any of the specified powers, and if the measure have an obvious relation to that end, and is not forbidden by any particular provision of the Constitution, it may safely be deemed to come within the compass of the national authority.
    • The Sheila Variations: Happy birthday to my dead boyfriend - Alexander Hamilton! 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]
    • Avalon Project - Hamilton's Opinion as to the Constitutionality of the Bank of the United States : 1791 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC avalon.law.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]
    • The Sheila Variations: Happy birthday to my dead boyfriend - Alexander Hamilton 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This criterion is the end, to which the measure relates as a mean.
    • Avalon Project - Hamilton's Opinion as to the Constitutionality of the Bank of the United States : 1791 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC avalon.law.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .
    • ibid.
  • If it be asked, What is the most sacred duty and the greatest source of our security in a Republic?^ Being a dutiful student, I've tried with the help of so many of you in this room, to apply their teaching of freedom to educational freedom, particularly to the education of our most needy children.

    ^ Most of our public men retire to utter obscurity when they have lost office, but Hamilton was as prominent in private life as in his official duties.
    • The Controversial Genius of Alexander Hamilton [Biography] 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.humanitiesweb.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ His policy of defence and neutrality was to secure respect for the nation abroad and an opportunity to develop, under the shelter of peace, our vast national re- sources at home.
    • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

    .The answer would be, An inviolable respect for the Constitution and Laws — the first growing out of the last...^ To become law, President George Washington would have to sign it, and do so before February 26, the time limit imposed by the Constitution.
    • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If it will do the last, as well as the first, then under this provision alone, the bill is constitutional, because it contemplates that the United States shall be joint proprietors of the stock of the bank.
    • Avalon Project - Hamilton's Opinion as to the Constitutionality of the Bank of the United States : 1791 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC avalon.law.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He would have been a great man in any age or country, or in any legislative assembly,--a man who had great influence over superior minds, as he had over that of Washington, whose confidence he had from first to last.
    • The Controversial Genius of Alexander Hamilton [Biography] 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.humanitiesweb.org [Source type: Original source]

    .A sacred respect for the constitutional law is the vital principle, the sustaining energy of a free government.^ Guizot asserts that "he must ever be classed among the men who have best understood the vital principles and elemental conditions of government; and that there is not in the Constitution of the United States an element of order, or force, or duration which he did not powerfully contribute to secure."
    • The Controversial Genius of Alexander Hamilton [Biography] 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.humanitiesweb.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It is, in other words, a power to pass all laws whatsoever, and consequently, to pass laws for erecting corporations, as well as for any other purpose which is the proper object of law in a free govern meet.
    • Avalon Project - Hamilton's Opinion as to the Constitutionality of the Bank of the United States : 1791 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC avalon.law.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This work remains a classic commentary on American constitutional law and the principals of government.

    .
    • Essay in the American Daily Advertiser (1794-08-28)
  • The passions of a revolution are apt to hurry even good men into excesses.
  • I have thought it my duty to exhibit things as they are, not as they ought to be.
  • Men are rather reasoning than reasonable animals, for the most part governed by the impulse of passion.
    • ibid.
  • A garden, you know, is a very usual refuge of a disappointed politician.^ One revolution, they thought, had been enough, perhaps even too much.
    • Alexander Hamilton, Modern America’s Founding Father by Myron Magnet, City Journal Winter 2009 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Men are reasoning rather than reasonable animals, for the most part governed by their passions,” he once remarked—a very different vision from Jefferson’s Enlightenment rationalism.
    • Alexander Hamilton, Modern America’s Founding Father by Myron Magnet, City Journal Winter 2009 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ You know my opinion of him.
    • Boston Review — hogeland.php 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bostonreview.net [Source type: Original source]

    .Accordingly, I have purchased a few acres about nine miles from town, have built a house, and am cultivating a garden.^ Begins constructing country house in upper Manhattan about nine miles north of New York City and names it “The Grange,” after the ancestral Hamilton Family home in Scotland and his uncle’s estate in St. Croix.
    • ALEXANDER HAMILTON - Ron Chernow - Penguin Books 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC prod.cn.penguin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Alexander Hamilton - Ron Chernow - Penguin Group (USA) 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC us.penguingroup.com [Source type: News]
    • Alexander Hamilton - Ron Chernow - Penguin Group (USA) 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC us.penguingroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Alexander Hamilton - Ron Chernow - Penguin Group (USA) 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC us.penguingroup.com [Source type: News]
    • Alexander Hamilton - Ron Chernow - Penguin Group (USA) 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC us.penguingroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • Letter to Charles Cotesworth Pinckney (1802-12-29)
  • I have resolved, if our interview is conducted in the usual manner, and it pleases God to give me the opportunity, to reserve and throw away my first fire, and I have thoughts even of reserving my second fire.^ A letter that he wrote the night before the duel states, "I have resolved, if our interview [duel] is conducted in the usual manner, and it pleases God to give me the opportunity, to reserve and throw away my first fire, and I have thoughts even of reserving my second fire."

    ^ This is my second letter.
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]
    • The Sheila Variations: Happy birthday to my dead boyfriend - Alexander Hamilton 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ As he had said he would, in his letter to Eliza and in a memorandum discovered after his death, Hamilton had reserved and thrown away his first fire, even his second.
    • Alexander Hamilton: From Caesar to Christ 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC catholiceducation.org [Source type: Original source]

The Farmer Refuted (1775)

.
  • The origin of all civil government, justly established, must be a voluntary compact, between the rulers and the ruled; and must be liable to such limitations, as are necessary for the security of the absolute rights of the latter; for what original title can any man or set of men have, to govern others, except their own consent? To usurp dominion over a people, in their own despite, or to grasp at a more extensive power than they are willing to entrust, is to violate that law of nature, which gives every man a right to his personal liberty; and can, therefore, confer no obligation to obedience.
  • The right of parliament to legislate for us cannot be accounted for upon any reasonable grounds.^ To secure such a market, there is no other expedient, than to promote manufacturing establishments.
    • Alexander Hamilton, Report on Manufactures 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC history.sandiego.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It is nothing more than a consequence of this republican maxim, that all government is a delegation of power.
    • Avalon Project - Hamilton's Opinion as to the Constitutionality of the Bank of the United States : 1791 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC avalon.law.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Give all power to the many, they will oppress the few.
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]
    • The Sheila Variations: Happy birthday to my dead boyfriend - Alexander Hamilton! 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]
    • The Sheila Variations: Happy birthday to my dead boyfriend - Alexander Hamilton 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The constitution of Great Britain is very properly called a limited monarchy, the people having reserved to themselves a share in the legislature, as a check upon the regal authority, to prevent its degenerating into despotism and tyranny.
    The very aim and intention of the democratical part, or the house of commons, is to secure the rights of the people.^ Security, or Mortgages upon Houses or Lands."
    • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Suggestions of an opposite complexion are ever to be deplored, as unfriendly to the steady pursuit of one great common cause, and to the perfect harmony of all the parts.
    • Alexander Hamilton, Report on Manufactures 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC history.sandiego.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The basis of our government being the opinion of the people, the very first object should be to keep that right:…Cherish therefore the spirit of our people, and keep alive their attention.
    • Quotes on Government | Famous Quote 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.famous-quote.net [Source type: Original source]

    .Its very being depends upon those rights.^ And Hamilton really sets the stage for industrial development in the nineteenth century where we're very dependent upon the capital markets of London, Amsterdam.
    • Hoover Institution - Uncommon Knowledge with Peter Robinson - ALEXANDER THE GREAT: Alexander Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.hoover.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The basis of our government being the opinion of the people, the very first object should be to keep that right:…Cherish therefore the spirit of our people, and keep alive their attention.
    • Quotes on Government | Famous Quote 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.famous-quote.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Hamilton depended upon what he perceived to be the truth and rightness of his opinions to sway others.

    .Its whole power is derived from them, and must be terminated by them.
  • The fundamental source of all your errors, sophisms, and false reasonings, is a total ignorance of the natural rights of mankind.^ CVH's ellipses replace this: "When the deliberative or judicial powers are vested wholly or partly in the collective body of the people, you must expect error, confusion, and instability."
    • Boston Review — hogeland.php 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bostonreview.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ These powers combined, as well as the reason and nature of the thing, speak strongly this language: that it is the manifest design and scope of the Constitution to vest in Congress all the powers requisite to the effectual administration of the finances of the United States.
    • Avalon Project - Hamilton's Opinion as to the Constitutionality of the Bank of the United States : 1791 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC avalon.law.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The constitutional test of a right application must always be, whether it be for a purpose of general or local nature.
    • Avalon Project - Hamilton's Opinion as to the Constitutionality of the Bank of the United States : 1791 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC avalon.law.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .Were you once to become acquainted with these, you could never entertain a thought, that all men are not, by nature, entitled to a parity of privileges.^ Before the Revolution, Hamilton made it clear that he thought America could become a major manufacturer.
    • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It was the privilege and glory of Hamilton to be one of the most influential of all the men of his day in bending the twig which has now become so great a tree.
    • The Controversial Genius of Alexander Hamilton [Biography] 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.humanitiesweb.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If we ever doubt that, we would never buy a stock or bond if we thought that the government could retroactively expropriate part of that money.
    • Hoover Institution - Uncommon Knowledge with Peter Robinson - ALEXANDER THE GREAT: Alexander Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.hoover.org [Source type: Original source]

    .You would be convinced, that natural liberty is a gift of the beneficent Creator, to the whole human race; and that civil liberty is founded in that; and cannot be wrested from any people, without the most manifest violation of justice.^ They are written, as with a sunbeam, in the whole volume of human nature, by the hand of the Divinity itself, and can never be erased or obscured by mortal power.
    • Alexander Hamilton: New Yorker by Richard Brookhiser, City Journal Autumn 1996 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Happily for America, happily we trust for the whole human race, they pursued a new and more noble course.
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Which would be no better than to say, they cannot do it, because they cannot do it-first presuming an inability, without reason, and then assigning that inability as the cause of itself.
    • Avalon Project - Hamilton's Opinion as to the Constitutionality of the Bank of the United States : 1791 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC avalon.law.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .Civil liberty is only natural liberty, modified and secured by the sanctions of civil society. It is not a thing, in its own nature, precarious and dependent on human will and caprice; but it is conformable to the constitution of man, as well as necessary to the well-being of society.
  • The sacred rights of mankind are not to be rummaged for among old parchments or musty records.^ The sacred rights of mankind are not to be rummaged for among old parchments ...
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ He aims at one thing only: the exclusive absolute preeminence of his own plan.
    • Quotes on Government | Famous Quote 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.famous-quote.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ His twisted conception of human nature prevented him from seeing that Every agent is perfected by its own activity, which is the principle of subsidiarity.
    • Alexander Hamilton: From Caesar to Christ 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC catholiceducation.org [Source type: Original source]

    They are written, as with a sunbeam, in the whole volume of human nature, by the hand of the divinity itself; and can never be erased or obscured by mortal power.

Debates of the Federal Convention (1787-05-141787-09-17)

.
  • I believe the British government forms the best model the world has ever produced...This government has for its object public strength and individual security.^ He agreed with Necker, the French finance minister, who viewed the British Parliament as "the only government in the world 'which unites public strength with individual security.'"
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ "The British Constitution," he observed, quoting Neckar, "is the only government in the world which unites public strength with individual security."^ It seems clear that Hamilton never expected the Convention to accept his plan in toto.
    • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ AUTHORITY "Here I shall give my sentiments of the best form of government — not as a thing attainable by us, but as a model which we ought to approach as near as possible."* From the moment the Constitution was adopted he became its defender and champion.
    • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • All communities divide themselves into the few and the many.^ Give all power to the few, they will oppress the many.
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]
    • The Sheila Variations: Happy birthday to my dead boyfriend - Alexander Hamilton! 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]
    • The Sheila Variations: Happy birthday to my dead boyfriend - Alexander Hamilton 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Give all power to the many, they will oppress the few,” he explained, according to Madison’s convention notes.
    • Alexander Hamilton, Modern America’s Founding Father by Myron Magnet, City Journal Winter 2009 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In every community where industry is encouraged, there will be a division of it into the few and the many.
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]
    • The Sheila Variations: Happy birthday to my dead boyfriend - Alexander Hamilton! 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]
    • The Sheila Variations: Happy birthday to my dead boyfriend - Alexander Hamilton 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The first are the rich and wellborn, the other the mass of the people...The people are turbulent and changing; they seldom judge or determine right.^ The mere idea of being a great nation, able to de- fend our rights against others, added to the con- fidence of the people.
    • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It was the first political party in the nation; some have called it the first mass-based party in any republic; others have seen its chief weakness in having too little connection to the masses.

    ^ They were the same age within ten months; they were the same height within an inch; their weight was the same within five pounds, and in temperament and disposition they resembled each other as brothers seldom do.
    • Little Journeys Vol. 3: American Statesmen by Elbert Hubbard: Alexander Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.online-literature.com [Source type: Original source]

    Give therefore to the first class a distinct, permanent share in the government. .They will check the unsteadiness of the second, and as they cannot receive any advantage by a change, they therefore will ever maintain good government.^ It is a government of wolves over sheep….The second state has a great deal of good in it.
    • Quotes on Government | Famous Quote 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.famous-quote.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It is true that they cannot without breach of trust lay taxes for any other purpose than the general welfare; but so neither can any other government.
    • Avalon Project - Hamilton's Opinion as to the Constitutionality of the Bank of the United States : 1791 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC avalon.law.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ They were therefore redeemable at the pleasure of the government, and as long as the government took care to pay the promised interest the creditor had no legitimate right to claim repayment of the principal.
    • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • We are now forming a republican government.^ Speech in the Constitutional Convention on a Plan of Government, June 18, 1787 .
    • Alexander Hamilton, Library of America Series, Alexander Hamilton, Book - Barnes & Noble 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC search.barnesandnoble.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The "progressive accumulation of Debt" formed a "danger to every Government," Hamilton now declared.
    • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Real liberty is neither found in despotism or the extremes of democracy, but in moderate governments.^ He endeavored to impress upon the minds of the members that liberty was found neither in the rule of a few aristocrats, nor in extreme democracy; that democracies had proved more short-lived than aristocracies, as illustrated in Greece, Rome, and England.
    • The Controversial Genius of Alexander Hamilton [Biography] 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.humanitiesweb.org [Source type: Original source]

The Federalist Papers (1787–1788)

.
  • It has been frequently remarked that it seems to have been reserved to the people of this country, by their conduct and example, to decide the important question, whether societies of men are really capable or not of establishing good government from reflection and choice, or whether they are forever destined to depend for their political constitutions on accident and force.^ The first, which Hamilton penned on a passenger sloop from New York to Albany, appeared on October 27, 1787, and stressed how high the stakes in the debate were: “whether societies of men are really capable or not, of establishing good government from reflection and choice, or whether they are forever destined to depend for their political constitutions, on accident and force.” We learned from our “unequivocal experience .
    • Alexander Hamilton, Modern America’s Founding Father by Myron Magnet, City Journal Winter 2009 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Guizot asserts that "he must ever be classed among the men who have best understood the vital principles and elemental conditions of government; and that there is not in the Constitution of the United States an element of order, or force, or duration which he did not powerfully contribute to secure."
    • The Controversial Genius of Alexander Hamilton [Biography] 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.humanitiesweb.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Time would pass before members realized how far the plans of such men as Madison and Hamilton reached, and what the Constitution promised to be.
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

  • In politics, as in religion, it is equally absurd to aim at making proselytes by fire and sword.^ But Neo-Hamiltonians, like the latter-day Jeffersonians of the ’30s and ’40s, have been "eagerly chopping up the past to make it conform to their political aims."
    • Boston Review — hogeland.php 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bostonreview.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But Neo-Hamiltonians, like the latter-day Jeffersonians of the ’30s and ’40s, have been eagerly chopping up the past to make it conform to their political aims.
    • Boston Review — hogeland.php 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bostonreview.net [Source type: Original source]

    Heresies in either can rarely be cured by persecution.
    • No. .1
  • The rights of neutrality will only be respected, when they are defended by an adequate power. A nation, despicable by its weakness, forfeits even the privilege of being neutral.^ In this world of nations with conflicting rights and ambitions "a nation, despicable by Its weakness," he said in the Federalist^ ''forfeits even the privilege of being neutral."
    • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Hamilton understood that the Jay Treaty was the best a new nation could expect from a world power, which was not obligated in the least to even consider its trading rights let alone treat with it like an equal.

    ^ Republicans upheld the right of public creditors and managed the debt well after they assumed power in 1801.
    • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

  • Let Americans disdain to be the instruments of European greatness! .Let the thirteen States, bound together in a strict and indissoluble Union, concur in erecting one great American system, superior to the control of all transatlantic force or influence, and able to dictate the terms of the connection between the old and the new world!^ "Let the thirteen States," he said in the Federalist, "bound together in a strict and indissoluble Union, concur in erect- ing one great American system, superior to the control of all transatlantic force or influence, and able to dictate the terms of the connection be- tween the old and the new world !"^ The policy of neutrality of Washington's ad- ministration was a wise effort to keep the Ameri- can nation at peace when the rest of the world was at war.
    • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The thirteen trees that he planted to symbolize the original states of the Union survive in majestic proportions, and the mansion is still standing on the bluff overlooking the Hudson on one side and Long Island sound on the other, not far from 145th Street.

    ^ It was the privilege and glory of Hamilton to be one of the most influential of all the men of his day in bending the twig which has now become so great a tree.
    • The Controversial Genius of Alexander Hamilton [Biography] 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.humanitiesweb.org [Source type: Original source]

    • No. .11
  • Government implies the power of making laws.^ He proposes to use the power and the resources of the Federal govern- ment for the purpose of making his countrymen a more complete democracy in organization and practice.
    • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It is, in other words, a power to pass all laws whatsoever, and consequently, to pass laws for erecting corporations, as well as for any other purpose which is the proper object of law in a free govern meet.
    • Avalon Project - Hamilton's Opinion as to the Constitutionality of the Bank of the United States : 1791 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC avalon.law.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A power to make all needful rules and regulations concerning territory, has been construed to mean a power to erect a government.
    • Avalon Project - Hamilton's Opinion as to the Constitutionality of the Bank of the United States : 1791 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC avalon.law.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .It is essential to the idea of a law, that it be attended with a sanction; or, in other words, a penalty or punishment for disobedience.^ It is, in other words, a power to pass all laws whatsoever, and consequently, to pass laws for erecting corporations, as well as for any other purpose which is the proper object of law in a free govern meet.
    • Avalon Project - Hamilton's Opinion as to the Constitutionality of the Bank of the United States : 1791 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC avalon.law.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In other words, Congress and the State of New York were in conflict as to which should be paramount,--the law of Congress, or the law of a sovereign State,--in a matter which affected a national treaty.
    • The Controversial Genius of Alexander Hamilton [Biography] 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.humanitiesweb.org [Source type: Original source]

  • Why has government been instituted at all?^ Why has government been instituted at all?” he asked.
    • Alexander Hamilton, Modern America’s Founding Father by Myron Magnet, City Journal Winter 2009 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Government had been so long a makeshift for popular whims that institutions and authority had lost all their sacredness.
    • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Because the passions of men will not conform to the dictates of reason and justice, without constraint.^ Because the passions of men will not conform to the dictates of reason and justice, without constraint.” So while the Constitution that finally emerged from the convention couldn’t bring about “the deceitful dream of a golden age,” which no earthly government can accomplish, Hamilton noted, it was unquestionably a practical framework for ensuring liberty while keeping men steady and within proper bounds.
    • Alexander Hamilton, Modern America’s Founding Father by Myron Magnet, City Journal Winter 2009 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Which would be no better than to say, they cannot do it, because they cannot do it-first presuming an inability, without reason, and then assigning that inability as the cause of itself.
    • Avalon Project - Hamilton's Opinion as to the Constitutionality of the Bank of the United States : 1791 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC avalon.law.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Men are reasoning rather than reasonable animals, for the most part governed by their passions,” he once remarked—a very different vision from Jefferson’s Enlightenment rationalism.
    • Alexander Hamilton, Modern America’s Founding Father by Myron Magnet, City Journal Winter 2009 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: Original source]

    • No. .15
  • Has it been found that bodies of men act with more rectitude or greater disinterestedness than individuals?^ I can venture to advance from a thorough knowledge of him, that there are few men to be found, of his age, who has a more general knowledge than he possesses, and none whose Soul is more firmly engaged in the cause, or who exceeds him in probity and Sterling virtue.

    ^ This reason is, the variety and extent of public exigencies, a far greater proportion of which, and of a far more critical kind, are objects of National than of State administration.
    • Avalon Project - Hamilton's Opinion as to the Constitutionality of the Bank of the United States : 1791 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC avalon.law.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The latter, he thinks, ought to be construed with greater strictness, because there is more danger of error in defining partial than General powers.
    • Avalon Project - Hamilton's Opinion as to the Constitutionality of the Bank of the United States : 1791 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC avalon.law.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

    The contrary of this has been inferred by all accurate observers of the conduct of mankind; and the inference is founded upon obvious reasons. .Regard to reputation has a less active influence, when the infamy of a bad action is to be divided among a number than when it is to fall singly upon one.^ Both Alexander and Elizabeth regarded "a clerkship" as quite too limited a career for one so gifted; they felt that nothing less than commander of a division would answer.
    • Little Journeys Vol. 3: American Statesmen by Elbert Hubbard: Alexander Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.online-literature.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ After Republican newspaper obtain copies of Hamilton’s pamphlet attack on Adams, it is published on October 24, dividing the Federalists and seriously damaging Hamilton’s political influence and reputation.
    • ALEXANDER HAMILTON - Ron Chernow - Penguin Books 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC prod.cn.penguin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Alexander Hamilton - Ron Chernow - Penguin Group (USA) 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC us.penguingroup.com [Source type: News]
    • Alexander Hamilton - Ron Chernow - Penguin Group (USA) 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC us.penguingroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Alexander Hamilton - Ron Chernow - Penguin Group (USA) 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC us.penguingroup.com [Source type: News]
    • Alexander Hamilton - Ron Chernow - Penguin Group (USA) 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC us.penguingroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Hamilton's life on the Island of Bermuda with his mother of Jewish descent had an influence upon his later actions.
    • Boston Review — hogeland.php 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bostonreview.net [Source type: Original source]

    .A spirit of faction, which is apt to mingle its poison in the deliberations of all bodies of men, will often hurry the persons of whom they are composed into improprieties and excesses, for which they would blush in a private capacity.
  • No.^ Most of all, the episode captured the contradictory impulses struggling inside this complex young man, an ardent revolutionary with a profound dread that popular sentiment would boil over into dangerous excess.
    • ALEXANDER HAMILTON - Ron Chernow - Penguin Books 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC prod.cn.penguin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Alexander Hamilton - Ron Chernow - Penguin Group (USA) 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC us.penguingroup.com [Source type: News]
    • Alexander Hamilton - Ron Chernow - Penguin Group (USA) 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC us.penguingroup.com [Source type: News]

    ^ O f course, no amount of money would stop these people from using the power they had over him, and they passed it on to his enemies.
    • Alexander Hamilton, Modern America’s Founding Father by Myron Magnet, City Journal Winter 2009 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.city-journal.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ According to Wolcott's plan, there would be no further attempts to roll over or refinance foreign loans on their maturation date, but they would be repaid according to contract.
    • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    .15
  • The militia is a voluntary force not associated or under the control of the States except when called out; a permanent or long standing force would be entirely different in make-up and call.^ He would set her up in business, but she pestered James Hamilton on how long it would be before they could return home.
    • AmericanHeritage.com / The Boyhood of Alexander Hamilton 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Beth, Suzanne, and Catherine, would you please stand up, and, thank you.

    ^ Should the state appropriate the entire surplus generated by the economy, there would be no funds on which to contract new loans in future crises.
    • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

  • A tolerable expertness in military movements is a business that requires time and practice. .It is not a day, or even a week, that will suffice for the attainment of it. To oblige the great body of the yeomanry, and of the other classes of the citizens, to be under arms for the purpose of going through military exercises and evolutions, as often as might be necessary to acquire the degree of perfection which would entitle them to the character of a well-regulated militia, would be a real grievance to the people, and a serious public inconvenience and loss.^ Hamilton justified the creation of this bank, and other increased Federal powers, on Congress's constitutional powers to issue currency, to regulate interstate commerce, and anything else that would be "necessary and proper."

    ^ In Federalist 23, he writes of the "principal purposes" of a union of the states: "...the common defence of the members; the preservation of the public peace, as well against internal convulsion as external attacks; the regulation of commerce with other nations and between the States;...
    • Keyword: alexanderhamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ It was when the labors of the convention were completed and laid before the people that Hamilton's great work for the constitution really began.

    .It would form an annual deduction from the productive labor of the country, to an amount which, calculating upon the present numbers of the people, would not fall far short of the whole expense of the civil establishments of all the States.^ Annual expenses would therefore amount to about $4.5 million.
    • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And he based his calculations that people could afford to purchase foreign articles, of necessity and luxury, on the enormous resources of the country,--then undeveloped, indeed, but which would be developed by increasing settlements, increasing industries, and increasing exports; and his predictions were soon fulfilled.
    • The Controversial Genius of Alexander Hamilton [Biography] 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.humanitiesweb.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In the 1790s, he helped to found the Society for the Establishment of Useful Manufactures, a private corporation that would use the power of the falls to operate mills.

    .To attempt a thing which would abridge the mass of labor and industry to so considerable an extent, would be unwise: and the experiment, if made, could not succeed, because it would not long be endured.^ He would set her up in business, but she pestered James Hamilton on how long it would be before they could return home.
    • AmericanHeritage.com / The Boyhood of Alexander Hamilton 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Constitution when completed was not altogether such as Hamilton would have made, but he accepted it cordially as the best which could be had.
    • The Controversial Genius of Alexander Hamilton [Biography] 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.humanitiesweb.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ If a particular legislature would not deal, the company could simply begin business and wait until favorable election results made formal incorporation possible.
    • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

    Little more can reasonably be aimed at, with respect to the people at large, than to have them properly armed and equipped; and in order to see that this be not neglected, it will be necessary to assemble them once or twice in the course of a year.
  • If circumstances should at any time oblige the government to form an army of any magnitude that army can never be formidable to the liberties of the people while there is a large body of citizens, little, if at all, inferior to them in discipline and the use of arms, who stand ready to defend their own rights and those of their fellow-citizens.^ There are a lot of family members that do not care, have no time nor interest in where they came from or who thier relations might be , we connot chide them into forming a different opinion, but we know that they have access to all the information provided, just in case they are curious.

    ^ Based on his interpretation of history, he concluded the ideal form of government had represented all the interest groups, but maintained a hereditary monarch to decide policy.

    ^ Had each of those illustrious men persisted in his own views, we should have had only an autonomy of States instead of the glorious Union, which in spite of storms stands unshaken to-day.
    • The Controversial Genius of Alexander Hamilton [Biography] 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.humanitiesweb.org [Source type: Original source]

    .This appears to me the only substitute that can be devised for a standing army, and the best possible security against it, if it should exist.^ "Not only the wealth," he says, "but the independence and security of a country appear to be materially con- nected with the prosperity of manufactures.
    • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Had each of those illustrious men persisted in his own views, we should have had only an autonomy of States instead of the glorious Union, which in spite of storms stands unshaken to-day.
    • The Controversial Genius of Alexander Hamilton [Biography] 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.humanitiesweb.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Support for Madison was only lukewarm in the House of Representatives, which voted thirty-six to thirteen against his proposal to discriminate between present and original security holders.
    • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    • No. .29
  • If the representatives of the people betray their constituents, there is then no recourse left but in the exertion of that original right of self-defense which is paramount to all positive forms of government, and which against the usurpations of the national rulers may be exerted with infinitely better prospect of success than against those of the rulers of an individual State.^ One is, that the proposed incorporation is against the laws of monopoly, because it stipulates an exclusive right of banking under the national authority; the other, that it gives power to the institution to make laws paramount to those of the States.
    • Avalon Project - Hamilton's Opinion as to the Constitutionality of the Bank of the United States : 1791 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC avalon.law.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Based on his interpretation of history, he concluded the ideal form of government had represented all the interest groups, but maintained a hereditary monarch to decide policy.

    ^ Madison's position on funding arose from his wish to protect the interests of original security holders against the actions of speculators.
    • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    .In a single State, if the persons entrusted with supreme power become usurpers, the different parcels, subdivisions, or districts of which it consists, having no distinct government in each, can take no regular measures for defense.^ I consider the foundation of the Constitution as laid on this ground: That ‘all powers not delegated to the United States, by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States or to the people.’ To take a single step beyond the boundaries thus specially drawn around the powers of Congress is to take possession of a boundless field of power, no longer susceptible of any definition.”...
    • Boston Review — hogeland.php 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bostonreview.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Public opinion was the governing principle of human affairs, and he had no doubt that it could be conditioned to accept the totalitarian state that alone could prevent the abuse of human liberty.
    • Alexander Hamilton: From Caesar to Christ 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC catholiceducation.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ A question has been made concerning the constitutional right of the Government of the United States to apply this species of encouragement; but there is certainty no good foundation for such a question.
    • Alexander Hamilton's Advice To The Obama Administration | CommonDreams.org 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    The citizens must rush tumultuously to arms, without concert, without system, without resource; except in their courage and despair.
    • No. .29
  • In the usual progress of things, the necessities of a nation in every stage of its existence will be found at least equal to its resources.^ If you're unfamiliar with Hamilton, this book should acquaint you with the man whose career is a necessity for understanding the founding of this nation.
    • Geometry.Net - Authors Books: Hamilton Alexander 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Elsewhere he wrote, "It is impossible for a Country to contend on equal terms, or to be secure against the enterprises of other nations without being able equally with them to avail itself of this important resource."
    • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

  • Let us recollect that peace or war will not always be left to our option; that however moderate or unambitious we may be, we cannot count upon the moderation, or hope to extinguish the ambition of others.
  • The President, and government, will only control the militia when a part of them is in the actual service of the federal government, else, they are independent and not under the command of the president or the government.^ There is nothing in the document that permits the federal government to tell local schools what they can and cannot teach....
    • Keyword: alexanderhamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Those who were called to that task not only created a new system of government with checks and balances, but they provided such checks and balances for each other in their strengths, excesses and weaknesses.
    • Boston Review — hogeland.php 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bostonreview.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ With the funding act, the federal government also assumed responsibility for the main share of the state debts run up during the American War of Independence.
    • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    .The states would control the militia, only when called out into the service of the state, and then the governor would be commander in chief where enumerated in the respective state constitution.^ He would be "the commander in chief of the land and naval forces and of the militia."
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ But if it were even to be admitted that the erection of a corporation is a direct alteration of the state laws, in the enumerated particulars, it would do nothing toward proving that the measure was unconstitutional.
    • Avalon Project - Hamilton's Opinion as to the Constitutionality of the Bank of the United States : 1791 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC avalon.law.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The venerated chief worried that he was losing control of the government, and admitted to Hamilton, "I do not see how the Reins of Government are to be managed, or how the Union of the States can be much longer preserved."

  • When occasions present themselves, in which the interests of the people are at variance with their inclinations, it is the duty of the persons whom they have appointed to be the guardians of those interests, to withstand the temporary delusion, in order to give them time and opportunity for more cool and sedate reflection.^ "When occasions present themselves," he says, "in which the interests of the people are at variance with their inclinations, it is the duty of the persons whom they have appointed to be the guardian of those interests, to withstand the temporary delusion in order to give them time and opportunity for more cool and sedate reflec- tion.
    • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ As to the other family members those who are indeed interested in shuch things as who's Uncle was who's and so on we know that they will appreciate the information that has been made available for reviewing.

    ^ Fry noted that Europeans at that time had more money than local investment opportunities and were looking to employ their capital in the United States.
    • Alexander Hamilton, an excerpt from Financial Founding Fathers: The Men Who Made America Rich by Robert E. Wright and David J. Cowen 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.press.uchicago.edu [Source type: Original source]

  • The Courts must declare the sense of the law; and if they should be disposed to exercise will instead of judgement; the consequences would be the substitution of their pleasure for that of the legislative body.^ Should they continue to honor the treaties signed with the monarchy, and if they did, would it be a violation of neutrality?

    ^ America had passed that phase; had anyone challenged members, they would have said such declarations are already cemented with their blood.
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It will not be doubted, that if the United States should make a conquest of any of the territories of its neighbors, they would possess sovereign jurisdiction over the conquered territory.
    • Avalon Project - Hamilton's Opinion as to the Constitutionality of the Bank of the United States : 1791 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC avalon.law.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

  • There are men who could neither be distressed nor won into a sacrifice of their duty; but this stern virtue is the growth of few soils; and in the main it will be found that a power over a man's support is a power over his will. If it were necessary to confirm so plain a truth by facts, examples would not be wanting, even in this country, of the intimidation or seduction of the Executive by the terrors or allurements of the pecuniary arrangements of the legislative body.^ There are even examples of this in the United States.
    • Avalon Project - Hamilton's Opinion as to the Constitutionality of the Bank of the United States : 1791 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC avalon.law.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ I can venture to advance from a thorough knowledge of him, that there are few men to be found, of his age, who has a more general knowledge than he possesses, and none whose Soul is more firmly engaged in the cause, or who exceeds him in probity and Sterling virtue.

    ^ How could men like Hamilton, men of stern virtue, the political elect who could neither be distressed nor won into a sacrifice of their dutyhow could they save other men from their own destructive, selfish passions except by rendering them impotent as moral agents before the ethical state, which, as Rousseau and later Hegel asserted, was freedom per se.
    • Alexander Hamilton: From Caesar to Christ 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC catholiceducation.org [Source type: Original source]

  • The history of human conduct does not warrant that exalted opinion of human virtue which would make it wise in a nation to commit interests of so delicate and momentous a kind as those which concern its intercourse with the rest of the world to the sole disposal of a magistrate, created and circumstanced, as would be a President of the United States.^ They would see a possibility of making a conquest of [the] United States."
    • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Alexander Hamilton, who was killed by Aaron Burr, Esq., Vice President of the United States, in a duel, July 11, 1804 .
    • HAMILTON, Alexander (1757-1804) Bibliography 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bioguide.congress.gov [Source type: News]

    ^ The expense of a national government over so great an extent of land would be "formidable" unless the cost of state government diminished.
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

  • I go further, and affirm that bills of rights, in the sense and to the extent in which they are contended for, are not only unnecessary in the proposed Constitution, but would even be dangerous.^ To a large extent, they are right in doing so.
    • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The American people, he thought, would work together with the same enthusiasm to pay off their debt as they had fought together to oust European danger.
    • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ And, with regard to the question of necessity, it has been shown that this can only constitute a question of expediency, not of right.
    • Avalon Project - Hamilton's Opinion as to the Constitutionality of the Bank of the United States : 1791 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC avalon.law.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .They would contain various exceptions to powers not granted; and, on this very account, would afford a colorable pretext to claim more than were granted.^ This parentage would also explain why Hamilton formed an infinitely more enduring bond with Edward Stevens than with his own brother.
    • WNYC - Books: Alexander Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wnyc.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Yet uncovering the history of government policies and institutions requires more than just interpreting the heated political rhetoric they could provoke.
    • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This enumeration is far more exceptionable than either of the former.
    • Avalon Project - Hamilton's Opinion as to the Constitutionality of the Bank of the United States : 1791 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC avalon.law.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

    For why declare that things shall not be done which there is no power to do?
  • The system, though it may not be perfect in every part, is, upon the whole, a good one; is the best that the present views and circumstances of the country will permit; and is such an one as promises every species of security which a reasonable people can desire.
  • I should esteem it the extreme of imprudence to prolong the precarious state of our national affairs, and to expose the Union to the jeopardy of successive experiments, in the chimerical pursuit of a perfect plan.^ John Steele Gordon doesn't deny the dangers of an entire nation living on credit; indeed, he believes that our fiscal affairs are a mess.
    • Geometry.Net - Authors Books: Hamilton Alexander 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ ALEXANDER HAMILTON 3 P to improve the territorial imperfections of thl nation, it was no part of his plan to encourage rapid settlement from the old States.
    • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ DEFENCE AND NEUTRALITY The French party, by trying to force the govern- ment to assist France, were putting In jeopardy our nationality.
    • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

    .I never expect to see a perfect work from imperfect man.^ Never did see a man so completely overwhelmed with grief as Hamilton, a friend of many years remembered.
    • Alexander Hamilton: From Caesar to Christ 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC catholiceducation.org [Source type: Original source]

    .The result of the deliberations of all collective bodies must necessarily be a compound, as well of the errors and prejudices, as of the good sense and wisdom, of the individuals of whom they are composed.
    • No.^ CVH's ellipses replace this: "When the deliberative or judicial powers are vested wholly or partly in the collective body of the people, you must expect error, confusion, and instability."
      • Boston Review — hogeland.php 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bostonreview.net [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Those whose houses were sufficiently intact must take in all they could of those whose homes had been destroyed.
      • AmericanHeritage.com / The Boyhood of Alexander Hamilton 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.americanheritage.com [Source type: Original source]

      ^ Then again, no real hardship will befall the likes of those just named -- after all, they're members of the same privileged class Obama is.
      • Alexander Hamilton's Advice To The Obama Administration | CommonDreams.org 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

      85

About Alexander Hamilton

.
  • This I can venture to advance from a thorough knowledge of him, that there are few men to be found, of his age, who has a more general knowledge than he possesses, and none whose Soul is more firmly engaged in the cause, or who exceeds him in probity and Sterling virtue.^ I can venture to advance from a thorough knowledge of him, that there are few men to be found, of his age, who has a more general knowledge than he possesses, and none whose Soul is more firmly engaged in the cause, or who exceeds him in probity and Sterling virtue.

    ^ They described him as a lover of monarchy whose goal was to corrupt the republican virtue of the American people by means of his economic schemes.
    • Keyword: alexanderhamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.freerepublic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Or, more directly, Hamilton began now cleverly to manipulate Washington who, at forty-five, was more than twice his age and who seems to have developed from the start a fatherly attachment to the brilliant young officer.
    • Alexander Hamilton: From Caesar to Christ 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC catholiceducation.org [Source type: Original source]

    .
  • Hamilton is really a colossus...^ The Death of Washington December 14, 1799 Perhaps most symbolic of the disappointments and decline Alexander Hamilton would face in the new century was the death of George Washington on December 14, 1799.

    ^ Thank God Hamilton realized Washington should lead this ordeal, thereby ending it.
    • Boston Review — hogeland.php 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bostonreview.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ An excerpt from George Washington's farewell speech (which actually, it was later discovered, was written by Alexander Hamilton): .
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    without numbers, he is a host unto himself.
  • I was duped ... by the .Secretary of the treasury, and made a fool for forwarding his schemes, not then sufficiently understood by me; and of all the errors of my political life, this has occasioned the deepest regret.^ The first treasury secretary, Hamilton was for all practical purposes the creator of modern American finance and the founding wealth of the United States.
    • Boston Review — hogeland.php 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bostonreview.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In a letter to Washington, he claimed to have been "duped" by Hamilton and "made a tool for forwarding his schemes."
    • Max M. Edling | "So immense a power in the affairs of war": Alexander Hamilton and the Restoration of Public Credit | The William and Mary Quarterly, 64.2 | The History Cooperative 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ As Secretary of the Treasury, he understood that a strong financial system was essential to provide credibility and economic growth to the new republic.
    • Geometry.Net - Authors Books: Hamilton Alexander 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

  • I invited them to dine with me, and after dinner, sitting at our wine, having settled our question, other conversation came on, in which a collision of opinion arose between Mr. Adams and Colonel Hamilton, on the merits of the British Constitution, Mr. Adams giving it as his opinion, that, if some of its defects and abuses were corrected, it would be the most perfect constitution of government ever devised by man. .Hamilton, on the contrary, asserted, that with its existing vices, it was the most perfect model of government that could be formed; and that the correction of its vices would render it an impracticable government.^ At a dinner, Vice President John Adams observed that the British Constitution, if “purged of corruption would be the most perfect constitution ever devised by the wit of man.” Hamilton paused and said, “purge it of its corruption .
    • Boston Review — hogeland.php 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bostonreview.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Hamilton's views "almost led him to despair," Madison noted, "that a republican government could be established over so great an extent."
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Indeed, the Virginians asserted that, given the opportunity to balance their accounts with the federal government, they would be owed some three million dollars.

    .And this you May be assured was the real line of difference between the political principles of these two gentlemen.^ So it's an honor for me to say to Bill Buckley, I'd you to meet from one founding father, Alexander Hamilton, I'd like you, to introduce you to you, another founding father of a different political movement.

    ^ There was no struggle between classes in the socialistic meaning of the word; there was a struggle between two political ideals.
    • Full text of "Alexander Hamilton, an essay" 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.archive.org [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Hamilton's draft admonished the American people dedicate themselves to the union in spite of certain differences: "You have with slight shades of difference the same religion manners habits & political institutions & principles.

    Another incident took place on the same occasion, which will further delineate Mr. Hamilton's political principles. The room being hung around with a collection of the portraits of remarkable men, among them were those of Bacon, Newton and Locke. .Hamilton asked me who they were.^ He continued on as a back-door advisor to the Adams cabinet, mostly through the Secretary of War James McHenry, who regularly asked Hamilton for his advice on policy.

    .I told him they were my trinity of the three greatest men the world had ever produced, naming them.^ So embarrassed by his admissions were the inquisitors, that they told Hamilton there was no need for him to tell the whole story.

    ^ He is, to my taste, one of the most infinitely fascinating and contradictory men this country has ever produced.
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It guarantees a room full of the most interesting people in the greatest city in the world, an evening of substance, which celebrates the men of ideas.

    He paused for some time: “The greatest man,” said he, “that ever lived, was Julius Caesar.” Mr. Adams was honest as a politician as well as a man; Hamilton honest as a man, but, as a politician, believing in the necessity of either force or corruption to govern men.
  • Hamilton, the most brilliant American statesman who ever lived, possessing the loftiest and keenest intellect of his time, was of course easily the foremost champion in the ranks of the New York Federalists; second to him came Jay, pure, strong and healthy in heart, body, and mind. Both of them watched with uneasy alarm the rapid drift toward anarchy; and both put forth all their efforts to stem the tide. .They were of course too great men to fall in with the views of those whose antagonism to tyranny made them averse from order.^ They viewed the Secretary of the Treasury as an uncontrolled force with the backing of powerful, monied men from the northeast.

    ^ They blasted John Jay's recent one-sided treaty with Great Britain in which the English had made no concessions to American claims.
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Had each of those illustrious men persisted in his own views, we should have had only an autonomy of States instead of the glorious Union, which in spite of storms stands unshaken to-day.
    • The Controversial Genius of Alexander Hamilton [Biography] 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.humanitiesweb.org [Source type: Original source]

    They had little sympathy with the violent prejudices produced by the war. .In particular they abhorred the vindictive laws directed against the persons and property of Tories; and they had the manliness to come forward as the defenders of the helpless and excessively unpopular Loyalists.^ His position on returning confiscated property to Tories was unpopular as was his conviction regarding the integrity of contracts over the perceived rights of war veterans.
    • Geometry.Net - Authors Books: Hamilton Alexander 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ But if it were even to be admitted that the erection of a corporation is a direct alteration of the state laws, in the enumerated particulars, it would do nothing toward proving that the measure was unconstitutional.
    • Avalon Project - Hamilton's Opinion as to the Constitutionality of the Bank of the United States : 1791 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC avalon.law.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

    ^ It is certainly not accurate to say, that the erection of a corporation is against those different head's of the State laws; because it is rather to create a kind of person or entity, to which they are inapplicable, and to which the general rule of those laws assign a different regimen.
    • Avalon Project - Hamilton's Opinion as to the Constitutionality of the Bank of the United States : 1791 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC avalon.law.yale.edu [Source type: Original source]

    .They put a stop to the wrongs which were being inflicted on these men, and finally succeeded in having them restored to legal equality with other citizens, standing up with generous fearlessness against the clamor of the mob.^ With Hamilton being autocratic, seeing things in black and white, and Jefferson the master of indirectness, seldom taking a firm stand, these two had to clash.
    • Geometry.Net - Authors Books: Hamilton Alexander 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Amusing how men often make fun of women for having reaaaaallly specific lists of what they want in a mate ...
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Shays' Rebellion prompted fears of similar uprisings in other states, and citizens and congress alike warmed up to the Annapolis proposal.

    .
  • He stands at the front rank of a generation never surpassed in history, but whose countrymen seem to have never duly recognized his splendid gifts.^ In The American Commonwealth , he observed, "One cannot note the disappearance of this brilliant figure, to Europeans the most interesting in the early history of the Republic, without the remark that his countrymen seem to have never, either in his lifetime or afterwards, duly recognized is splendid gifts."
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In The American Commonwealth, he observed, "One cannot note the disappearance of this brilliant figure, to Europeans the most interesting in the early history of the Republic, without the remark that his countrymen seem to have never, either in his lifetime or afterwards, duly recognized is splendid gifts."
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Hamilton himself seemed impervious to the consequences, going about his business as if nothing had happened; but he never completely regained his standing and respect afterwards.

  • When America ceases to remember his greatness, America will no longer be great. .
  • Hamilton was the greatest constructive mind in all our history and I should come pretty near saying...^ Though a bit of a loose cannon, Hamilton was possibly the greatest policymaker in our history and forged programs that Washington alone could never have created.
    • ALEXANDER HAMILTON - Ron Chernow - Penguin Books 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC prod.cn.penguin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Alexander Hamilton - Ron Chernow - Penguin Group (USA) 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC us.penguingroup.com [Source type: News]
    • Alexander Hamilton - Ron Chernow - Penguin Group (USA) 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC us.penguingroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Alexander Hamilton - Ron Chernow - Penguin Group (USA) 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC us.penguingroup.com [Source type: News]
    • Alexander Hamilton - Ron Chernow - Penguin Group (USA) 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC us.penguingroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ The duel between Aaron Burr and Alexander Hamilton is a famous piece of American history, which we are all taught in our history classes.
    • Our Aaron Burr / Alexander Hamilton Connections 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC ntgen.tripod.com [Source type: General]

    ^ Simply put, I think it's fair to say that Hamilton made New York what it is today, the world's greatest city.

    in the history of modern statesmen in any country. .
  • There is an elegant memorial in Washington to Jefferson, but none to Hamilton.^ Alexander Hamilton (American statesmen series) by Henry Cabot Lodge .
    • Geometry.Net - Authors Books: Hamilton Alexander 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Hamilton understood man has a supratemporal destiny A good book toward understanding Hamilton is Henry Cabot Lodge's biography.
    • Boston Review — hogeland.php 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bostonreview.net [Source type: Original source]

    ^ For every Jefferson, we need a Hamilton and for every Jefferson-Hamilton combination, a Washington is required.
    • Geometry.Net - Authors Books: Hamilton Alexander 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .However, if you seek Hamilton's monument, look around.^ When you look at this era through the lens of slavery, however, Hamilton begins to look more like the democratic populist and Jefferson and Madison more like the aristocrats.
    • ALEXANDER HAMILTON - Ron Chernow - Penguin Books 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC prod.cn.penguin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Alexander Hamilton - Ron Chernow - Penguin Group (USA) 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC us.penguingroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Alexander Hamilton - Ron Chernow - Penguin Group (USA) 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC us.penguingroup.com [Source type: News]
    • Alexander Hamilton - Ron Chernow - Penguin Group (USA) 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC us.penguingroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Hamilton: (throwing his arm around her) Bitch, you're hot.
    • The Sheila Variations: Alexander Hamilton Archives 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.sheilaomalley.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ However you can't deny the fact that Hamilton went against what he said in the federalist papers.
    • Boston Review — hogeland.php 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC bostonreview.net [Source type: Original source]

    You are living in it. .We honor Jefferson, but live in Hamilton's country, a mighty industrial nation with a strong central government.^ Hamilton was for centralization, Jefferson for decentralization.
    • Geometry.Net - Authors Books: Hamilton Alexander 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC www.geometry.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Where Jefferson and his followers foresaw a rural nation of small towns and yeomen farmers, Hamilton, in a visionary leap, envisioned something very much like America today: a large, bustling country with big cities, a strong federal government, and an economy dominated by trade, industry, banks, and stock exchanges.
    • Alexander Hamilton - Ron Chernow - Penguin Group (USA) 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC us.penguingroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Alexander Hamilton - Ron Chernow - Penguin Group (USA) 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC us.penguingroup.com [Source type: News]
    • Alexander Hamilton - Ron Chernow - Penguin Group (USA) 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC us.penguingroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    ^ Noah Webster contended that Hamilton's "ambition, pride, and overbearing temper" had destined him "to be the evil genius of this country."3 Hamilton's powerful vision of American nationalism, with states subordinate to a strong central government and led by a vigorous executive branch, aroused fears of a reversion to royal British ways.
    • WNYC - Books: Alexander Hamilton 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC www.wnyc.org [Source type: Original source]
    • Alexander Hamilton - Ron Chernow - Penguin Group (USA) 19 January 2010 9:52 UTC us.penguingroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
    • Alexander Hamilton - Ron Chernow - Penguin Group (USA) 3 February 2010 14:15 UTC us.penguingroup.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .
    • George Will, Restoration: Congress, Term Limits and the Recovery of Deliberative Democracy (1992)
  • Hamilton is really a Colossus to the anti-republican party.^ Again, Hamilton supported his Republican rival, John Lansing (and later Morgan Lewis when Lansing bowed out), and because of his stance, was all but ostracized by his own party.
    <