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Alexander the Great
Basileus of Macedon
BattleofIssus333BC-mosaic-detail1.jpg
Alexander fighting the Persian king Darius III. From Alexander Mosaic, from Pompeii, Naples, Naples National Archaeological Museum
Reign 336–323 BC
Full name Alexander III of Macedon
Greek Μέγας Ἀλέξανδροςiv[›] (Mégas Aléxandros)
Ἀλέξανδρος ὁ Μέγας (Aléxandros o Mégas)
Titles Hegemon of the Hellenic League, Shahanshah of Persia, Pharaoh of Egypt and Lord of Asia
Born 20 or 21 July 356 BC
Birthplace Pella, Macedon
Died 10 or 11 June 323 BC (aged 32)
Place of death Babylon
Predecessor Philip II of Macedon
Successor Alexander IV of Macedon
Philip III of Macedon
Wives Roxana of Bactria
Stateira of Persia
Offspring Alexander IV of Macedon
Dynasty Argead dynasty
Father Philip II of Macedon
Mother Olympias of Epirus
.Alexander III of Macedon (356–323 BC), popularly known as Alexander the Great (Greek: Μέγας Ἀλέξανδρος, Mégas Aléxandros), was a Greeki[›] king (basileus) of Macedon.^ An analysis of the generalship of Alexander III of Macedon: undermining or underlining greatness?
  • History On-Line 10 September 2009 18:44 UTC www.history.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

He is the most celebrated member of the Argead Dynasty and created one of the largest empires in ancient history. Born in Pella in 356 BC, Alexander received a classical Greek education under the tutorship of famed philosopher Aristotle, succeeded his father Philip II of Macedon to the throne in 336 BC after the King was assassinated, and died thirteen years later at the age of 32. Although both Alexander's reign and empire were short-lived, the cultural impact of his conquests lasted for centuries. Alexander is one of the most famous figures of antiquity, and is remembered for his tactical ability, his conquests, and for spreading Greek culture into the East (marking the beginning of Hellenistic civilization).
Philip had brought most of the city-states of mainland Greece under Macedonian hegemony, using both military and diplomatic means. Upon Philip's death, Alexander inherited a strong kingdom and an experienced army. He succeeded in being awarded the generalship of Greece and, with his authority firmly established, launched the military plans for expansion left by his father. .He invaded Persian-ruled Asia Minor, and began a series of campaigns lasting ten years.^ Sanctuaries in Asia Minor under Hellenistic and Roman rule: finances and politics.
  • History On-Line 10 September 2009 18:44 UTC www.history.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

Alexander repeatedly defeated the Persians in battle; marched through Syria, Egypt, Mesopotamia, Persia, and Bactria; and in the process he overthrew the Persian king Darius III and conquered the entirety of the Persian Empire.ii[›] Following his desire to reach the "ends of the world and the Great Outer Sea", he invaded India, but was eventually forced to turn back by the near-mutiny of his troops, who were tired of war.
Alexander died in Babylon in 323 BC, before realizing a series of planned campaigns that would have begun with an invasion of Arabia. In the years following Alexander's death, a series of civil wars tore his empire apart, which resulted in the formation of a number of states ruled by Macedonian aristocracy (the Diadochi). Remarkable though his conquests were, Alexander's lasting legacy was not his reign, but the cultural diffusion his conquests engendered. .Alexander's importation of Greek colonists and culture to the East resulted in a new Hellenistic culture, aspects of which were still evident in the traditions of the Byzantine Empire until the mid-15th century.^ Political, economic, social and cultural determinants in the history of early to mid 19th-century art and design education in Britain.
  • History On-Line 10 September 2009 18:44 UTC www.history.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Economic and social aspects of three Wealden manors in the rape of Hastings during the 15th and into the 16th century.
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^ Aspects of the material culture of the English aristocracy in the late 15th and early 16th century.
  • History On-Line 10 September 2009 18:44 UTC www.history.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

.Alexander became legendary as a classical hero in the mold of Achilles, and features prominently in the history and myth of Greek and non-Greek cultures.^ Myth, prejudice and vested interest: political and cultural influences on history teaching in British secondary schools, 1945-55.
  • History On-Line 10 September 2009 18:44 UTC www.history.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

He became the measure against which generals, even to this day, compare themselves, and military academies throughout the world still teach his tactical exploits.iii[›]

Early life

Lineage and childhood

"The night before the consummation of their marriage, she dreamed that a thunderbolt fell upon her body, which kindled a great fire, whose divided flames dispersed themselves all about, and then were extinguished. And Philip, some time after he was married, dreamed that he sealed up his wife's body with a seal, whose impression, as he fancied, was the figure of a lion. Some of the diviners interpreted this as a warning to Philip to look narrowly to his wife; but Aristander of Telmessus, considering how unusual it was to seal up anything that was empty, assured him the meaning of his dream was that the queen was with child of a boy, who would one day prove as stout and courageous as a lion."
Plutarch describing Olympias and Philip's dreams.[1]
Alexander was born on 20 (or 21) July 356 BC,[2][3] in Pella, the capital of the Kingdom of Macedon. He was the son of Philip II, the King of Macedon. His mother was Philip's fourth wife Olympias, the daughter of Neoptolemus I, the king of the northern Greek state of Epirus.[1][4][5][6] Although Philip had either seven or eight wives, Olympias was his principal wife for a time.
As a member of the Argead dynasty, Alexander claimed patrilineal descent from Heracles through Caranus of Macedon.v[›] From his mother's side and the Aeacids, he claimed descent from Neoptolemus, son of Achilles;vi[›] Alexander was a second cousin of the celebrated general Pyrrhus of Epirus, who was ranked by Hannibal as, depending on the source, either the best[7] or second-best (after Alexander)[8] commander the world had ever seen.
According to the ancient Greek historian Plutarch, Olympias, on the eve of the consummation of her marriage to Philip, dreamed that her womb was struck by a thunder bolt, causing a flame that spread "far and wide" before dying away. Some time after the wedding, Philip was said to have seen himself, in a dream, sealing up his wife's womb with a seal upon which was engraved the image of a lion.[1] Plutarch offers a variety of interpretations of these dreams: that Olympia was pregnant before her marriage, indicated by the sealing of her womb; or that Alexander's father was Zeus. Ancient commentators were divided as to whether the ambitious Olympias promulgated the story of Alexander's divine parentage, some claiming she told Alexander, others that she dismissed the suggestion as impious.[1]
On the day that Alexander was born, Philip was preparing himself for his siege on the city of Potidea on the peninsula of Chalkidiki. On the same day, Philip received news that his general Parmenion had defeated the combined Illyrian and Paeonian armies, and that his horses had won at the Olympic Games. It was also said that on this day, the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus—one of the Seven Wonders of the World—burnt down, leading Hegesias of Magnesia to say that it burnt down because Artemis was attending the birth of Alexander.[2][5][9]
Alexander fighting an Asiatic lion with his friend Craterus (detail). 3rd century BC mosaic, Pella Museum.
In his early years, Alexander was raised by his nurse, Lanike, the sister of Alexander's future friend and general Cleitus the Black. Later on in his childhood, Alexander was tutored by the strict Leonidas, a relative of his mother, and by Lysimachus.[10][11]
When Alexander was ten years old, a horse trader from Thessaly brought Philip a horse, which he offered to sell for thirteen talents. The horse refused to be mounted by anyone, and Philip ordered it to be taken away. Alexander, however, detected the horse's fear of his own shadow and asked for a turn to tame the horse, which he eventually managed. According to Plutarch, Philip, overjoyed at this display of courage and ambition, kissed him tearfully, declaring: "My boy, you must find a kingdom big enough for your ambitions. Macedon is too small for you", and bought the horse for him.[12] Alexander would name the horse Bucephalus, meaning 'ox-head'. Bucephalus would be Alexander's companion throughout his journeys as far as India. When Bucephalus died (due to old age, according to Plutarch, for he was already thirty), Alexander named a city after him (Bucephala).[13][14][15]

Adolescence and education

Aristotle tutoring Alexander.
When Alexander was thirteen years old, Philip decided that Alexander needed a higher education, and he began to search for a tutor. Many people were passed over including Isocrates and Speusippus, Plato's successor at the Academy, who offered to resign to take up the post. In the end, Philip offered the job to Aristotle, who accepted, and Philip gave them the Temple of the Nymphs at Mieza as their classroom. In return for teaching Alexander, Philip agreed to rebuild Aristotle's hometown of Stageira, which Philip had razed, and to repopulate it by buying and freeing the ex-citizens who were slaves, or pardoning those who were in exile.[16][17][18][19]
Mieza was like a boarding school for Alexander and the children of Macedonian nobles, such as Ptolemy, Hephaistion, and Cassander. Many of the pupils who learned by Alexander's side would become his friends and future generals, and are often referred to as the 'Companions'. At Mieza, Aristotle educated Alexander and his companions in medicine, philosophy, morals, religion, logic, and art. From Aristotle's teaching, Alexander developed a passion for the works of Homer, and in particular the Iliad; Aristotle gave him an annotated copy, which Alexander was to take on his campaigns.[20][21][22][23]

Philip's heir

Regency and ascent of Macedon

A bust depicting Philip II of Macedon, Alexander's father
When Alexander became sixteen years old, his tutorship under Aristotle came to an end. Philip, the king, departed to wage war against Byzantium, and Alexander was left in charge as regent of the kingdom. During Philip's absence, the Thracian Maedi revolted against Macedonian rule. Alexander responded quickly; he crushed the Maedi insurgence, driving them from their territory, colonised it with Greeks, and founded a city named Alexandropolis.[24][25][26][27]
After Philip's return from Byzantium, he dispatched Alexander with a small force to subdue certain revolts in southern Thrace. During another campaign against the Greek city of Perinthus, Alexander is reported to have saved his father's life. Meanwhile, the city of Amphissa began to work lands that were sacred to Apollo near Delphi, a sacrilege that gave Philip the opportunity to further intervene in the affairs of Greece. Still occupied in Thrace, Philip ordered Alexander to begin mustering an army for a campaign in Greece. Concerned with the possibility of other Greek states intervening, Alexander made it look as if he were preparing to attack Illyria instead. During this turmoil, the Illyrians took the opportunity to invade Macedonia, but Alexander repelled the invaders.[28]
Philip joined Alexander with his army in 338 BC, and they marched south through Thermopylae, which they took after a stubborn resistance from its Theban garrison. They went on to occupy the city of Elatea, a few days march from both Athens and Thebes. Meanwhile, the Athenians, led by Demosthenes, voted to seek an alliance with Thebes in the war against Macedonia. Both Athens and Philip sent embassies to try to win Thebes's favour, with the Athenians eventually succeeding.[29][30][31] Philip marched on Amphissa (theoretically acting on the request of the Amphicytonic League), captured the mercenaries sent there by Demosthenes, and accepted the city's surrender. Philip then returned to Elatea and sent a final offer of peace to Athens and Thebes, which was rejected.[32][33][34]
Statue of Alexander in Istanbul Archaeology Museum.
As Philip marched south, he was blocked near Chaeronea, Boeotia by the forces of Athens and Thebes. During the ensuing Battle of Chaeronea, Philip commanded the right, and Alexander the left wing, accompanied by a group of Philip's trusted generals. According to the ancient sources, the two sides fought bitterly for a long time. Philip deliberately commanded the troops on his right wing to backstep, counting on the untested Athenian hoplites to follow, thus breaking their line. On the left, Alexander was the first to break into the Theban lines, followed by Philip's generals. Having achieved a breach in the enemy's cohesion, Philip ordered his troops to press forward and quickly routed his enemy. With the rout of the Athenians, the Thebans were left to fight alone; surrounded by the victorious enemy, they were crushed.[35]
After the victory at Chaeronea, Philip and Alexander marched unopposed into the Peloponnese welcomed by all cities; however, when they reached Sparta, they were refused, and they simply left.[36] At Corinth, Philip established a "Hellenic Alliance" (modeled on the old anti-Persian alliance of the Greco-Persian Wars), with the exception of Sparta. Philip was then named Hegemon (often translated as 'Supreme Commander') of this league (known by modern historians as the League of Corinth). He then announced his plans for a war of revenge against the Persian Empire, which he would command.[37][38]

Exile and return

"At the wedding of Cleopatra, whom Philip fell in love with and married, she being much too young for him, her uncle Attalus in his drink desired the Macedonians would implore the gods to give them a lawful successor to the kingdom by his niece. This so irritated Alexander, that throwing one of the cups at his head, "You villain," said he, "what, am I then a bastard?" .Then Philip, taking Attalus's part, rose up and would have run his son through; but by good fortune for them both, either his over-hasty rage, or the wine he had drunk, made his foot slip, so that he fell down on the floor.^ By the end of lap 2, Nazri had moved up to 3rd as Amri slipped down to 7th.
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At which Alexander reproachfully insulted over him: "See there," said he, "the man who makes preparations to pass out of Europe into Asia, overturned in passing from one seat to another."
— Plutarch, describing the feud at Philip's wedding.[24]
After returning to Pella, Philip fell in love with and married Cleopatra Eurydice, the niece of one of his generals, Attalus. This marriage made Alexander's position as heir to the throne less secure, since if Cleopatra Eurydice bore Philip a son, there would be a fully Macedonian heir, while Alexander was only half Macedonian.[39] During the wedding banquet, a drunken Attalus made a speech praying to the gods that the union would produce a legitimate heir to the Macedonian throne. Alexander shouted to Attalus, "What am I then, a bastard?" and he threw his goblet at him. .Philip, who was also drunk, drew his sword and advanced towards Alexander before collapsing, leading Alexander to say, "See there, the man who makes preparations to pass out of Europe into Asia, overturned in passing from one seat to another."^ He passed both for what Azlan thought was the lead and the win on the very last lap (taking Henzee just before the finish line).
  • myKART 2006 Season Reports 20 November 2009 7:24 UTC club.my-kart.org [Source type: Academic]

[24]
Alexander fled from Macedon taking his mother with him, whom he dropped off with her brother in Dodona, capital of Epirus. He carried on to Illyria, where he sought refuge with the Illyrian King and was treated as a guest by the Illyrians, despite having defeated them in battle a few years before. Alexander returned to Macedon after six months in exile due to the efforts of a family friend, Demaratus the Corinthian, who mediated between the two parties.[24][40][41]
The following year, the Persian satrap (governor) of Caria, Pixodarus, offered the hand of his eldest daughter to Alexander's half-brother, Philip Arrhidaeus. Olympias and several of Alexander's friends suggested to Alexander that this move showed that Philip intended to make Arrhidaeus his heir. Alexander reacted by sending an actor, Thessalus of Corinth, to tell Pixodarus that he should not offer his daughter's hand to an illegitimate son, but instead to Alexander. When Philip heard of this, he scolded Alexander for wishing to marry the daughter of a Carian. Philip had four of Alexander's friends, Harpalus, Nearchus, Ptolemy and Erigyius exiled, and had the Corinthians bring Thessalus to him in chains.[39][42][43]

King of Macedon

Accession

The Kingdom of Macedon in 336 BC
In 336 BC, whilst at Aegae, attending the wedding of his daughter by Olympias, Cleopatra, to Olympias's brother, Alexander I of Epirus, Philip was assassinated by the captain of his bodyguard, Pausanias.vii[›] As Pausanias tried to escape, he tripped over a vine and was killed by his pursuers, including two of Alexander's companions, Perdiccas and Leonnatus. Alexander was proclaimed king by the Macedonian army and by the Macedonian noblemen at the age of 20.[44][45][46]

Power consolidation

Alexander began his reign by having his potential rivals to the throne murdered. He had his cousin, the former Amyntas IV, executed, as well as having two Macedonian princes from the region of Lyncestis killed, while a third, Alexander Lyncestes, was spared. Olympias had Cleopatra Eurydice and her daughter by Philip, Europa, burned alive. When Alexander found out about this, he was furious with his mother. Alexander also ordered the murder of Attalus, who was in command of the advance guard of the army in Asia Minor. Attalus was at the time in correspondence with Demosthenes, regarding the possibility of defecting to Athens. Regardless of whether Attalus actually intended to defect, he had already severely insulted Alexander, and having just had Attalus's daughter and grandchildren murdered, Alexander probably felt Attalus was too dangerous to leave alive.[47] Alexander spared the life of Arrhidaeus, who was by all accounts mentally disabled, possibly as a result of poisoning by Olympias.[44][48][49][50]
News of Philip's death roused many states into revolt, including Thebes, Athens, Thessaly, and the Thracian tribes to the north of Macedon. When news of the revolts in Greece reached Alexander, he responded quickly. Though his advisors advised him to use diplomacy, Alexander mustered the Macedonian cavalry of 3,000 men and rode south towards Thessaly, Macedon's neighbor to the south. When he found the Thessalian army occupying the pass between Mount Olympus and Mount Ossa, he had the men ride over Mount Ossa. When the Thessalians awoke the next day, they found Alexander in their rear, and promptly surrendered, adding their cavalry to Alexander's force, as he rode down towards the Peloponnesus.[51][52][53][54]
Alexander stopped at Thermopylae, where he was recognized as the leader of the Amphictyonic League before heading south to Corinth. Athens sued for peace and Alexander received the envoy and pardoned anyone involved with the uprising. At Corinth, he was given the title Hegemon, and like Philip, appointed commander of the forthcoming war against Persia. While at Corinth, he heard the news of the Thracian rising to the north.[52][55]

Balkan campaign

Before crossing to Asia, Alexander wanted to safeguard his northern borders; and, in the spring of 335 BC, he advanced to suppress several apparent revolts. Starting from Amphipolis, he first went east into the country of the "Independent Thracians"; and at Mount Haemus, the Macedonian army attacked and defeated a Thracian army manning the heights.[56] The Macedonians marched on into the country of the Triballi, and proceeded to defeat the Triballian army near the Lyginus river [57] (a tributary of the Danube). Alexander then advanced for three days on to the Danube, encountering the Getae tribe on the opposite shore. Surprising the Getae by crossing the river at night, he forced the Getae army to retreat after the first cavalry skirmish, leaving their town to the Macedonian army.[58][59] News then reached Alexander that Cleitus, King of Illyria, and King Glaukias of the Taulanti were in open revolt against Macedonian authority. Marching west into Illyria, Alexander defeated each in turn, forcing Cleitus and Glaukias to flee with their armies, leaving Alexander's northern frontier secure.[60][61]
While he was triumphantly campaigning north, the Thebans and Athenians rebelled once more. Alexander reacted immediately, but, while the other cities once again hesitated, Thebes decided to resist with the utmost vigor. However, the resistance was useless, as the city was razed to the ground amid great bloodshed, and its territory was divided between the other Boeotian cities. The end of Thebes cowed Athens into submission, leaving all of Greece at least outwardly at peace with Alexander.[62]

Conquest of the Persian Empire

Asia Minor

Map of Alexander's empire and the paths he took
Alexander's army crossed the Hellespont in 334 BC with approximately 42,000 soldiers from Macedon and various Greek city-states, mercenaries, and feudally-raised soldiers from Thrace, Paionia, and Illyria.[63] After an initial victory against Persian forces at the Battle of the Granicus, Alexander accepted the surrender of the Persian provincial capital and treasury of Sardis and proceeded down the Ionian coast.[64] At Halicarnassus, Alexander successfully waged the first of many sieges, eventually forcing his opponents, the mercenary captain Memnon of Rhodes and the Persian satrap of Caria, Orontobates, to withdraw by sea.[65] Alexander left the government of Caria to Ada, who adopted Alexander as her son.[66]
From Halicarnassus, Alexander proceeded into mountainous Lycia and the Pamphylian plain, asserting control over all coastal cities. He did this to deny the Persians naval bases. Since Alexander had no reliable fleet of his own, defeating the Persian fleet required land control.[67] From Pamphylia onward, the coast held no major ports and so Alexander moved inland. At Termessos, Alexander humbled but did not storm the Pisidian city.[68] .At the ancient Phrygian capital of Gordium, Alexander 'undid' the hitherto unsolvable Gordian Knot, a feat said to await the future "king of Asia".[69] According to the most vivid story, Alexander proclaimed that it did not matter how the knot was undone, and he hacked it apart with his sword.^ Team principal, Yip Yen claimed that he was upset that they did not win, and mumbled that they need to improve on their future strategy on HOW to win.
  • myKART 2006 Season Reports 20 November 2009 7:24 UTC club.my-kart.org [Source type: Academic]

[70]

The Levant and Syria

Alexander Mosaic, showing Battle of Issus, from the House of the Faun, Pompeii
After spending the winter campaigning in Asia Minor, Alexander's army crossed the Cilician Gates in 333 BC, and defeated the main Persian army under the command of Darius III at the Battle of Issus in November.[71] Darius was forced to flee the battle after his army broke, and in doing so left behind his wife, his two daughters, his mother Sisygambis, and a fabulous amount of treasure.[72] He afterward offered a peace treaty to Alexander, the concession of the lands he had already conquered, and a ransom of 10,000 talents for his family. Alexander replied that since he was now king of Asia, it was he alone who decided territorial divisions.[73]
Alexander proceeded to take possession of Syria, and most of the coast of the Levant.[74] However, the following year, 332 BC, he was forced to attack Tyre, which he eventually captured after a famous siege.[75][76] .After the capture of Tyre, Alexander crucified all the men of military age, and sold the women and children into slavery.^ The integration of women into a military service: the Women's Auxiliary Air Force in the Second World War.
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[77]

Egypt

Egyptian alabaster statuette of Alexander the Great in the Brooklyn Museum
When Alexander destroyed Tyre, most of the towns on the route to Egypt quickly capitulated, with the exception of Gaza. The stronghold at Gaza was built on a hill and was heavily fortified.[78] At the beginning of the Siege of Gaza, Alexander utilized the engines he had employed against Tyre. After three unsuccessful assaults, the stronghold was finally taken by force, but not before Alexander received a serious shoulder wound. When Gaza was taken, the male population was put to the sword and the women and children were sold into slavery.[79]
Jerusalem, on the other hand, opened its gates in surrender, and according to Josephus, Alexander was shown the book of Daniel's prophecy, presumably chapter 8, where a mighty Greek king would subdue and conquer the Persian Empire. Thereupon, Alexander spared Jerusalem and pushed south into Egypt.[80][81]
Alexander advanced on Egypt in later 332 BC, where he was regarded as a liberator.[82] He was pronounced the new "master of the Universe" and son of the deity of Amun at the Oracle of Siwa Oasis in the Libyan desert.[83] Henceforth, Alexander often referred to Zeus-Ammon as his true father, and subsequent currency depicted him adorned with ram horns as a symbol of his divinity.[84][85] During his stay in Egypt, he founded Alexandria-by-Egypt, which would become the prosperous capital of the Ptolemaic kingdom after his death.[86]

Assyria and Babylonia

Initial dispositions and opening movements in the Battle of Gaugamela, 331 BC.
Leaving Egypt in 331 BC, Alexander marched eastward into Mesopotamia (now northern Iraq) and defeated Darius once more at the Battle of Gaugamela.[87] Once again, Darius was forced to leave the field, and Alexander chased him as far as Arbela. Darius fled over the mountains to Ecbatana (modern Hamedan), but Alexander instead marched to and captured Babylon.[88]

Persia

From Babylon, Alexander went to Susa, one of the Achaemenid capitals, and captured its legendary treasury.[88] Sending the bulk of his army to the Persian ceremonial capital of Persepolis via the Royal Road, Alexander himself took selected troops on the direct route to the city. However, the pass of the Persian Gates (in the modern Zagros Mountains) had been blocked by a Persian army under Ariobarzanes, and Alexander had to storm the pass. Alexander then made a dash for Persepolis before its garrison could loot the treasury.[89] At Persepolis, Alexander stared at the crumbled statue of Xerxes and decided to leave it on the ground.[90][91] During their stay at the capital, a fire broke out in the eastern palace of Xerxes and spread to the rest of the city. .Theories abound as to whether this was the result of a drunken accident, or a deliberate act of revenge for the burning of the Acropolis of Athens during the Second Persian War.^ Government evacuation schemes as they affected schoolchildren in Sheffield during the Second World War.
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^ Freemasonry in France during the Nazi occupation and its rehabilitation after the end of the Second World War.
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^ Cambridgeshire society during the First and Second Civil Wars, c.1638-c.1649: some aspects of patterns of allegiance.
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[91]

Fall of the Empire and the East

Alexander then set off in pursuit of Darius again, first into Media, and then Parthia.[92] The Persian king was no longer in control of his destiny, having been taken prisoner by Bessus, his Bactrian satrap and kinsman.[93] As Alexander approached, Bessus had his men fatally stab the Great King and then declared himself Darius' successor as Artaxerxes V, before retreating into Central Asia to launch a guerrilla campaign against Alexander.[94] Darius' remains were buried by Alexander next to his Achaemenid predecessors in a full regal funeral.[95] Alexander claimed that, while dying, Darius had named him as his successor to the Achaemenid throne.[96] The Achaemenid Empire is normally considered to have fallen with the death of Darius.[97]
Silver coin of Alexander, British Museum
Alexander, now considering himself the legitimate successor to Darius, viewed Bessus as a usurper to the Achaemenid throne, and set out to defeat him. .This campaign, initially against Bessus, turned into a grand tour of central Asia, with Alexander founding a series of new cities, all called Alexandria, including modern Kandahar in Afghanistan, and Alexandria Eschate ("The Furthest") in modern Tajikistan.^ Second place went to Jules Ng returning from a competition in the expert karting series elsewhere, and hassled all the way to the flag by Alexander McNab in third.
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The campaign took Alexander through Media, Parthia, Aria (West Afghanistan), Drangiana, Arachosia (South and Central Afghanistan), Bactria (North and Central Afghanistan), and Scythia.[98]
Bessus was betrayed in 329 BC by Spitamenes, who held an undefined position in the satrapy of Sogdiana. Spitamenes handed over Bessus to Ptolemy, one of Alexander's trusted companions, and Bessus was executed.[99] However, when, at some point later, Alexander was on the Jaxartes, Spitamenes raised Sogdiana in revolt. Alexander launched a campaign and defeated him in the Battle of Gabai; after the defeat, Spitamenes was killed by his own men, who then sued for peace.[100]

Problems and plots

During this time, Alexander took the Persian title "King of Kings" (Shahanshah) and adopted some elements of Persian dress and customs at his court, notably the custom of proskynesis, either a symbolic kissing of the hand, or prostration on the ground, that Persians paid to their social superiors.[101][102] The Greeks regarded the gesture as the province of deities and believed that Alexander meant to deify himself by requiring it. This cost him much in the sympathies of many of his countrymen.[102] A plot against his life was revealed, and one of his officers, Philotas, was executed for failing to bring the plot to his attention. The death of the son necessitated the death of the father, and thus Parmenion, who had been charged with guarding the treasury at Ecbatana, was assassinated by command of Alexander, so he might not make attempts at vengeance. Most infamously, Alexander personally slew the man who had saved his life at Granicus, Cleitus the Black, during a drunken argument at Maracanda.[103] Later, in the Central Asian campaign, a second plot against his life was revealed, this one instigated by his own royal pages. .His official historian, Callisthenes of Olynthus (who had fallen out of favor with the king by leading the opposition to his attempt to introduce proskynesis), was implicated in the plot; however, there has never been consensus among historians regarding his involvement in the conspiracy.^ Huffiz never relinquished the lead from there.
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[104]

Indian campaign

Invasion of the Indian subcontinent

After the death of Spitamenes and his marriage to Roxana (Roshanak in Bactrian) to cement his relations with his new Central Asian satrapies, Alexander was finally free to turn his attention to the Indian subcontinent. Alexander invited all the chieftains of the former satrapy of Gandhara, in the north of what is now Pakistan, to come to him and submit to his authority. Omphis (whose actual name is Ambhi), ruler of Taxila, whose kingdom extended from the Indus to the Hydaspes, complied, but the chieftains of some hill clans, including the Aspasioi and Assakenoi sections of the Kambojas (known in Indian texts also as Ashvayanas and Ashvakayanas), refused to submit.[105]
A painting by Charles Le Brun depicting Alexander and Porus (Puru) during the Battle of the Hydaspes
In the winter of 327/326 BC, Alexander personally led a campaign against these clans; the Aspasioi of Kunar valleys, the Guraeans of the Guraeus valley, and the Assakenoi of the Swat and Buner valleys.[106] A fierce contest ensued with the Aspasioi in which Alexander himself was wounded in the shoulder by a dart but eventually the Aspasioi lost the fight. Alexander then faced the Assakenoi, who fought bravely and offered stubborn resistance to Alexander in the strongholds of Massaga, Ora and Aornos.[105] The fort of Massaga could only be reduced after several days of bloody fighting in which Alexander himself was wounded seriously in the ankle. According to Curtius, "Not only did Alexander slaughter the entire population of Massaga, but also did he reduce its buildings to rubbles".[107] A similar slaughter then followed at Ora, another stronghold of the Assakenoi. In the aftermath of Massaga and Ora, numerous Assakenians fled to the fortress of Aornos. Alexander followed close behind their heels and captured the strategic hill-fort after the fourth day of a bloody fight.[105]
After Aornos, Alexander crossed the Indus and fought and won an epic battle against a local ruler Porus, who ruled a region in the Punjab, in the Battle of Hydaspes in 326 BC.[108] Alexander was greatly impressed by Porus for his bravery in battle, and therefore made an alliance with him and appointed him as satrap of his own kingdom, even adding land he did not own before. Additional reasons were probably political since, to control lands so distant from Greece required local assistance and co-operation.[109] Alexander named one of the two new cities that he founded, Bucephala, in honor of the horse that had brought him to India, and had died during the battle.[110]

Revolt of the army

Campaigns and landmarks of Alexander's invasion of the Indian subcontinent.
East of Porus' kingdom, near the Ganges River, was the powerful Nanda Empire of Magadha and Gangaridai Empire of Bengal. Fearing the prospects of facing other powerful Indian armies and exhausted by years of campaigning, his army mutinied at the Hyphasis River, refusing to march further east. This river thus marks the easternmost extent of Alexander's conquests.[111][112]
As for the Macedonians, however, their struggle with Porus blunted their courage and stayed their further advance into India. For having had all they could do to repulse an enemy who mustered only twenty thousand infantry and two thousand horse, they violently opposed Alexander when he insisted on crossing the river Ganges also, the width of which, as they learned, was thirty-two furlongs, its depth a hundred fathoms, while its banks on the further side were covered with multitudes of men-at-arms and horsemen and elephants. For they were told that the kings of the Ganderites and Praesii were awaiting them with eighty thousand horsemen, two hundred thousand footmen, eight thousand chariots, and six thousand war elephants.[111]
Alexander spoke to his army and tried to persuade them to march further into India but Coenus pleaded with him to change his opinion and return, the men, he said, "longed to again see their parents, their wives and children, their homeland". Alexander, seeing the unwillingness of his men, eventually agreed and turned south. Along the way his army conquered the Malli clans (in modern day Multan), and other Indian tribes.[113]

Return

.Alexander sent much of his army to Carmania (modern southern Iran) with his general Craterus, and commissioned a fleet to explore the Persian Gulf shore under his admiral Nearchus, while he led the rest of his forces back to Persia through the more difficult southern route along the Gedrosian Desert and Makran (now part of southern Iran and Pakistan).^ International disengagement and regional politics: Iran and the Persian Gulf, 1968-71.
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[114]

Last years in Persia

Discovering that many of his satraps and military governors had misbehaved in his absence, Alexander executed a number of them as examples, on his way to Susa.[115][116] As a gesture of thanks, he paid off the debts of his soldiers, and announced that he would send those over-aged and disabled veterans back to Macedon under Craterus. But, his troops misunderstood his intention and mutinied at the town of Opis, refusing to be sent away and bitterly criticizing his adoption of Persian customs and dress, and the introduction of Persian officers and soldiers into Macedonian units.[117] Alexander executed the ringleaders of the mutiny, but forgave the rank and file.[118] In an attempt to craft a lasting harmony between his Macedonian and Persian subjects, he held a mass marriage of his senior officers to Persian and other noblewomen at Susa, but few of those marriages seem to have lasted much beyond a year.[116] Meanwhile, upon his return, Alexander learned some men had desecrated the tomb of Cyrus the Great, and swiftly executed them, because they were put in charge of guarding the tomb Alexander held in honor.[119]
After Alexander traveled to Ecbatana to retrieve the bulk of the Persian treasure, his closest friend and possibly lover[120] Hephaestion died of an illness, or possibly of poisoning.[121] According to Plutarch, Alexander, distraught over the death of his longtime companion, sacked a nearby town, and put all of its inhabitants to the sword, as a sacrifice to Hephaestion's ghost.[122] Arrian finds great diversity and casts doubts on the accounts of Alexander's displays of grief, although he says that they all agree that Hephaestion's death devastated him, and that he ordered the preparation of an expensive funeral pyre in Babylon, as well as a decree for the observance of a public mourning.[121]
Back in Babylon, Alexander planned a series of new campaigns, beginning with an invasion of Arabia, but he would not have a chance to realize them.[123]

Death and succession

Final days

An Astronomical diary (c. 323–322 BC) recording the death of Alexander (British Museum, London)
On either 10 or 11 June 323 BC, Alexander died in the palace of Nebuchadnezzar II, in Babylon at the age of 32.[124] Plutarch gives a lengthy account of the circumstances of his death, echoed (without firm dates) by Arrian. Roughly 14 days before his death, Alexander entertained his admiral Nearchus, and then, instead of going to bed, spent the night and next day drinking with Medius of Larissa.[125] After this, and by 18 Daesius (a Macedonian month) he had developed a fever, which then grew steadily worse.[125][126] By 25 Daesius, he was unable to speak.[126] By 26 Daesius, the common soldiers had become anxious about his health, or thought he was already dead. They demanded to see him, and Alexander's generals acquiesced.[126] The soldiers slowly filed past him, whilst Alexander raised his right hand in greeting, still unable to speak.[127] Two days later, on 28 Daesius (although Aristobolus's account says it was 30 Daesius), Alexander was dead.[125][126] Conversely, Diodorus recounts that Alexander was struck down with pain after downing a large bowl of unmixed wine in honour of Hercules, and (rather mysteriously) died after some agony,[128] which is also mentioned as an alternative by Arrian, but Plutarch specifically refutes this claim.[125]

Possible causes

Poison

Given the propensity of the Macedonian aristocracy to assassination,[129] it is scarcely surprising that allegations of foul play have been made about the death of Alexander. Diodorus, Plutarch, Arrian and Justin all mention the theory that Alexander was poisoned. Plutarch dismisses it as a fabrication,[48] but both Diodorus and Arrian say that they only mention it for the sake of completeness.[128][130] The accounts are nevertheless fairly consistent in designating Antipater, recently removed from the position of Macedonian viceroy, and at odds with Olympias, as the head of the alleged plot. Perhaps taking his summons to Babylon as a death sentence in waiting,[131] and having seen the fate of Parmenion and Philotas,[132] Antipater arranged for Alexander to be poisoned by his son Iollas, who was Alexander's wine-pourer.[48][130][132] There is even a suggestion that Aristotle may have had a hand in the plot.[48][130] Conversely, the strongest argument against the poison theory is the fact that twelve days had passed between the start of his illness and his death; in the ancient world, such long-acting poisons were probably not available.[133]

Natural causes

Several natural causes (diseases) have been suggested as the cause of Alexander's death; malaria or typhoid fever are obvious candidates. A 1998 article in the New England Journal of Medicine attributed his death to typhoid fever complicated by bowel perforation and ascending paralysis,[134] whereas another recent analysis has suggested pyrogenic spondylitis or meningitis as the cause.[135] Other illnesses could have also been the culprit, including acute pancreatitis or the West Nile virus.[136][137] Natural-cause theories also tend to emphasise that Alexander's health may have been in general decline after years of heavy drinking and his suffering severe wounds (including one in India that nearly claimed his life). Furthermore, the anguish that Alexander felt after Hephaestion's death may have contributed to his declining health.[134]
The most probable cause of Alexanders death is however, the result of overdosing on medicine made from Hellebore, deadly in large doses. The very few things we do know about his death, can today be explained only with accidental hellebore-poisoning.[138][139]

Fate after death

Detail of Alexander on the Alexander Sarcophagus
.Alexander's body was placed in a gold anthropoid sarcophagus, which was in turn placed in a second gold casket.^ Second place went to Jules Ng returning from a competition in the expert karting series elsewhere, and hassled all the way to the flag by Alexander McNab in third.
  • myKART 2006 Season Reports 20 November 2009 7:24 UTC club.my-kart.org [Source type: Academic]

[140] According to Aelian, a seer called Aristander foretold that the land where Alexander was laid to rest "would be happy and unvanquishable forever".[141] Perhaps more likely, the successors may have seen possession of the body as a symbol of legitimacy (it was a royal prerogative to bury the previous king).[142] At any rate, Ptolemy stole the funeral cortege, and took it to Memphis.[140][141] His successor, Ptolemy II Philadelphus, transferred the sarcophagus to Alexandria, where it remained until at least Late Antiquity. Ptolemy IX Lathyros, one of the last successors of Ptolemy I, replaced Alexander's sarcophagus with a glass one so he could melt the original down for issues of his coinage.[143] Pompey, Julius Caesar and Augustus all visited the tomb in Alexandria, the latter allegedly accidentally knocking the nose off the body. Caligula was said to have taken Alexander's breastplate from the tomb for his own use. In c. AD 200, Emperor Septimius Severus closed Alexander's tomb to the public. His son and successor, Caracalla, was a great admirer of Alexander, and visited the tomb in his own reign. After this, details on the fate of the tomb are sketchy.[143]
The so-called "Alexander Sarcophagus", discovered near Sidon and now in the Istanbul Archaeology Museum, is so named not because it was thought to have contained Alexander's remains, but because its bas-reliefs depict Alexander and his companions hunting and in battle with the Persians. It was originally thought to have been the sarcophagus of Abdalonymus (died 311 BC), the king of Sidon appointed by Alexander immediately following the battle of Issus in 331.[144][145][146] However, more recently, it has been suggested that it may date from earlier than Abdalonymus' death.[147]

Division of the Empire

Bust of Seleucus I Nicator, who succeeded to Alexander's eastern conquests
Alexander had no obvious or legitimate heir, his son Alexander IV by Roxane being born after Alexander's death. This left the huge question as to who would rule the newly-conquered, and barely-pacified Empire.[148] According to Diodorus, Alexander's companions asked him when he was on his deathbed to whom he bequeathed his kingdom; his laconic reply was "tôi kratistôi"—"to the strongest".[128] Given that Arrian and Plutarch have Alexander speechless by this point, it is possible that this is an apocryphal story.[149] Diodorus, Curtius and Justin also have the more plausible story of Alexander passing his signet ring to Perdiccas, one of his bodyguard and leader of the companion cavalry, in front of witnesses, thereby possibly nominating Perdiccas as his successor.[128][148]
In any event, Perdiccas initially avoided explicitly claiming power, instead suggesting that Roxane's baby would be king, if male; with himself, Craterus, Leonnatus and Antipater as guardians. However, the infantry, under the command of Meleager, rejected this arrangement since they had been excluded from the discussion. Instead, they supported Alexander's half-brother Philip Arrhidaeus. Eventually, the two sides reconciled, and after the birth of Alexander IV, he and Philip III were appointed joint kings of the Empire—albeit in name only.[150]
It was not long, however, before dissension and rivalry began to afflict the Macedonians. The satrapies handed out by Perdiccas at the Partition of Babylon became power bases each general could use to launch his own bid for power. .After the assassination of Perdiccas in 321 BC, all semblance of Macedonian unity collapsed, and 40 years of war between "The Successors" (Diadochi) ensued before the Hellenistic world settled into four stable power blocks: the Ptolemaic kingdom of Egypt, the Seleucid Empire in the east, the Kingdom of Pergamon in Asia Minor, and Macedon.^ The integration of women into a military service: the Women's Auxiliary Air Force in the Second World War.
  • History On-Line 10 September 2009 18:44 UTC www.history.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Sanctuaries in Asia Minor under Hellenistic and Roman rule: finances and politics.
  • History On-Line 10 September 2009 18:44 UTC www.history.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ The negotiations to end the state of war between Thailand and the United Kingdom: their impact on Thai domestic politics, 1945-7.
  • History On-Line 10 September 2009 18:44 UTC www.history.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

In the process, both Alexander IV and Philip III were murdered.[151]

Testament

Diodorus relates that Alexander had given detailed written instructions to Craterus some time before his death.[152] Although Craterus had already started to carry out some of Alexander's commands, the successors chose not to further implement them, on the grounds they were impractical and extravagant.[152] .The testament called for military expansion into the southern and western Mediterranean, monumental constructions, and the intermixing of Eastern and Western populations.^ Constructing the south: Sicily, southern Italy and the Mediterranean in British culture, 1773-1926.
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Its most remarkable items were:
  • Construction of a monumental pyre to Hephaestion, costing 10,000 talents
  • Construction of a monumental tomb for his father Philip, "to match the greatest of the pyramids of Egypt"
  • Erection of great temples in Delos, Delphi, Dodona, Dium, Amphipolis, Cyrnus, and Ilium
  • Building of "a thousand warships, larger than triremes, in Phoenicia, Syria, Cilicia, and Cyprus for the campaign against the Carthaginians and the others who live along the coast of Libya and Iberia and the adjoining coastal regions as far as Sicily"
  • Building of a road in northern Africa as far as the Pillars of Heracles, with ports and shipyards along it
  • Establishment of cities and the "transplant of populations from Asia to Europe and in the opposite direction from Europe to Asia, in order to bring the largest continent to common unity and to friendship by means of intermarriage and family ties."[131][152]

Character

Physical appearance

Roman copy of a statue by Lysippus, Louvre Museum. According to Plutarch, sculptures by Lysippus were the most faithful.
Green provides a description of Alexander's appearance, based on ancient sources:
Physically, Alexander was not prepossessing. Even by Macedonian standards he was very short, though stocky and tough. His beard was scanty, and he stood out against his hirsute Macedonian barons by going clean-shaven. His neck was in some way twisted, so that he appeared to be gazing upward at an angle. His eyes (one blue, one brown) revealed a dewy, feminine quality. He had a high complexion and a harsh voice.[153]
Many descriptions and statues portray Alexander with the aforementioned gaze looking upward and outward. Both his father Philip II and his brother Philip Arrhidaeus also suffered from physical deformities, which had led to the suggestion that Alexander suffered from a congenital scoliotic disorder (familial neck and spinal deformity). Furthermore, it has been suggested that this may have contributed to his death.[135]
During his last years, sculptor Lysippus sculpted an image of Alexander. Lysippus had captured in the stone Alexander's appearance characteristics; slightly left-turned neck and peculiar gaze. Lysippus' sculpture, which is opposite to his often vigorous portrayal, especially in coinage of the time, is thought to be the most faithful depiction of Alexander.[154]

Personality

Alexander's personality is well described by the ancient sources. Some of his strongest personality traits formed in response to his parents.[153] His mother had huge ambitions for Alexander, and encouraged him to believe it was his destiny to conquer the Persian Empire.[153] Indeed, Olympias may have gone to the extent of poisoning Philip Arrhidaeus so as to disable him, and prevent him being a rival for Alexander.[48] .Olympias's influence instilled huge ambition and a sense of destiny in Alexander,[155] and Plutarch tells us that his ambition "kept his spirit serious and lofty in advance of his years".[156] Alexander's relationship with his father generated the competitive side of his personality; he had a need to out-do his father, as his reckless nature in battle suggests.^ Tarmizi and Nazaruddin finished third and fourth in the overall championship in a spirited final son and father battle.
  • myKART 2006 Season Reports 20 November 2009 7:24 UTC club.my-kart.org [Source type: Academic]

[153] While Alexander worried that his father would leave him "no great or brilliant achievement to be displayed to the world",[11] he still attempted to downplay his father's achievements to his companions.[153]
Alexander's most evident personality traits were his violent temper and rash, impulsive nature,[156][157] which undoubtedly contributed to some of his decisions during his life.[153] Plutarch thought that this part of his personality was the cause of his weakness for alcohol.[156] Although Alexander was stubborn and did not respond well to orders from his father, he was easier to persuade by reasoned debate.[16] Indeed, set beside his fiery temperament, there was a calmer side to Alexander; perceptive, logical, and calculating. He had a great desire for knowledge, a love for philosophy, and was an avid reader.[21] This was no doubt in part due to his tutelage by Aristotle; Alexander was intelligent and quick to learn.[16][153] The tale of his "solving" the Gordian knot neatly demonstrates this. He had great self-restraint in "pleasures of the body", contrasting with his lack of self control with alcohol.[156][158] The intelligent and rational side to Alexander is also amply demonstrated by his ability and success as a general.[157]
Alexander was undoubtedly erudite, and was a patron to both the arts and sciences.[21][156] However, he had little interest in sports, or the Olympic games (unlike his father), seeking only the Homeric ideals of glory and fame.[155][156] He had great charisma and force of personality, characteristics, which made him a great leader.[148][157] This is further emphasised by the inability of any of his generals to unite the Macedonians and retain the Empire after his death – only Alexander had the personality to do so.[148]

Megalomania

During his final years, and especially after the death of Hephaestion, Alexander began to exhibit signs of megalomania and paranoia.[131] His extraordinary achievements, coupled with his own ineffable sense of destiny and the flattery of his companions, may have combined to produce this effect.[159] His delusions of grandeur are readily visible in the testament that he ordered Craterus to fulfil, and in his desire to conquer all non-Greek peoples.[131]
He seems to have come to believe himself a deity, or at least sought to deify himself.[131] Olympias always insisted to him that he was the son of Zeus,[2] a theory apparently confirmed to him by the oracle of Amun at Siwa.[84] He began to identify himself as the son of Zeus-Ammon.[84] Alexander adopted some elements of Persian dress and customs at his court, notably the custom of proskynesis, a practice of which the Macedonians disapproved, and were loathe to perform.[101][102] Such behaviour cost him much in the sympathies of many of his countrymen.[102]

Personal relationships

A mural in Pompeii, depicting the marriage of Alexander to Barsine (Stateira) in 324 BC. The couple are apparently dressed as Ares and Aphrodite.
The greatest emotional relationship of Alexander's life was with his friend, general, and bodyguard Hephaestion, the son of a Macedonian noble.[121][153][160] Hephaestion's death devastated Alexander, sending him into a period of grieving.[121][122] This event may have contributed to Alexander's failing health, and detached mental state during his final months.[131][134] Alexander married twice: Roxana, daughter of a Bactrian nobleman, Oxyartes, out of love;[161] and Stateira, a Persian princess and daughter of Darius III of Persia out of political interest.[162] He apparently had two sons, Alexander IV of Macedon of Roxana and, possibly, Heracles of Macedon from his mistress Barsine; and lost another child when Roxana miscarried at Babylon.[163][164]
Alexander's sexuality has been the subject of speculation and controversy.[165] Nowhere in the ancient sources is it stated that Alexander had homosexual relationships, or that Alexander's relationship with Hephaestion was sexual. Aelian, however, writes of Alexander's visit to Troy where "Alexander garlanded the tomb of Achilles and Hephaestion that of Patroclus, the latter riddling that he was a beloved of Alexander, in just the same way as Patroclus was of Achilles".[120] Noting that the word eromenos (ancient Greek for beloved) does not necessarily bear sexual meaning, Alexander may indeed have been bisexual, which in his time was not ethically controversial.[166][167]
Green argues that there is little evidence in the ancient sources Alexander had much interest in women, particularly since he did not produce an heir until the very end of his life.[153] However, he was relatively young when he died, and Ogden suggests that Alexander's matrimonial record is more impressive than his father's at the same age.[168] Apart from wives, Alexander had many more female companions. Alexander had accumulated a harem in the style of Persian kings but he used it rather sparingly;[169] showing great self-control in "pleasures of the body".[158] It is possible that Alexander was simply not a highly-sexed person. Nevertheless, Plutarch describes how Alexander was infatuated by Roxanne while complimenting him on not forcing himself on her.[170] Green suggests that, in the context of the period, Alexander formed quite strong friendships with women, including Ada of Caria, who adopted Alexander, and even Darius's mother Sisygambis, who supposedly died from grief when Alexander died.[153]

Legacy

Hellenistic Kingdoms

The Hellenistic world view after Alexander: ancient world map of Eratosthenes (276–194 BC), incorporating information from the campaigns of Alexander and his successors.[171]
Alexander's most obvious legacy was the introduction of Macedonian rule to huge new swathes of Asia. Many of these areas would remain in Macedonian hands, or under Greek influence for the next 200–300 years. .The successor states that emerged were, at least initially, dominant forces during this epoch, and these 300 years are often referred to as the Hellenistic Period.^ The development of gymnastics in the W. Midlands, with particular reference to its association with religious and educational institutions during the period 1865-1918.
  • History On-Line 10 September 2009 18:44 UTC www.history.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Change and development in the British funeral industry during the 20th century, with special reference to the period 1960-94.
  • History On-Line 10 September 2009 18:44 UTC www.history.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ The church as the bulwark against extremism: development of church and state relations in Kenya, with particular reference to the years after political independence, 1963-92.
  • History On-Line 10 September 2009 18:44 UTC www.history.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

[172]
The eastern borders of Alexander's empire began to collapse even during his lifetime.[148] However, the power vacuum he left in the northwest of the Indian subcontinent directly gave rise to one of the most powerful Indian dynasties in history. Taking advantage of the neglect shown to this region by the successors, Chandragupta Maurya (referred to in European sources as Sandrokotto), of relatively humble origin, took control of the Punjab, and then with that power base proceeded to conquer the Nanda Empire of northern India.[173] In 305 BC, Seleucus, one of the successors, marched to India to reclaim the territory; instead, he ceded the area to Chandragupta in return for 500 war elephants. These in turn played a pivotal role in the Battle of Ipsus, the result of which did much to settle the division of the Empire.[173]

Hellenization

Hellenization is a term coined by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to denote the spread of Greek language, culture, and population into the former Persian empire after Alexander's conquest.[172] That this export took place is undoubted, and can be seen in the great Hellenistic cities of, for instance, Alexandria (one of around twenty towns founded by Alexander[174]), Antioch[175] and Seleucia (south of modern Baghdad).[176] However, exactly how widespread and deeply permeating this was, and to what extent it was a deliberate policy, is debatable. Alexander certainly made deliberate efforts to insert Greek elements into Persian culture and in some instances he attempted to hybridize Greek and Persian culture, culminating in his aspiration to homogenise the populations of Asia and Europe. However, the successors explicitly rejected such policies after his death. Nevertheless, Hellenization occurred throughout the region, and moreover, was accompanied by a distinct and opposite 'Orientalization' of the Successor states.[175][177]
Coin of Alexander bearing an Aramaic language inscription
The core of Hellenistic culture was essentially Athenian by origin.[175][178] The Athenian koine dialect had been adopted long before Philip II for official use and was thus spread throughout the Hellenistic world, becoming the lingua franca through Alexander's conquests. Furthermore, town planning, education, local government, and art current in the Hellenistic period were all based on Classical Greek ideals, evolving though into distinct new forms commonly grouped as Hellenistic.[175] .Aspects of the Hellenistic culture were still evident in the traditions of the Byzantine Empire up until the mid-15th century.^ Political, economic, social and cultural determinants in the history of early to mid 19th-century art and design education in Britain.
  • History On-Line 10 September 2009 18:44 UTC www.history.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Economic and social aspects of three Wealden manors in the rape of Hastings during the 15th and into the 16th century.
  • History On-Line 10 September 2009 18:44 UTC www.history.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Aspects of the material culture of the English aristocracy in the late 15th and early 16th century.
  • History On-Line 10 September 2009 18:44 UTC www.history.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

[179][180]
Two Kalash women in Hindu Kush. Historians still argue over the legitimacy of the Kalash's claim that they are the direct descendants of Greek settlers.[181]
Some of the most unusual effects of Hellenization can be seen in India, in the region of the relatively late-arising Indo-Greek kingdoms.[182] There, isolated from Europe, Greek culture apparently hybridised with Indian, and especially Buddhist, influences. .The first realistic portrayals of the Buddha appeared at this time; they are modelled on Greek statues of Apollo.^ The Team had struggled from the start with brakes which lost them time on the track and in the pitstops (as they rectified it) between the first and the second stints.
  • myKART 2006 Season Reports 20 November 2009 7:24 UTC club.my-kart.org [Source type: Academic]

[182] Several Buddhist traditions may have been influenced by the ancient Greek religion: the concept of Boddhisatvas is reminiscent of Greek divine heroes,[183] and some Mahayana ceremonial practices (burning incense, gifts of flowers, and food placed on altars) are similar to those practiced by the ancient Greeks. Zen Buddhism draws in part on the ideas of Greek stoics, such as Zeno.[184] One Greek king, Menander I, probably became Buddhist, and is immortalized in Buddhist literature as 'Milinda'.[182]

Influence on Rome

Alexander and his exploits were admired by many Romans who wanted to associate themselves with his achievements. Polybius started his Histories by reminding Romans of his role, and thereafter subsequent Roman leaders saw him as his inspirational role model. Julius Caesar reportedly wept in Spain at the sight of Alexander's statue, because he thought he had achieved so little by the same age that Alexander had conquered the world.[185] Pompey the Great searched the conquered lands of the east for Alexander's 260-year-old cloak, which he then wore as a sign of greatness. In his zeal to honor Alexander, Augustus accidentally broke the nose off the Macedonian's mummified corpse while laying a wreath at the Alexander's tomb Alexandria. The Macriani, a Roman family that in the person of Macrinus briefly ascended to the imperial throne, kept images of Alexander on their persons, either on jewelry, or embroidered into their clothes.[186]
In the summer of 1995, a statue of Alexander was recovered in an excavation of a Roman house in Alexandria, which was richly decorated with mosaic and marble pavements and probably was constructed in the 1st century AD and occupied until the 3rd century.[187]

Legend

.There are many legendary accounts surrounding the life of Alexander the Great, with a relatively large number deriving from his own lifetime, probably encouraged by Alexander himself.^ Drivers are encouraged to provide their own account of the race as comments to this thread.
  • myKART 2006 Season Reports 20 November 2009 7:24 UTC club.my-kart.org [Source type: Academic]

His court historian Callisthenes portrayed the sea in Cilicia as drawing back from him in proskynesis. Writing shortly after Alexander's death, another participant, Onesicritus, went so far as to invent a tryst between Alexander and Thalestris, queen of the mythical Amazons. When Onesicritus read this passage to his patron, Alexander's general and later King Lysimachus reportedly quipped, "I wonder where I was at the time."[188]
In the first centuries after Alexander's death, probably in Alexandria, a quantity of the more legendary material coalesced into a text known as the Alexander Romance, later falsely ascribed to the historian Callisthenes and therefore known as Pseudo-Callisthenes. This text underwent numerous expansions and revisions throughout Antiquity and the Middle Ages.[189]
The Alexander legend is also believed to extend to Alexander the Great in the Qur'an, where he appears as a man called Dhul-Qarnayn.[190]

In ancient and modern culture

Alexander the Great's accomplishments and legacy have been preserved and depicted in many ways. Alexander has figured in works of both high and popular culture from his own era to the modern day.
In Punjab, the land of his final conquest, the name "Secunder" is commonly given to children even today. .This is both due to respect and admiration for Alexander and also as a momento to the fact that fighting the people of Punjab fatigued his army to the point that they revolted against him.^ The main feature race was dramatic for Iskandar Mildseven and Farid Kadri as they ended up with DNF's due to separate incidents on lap 5 and 6, respectively.
  • myKART 2006 Season Reports 20 November 2009 7:24 UTC club.my-kart.org [Source type: Academic]

.A common proverb in the Punjab, reads jit jit key jung, secunder jay haar, translation, "alexander wins so many battles that he loses the war" used to address anyone who is good at winning but never taking advantage of those wins.^ Whilst Tarmizi and Naza had their own private battle and failed to take advantage of Zool's misfortune.
  • myKART 2006 Season Reports 20 November 2009 7:24 UTC club.my-kart.org [Source type: Academic]

[citation needed]

Sources

Texts written by people who actually knew Alexander or who gathered information from men who served with Alexander are all lost apart from a few inscriptions and fragments. Contemporaries who wrote accounts of his life include Alexander's campaign historian Callisthenes; Alexander's generals Ptolemy and Nearchus; Aristobulus, a junior officer on the campaigns; and Onesicritus, Alexander's chief helmsman. These works have been lost, but later works based on these original sources survive. The five main surviving accounts are by Arrian, Curtius, Plutarch, Diodorus, and Justin.[191]

Ancestry

See also

Notes

^ i: See for instance[192][193][194][195][196][197][198][199][200][201][202][203][204][205][206][207][208][209][210] andv[›]vi[›].
^ ii:  By the time of his death, he had conquered the entire Achaemenid Persian Empire, adding it to Macedon's European territories; according to some modern writers, this was most of the world then known to the ancient Greeks (the 'Ecumene').[211][212] An approximate view of the world known to Alexander can be seen in Hecataeus of Miletus's map, see File:Hecataeus world map-en.svg.
^ iii: For instance, Hannibal supposedly ranked Alexander as the greatest general;[213] Julius Caesar wept on seeing a statue of Alexander, since he had achieved so little by the same age;[185] Pompey consciously posed as the 'new Alexander';[214] the young Napoleon Bonaparte also encouraged comparisons with Alexander.[215]
^ iv:  The name Αλέξανδρος derives from the Greek words αλέξω (to defend, protect) and ανήρ (man; genitive case ανδρός), and means "protector of men."[216]
^ v: "In the early 5th century the royal house of Macedon, the Temenidae was recognised as Greek by the Presidents of the Olympic Games. Their verdict was and is decisive. It is certain that the Kings considered themselves to be of Greek descent from Heracles son of Zeus."[192]
^ vi: "AEACIDS Descendants of Aeacus, son of Zeus and the nymph Aegina, eponymous (see the term) to the island of that name. His son was Peleus, father of Achilles, whose descendants (real or supposed) called themselves Aeacids: thus Pyrrhus and Alexander the Great."[193]
^ vii: There have been, since the time, many suspicions that Paunsanias was actually hired to murder Philip. Suspicion has fallen upon Alexander, Olympias and even the newly crowned Persian Emperor, Darius III. All three of these people had motive to have Philip murdered.[217]

References

Notes

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  2. ^ a b c Plutarch, Alexander, 3
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  4. ^ McCarty, p. 10.
  5. ^ a b Renault, p. 28.
  6. ^ Durant, Life of Greece, p. 538.
  7. ^ Plutarch. "Life of Pyrrhus". Penelope.uchicago.edu. http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Plutarch/Lives/Pyrrhus*.html. Retrieved 14 November 2009. 
  8. ^ Appian, History of the Syrian Wars, §10 and §11 at Livius.org
  9. ^ Bose, p. 21.
  10. ^ Renault, pp. 33–34.
  11. ^ a b Plutarch, Alexander, 5
  12. ^ Plutarch, Alexander, 6
  13. ^ Fox, The Search For Alexander, p. 64.
  14. ^ Renault, p. 39.
  15. ^ Durant, p. 538.
  16. ^ a b c Plutarch, Alexander, 7
  17. ^ Fox, The Search For Alexander, p. 65.
  18. ^ Renault, p. 44.
  19. ^ McCarty, p. 15.
  20. ^ Fox, The Search For Alexander, pp. 65–66.
  21. ^ a b c Plutarch, Alexander, 8
  22. ^ Renault, pp. 45–47.
  23. ^ McCarty, Alexander the Great, p. 16.
  24. ^ a b c d Plutarch, Alexander, 9
  25. ^ Fox, The Search For Alexander, p. 68.
  26. ^ Renault, p. 47.
  27. ^ Bose, p. 43.
  28. ^ Renault, pp. 47–49.
  29. ^ Renault, pp. 50–51.
  30. ^ Bose, pp. 44–45
  31. ^ McCarty, p. 23
  32. ^ Renault, p. 51.
  33. ^ Bose, p. 47.
  34. ^ McCarty, p. 24.
  35. ^ Diodorus Siculus, Library XVI, 86
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  39. ^ a b McCarty, p. 27.
  40. ^ Bose, p. 75.
  41. ^ Renault, p. 56
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  43. ^ Fox, The Search For Alexander, p. 71.
  44. ^ a b McCarty, pp. 30–31.
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  48. ^ a b c d e Plutarch, Alexander, 77
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  50. ^ Fox, p. 72.
  51. ^ McCarty, p. 31.
  52. ^ a b Renault, p. 72.
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  54. ^ Bose, p. 95.
  55. ^ Bose, p. 96.
  56. ^ Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri I, 1
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  60. ^ Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri I, 5–6
  61. ^ Renault, p. 77.
  62. ^ Plutarch, Phocion, 17
  63. ^ Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri I, 11
  64. ^ Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri I, 13–19
  65. ^ Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri I, 20–23
  66. ^ Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri I, 23
  67. ^ Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri I, 20, 24–26
  68. ^ Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri I, 27–28
  69. ^ Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri II, 3
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  72. ^ Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri II, 11–12
  73. ^ Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri I, 3–4 II, 14
  74. ^ Arrian Anabasis Alexandri II, 23
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  77. ^ Sabin et al., p. 396.
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  87. ^ Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri III 7–15
  88. ^ a b Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri III, 16
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  92. ^ Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri III, 19–20
  93. ^ Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri III, 21
  94. ^ Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri III, 21, 25
  95. ^ Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri III, 22
  96. ^ Gergel, p. 81.
  97. ^ "The end of Persia". www.livius.org. http://www.livius.org/aj-al/alexander/alexander10.html. Retrieved 2009-11-16. 
  98. ^ Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri III, 23–25, 27–30; IV, 1–7
  99. ^ Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri III, 30
  100. ^ Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri IV, 5–6, 16–17
  101. ^ a b Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri VII, 11
  102. ^ a b c d Plutarch, Alexander, 45
  103. ^ Gergel, p. 99.
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  113. ^ Tripathi. History of Ancient India. pp. 137–138. http://books.google.com/books?id=WbrcVcT-GbUC&pg=PA134&dq=Malloi++Alexander&sig=Xvc-CeaQxzHb6-MqkbsZ_EhAeHM#PPA138,M1. 
  114. ^ Tripathi. History of Ancient India. p. 141. http://books.google.com/books?id=WbrcVcT-GbUC. 
  115. ^ Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri VI, 27
  116. ^ a b Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri VII, 4
  117. ^ Worthington, Alexander the Great, pp. 307–308
  118. ^ Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri VII, 8
  119. ^ Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri VI, 29
  120. ^ a b Aelian, Varia Historia XII, 7
  121. ^ a b c d Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri VII, 14
  122. ^ a b Plutarch, Alexander, 72
  123. ^ Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri VII, 19
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  126. ^ a b c d Plutarch, Alexander, 76
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  128. ^ a b c d Diodorus Siculus Library XVII, 117
  129. ^ Green, Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic Age, pp. 1–2.
  130. ^ a b c Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri VII, 27
  131. ^ a b c d e f Green, Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic Age, pp. 23–24.
  132. ^ a b Diodorus Siculus Library XVII, 118
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  136. ^ "Alexander the Great and West Nile Virus Encephalitis". Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol9no12/03-0288.htm. Retrieved 20 May 2008. 
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  138. ^ Cawthorne (2004), s. 138
  139. ^ "Forensic Psychiatry & Medicine - Dead Men Talking". Forensic-psych.com. http://www.forensic-psych.com/articles/artDeadMenTalking.php. Retrieved 18 July 2009. 
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  143. ^ a b "HEC". Greece.org. http://www.greece.org/alexandria/alexander/pages/aftermath.html. Retrieved 18 July 2009. 
  144. ^ Studniczka pp. 226ff.
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  147. ^ See Alexander Sarcophagus.
  148. ^ a b c d e Green, Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic Age, pp. 24–26.
  149. ^ Green, Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic Age, p. 20.
  150. ^ Green, Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic Age, pp. 26–29.
  151. ^ Green, Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic Age, pp. 29–45.
  152. ^ a b c Diodorus Siculus, Library XVIII, 4
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  154. ^ Boswroth p.19-20
  155. ^ a b Green, Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic Age, p. 4.
  156. ^ a b c d e f Plutarch, Alexander, 4
  157. ^ a b c Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri VII, 29
  158. ^ a b Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri VII, 28
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  165. ^ Ogden, p. 204.
  166. ^ Sacks et al, p. 16.
  167. ^ Worthington, p. 159.
  168. ^ Ogden, Alexander the Great - A new history p. 208. "three attested pregnancies in eight years produces an attested impregnation rate of one every 2.7 years, which is actually superior to that of his father's.
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  176. ^ "Seleucia on the Tigris, Iraq", University of Michigan.
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External links

Alexander the Great
Argead dynasty
Born: 356 BC Died: 323 BC
Preceded by
Philip II
King of Macedon
336–323 BC
Succeeded by
Philip III & Alexander IV
Preceded by
Darius III
Great King (Shah) of Persia
330–323 BC
Pharaoh of Egypt
332–323 BC
Preceded by
New Title
King of Asia
331–323 BC

Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Are you still to learn that the end and perfection of our victories is to avoid the vices and infirmities of those whom we subdue?
Alexander III (late July, 356 BC10 June 323 BC) was the Ruler of Macedon, and creator of an empire that included Greece, Persia, Egypt, and many regions beyond them; commonly known as Alexander the Great (in Greek: Μέγας Ἀλέξανδρος : Megas Alexandros).

Contents

Sourced

  • What an excellent horse do they lose, for want of address and boldness to manage him! ... I could manage this horse better than others do.
  • Holy shadows of the dead, I’m not to blame for your cruel and bitter fate, but the accursed rivalry which brought sister nations and brother people, to fight one another. I do not feel happy for this victory of mine. On the contrary, I would be glad, brothers, if I had all of you standing here next to me, since we are united by the same language, the same blood and the same visions.
If I were not Alexander, I should wish to be Diogenes.
  • If I were not Alexander, I should wish to be Diogenes.
    • After Diogenes of Sinope who was lying in the sun, responded to a query by Alexander asking if he could do anything for him with a reply requesting that he stop blocking his sunlight. As quoted in "On the Fortune of Alexander" by Plutarch, 332 a-b
  • I do not steal victory.
    • Reply to the suggestion by Parmenion, before the Battle of Gaugamela, that he attack the Persian camp during the night, reported in Life of Alexander by Plutarch, as quoted in A History of Greece to the Death of Alexander the Great (1900) by John Bagnell Bury
  • If it were not my purpose to combine barbarian things with things Hellenic, to traverse and civilize every continent, to search out the uttermost parts of land and sea, to push the bounds of Macedonia to the farthest Ocean, and to disseminate and shower the blessings of the Hellenic justice and peace over every nation, I should not be content to sit quietly in the luxury of idle power, but I should emulate the frugality of Diogenes. But as things are, forgive me Diogenes, that I imitate Herakles, and emulate Perseus, and follow in the footsteps of Dionysos, the divine author and progenitor of my family, and desire that victorious Hellenes should dance again in India and revive the memory of the Bacchic revels among the savage mountain tribes beyond the Kaukasos…
    • As quoted in "On the Fortune of Alexander" by Plutarch, 332 a-b
We of Macedon for generations past have been trained in the hard school of danger and war...
  • Our enemies are Medes and Persians, men who for centuries have lived soft and luxurious lives; we of Macedon for generations past have been trained in the hard school of danger and war. Above all, we are free men, and they are slaves. There are Greek troops, to be sure, in Persian service — but how different is their cause from ours! They will be fighting for pay — and not much of at that; we, on the contrary, shall fight for Greece, and our hearts will be in it. As for our foreign troops — Thracians, Paeonians, Illyrians, Agrianes — they are the best and stoutest soldiers in Europe, and they will find as their opponents the slackest and softest of the tribes of Asia. And what, finally, of the two men in supreme command? You have Alexander, they — Darius!
    • Addressing his troops prior to the Battle of Issus, as quoted in Anabasis Alexandri by Arrian Book II, 7
  • Your ancestors came to Macedonia and the rest of Hellas [Greece] and did us great harm, though we had done them no prior injury. I have been appointed leader of the Greeks, and wanting to punish the Persians I have come to Asia, which I took from you.
    • Alexander's letter to Persian king Darius III of Persia in response to a truce plea, as quoted in Anabasis Alexandri by Arrian; translated as Anabasis of Alexander by P. A. Brunt, for the "Loeb Edition" Book II 14, 4
  • So would I, if I were Parmenion.
    • After Parmenion suggested to him after the Battle of Issus that he should accept Darius III of Persia's offer of an alliance, the hand of his daughter in marriage, and all Minor Asia, saying "If I were Alexander, I would accept the terms." (Variant translation: I would accept it if I were Alexander.) As quoted in Lives by Plutarch
    • Variants: I too, if I were Paremenio. But I am Alexander.
      So would I, if I were Parmenion.
      So should I, if I were Parmenion.
      So should I, if I were Parmenion: but as I am Alexander, I cannot.
      I would do it if I was Parmenion, but I am Alexander.
      If I were Parmenion, that is what I would do. But I am Alexander and so will answer in another way.
      So would I, if I were Parmenion, but I am Alexander, so I will send Darius a different answer.
      If I were Perdicas, I shall not fail to tell you, I would have endorsed this arrangement at once, but I am Alexander, and I shall not do it. (as quoted from medieval French romances in The Medieval French Alexander (2002) by Donald Maddox and Sara Sturm-Maddox, p. 81)
  • Youths of the Pellaians and of the Macedonians and of the Hellenic Amphictiony and of the Lakedaimonians and of the Corinthians… and of all the Hellenic peoples, join your fellow-soldiers and entrust yourselves to me, so that we can move against the barbarians and liberate ourselves from the Persian bondage, for as Greeks we should not be slaves to barbarians.
  • Now you fear punishment and beg for your lives, so I will let you free, if not for any other reason so that you can see the difference between a Greek king and a barbarian tyrant, so do not expect to suffer any harm from me. A king does not kill messengers.
  • Are you still to learn that the end and perfection of our victories is to avoid the vices and infirmities of those whom we subdue?
    • As quoted in Lives by Plutarch, as translated by Arthur Hugh Clough
  • To the strongest!
    • After being asked, by his generals on his deathbed, who was to succeed him. It has been speculated that his voice may have been indistinct and that he may have said "Krateros" (the name of one of his generals), but Krateros was not around, and the others may have chosen to hear "Kratistos" — the strongest. As quoted in The Mask of Jove: a history of Graeco-Roman civilization from the death of Alexander to the death of Constantine (1966) by Stringfellow Barr, p. 6
  • There is nothing impossible to him who will try.
    • On taking charge of an attack on a fortress, in Pushing to the Front, or, Success under Difficulties : A Book of Inspiration (1896) by Orison Swett Marden, p. 55
  • I consider not what Parmenio should receive, but what Alexander should give.
    • On his gifts for the services of others, as quoted in Dictionary of Phrase and Fable: Giving the Derivation, Source, or Origin of Common Phrases, Allusions, and Words That Have A Tale To Tell (1905) by Ebenezer Cobham Brewer, p. 30
    • Variant: It is not what Parmenio should receive, but what Alexander should give.
    • quoted in Alexander : A History of the Origin and Growth of the Art of War from Earliest Times to the Battle Of Ipsus, B. C. 301 (1899) by Theodore Ayrault Dodge
  • Sex and sleep alone make me conscious that I am mortal.
    • As quoted in Alexander the Great (1973) by Robin Lane Fox
    • Unsourced variant : Only sex and sleep make me conscious that I am mortal.

Disputed

.
An army of sheep, led by a lion, is better than an army of lions, led by a sheep.
  • An army of sheep led by a lion is better than an army of lions led by a sheep.
    • Attributed to Alexander, as quoted in The British Battle Fleet: Its Inception and Growth Throughout the Centuries to the Present Day (1915) by Frederick Thomas Jane, but many variants of this statement exist and have been attributed to others, though in research done for Wikiquote definite citations of original documents have not yet been found for any of them:
    • An army of sheep led by a lion are more to be feared than an army of lions led by a sheep.
      • Attributed to Chabrias, who died around the time Alexander was born.
    • It is better to have sheep led by a lion than lions led by a sheep.
      • Attributed to Polybius in Between Spenser and Swift: English Writing in Seventeenth Century Ireland (2005) by Deana Rankin, p.^ Razak succeeds two time champion Fazz Rahman who had a day to forget (he finished fifth overall).
        • myKART 2006 Season Reports 20 November 2009 7:24 UTC club.my-kart.org [Source type: Academic]

        124, citing A Contemporary History of Affairs in Ireland, from 1641 to 1652 (1880) by John Thomas Gilbert Vol. I, i, p. .153 - 157; but conceivably this might be reference to Polybius the historian quoting either Alexander or Chabrias.
    • An army composed of sheep but led by a lion is more powerful than an army of lions led by a sheep.
      • "Proverb" quoted by Agostino Nifo in De Regnandi Peritia (1523) as cited in Machiavelli - The First Century: Studies in Enthusiasm, Hostility, and Irrelevance (2005) by Mathew Thomson, p.^ A community study of Upholland, Lancashire, with particular reference to the 17th century.
        • History On-Line 10 September 2009 18:44 UTC www.history.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

        ^ 'For circumstances must dictate the proper means': a study in the history of logistics with special reference to 13th-century England.
        • History On-Line 10 September 2009 18:44 UTC www.history.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

        55
    • Greater is an army of sheep led by a lion, than an army of lions led by a sheep.
    • I am more afraid of one hundred sheep led by a lion than one hundred lions led by a sheep.
      • Attributed to Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord (1754 – 1838) Variants: I am more afraid of an army of 100 sheep led by a lion than an army of 100 lions led by a sheep.
        I am not afraid of an army of one hundred lions led by a sheep. I am afraid of army of 100 sheeps led by a lion.
    • Variants quoted as an anonymous proverb: Better a herd of sheep led by a lion than a herd of lions led by a sheep.
      A flock of sheep led by a lion was more powerful than a flock of lions led by a sheep.
      An army of sheep led by a lion would defeat an army of lions led by a sheep.
      It were better to have an army of sheep led by a lion than an army of lions led by a sheep.
      An army of sheep led by a lion, will defeat an army of lions led by a sheep.
      An army of sheep led by a lion would be superior to an army of lions led by a sheep.
      Unsourced attribution to Alexander: I would not fear a pack of lions led by a sheep, but I would always fear a flock of sheep led by a lion.
    • As one lion overcomes many people and as one wolf scatters many sheep, so likewise will I, with one word, destroy the peoples who have come against me.
      • This slightly similar statement is the only quote relating to lions in The History of Alexander the Great, Being the Syriac Version of the Pseudo-Callisthenes (1889) as translated by E. A. Wallis Budge, but it is attributed to Nectanebus (Nectanebo II).
  • There are no more worlds to conquer!
    • Statement portrayed as a quotation in a 1927 Reader's Digest article, this probably derives from traditions about Alexander lamenting at his father's Philip's victories that there would be no conquests left for him, or that after his conquests in Egypt and Asia there were no worlds left to conquer. Some of the oldest accounts of this, as quoted by John Calvin state that on "hearing that there were other worlds, wept that he had not yet conquered one."
    • There are no more other worlds to conquer!
      • Variant attributed as his "last words" at a few sites on the internet, but in no published sources.
  • Now that the wars are coming to an end, I wish you to prosper in peace. May all mortals from now on live like one people in concord and for mutual advancement. Consider the world as your country, with laws common to all and where the best will govern irrespective of tribe. I do not distinguish among men, as the narrow-minded do, both among Greeks and Barbarians. I am not interested in the descendance of the citizens or their racial origins. I classify them using one criterion: their virtue. For me every virtuous foreigner is a Greek and every evil Greek worse than a Barbarian. If differences ever develop between you never have recourse to arms, but solve them peacefully. If necessary, I should be your arbitrator. You must not consider God like an autocratic despot, but as a common Father of all; so your behavior may resemble the life siblings have in a family. On my part I should consider all equals, white or blacks, and wish you all to be not only subjects of the Commonwealth, but participants and partners. As much as this depends on me, I should try to bring about what I promised. The oath we made over tonight’s libations hold onto as a Contract of Love.

Quotes about Alexander

  • Alexander sacrificed to the gods to whom it was his custom to sacrifice, and gave a public banquet, seated all the Persians, and then any persons from the other peoples who took precedence for rank or any other high quality, and he himself and those around him drank from the same bowl and poured the same libations, with the Greek soothsayers and Magi initiating the ceremony. Alexander prayed for various blessings and especially that the Macedonians and Persians should enjoy harmony as partners in government. .The story prevails that those who shared the banquet were nine thousand and that they all poured the same libation and gave the one victory cry as they did.^ Qualifying was dominated by Iskandar who finished top in the two qualifying races in his group B. Group A qualifying honours were shared by Nizam and Nazri with one each.
    • myKART 2006 Season Reports 20 November 2009 7:24 UTC club.my-kart.org [Source type: Academic]

  • The ancient writers tell of the peculiar "melting" glance of his eyes, or of the way in which, as Plutarch says, his body seemed to glow. They are evidently trying to describe something which they found it difficult to express. He also grew up, to the delight of Philip, Serious-minded, untiring, passionately keen to succeed in any difficult task, and yet more keen the more difficult it was.
    He was a great reader, too. He had been early caught by the glamour of the Tale of Troy, like most Greek boys; and he never grew weary of it. As far as the Oxus and the Indus, he carried with him his personal copy of the Iliad... .
    • A. R. Burn, in Alexander the Great and the Hellenistic Empire (1948), p.11
  • When he says that in that day all his thoughts perish, or flow away, perhaps under this expression he censures the madness of princes in setting no bounds to their hopes and desires, and scaling the very heavens in their ambition, like the insane Alexander of Macedon, who, upon hearing that there were other worlds, wept that he had not yet conquered one, although soon after the funeral urn sufficed him.^ An analysis of the generalship of Alexander III of Macedon: undermining or underlining greatness?
    • History On-Line 10 September 2009 18:44 UTC www.history.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

    • John Calvin, in his interpretation of Psalm 146 in On The Book Of Psalms (1557) as translated by Rev. James Anderson (1849)
  • We are not in the situation of poor Alexander the Great, who wept, as well indeed he might, because there were no more worlds to conquer; for, to do justice to this queer, odd, rantipole city, and this whimsical country, there is matter enough in them to keep our risible muscles and our pens going until doomsday.
    • Washington Irving in Salmagundi : Or, The Whim-whams and Opinions of Launcelot Langstaff, Esq. and Others (1835)
  • When Alexander saw the breadth of his domain, he wept for there were no more worlds to conquer.
    • "Hans Gruber" in Die Hard (1988); this is often mistaken as a direct quote from more ancient sources, but this phrasing seems to have originated in this movie.
  • Once upon a time, in days of long ago, Alexander the Great complained bitterly that there were no worlds left for him to conquer.
    • Alfred Wainwright, in A Pennine Journey : The Story of a Long Walk in 1938 (1986), p. 1

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.ALEXANDER III., known as THE GREAT (356-323 B.C.), king of Macedon, was the son of Philip II.^ Philip certainly seems to have believed that Alexander was his son.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander the Great Conqueror and King of Macedonia .
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

^ It is not certain that Alexander adopted the Persian royal title of shahanshah (great king or king of kings), but most historians think that he did.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

of .Macedon, and Olympias, an Epirote princess.^ Bust of Alexander III in the British Museum.Alexander was the son of King Philip II of Macedon and of Epirote princess Olympias.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

.His father was pre-eminent for practical genius, his mother a woman of half-wild blood, weird, visionary and terrible; and Alexander himself is singular among men of action for the imaginative splendours which guided him, and among romantic dreamers for the things he achieved.^ Alexander often lamented to his friends that the way things were going, nothing would be left for him to do once he became king.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But there was one thing Alexander would never tolerate: any disrespect to his reputation as a soldier, which was more precious to him than his life and possessions.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This is most likely just a small amount of things that shaped Alexander the Great's life and it is likely some of the memories tormented him through most of his life.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

He was born in 356 B.C., probably about October (Hogarth, pp. 284 ff.). .The court at which he grew up was the focus of great activities, for Philip, by war and diplomacy, was raising Youth. Macedon to the headship of the Greek states, and the air was charged with great ideas.^ So impressed with the deeds of the warrior princess, the youth Alexander had given his own mighty stallion the name of Bucyphelis, after Xena’s first great war-horse.
  • Gabrielle stood by the still waters. She was in the fullness of her strength, and both young and beautiful. But, as I said, she was alone. There was a small, sad smile on her face - it was, however, a strange and unreadable smile. She was thinking of all 10 September 2009 18:44 UTC www.xenafan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander the Great's father, Philip, was the brother of King Perdiccas III of Macedon or Macedonia, in northern Greece.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Aeschines' attempt to unite Greek states against Philip fails.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.To unite the Greek race in a war against the Persian empire was set up as the ultimate mark for ambition, the theme of idealists.^ The war would be over, even though in his empire Darius had plenty of men and resources to keep up the fight for a long time.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Aeschines' attempt to unite Greek states against Philip fails.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 335 B.C. as general of the Greeks in a campaign against the Persians, originally planned by his father, he carried out a successful campaign against the defeating Thracains, penetrating to the Danube River.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.The great literary achievements of the Greeks in the 5th century lay already far enough behind to have become invested with a classical dignity; the meaning of Hellenic civilization had been made concrete in a way which might sustain enthusiasm for a body of ideal values, authoritative by tradition.^ Alexander’s vision of a Pan-Hellenic civilization, incorporating the best values of the East, was certainly grand in its conception.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Once more, under cover of executing the league's decrees, Alexander had made it very clear what would happen to any Greeks who might be rash enough to oppose him.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.And upon Alexander in his fourteenth year this sum of tradition was brought to bear through the person of the man who beyond all others had gathered it up into an organic whole: in 343-342 Aristotle came to Pella at Philip's bidding to direct the education of his son.^ After this, Philip sent for Aristotle 2 to be Alexander's tutor.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On this day Alexander gave a long speech to the Thessalians and other Greeks, who answered him with loud shouts, whereupon he put his javelin into his left hand and lifted up his right to the gods in a prayer for victory.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When Philip came in with the potion, Alexander took out the letter and handed it to him, and while Philip read the letter, Alexander drank the potion with a smile.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.We do not know what faculty the master-thinker may have had for captivating this ardent spirit; at any rate Alexander carried with him through life a 1 The use of the surname,is proved as far back as the 1st century B.C. (Nepos, De Reg. 2).^ Aristotle had a profound influence on Alexander, who said that he loved Aristotle as much as Philip -- his father had given him life, and his teacher had taught him to use it.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If he (the satrap) was to defeat Alexander, it would be through the skillful use of his cavalry and mercenaries in combination.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For a moment there was a real danger that the horses of Darius' chariot might carry the Great King headlong through Alexander's lines.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

passion for Homer, however he may have been disposed to greyer philosophic theory. But his education was not all from books. .The coming and going of envoys from many states, Greek and Oriental, taught him something of the actual conditions of the world.^ For years he had successfully played the divide and rule game with the Greek states but now there was a danger of them coming against him.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Now the Greeks had made a deal with Artaxerxes and if he didn't do something fast they would invade him.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This cost him much in the sympathies of many of his Greek countrymen.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

He was early schooled in war. .At the age of sixteen he commanded in Macedonia during Philip's absence and quelled a rising of the hill-tribes on the northern border; in the following year (338) he headed the charge which broke the Sacred Band at Chaeronea.^ Philip put Alexander in command of the cavalry at the Battle of Chaeronea, 4 and Alexander led the charge that broke the Theban Sacred Band.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When Alexander was sixteen, Philip left him in charge of Macedonia while he went away on a campaign against the people of Byzantium.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander the Great's father, Philip, was the brother of King Perdiccas III of Macedon or Macedonia, in northern Greece.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

Then came family dissensions such as usually vex the polygamous courts of the East. .In 337 Philip repudiated Olympias for another wife, Cleopatra, Alexander went with his mother to her home in Epirus, and, though he soon returned and an outward reconciliation between father and son was contrived, their hearts were estranged.^ Later they reconciled with Philip and returned home, but Alexander continued to mistrust his father.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

^ But things were tense between father and son.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Even Philip suspected his legitimacy, and the tale went around that the arch-sorcerer Nectanebo, the last Egyptian Pharaoh had visited Olympias in the guise of the ram-headed Ammon and that he was Alexander’s real father.
  • Skanda: The Alexander Romance in India 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC murugan.org [Source type: Original source]

.The king's new wife was with child; her kinsmen were in the ascendant; the succession of Alexander was imperilled.^ After Philip's death, the army proclaimed Alexander, then aged 20, as the new king of Macedon.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

^ At Susa [324 B.C.], Alexander took Statira, the daughter of King Darius, as another wife.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.Some negotiations which Pixodarus, the satrap of Caria, opened with the Macedonian court with a view to effecting a marriage alliance between his house and Philip's, brought Alexander into fresh broils.^ Some horse traders had brought this magnificent animal to King Philip and offered him for sale, but no man could ride him.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Between 30,000 and 43,000 infantry and between 3,000 and 4,000 horsemen followed Alexander into Asia Minor [334 B.C.].
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Not surprisingly, many people suspected that Olympias and/or Alexander had played some part in Philip's death.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

.In 336 Philip was suddenly assassinated whilst celebrating at Aegae the marriage of his daughter to Alexander I.^ In 336 BC, Philip was assassinated at the wedding of his daughter Cleopatra to King Alexander of Epirus.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Darius also offered to give Alexander one of his daughters in marriage if Alexander would be satisfied with dominion over all of the countries west of the Euphrates.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One of Philip's many wives was Olympia, Alexander's mother and Daughter of the late king Epirus.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

of Epirus in the presence of a great concourse from all the Greek world. .It is certain that the hand of the assassin was prompted by some one in the background; suspicion could not fail to fall upon Alexander among others.^ Given the choice between types of major, or primary, monadic rays (the first, second and third), it is hard to believe that Alexander could have been anything other than a first ray monad.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander's promptness in crushing the revolt of Thebes brought the other Greek states into instant and abject submission.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander (if he could be called a disciple) would reasonably, along with certain others, be called a disciple of Shamballa: .
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

But guilt of that sort would hardly be consistent with his character as it appears in those early days.
.Alexander was not the only claimant to the vacant throne, but, recognized by the army, he soon swept all rivals from his path.^ Alexander immediately ordered the execution of all of his potential rivals and marched south with his armies in a campaign to solidify control of Greece and confront the Persian Empire.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

^ King and Conqueror After his father's murder in 336 B.C. Alexander became King Alexander III. He had several rival claimants to the throne executed, including his cousin Amyntas, whose throne Philip had usurped.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

^ All that night and the next day, Alexander cried bitterly, until finally he ran out of tears and could only lie on the floor of his chamber and sigh.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

. .The newly born son of Philip by Cleopatra, and Alexander's cousin Amyntas, were put to death, and Alexander took up the interrupted work of his father.^ Cleopatra bears Philip a son.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is said that Alexander had nothing to do with his father’s death.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

^ When Philip came in with the potion, Alexander took out the letter and handed it to him, and while Philip read the letter, Alexander drank the potion with a smile.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.That work was on the point of opening its most brilliant chapter by an invasion of the great king's dominions; the army was concentrated and certain forces had already been sent on to occupy the opposite shore of the Hellespont.^ It is not certain that Alexander adopted the Persian royal title of shahanshah (great king or king of kings), but most historians think that he did.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

^ The Great King offered the best focal point for any further resistance involving all the provinces of the empire.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander the Great's Parents Alexander's father was Philip II, the king of Macedonia, who put together a great army and crushed his foes.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.The assassination of Philip delayed the blow, for it immediately made the base, Macedonia, insecure, and in such an enterprise, plunging into the vast territories of the Persian empire, a secure base was everything.^ Alexander immediately ordered the execution of all of his potential rivals and marched south with his armies in a campaign to solidify control of Greece and confront the Persian Empire.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Meanwhile, the Persians should themselves assemble a large fleet and army, and carry the war across into Macedonia while Alexander's forces were still divided.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Darius the Great divides Persian Empire into strapies.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.Philip's removal had made all the hill-peoples of the north and west raise their heads and set the Greek states free from their fears.^ Aeschines' attempt to unite Greek states against Philip fails.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ An Athenian army marched into Boeotia, and the two new allies promptly set about fortifying the north-west passage into central Greece.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ All of the time Philip kept up a screen with diplomatic blarney to lull Greek suspicion.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

A demonstration in Greece, led by the new king of Macedonia, momentarily checked the agitation, and at the diet at Corinth Alexander was recognized as captain-general ('i ye�wv atToxpaTcop) of the Hellenes against the barbarians, in the place of his father Philip. .In the spring of 335 he went out from Macedonia northwards, struck across the Balkans, probably by the Shipka Pass, frustrating the mountain warfare of its tribes by a precision of discipline which, probably, no other army of the time could have approached, and traversed the land of the Triballians (Rumelia) to the Danube.^ Worse, the route he had taken - probably the mountain to Dortyol and Hassa - was now jammed with the disorganized remnants of the Persian Imperial Army.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Then they all panicked, and trampled each other trying to escape in the narrow mountain passes.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Darius marched to Issus at the same time that Alexander marched into Syria to meet him, and the two armies passed each other.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.To gratify his own imagination or strike the imagination of the world he took his army over the Danube and burnt a settlement of the Getae upon the other side.^ The Triumph and Tragedy of Alexander the Great Alexander the Great's relation to triumph is obvious, he created an army which took over most of the known world.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For the first time, he took over a major mint, and used it to strike his own coins- a highly significant innovation.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.Meanwhile the Illyrians had seized Pelion (Pliassa), which commanded the passes on the west of Macedonia, and from the Danube Alexander marched straight thither over the hills.^ On his march into India, Alexander crossed the Hindu Kush mountain through the Koashan pass.
  • Skanda: The Alexander Romance in India 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC murugan.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The ascendance of Macedon When Philip led an attack on Byzantium in 340 BC, Alexander, aged 16, was left in command of Macedonia.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Darius marched to Issus at the same time that Alexander marched into Syria to meet him, and the two armies passed each other.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

He had hardly restored Macedonian prestige in this quarter when he heard that Greece was aflame. Thebes had taken up arms. .By a forced march he took the Thebans completely by surprise, and in a few days the city, which a generation before had won the headship of Greece, was taken.^ It took Alexander 3 miles to get clear of the pass, after which he had to march another 9 before reaching the Pinarus River.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One day, Philotas was drunk, and he boasted to Antigone that he and his father had won all of the victories, even though the boy Alexander had taken the credit.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Thus, she said, it might be said that even the women who followed Alexander took greater revenge on the Persians than all of the Greek generals who had tried before.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.There were to be no half-measures now; the city was wiped out of existence with the exception of its temples and the house which had been Pindar's.^ He took the city by storm and razed it, sparing only the temples of the gods and the houses of the Greek lyric poet Pindar, and selling the surviving inhabitants, about 8000 in number, into slavery.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When Illyria revolted on the false rumor that Alexander was dead, Alexander rushed south and sacked the city, sparing only the temples and the house of the poet, Pindar.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

^ In all truth, there were now no lands worth conquering that did not pay their dual Mistresses homage.
  • Gabrielle stood by the still waters. She was in the fullness of her strength, and both young and beautiful. But, as I said, she was alone. There was a small, sad smile on her face - it was, however, a strange and unreadable smile. She was thinking of all 10 September 2009 18:44 UTC www.xenafan.com [Source type: Original source]

.Greece might now be trusted to lie quiet for some time to come.^ Alexander had received a present of fresh fruit from Greece, and, as was his custom, he invited some of his friends to come and share the fruit with him.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

The Panhellenic alliance (from which Sparta still stood aloof) against the barbarians was renewed. .Athens, although known to be hostile at heart to the cities of Macedonian power, Alexander treated all through with eager courtesy.^ From Halicarnassus, Alexander proceeded into mountainous Lycia and the Pamphylian plain, asserting control over all coastal cities and denying them to his enemy.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

^ All of Alexander's attendants were afraid to try any remedies, because if their remedy failed, and Alexander died, the Macedonians might blame the physician.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ All of the cities on the coast surrendered to Alexander, except for Halicarnassus and Miletus, which he had to take by force.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.In the spring of 334, Alexander crossed with an army of between 30,000 and 40,000 men, Macedonians, Illyrians, Thracians and the contingents of the Greek states, into Asia.^ Between 30,000 and 43,000 infantry and between 3,000 and 4,000 horsemen followed Alexander into Asia Minor [334 B.C.].
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander and the attacking force cross into Asia Minor.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Period of conquests Alexander's army crossed the Hellespont with about 40,000 Greek and Macedonian soldiers.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

The place of concentration was Arisbe on the Hellespont.
.Alexander himself first visited the site of Troy and there went through those dramatic acts of sacrifice to the Ilian Athena, assumption of the shield believed to be that of Achilles and offerings to the great Homeric dead, which are significant of the poetic glamour shed, in the young king's mind, over the whole enterprise, and which men will estimate differently according to the part they assign to imagination in human affairs.^ Alexander then offered sacrifice at the tombs of Ajax and Achilles, or what was presented as such.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In another version Alexander himself pointed out the difference in response to a sycophantic soldier.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

^ So impressed with the deeds of the warrior princess, the youth Alexander had given his own mighty stallion the name of Bucyphelis, after Xena’s first great war-horse.
  • Gabrielle stood by the still waters. She was in the fullness of her strength, and both young and beautiful. But, as I said, she was alone. There was a small, sad smile on her face - it was, however, a strange and unreadable smile. She was thinking of all 10 September 2009 18:44 UTC www.xenafan.com [Source type: Original source]

.To meet the invader the great king had in Asia Minor an army slightly larger, it would seem, than Alexander's, gathered under the satraps of the western provinces at Zeleia.^ Alexander often lamented to his friends that the way things were going, nothing would be left for him to do once he became king.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It is not certain that Alexander adopted the Persian royal title of shahanshah (great king or king of kings), but most historians think that he did.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

^ She had followed them to Macedon, and through Thrace, and across the great Hellespont, past the ruins of Troy, across all of Asia Minor, and now to the Valley of the River Pinarus.
  • Gabrielle stood by the still waters. She was in the fullness of her strength, and both young and beautiful. But, as I said, she was alone. There was a small, sad smile on her face - it was, however, a strange and unreadable smile. She was thinking of all 10 September 2009 18:44 UTC www.xenafan.com [Source type: Original source]

He had also, what was more serious, command of the Aegean. .Alexander could communicate with his base only by the narrow line of the Hellespont, and ran the risk, if he went far from it, of being cut off altogether.^ Writing after Alexander's death, another participant, Onesicritus, went so far as to invent a tryst between Alexander and Thalestris, queen of the mythical Amazons.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander did not doubt that he could provide that strong hand, but for the time being he needed help.
  • Gabrielle stood by the still waters. She was in the fullness of her strength, and both young and beautiful. But, as I said, she was alone. There was a small, sad smile on her face - it was, however, a strange and unreadable smile. She was thinking of all 10 September 2009 18:44 UTC www.xenafan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In true fourth ray fashion, it seems he could not tolerate being only one thing or another, but had to be both.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

To draw him after them, while avoiding a conflict, was sound strategy for the Persian generals. It was urged upon them by their colleague the Rhodian Memnon. .But strategic considerations were cancelled by the Persian barons' code of chivalry, and Alexander found them waiting for him on the banks of the Granicus.^ The Persians did not wait for them, but fell back, and Alexander kept herding them into the center, where Darius stood, along with his best men.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Because Alexander wanted the Persians to accept him as their leader, he tried to treat them fairly.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

^ So Alexander went to visit Diogenes at his home and found him lying down, sun-bathing.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.It was a cavalry melee, in which the common code of honour caused Macedonian and Persian chieftains to engage hand to hand, and at the end of the day the relics of the Persian army were in flight, leaving the high-roads of Asia Minor clear for the invader.^ Darius panicked and rode away, leaving behind his chariot, his bow, his shield, his mantle, his army, and 110,000 Persian casualties.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Their hands were cut off and seared with pitch; they were then taken on a tour of the Persian army, turned loose, and told to report what they had seen to Alexander.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The forty thousand Macedonians and their Greek allies rode and marched over the Hellespont and into Asia Minor within days of the arrival of Xena and Callisto at Pella.
  • Gabrielle stood by the still waters. She was in the fullness of her strength, and both young and beautiful. But, as I said, she was alone. There was a small, sad smile on her face - it was, however, a strange and unreadable smile. She was thinking of all 10 September 2009 18:44 UTC www.xenafan.com [Source type: Original source]

.Alexander could now accomplish the first part of the task belonging to him as captain-general to the Hellenes, that liberation of the Greek cities of Asia Minor, for which Panhellenic enthusiasts had cried out so long.^ General reorganization of Greek cities in Asia Minor.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Although Philotas denied that he had any part in the conspiracy, Alexander had him executed.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Until he crossed the Tarsus, he could still claim to be 'liberating' the Greeks.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.He first went to take possession of the old Lydian capital Sardis, the headquarters of the Persian government on this side of the Taurus, and the strong city surrendered without a blow.^ After an initial victory against Persian forces at the Battle of Granicus, Alexander accepted the surrender of the Persian provincial capital and treasury of Sardis and proceeded down the Ionian coast.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

^ After the Battle of Issus [333 B.C.], Alexander sent some men to Damascus to take possession of the money and baggage that the Persian army had left there.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ All of the cities on the coast surrendered to Alexander, except for Halicarnassus and Miletus, which he had to take by force.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.And now in all the Greek cities of Aeolis and Ionia the oligarchies or tyrants friendly to Persia fell, and democracies were established under the eye of Alexander's officers.^ From Halicarnassus, Alexander proceeded into mountainous Lycia and the Pamphylian plain, asserting control over all coastal cities and denying them to his enemy.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

^ When he had left for India, Alexander had put 30,000 Persian boys into Greek military training, and by now they had developed into strong and expert fighters.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Once he was well-established as the conqueror of Persia, he treated Persian culture as the equal of Macedonian culture and traditions, and many subservient Persian rulers as the equals of his Macedonian and Greek comrades in arms.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

.Only where the cities were held by garrisons in the Persian service, garrisons composed mainly of Greek mercenaries, was the liberator likely to meet with any resistance.^ Greek cities like Athens and Thebes, which had pledged allegiance to Philip, were not quick to pledge the same allegiance to a 20-year-old boy.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander now turned south, marching along the Mediterranean coast His only resistance came from the island city of Tyre.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

From Ephesus indeed the garrison fled upon the news of Granicus, but Miletus required a siege. .The Persian fleet in vain endeavoured to relieve it, and Miletus did not long hold out against Alexander's attack.^ After an initial victory against Persian forces at the Battle of Granicus, Alexander accepted the surrender of the Persian provincial capital and treasury of Sardis and proceeded down the Ionian coast.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Meanwhile, the Persians should themselves assemble a large fleet and army, and carry the war across into Macedonia while Alexander's forces were still divided.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 335 B.C. as general of the Greeks in a campaign against the Persians, originally planned by his father, he carried out a successful campaign against the defeating Thracains, penetrating to the Danube River.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.It was at Halicarnassus that Alexander first encountered stubborn resistance, at Halicarnassus where Memnon and the satraps of Caria had rallied what land-forces yet belonged to Persia in the west.^ At Halicarnassus, Alexander successfully waged the first of many sieges, eventually forcing his opponents, the mercenary captain Memnon of Rhodes and the Persian satrap of Caria, Orontobates, to withdraw by sea.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

^ All of the cities on the coast surrendered to Alexander, except for Halicarnassus and Miletus, which he had to take by force.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For some time, Alexander stayed in Cilicia, which Darius and his advisors attributed to Alexanders fear of encountering the overwhelmingly large Persian force.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.When winter fell, Alexander had captured indeed the city itself, but the two citadels still held out against his blockade.^ After a march of two weeks, Alexander appeared at the walls of Thebes and demanded that the city send him the two leaders of the rebellion.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At this point Darius' intentions became very clear indeed, and Alexander had to carry out a last-minute reorganization of his own line.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ With her back up against the rocks and her feet planted wide apart to steady herself, she grasped the huge sword in both hands, and held it out in front of her.
  • Gabrielle stood by the still waters. She was in the fullness of her strength, and both young and beautiful. But, as I said, she was alone. There was a small, sad smile on her face - it was, however, a strange and unreadable smile. She was thinking of all 10 September 2009 18:44 UTC www.xenafan.com [Source type: Original source]

.Meanwhile Alexander was making it plain that he had come not merely as captain-general for a war of reprisals, but to take the Persian's place as king of the land.^ It is not certain that Alexander adopted the Persian royal title of shahanshah (great king or king of kings), but most historians think that he did.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

^ After the Battle of Issus [333 B.C.], Alexander sent some men to Damascus to take possession of the money and baggage that the Persian army had left there.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Meanwhile, the Persians had camped on the other side of the Granicus River to prevent Alexander from crossing.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

The conquered provinces were organized under Macedonian governors and in Caria a dethroned princess of the native dynasty, Ada, was restored to power. .In the winter, whilst Parmenio advanced upon the central plateau to make the occupation of Phrygia effective, Alexander himself passed along the coast to receive the submission of the Lycians and the adherence of the Greek cities of the Pamphylian sea-board.^ From Halicarnassus, Alexander proceeded into mountainous Lycia and the Pamphylian plain, asserting control over all coastal cities and denying them to his enemy.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Consolidation was Alexander's choice, so he moved down the coast to take control of Lycia, then turned north to Phrygia.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander's promptness in crushing the revolt of Thebes brought the other Greek states into instant and abject submission.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.The hills inland were the domain of fighting tribes which the Persian government had never been able to subdue.^ The Persians in the hills, however, made no attempt to fight, and a quick commando assault soon routed them.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.To conquer them, indeed, Alexander had no time, but he stormed some of their fortresses to hold them in check, and marched through their territory when he turned north from Pamphylia into the interior.^ Consolidation was Alexander's choice, so he moved down the coast to take control of Lycia, then turned north to Phrygia.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ From Pamphylia onward the coast held no major ports, so Alexander moved inland.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Arrian tells us that the reason Alexander wanted to try this desert crossing was that no one had ever brought an army through there before.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

The point of concentration for next year's campaign had been fixed at Gordium, a meeting-place of roads in Northern Phrygia. .The story of Alexander's cutting the fatal "Gordian knot" on the chariot of the ancient Phrygian king Gordius is connected with his stay in this place.^ At the ancient Phrygian capital of Gordium, Alexander undid the tangled Gordian knot , a feat said to await the future king of Asia.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander pulled out his sword and chopped through the Gordian Knot, instead of involving himself in its mysterious entanglements.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ For a moment there was a real danger that the horses of Darius' chariot might carry the Great King headlong through Alexander's lines.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.Whilst Alexander had been grounding his power in Asia Minor, he had run a narrow risk of losing his base in Europe.^ Between 30,000 and 43,000 infantry and between 3,000 and 4,000 horsemen followed Alexander into Asia Minor [334 B.C.].
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander is remembered as a legendary hero in Europe and much of both Southwest Asia and Central Asia, where he is known as Iskander or Iskandar Zulkarnain.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander and the attacking force cross into Asia Minor.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.He had after the siege of Miletus disbanded the GraecoMacedonian fleet, surrendering for the time all attempts of Alex- to challenge the command of the Aegean.^ All of the cities on the coast surrendered to Alexander, except for Halicarnassus and Miletus, which he had to take by force.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.Memnon the Rhodian, now in supreme command of the Persian fleet, saw the European coasts exposed and set out to raise Greece, where discontent always smouldered in Alexander's rear.^ When he had left for India, Alexander had put 30,000 Persian boys into Greek military training, and by now they had developed into strong and expert fighters.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Early June: Alexander sets out for Ecbatana.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As soon as Alexander sew that the phalanx and the Thassians were out of danger, he and his Companions set off on a headlong chase after Darius.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

But Memnon died at the critical moment whilst laying siege to Mytilene and the great plan collapsed. .A Persian fleet still held the sea, but it effected little, and presently fresh Graeco-Macedonian squadrons began to hold it in check.^ Xena, accompanied by Alexander, held the cavalry in check until the decisive moment - when the Persian infantry had been engaged and checked, and could not easily retreat and reform.
  • Gabrielle stood by the still waters. She was in the fullness of her strength, and both young and beautiful. But, as I said, she was alone. There was a small, sad smile on her face - it was, however, a strange and unreadable smile. She was thinking of all 10 September 2009 18:44 UTC www.xenafan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Meanwhile, the Persians should themselves assemble a large fleet and army, and carry the war across into Macedonia while Alexander's forces were still divided.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander also began promoting Persians to high ranking positions in his army, saying that Persians and Macedonians should share the empire.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

.It was, however, the need to ensure command of the sea and free all lines of communication behind him that determined Alexander's plan for the next campaign.^ When Alexander was a child his parents were constantly fighting and his father was usually away on campaigns, so he rarely say him when he was young.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When Alexander was sixteen, Philip left him in charge of Macedonia while he went away on a campaign against the people of Byzantium.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander immediately ordered the execution of all of his potential rivals and marched south with his armies in a campaign to solidify control of Greece and confront the Persian Empire.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

If he mastered the whole coast-line of the Levant, the enemy's fleet would find itself left in the air. .The Syrian coast was accordingly his immediate objective when he broke up from Gordium for the campaign of 333. He was through the Cicilian Gates before the Persian king, Darius III., had sent up a force adequate to hold them.^ Persian king Darius III had amassed an army of about half a million to wipe out the Greek threat.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

^ For a moment there was a real danger that the horses of Darius' chariot might carry the Great King headlong through Alexander's lines.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Later in life, Alexander married several princesses of former Persian territories: Roxana of Bactria; Statira, daughter of Darius III; and Parysatis, daughter of Ochus.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

.His passage through Cilicia was marked by a violent fever that arrested him for a while in Tarsus, and meantime a great Persian army was waiting for him in northern Syria under the command of Darius himself.^ The Persian hurled a javelin at him with such force that it not only blew through his shield but hit the cuirass behind it.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One can judge that the drive to create synthesis was, for him, an irresistible urge—no matter what the cost, to himself, his armies or to those over whom he repeatedly triumphed.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

^ Persian king Darius III had amassed an army of about half a million to wipe out the Greek threat.
  • An interpretation of astrology and rays of Alexander the Great with quotes, biography, photos, and horoscope chart 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.makara.us [Source type: Original source]

.In the knot of mountains which close in about the head of the Gulf of Alexandretta, Alexander, following hard by the coast, marched past the Persian army encamped on the plains to the east.^ Worse, the route he had taken - probably the mountain to Dortyol and Hassa - was now jammed with the disorganized remnants of the Persian Imperial Army.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After the Battle of Issus [333 B.C.], Alexander sent some men to Damascus to take possession of the money and baggage that the Persian army had left there.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Darius marched to Issus at the same time that Alexander marched into Syria to meet him, and the two armies passed each other.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.To cut Alexander's communications with the rear, Darius now committed the error of entangling his large force in the mountain defiles.^ Meanwhile, the Persians should themselves assemble a large fleet and army, and carry the war across into Macedonia while Alexander's forces were still divided.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He now lay in Alexander's rear, squarely across his lines of communication, and could thus force him to fight a reversed-front engagement.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ July-August: Alexander reaches Thapsacus on Euphrates; Darius moves his main forces from Babylon.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.Alexander turned, and near the town of Issus fought his second pitched battle, sending Darius and the relic of his army in wild flight back to the east.'^ "She is back with the army of Alexander," replied Xena.
  • Gabrielle stood by the still waters. She was in the fullness of her strength, and both young and beautiful. But, as I said, she was alone. There was a small, sad smile on her face - it was, however, a strange and unreadable smile. She was thinking of all 10 September 2009 18:44 UTC www.xenafan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Darius had pitched camp at Sochi, which is somewhere east of the Syrian Gates.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander's father and the others looked on nervously until they saw Alexander turn at the end of his run and come back in triumph.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.It was an incident which did not modify Alexander's plan.^ All of these dangers and difficulties did not matter to Alexander, who could not be diverted from his plan once he had decided to do something.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.He did not press the pursuit far, although the great king's camp with his harem fell into his hands.^ From Issus the Great King advanced as far as the Pinarus River and took up a defensive position on its northern bank.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Persians did not wait for them, but fell back, and Alexander kept herding them into the center, where Darius stood, along with his best men.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By now Alexander's center and left were both seriously threatened, and he had no option but to postpone his pursuit of the Great King.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

The chivalrous courtesy which he showed to the captive princesses was a favourite theme for later rhetoricians. He went on his way to occupy Syria and Phoenicia. .It is now that we get definite evidence as to the reach of Alexander's designs; for Darius opened negotiations in which he ultimately went so far as to offer a partition of the empire, all west of the Euphrates, to be Alexander's.^ To show how willing he was to forgive what was in the past, Alexander offered a full pardon for all those that would take it.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Darius also offered to give Alexander one of his daughters in marriage if Alexander would be satisfied with dominion over all of the countries west of the Euphrates.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Great King offered the best focal point for any further resistance involving all the provinces of the empire.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

Alexander refused the bargain and definitely claimed the whole. .2 The conquest of the Phoenician coast was not to be altogether easy, for Tyre shut its gates and for seven months Alexander had to sit before it - one of those obstinate sieges which mark the history of the Semitic races.^ Arrian tells us that the reason Alexander wanted to try this desert crossing was that no one had ever brought an army through there before.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One Persian chieftain knocked Alexander dizzy with a battle-ax, but Clitus saved Alexander's life by spearing the assailant before he could finish the kill.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One day, at dawn, after all of the wagons were loaded, Alexander set fire to his own and to those of his friends.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.When it fell, Alexander had the old Tyrian people scattered to the winds, 30,000 sold as slaves.^ When he had left for India, Alexander had put 30,000 Persian boys into Greek military training, and by now they had developed into strong and expert fighters.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Between 30,000 and 43,000 infantry and between 3,000 and 4,000 horsemen followed Alexander into Asia Minor [334 B.C.].
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Thebans gave him an insulting reply, so Alexander killed six thousand of them, demolished their city, and sold all of the surviving inhabitants as slaves.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

Gaza offered a resistance equally heroic, lasting two months, and here too the old population was dispersed. .The occupation of the rest of Syria and Palestine proceeded smoothly, and after the fall of Gaza Alexander's way lay open into Egypt.^ After Tyre and Gaza had been taken, Alexander went into Egypt.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander moved swiftly, at the urging of Xena, and the army crossed Lydia and the rest of Anatolia, sweeping south into Syria Major.
  • Gabrielle stood by the still waters. She was in the fullness of her strength, and both young and beautiful. But, as I said, she was alone. There was a small, sad smile on her face - it was, however, a strange and unreadable smile. She was thinking of all 10 September 2009 18:44 UTC www.xenafan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander the Great (356-323 B.C.) by Faisal Khalid In an amazing eleven-year journey of conquest, young Alexander of Macedonia conquered all the way from Egypt to India.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

3 Egypt was the last of the Mediterranean provinces to be won, and here no defence was made. To the native Egyptians Alexander appeared as a deliverer from the Persian tyranny, and he sacrificed piously to the gods of Memphis. The winter (332-331) which Alexander spent in Egypt saw two memorable actions on his part. .One was the expedition (problematic in its motive and details) to the oracle of Zeus Ammon (Oasis of Siwa), where Alexander was hailed by the priest as son of the god, a belief which the circle of Alexander, and perhaps Alexander himself, seem hereafter to have liked to play with in that sort of semi-serious vein which still allowed him in the moments of every-day commonplace to be the son of Philip.^ Like eating curds every day.
  • Gabrielle stood by the still waters. She was in the fullness of her strength, and both young and beautiful. But, as I said, she was alone. There was a small, sad smile on her face - it was, however, a strange and unreadable smile. She was thinking of all 10 September 2009 18:44 UTC www.xenafan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The reason for this gift was that one day, when Alexander was still a boy, Leonidas had told him not to use so much of these spices in the sacrifice he was performing, saying: "When you have conquered the countries where these things grow, then you may be more liberal, but for now do not waste the little that we have."
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On this day Alexander gave a long speech to the Thessalians and other Greeks, who answered him with loud shouts, whereupon he put his javelin into his left hand and lifted up his right to the gods in a prayer for victory.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.The other action was the foundation of Alexandria at the Canopic mouth of the Nile, the place destined to be a new commercial centre for the eastern Mediterranean world which Alexander had now taken in possession, to rise to an importance which the founder, although obviously acting with intention, can hardly have foreseen (E. Keller, Alex.^ He founded the city of Alexandria [331 B.C.] at the mouth of the Nile, pursuant to a dream he had.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But Phillip had a son, whose name was Alexander, and although Alexander was a young warrior of only twenty summers, he had already taken his revenge against his father’s killers.
  • Gabrielle stood by the still waters. She was in the fullness of her strength, and both young and beautiful. But, as I said, she was alone. There was a small, sad smile on her face - it was, however, a strange and unreadable smile. She was thinking of all 10 September 2009 18:44 UTC www.xenafan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They added that Alexander no longer needed their services, now that he had such a fine bunch of Persian dancing boys, with which he could go on to conquer the world.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

d. Grosse nach der Schlacht bei Issus,
1904).
.In the spring of 331 Alexander could at last leave the Mediterranean to strike into the heart of the Persian empire, for by his occupation of the coasts the Persian command of Invasion Persia. the sea had inevitably collapsed.^ When he had left for India, Alexander had put 30,000 Persian boys into Greek military training, and by now they had developed into strong and expert fighters.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Persians did not wait for them, but fell back, and Alexander kept herding them into the center, where Darius stood, along with his best men.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Meanwhile, the Persians should themselves assemble a large fleet and army, and carry the war across into Macedonia while Alexander's forces were still divided.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

Returning through of Syria, and stopping at Tyre to make final arrangements for the conquered provinces, he traversed Mesopotamia and 1 See Bauer,"Die Schlacht bei Issus" in Jahreshefte d. osterr. arch�. Instit. ii. pp. 105 f.; A. Janke. Auf Alex. d. grossen Pfaden; Gruhn, Das Schlachtfeld von Issus; Lammert in Berl. Philol. Wochenschr. (1905), col. 1596 f.
z Pridik, De Alex. Mag. epist. commercio (Dorpat, 1893); Schwartz, art. "Curtius" in Pauly-Wissowa, col. 1884.
.The story of Alexander's visit to Jerusalem rests on no better authority than a later Jewish romance.^ But if fortune has been better to you than to me, then I have no objection to being in your debt."
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This early bravery made his father so fond of him that Philip liked nothing better than to hear his soldiers say that Philip was their general, but Alexander was their king.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander moved on at a furious pace, and no more than 160 of his horsemen could keep up with him.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

struck the Tigris some four marches above the site of Nineveh. It was near Nineveh that Darius was waiting with the immense host which a supreme effort could muster from all parts of the empire. .The happy coincidence of a lunar eclipse gives us the 20th of September 331 as the exact day upon which the Macedonian army crossed the Tigris.^ September 18: Alexander crosses the Tigris.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Arrian tells us that the reason Alexander wanted to try this desert crossing was that no one had ever brought an army through there before.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Arrian tells us that Darius, who was expecting an attack that night, kept his men standing in formation all night, so that by the next day his army was exhausted.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.Alexander came within sight of the Persian host without having met with any opposition since he quitted Tyre.^ Without opposition, Alexander marched to Babylon, which immediately surrendered.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander had heard well the tales of Xena’s heavy cavalry breaking the lines of the Persian hosts not so many years before, and he wished her to do so again.
  • Gabrielle stood by the still waters. She was in the fullness of her strength, and both young and beautiful. But, as I said, she was alone. There was a small, sad smile on her face - it was, however, a strange and unreadable smile. She was thinking of all 10 September 2009 18:44 UTC www.xenafan.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The advance corps had held the bridgehead, and his crossing took place without opposition, This was the most extraordinary piece of luck for Alexander.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.He had now to settle the most serious problem which had yet faced him, for in the plains the Persian army was formidable by sheer bulk.^ Worse, the route he had taken - probably the mountain to Dortyol and Hassa - was now jammed with the disorganized remnants of the Persian Imperial Army.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This was first class advice, unfortunately it came from a mercenary, whose brilliance and plain speaking did not endear him to his Persian colleagues.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By now the Persians, who had been too late to stop him at the Dardanelles, saw clearly enough what his intentions were.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

But the day showed the ' B attle of Macedonian army equal to the task. The last army Arbela. gathered by an Achaemenian king was shattered in the battle called popularly after the city of Arbela some 60 m. distant, or more precisely after the village of Gaugamela hard by. .Darius fled eastwards into Media and again Alexander waited till he had secured the provinces to the south.^ The Persians did not wait for them, but fell back, and Alexander kept herding them into the center, where Darius stood, along with his best men.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Darius marched to Issus at the same time that Alexander marched into Syria to meet him, and the two armies passed each other.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Darius, seeing himself in imminent danger of capture, scrambled into it and fled the field.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.He followed the Tigris into Babylonia, the central seat of the empire and its richest region, and from Babylon went on to seize the fabulous riches which the Persian kings had amassed in their spring residence, Susa.^ He had often wondered why Xena had not followed up her great victory, and chased the beaten Persians into the desert beyond Babylon to their final doom.
  • Gabrielle stood by the still waters. She was in the fullness of her strength, and both young and beautiful. But, as I said, she was alone. There was a small, sad smile on her face - it was, however, a strange and unreadable smile. She was thinking of all 10 September 2009 18:44 UTC www.xenafan.com [Source type: Original source]

Thence he at last ascended upon the Iranian plateau. The mountain tribes on the road (the Oxii, Pers, Huzha), accustomed to exact blackmail even from the king's train, learnt by a bitter lesson that a stronger hand had come to wield the empire. .Alexander entered Persis, the cradle of the Achaemenian house, and came upon fresh masses of treasure in the royal city, Persepolis.^ Upon learning that Alexander was approaching, they fled in haste, leaving the treasure and the city intact.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

He destroyed the royal palace by fire, an act which has been variously estimated by historians. Ostensibly a solemn revenge for the burning of Greek temples by Xerxes, it has been justified as a symbolical act calculated to impress usefully the imagination of the East, and condemned as a senseless and vainglorious work of destruction.
With the spring of 330 Alexander was prepared for further pursuit. .Darius fled northwards from Ecbatana upon his approach.^ Upon learning that Alexander was approaching, they fled in haste, leaving the treasure and the city intact.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.At Ecbatana new masses of treasure were seized, but when once the necessary measures which its disposal and the occupation of the Median capital entailed were taken, Alexander continued the pursuit.^ Alexander continued on to Ecbatana, where he took care of some business of his empire and then relaxed and enjoyed himself with public spectacles.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.It was an exciting chase of king by king, in which each covered the ground by incredible exertions, shedding their slower-going followers as they went, past Rhagae (Rai) and the Caspian gates, till early one morning Alexander came in sight of the broken train which still clung to the fallen king.^ Alexander often lamented to his friends that the way things were going, nothing would be left for him to do once he became king.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Clitus was one of the Macedonian commanders that most disliked the change in Alexander from warrior king to barbarian megalomaniac.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One of Philip's many wives was Olympia, Alexander's mother and Daughter of the late king Epirus.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

He had become a puppet in the hands of his cousin Bessus and the Persian magnates with him (see Darius and at this extremity they stabbed him and allowed Alexander to become master only of his corpse (summer 330).
.The pursuit had brought Alexander into that region of mountains to the south of the Caspian which connects western Iran with the provinces to the east of the great central desert.^ Alexander's promptness in crushing the revolt of Thebes brought the other Greek states into instant and abject submission.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Arrian tells us that the reason Alexander wanted to try this desert crossing was that no one had ever brought an army through there before.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ By now Alexander's center and left were both seriously threatened, and he had no option but to postpone his pursuit of the Great King.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.To conquer this remaining portion of the empire, Alexander now went on through the mountain belt, teaching the power of his arms to the hillsmen, Tapyri and Mardi, till he came, passing through Zadracarta (Asterabad), to Parthia and thence to Aria.^ Reports now came in that the Persians up on the ridge had occupied a projecting spur of the mountain, and were now actually behind the Macedonian right wing.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He took the rest of the army south through the Pillar of Jonah to Myriandrus, pitched camp opposite the pass, and waited for an enemy who never came.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Rhosaces now rode at him from the flank and hit him in the head with his saber with such force that it went through his helmet to the bone of his scalp.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

In these further provinces of Iran the Macedonian invader had for the first time to encounter a serious national opposition, for in the west the Iranian rule had been merely the supremacy of an alien power over native populations indifferent or hostile. Here the ruling race was at home. .In Asia Alexander learnt that Bessus had taken the diadem as Darius' successor in Bactria, but so soon as he marched against him Aria rose in his rear, and Alexander had to return in all haste to bring the revolt under.^ This was Alexander's answer to Darius: "All of Asia is mine, including all of its treasure.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander's Campaign against the Cossaeans and return to Babylon.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Darius also offered to give Alexander one of his daughters in marriage if Alexander would be satisfied with dominion over all of the countries west of the Euphrates.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

Nor did he, when this was accomplished, again strike directly at Bactria, but made a wide turning movement through Seistan over Kandahar into the Kabul valley. It was on the way, in Seistan at Prophthasfa (mod. Farrah ?), that the .alienation between Alexander and his Macedonian followers, which becomes sensible in the latter part of his career, first showed itself in an ugly form.^ Between 30,000 and 43,000 infantry and between 3,000 and 4,000 horsemen followed Alexander into Asia Minor [334 B.C.].
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.Alexander had come to merge the characters of Macedonian king and Hellenic captain-general, with which he had set out, in that of Oriental despot (Spieker.^ Clitus was one of the Macedonian commanders that most disliked the change in Alexander from warrior king to barbarian megalomaniac.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Early June: Alexander sets out for Ecbatana.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As soon as Alexander sew that the phalanx and the Thassians were out of danger, he and his Companions set off on a headlong chase after Darius.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

Hof u. Hofordnung Al. d. Gr.,
1904). He wore on occasions of state the Persian dress. (According to pseudo-Plutarch, de fort. Al. i. 8, it was the simpler Persian dress, not the Median.) .A discontent began to work among the Battle of Issus. Macedonians, and at Prophthasia the commander of the Macedonian cavalry Philotas, the son of Parmenio, and certain others were arraigned before the army on the charge of conspiring against the king's life.^ Clitus was one of the Macedonian commanders that most disliked the change in Alexander from warrior king to barbarian megalomaniac.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After the Battle of Issus [333 B.C.], Alexander sent some men to Damascus to take possession of the money and baggage that the Persian army had left there.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Darius marched to Issus at the same time that Alexander marched into Syria to meet him, and the two armies passed each other.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

They were condemned and put to death. .Not satisfied with procuring this, Alexander had Parmenio himself, who had been left in command in Media, put to death by secret orders.^ When he had left for India, Alexander had put 30,000 Persian boys into Greek military training, and by now they had developed into strong and expert fighters.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander received a letter from Parmenio, warning of treachery by this physician, who, said the letter, had been bribed by Darius to give poison instead of medicine.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander also sent assassins to kill Philotas' father, Parmenio, who was second in command of the army and had been a loyal friend of Alexanders father, King Philip.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

It is perhaps the worst crime, because the most cold-blooded and ungenerous, which can be laid to his charge. .By the winter of 329-328 Alexander had reached the Kabul valley at the foot of the Paropamisadae (Hindu Kush).^ Early summer: Alexander recrosses Hindu Kush by Kushan Pass: the invasion of India begins.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ March-April: Alexander crosses Hindu Kush by Khawak Pass.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.The ordinarily received chronology makes Alexander reach the Kabul valley in the winter of 330-329. That to fit the actions and distances covered by Alexander into such a scheme, assuming that he went by Seistan and Kandahar, would involve physical impossibilities has been pointed out by Count Yorck v.^ After Tyre and Gaza had been taken, Alexander went into Egypt.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander plucked it out, sent spurs to his horse, and rove his own spear far and true into Mirthidates' breastplate.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ He continued on into Persia itself and took Persepolis, the capital, where he spent the winter with his army [January - May, 330 B.C.].
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

Wartenburg and Mr D. G. Hogarth. Kaerst and Beloch continue to give the ordinary chronology untroubled.
.In the spring of 328 Alexander crossed the Hindu Kush into Bactria and followed the retreat of Bessus across the Oxus and into Sogdiana (Bokhara).^ Alexander continued into Bactria and conquered it [328 B.C.].
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ April-May: Alexander advancing to Bactria; Bessus retreats across the Oxus.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Between 30,000 and 43,000 infantry and between 3,000 and 4,000 horsemen followed Alexander into Asia Minor [334 B.C.].
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

Here Bessus was at last Invasion of caught and treated with the barbaric cruelty which the rule of the old Persian monarchy prescribed for Indla. rebels. .Till the spring of 327 Alexander was moving to and fro in Bactria and Sogdiana, beating down the recurrent rebellions and planting Greek cities.^ Consolidation was Alexander's choice, so he moved down the coast to take control of Lycia, then turned north to Phrygia.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ After a march of two weeks, Alexander appeared at the walls of Thebes and demanded that the city send him the two leaders of the rebellion.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Instead of massing the Iranian cavalry opposite Alexander's right, where it had been expected, the Great King was moving all of his best squadrons down to the seashore, against Parmenio.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.Just as in 335 he had crossed the Danube, so he now made one raid across the frontier river, the Jaxartes (Sir Dania), to teach the fear of his name to the outlying peoples of the steppe (summer 328).^ When the squadrons were halfway across the river, Alexander sacrificed a bull to Poseidon, and made libation with a golden vessel, just as Xerxes had done.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The account of the battle composed afterwards by his official propagandists made it take place that same afternoon, after a direct frontal assault across the river.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In 335 B.C. as general of the Greeks in a campaign against the Persians, originally planned by his father, he carried out a successful campaign against the defeating Thracains, penetrating to the Danube River.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.And meanwhile the rift between Alexander and his European followers continued to show itself in dark incidents - the murder of Clitus at Maracanda (Samarkand), when Alexander struck down an old friend, both being hot with wine; the claim that Alexander should be approached with prostration (proskynesis), urged in the spring of 327, and opposed boldly by the philosopher Callisthenes, Aristotle's nephew, who had come in the king's train; the conspiracy of the pages at Bactria, which was made an occasion for putting Callisthenes to death.^ He continued to show kind attention to his friends.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But Alexander paid no attention until they brought Callisthenes, a close friend of Aristotle, to see him, along with another philosopher named Anaxarchus.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Clitus was one of the Macedonian commanders that most disliked the change in Alexander from warrior king to barbarian megalomaniac.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.It was now that Alexander completed the conquest of the provinces north of the Hindu Kush by the reduction of the last mountain strongholds of the native princes.^ Early summer: Alexander recrosses Hindu Kush by Kushan Pass: the invasion of India begins.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ March-April: Alexander crosses Hindu Kush by Khawak Pass.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

In one of them he captured Roxana, the daughter of Oxyartes, whom he made his wife. .Before the summer of 327 he had once more crossed the Hindu Kush on his way to India (for the campaigns in the N.E. see F. von Schwarz, Alex.^ Early summer: Alexander recrosses Hindu Kush by Kushan Pass: the invasion of India begins.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ March-April: Alexander crosses Hindu Kush by Khawak Pass.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

d. Grossen Feldzuge in Turkestan,
1893, v.).
.Whilst the heavier troops moved down the Kabul valley to Pencelaotis (Charsadda) under Perdiccas and Hephaestion, Alexander with a body of lighter-armed troops and cavalry pushed up the valleys which join the Kabul from the north - through the regions now known as Bajour, Swat and Buner, inhabited by Indian hill peoples, as fierce then against the western intruder as their Pathan successors are against the British columns.^ Clitus was the brother of Alexander's nursemaid, a senior commander under Philip, and the commander of the Royal Squadron of Alexander's cavalry.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Consolidation was Alexander's choice, so he moved down the coast to take control of Lycia, then turned north to Phrygia.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ At once, Alexander sent Parmenio ahead with the cavalry and the light-armed troops.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.The books give a number of their "cities" reduced by Alexander - walled mountain villages which can in some cases be identified more or less certainly with places where the clans are established to-day.^ After a march of two weeks, Alexander appeared at the walls of Thebes and demanded that the city send him the two leaders of the rebellion.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The highest number of casualties said to have been suffered by Alexander's infantry is 30: two sources reduced this number to nine.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ If the city's inhabitants decided to stick it out, they could maintain supplies and communications by sea more or less indefinitely.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

The crowning exploit was the reduction of Aornus,' a stronghold perched on a precipitous summit above the Indus, which it was said that Heracles had failed to take. .How much of the story of Alexander's discovery of the sacred mountain of the Nysa and the traces of Dionysus is due to the invention of Aristobulus and Clitarchus (Arrian did not find it in Ptolemy) we cannot say.^ Alexander reaches Nysa; the 'Dionysus episode'.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Once they realized how badly Alexander needed a fight they could, without much difficulty, bring him to battle where and when they pleased.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.Meantime Perdiccas and Hephaestion had built a bridge over the Indus, and by this in the spring of 326 Alexander passed into the Punjab (at Ohind, 16 m.^ Darius marched to Issus at the same time that Alexander marched into Syria to meet him, and the two armies passed each other.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

above Attock, according to Foucher, Notes sur la geogr. anc. du Gandhara, 1902). The country into which he came was dominated by three principalities, that of Ambhi (Gr. Omphis, Curt. viii. 12.6) between the Indus and the Hydaspes (Jhelum, I The best opinion now confirms Abbott's identification of Aornus with Mahaban - Deane, Journ. R. Asiat. Soc. (Oct. 1896), p. 673; Stein, Report of an Archaeological Tour with the Buner Field Force (Lahore, 1898), pp. 45-48.
Jehlam), centred in the great city of Takkasila (Gr. Taxila), that of the Paurara rajah (Gr. Porus) between the Hydaspes and Acesines (Chenab), and that of Abhisara (Gr. .Abisares) between the same two rivers higher up, on the confines of Kashmir (Stein, Rajatarangini, transl.^ His ambassadors went ahead to Athens and Thebes to try and break up any last minute pacts between these two.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

bk. i. 180, v. 217). The kings of Taxila and Porus were at enmity, and for this cause the invader could reckon upon Omphis as a firm ally. Porus was prepared to contest the passage of the Hydaspes with all his strength. Abisares preferred to play a double game and wait upon events. .Alexander reached the Hydaspes just as the rains broke, when the river was already swollen.^ When the squadrons were halfway across the river, Alexander sacrificed a bull to Poseidon, and made libation with a golden vessel, just as Xerxes had done.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ It took Alexander 3 miles to get clear of the pass, after which he had to march another 9 before reaching the Pinarus River.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Having collected all available reinforcements, the satraps advanced to the River Granicus, which Alexander would have to cross if he wanted to reach Dascylium - or to force an engagement.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

Porus held the opposite bank with a powerful army, including 200 elephants. .Alexander succeeded in taking a part of his forces across the river higher up during a night of torrential rain, and then he fought the fourth and last of his pitched battles in Asia, the one which put to proof more shrewdly than any of the others the quality of the Macedonian army as an instrument of war, and yet again emerged victorious.^ The Macedonian phalanx, meanwhile, had managed to get across the river and form up on the other side.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander read the letter, then put it under his pillow, showing it to no one.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ She had followed them to Macedon, and through Thrace, and across the great Hellespont, past the ruins of Troy, across all of Asia Minor, and now to the Valley of the River Pinarus.
  • Gabrielle stood by the still waters. She was in the fullness of her strength, and both young and beautiful. But, as I said, she was alone. There was a small, sad smile on her face - it was, however, a strange and unreadable smile. She was thinking of all 10 September 2009 18:44 UTC www.xenafan.com [Source type: Original source]

Porus fell sorely wounded into his hands. .2 Porus had saved his honour, and now Alexander tried, and not in vain, to gain him as a friend.^ Alexander often lamented to his friends that the way things were going, nothing would be left for him to do once he became king.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ But there was one, Philip the Acarnanian, who dared to try, and he risked his own life to save Alexander's.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander had received a present of fresh fruit from Greece, and, as was his custom, he invited some of his friends to come and share the fruit with him.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

When he continued his progress eastwards across the Acesines, Porus was an active ally. .Alexander moved along close under the hills.^ But Alexander paid no attention until they brought Callisthenes, a close friend of Aristotle, to see him, along with another philosopher named Anaxarchus.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Along the way, they stopped to take some fortified cities, and at one of them Alexander came very close to losing his life.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.After crossing the Hydra - 6 tes (Ravi) he once more came into contact with hostile tribes, and the work of storming petty towns began again.^ After a final inspection he led on once more, slowly at first, in close formation, until they came within range of the Persian archers.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ With such desire and determination, Alexander and his army crossed the Hellespont into Asia and came to Troy.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.Then the Hyphasis (Beas) was reached, and here the Macedonian army refused to go any farther.^ This Limnus, a Macedonian, conspired to assassinate Alexander, and he tried to bring in Nicomachus, who refused to go along.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.It was a bitter mortification to Alexander, before whose imagination new vistas had just opened out eastwards, where there beckoned the unknown world of the Ganges and its splendid kings.^ Arrian tells us that the reason Alexander wanted to try this desert crossing was that no one had ever brought an army through there before.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Anaxarchus awoke Alexander from his depression by saying: "So there is Alexander the Great, who is feared by the whole world.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Buddha lived approximately two hundred years before Alexander, and before Buddha there was a long tradition of Vedic culture and institutions in India.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.For three days the will of king and people were locked in antagonism; then Alexander gave way; the long eastward movement was ended; the return began.^ Alexander often lamented to his friends that the way things were going, nothing would be left for him to do once he became king.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ On this day Alexander gave a long speech to the Thessalians and other Greeks, who answered him with loud shouts, whereupon he put his javelin into his left hand and lifted up his right to the gods in a prayer for victory.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Second place went to Jules Ng returning from a competition in the expert karting series elsewhere, and hassled all the way to the flag by Alexander McNab in third.
  • myKART 2006 Season Reports 20 November 2009 7:24 UTC club.my-kart.org [Source type: Academic]

.Alexander left the conquered portion of India east of the Indus to be governed under Porus, Omphis of Taxila, and Abisares, the country west of the Indus under Macedonian governors, and set out to explore the great river The g ?^ When he had left for India, Alexander had put 30,000 Persian boys into Greek military training, and by now they had developed into strong and expert fighters.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Darius also offered to give Alexander one of his daughters in marriage if Alexander would be satisfied with dominion over all of the countries west of the Euphrates.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Thebans themselves were forced to recall all political exiles, and a puppet government was set up, with a Macedonian garrison to watch over it from the Cadmea.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

p g to its mouth (for the organization of the Indian provinces, see especially Niese, vol. i. pp. 500 f.). The fleet prepared on the Hydaspes sailed in October, while a land army moved along the bank. The confluence of the Hydaspes and Acesines passed, the Macedonians were once more in a region of hostile tribes with towns to be stormed. .It was at one of these, a town of the Malli, that a memorable incident occurred, such as characterized the personality of Alexander for all succeeding time.^ Darius also offered to give Alexander one of his daughters in marriage if Alexander would be satisfied with dominion over all of the countries west of the Euphrates.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In the very nick of time 'Black' Cleitus, the brother of Alexander's nurse, severed Spithridates' arm at the shoulder with one tremendous blow.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One day, at dawn, after all of the wagons were loaded, Alexander set fire to his own and to those of his friends.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.He leapt from the wall with only three companions into the hostile town, and, before the army behind him could effect an entrance, lay wounded almost to death.'^ They were veterans with many years of hard campaigning behind them, and they could see that this was a death-trap.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Persian hurled a javelin at him with such force that it not only blew through his shield but hit the cuirass behind it.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Darius died before Alexander could get to see him [July 330 B.C.].
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.He recovered and beat down the resistance of the tribes, leaving them annexed to the Macedonian satrapy west of the Indus.^ First Alexander marched to the Danube and beat down all opposition from the tribes in that area.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.Below the confluence of the Punjab rivers into the single stream of the Indus the territory of loose tribes was succeeded by another group of regular principalities, under the rajahs called by the Greeks Musicanus, Oxycanus and Sambus.^ Under his superb political leadership, the once fractious Greek city-states codified into a confederation.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

These opposed a national resistance to the Macedonians, the fires of which were fanned by the Brahmins, but still the strong arm of the western people prevailed. The rajah of Patala at the apex of the Indus delta abandoned his country and fled. .It was the high summer of 325 when Alexander reached Patala.^ Alexander reaches Patala, builds harbor and dockyards.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

From here he explored both arms of the delta to the ocean, now seen by the Macedonians for the first time. .He had determined that the Indus fleet should be used to explore this new world and try to find a waterway between the Indus and the Persian Gulf.^ Meanwhile, the Persians should themselves assemble a large fleet and army, and carry the war across into Macedonia while Alexander's forces were still divided.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.A great part of the land-forces had been already sent off under Craterus in the earlier summer to return west by Kandahar and Seistan; the fleet was to sail under the Greek Nearchus from the Indus mouth with the winter monsoon; Alexander himself with the rest of the land-forces set out in October to go by the 2 Beside V. Smith (cited below) see Schubert, "Die Porusschlacht," in Rhein.^ Alexander pulled out his sword and chopped through the Gordian Knot, instead of involving himself in its mysterious entanglements.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Early June: Alexander sets out for Ecbatana.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ As soon as Alexander sew that the phalanx and the Thassians were out of danger, he and his Companions set off on a headlong chase after Darius.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

Mus.
lvi., 1901, P. 543.
There seems nothing to fix the exact spot of this town; the common identification with Multan is, according to Raverty and V. Smith, certainly wrong.
coast of Baluchistan, through the appalling sand-wastes of the Mekran.' .He would seem to have kept down to the coast until the headland of Ras Malan was reached, scattering before him the bands of Arabitae and Oritae who were the inhabitants of this well-provisioned tract.^ After the drinking had gone on for some time, Thais announced that she would like to burn down the palace built by King Xerxes, who had burned down Athens.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Then Alexander proceeded down the coast to the city of Tyre, which refused to surrender to him.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

For the 150 miles between Ras Malan and Pasni Alexander was compelled by the natural barriers to march inland, and it was here that his troops sank under the horrors of heat and thirst and sand. .The coast once regained, the way was easy; no such desert had to be traversed, when Alexander again struck inland for the chief city of the Gedrosians (Pura), and thence made his way into Carmania.^ Alexander often lamented to his friends that the way things were going, nothing would be left for him to do once he became king.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Accompanied by some 6,000 men, Alexander made his way overland to Elaeum, at the southern tip of the Galipoli peninsula.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ September: Alexander's march through Gedrosian Desert.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.Here the spent troops rested; here the army of Craterus joined them, and Nearchus came to announce his safe arrival at the entrance of the Persian Gulf.2 The machine of empire had not functioned altogether smoothly while the king had been absent, and on Alexander's re-appearance many incapables and rogues in high office had to be replaced by better men.^ In Parthia, Alexander rested his army.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander the Great's Parents Alexander's father was Philip II, the king of Macedonia, who put together a great army and crushed his foes.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One of Philip's many wives was Olympia, Alexander's mother and Daughter of the late king Epirus.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

In Carmania, in Persis, complaints from the provinces continued to reach him, as well as the news of disorders in Macedonia and Greece. .New orders and appointments served to bring the empire into hand again, and at Susa in the spring of 3 2 4 Alexander rested, the task of conquering and compassing the Achaemenian realm achieved.^ Alexander continued into Bactria and conquered it [328 B.C.].
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Even when he was older, and having achieved great success of his own, Alexander would minimize the influence and down-play the achievements of his father; but make no mistake, Philip built the empire with which Alexander would conquer the world.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.The task of its internal reorganization now began to occupy him - changes, for instance, in the military system which tended to assimilate Macedonians and Orientals.^ Now that they were rich, and addicted to pleasure, Alexander's soldiers began to be lax about their military training.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Reports now came in that the Persians up on the ridge had occupied a projecting spur of the mountain, and were now actually behind the Macedonian right wing.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They put on a demonstration of their military exercises, which pleased him, but depressed the Macedonians, who now believed that Alexander had no more use for them.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.The same policy of fusion was furthered by the great marriage festival at Susa, when Alexander took two more wives from the Persian royal house, married a number of his generals to Oriental princesses, and even induced as many as he could of the rank-and-file to take Asiatic wives.^ Nothing could have pleased Alexander more.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Persians had camped in flat and open country, where they could take advantage of their superiority in cavalry.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Even this omen could not deter Alexander from entering Babylon.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.This policy did not allay the discontent of the Macedonian army, and when Alexander in the summer of 324 moved to the cooler region of Media, an actual mutiny of the Macedonians broke out on the way at Opis on the Tigris.^ Many Macedonians died, and so did Alexander's old war horse, Bucephalus.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Although it was optional for Macedonians, Alexander clearly was more pleased with those that did than those that did not.
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^ But Alexander did not take any action because he was afraid to disturb his army still further.
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.It was occasioned by the discharge of the Macedonian veterans, and only the personal magnetism of Alexander and his threat to entrust himself altogether to the Orientals availed to quell it.^ Alexander assured these women that they had nothing to fear from him or his men, since he fought with Darius only for his empire, and not for personal spite.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Philotas, the son of Parmenio, had a reputation among the Macedonians second only to Alexander himself.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.At Ecbatana the death of Hephaestion for a time plunged Alexander into a passion of mourning.^ Darius marched to Issus at the same time that Alexander marched into Syria to meet him, and the two armies passed each other.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The tomb of Hephaestion was to be a memorial of unprecedented magnificence, and Alexander spent most of his time going over the plans with his architects.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

But by the winter (324-323) he was again active, bringing the hilltribes on the S.W. border of Media, the Cossaei, into subjection. .In the spring of 323 he moved down to Babylon, receiving on the way embassies from lands as far as the confines of the known world, for the eyes of all nations were now turned with fear or wonder to the figure which had appeared with so superhuman an effect upon the world's stage.^ Consolidation was Alexander's choice, so he moved down the coast to take control of Lycia, then turned north to Phrygia.
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^ Instead of massing the Iranian cavalry opposite Alexander's right, where it had been expected, the Great King was moving all of his best squadrons down to the seashore, against Parmenio.
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The embassy from Rome, however, is almost certainly a later, and an inevitable, invention. .The exploration of the waterways round about the empire was Alexander's immediate concern, the discovery of the presumed connexion of the Caspian with the Northern Ocean, the opening of a maritime route from Babylon to Egypt round Arabia.^ Without opposition, Alexander marched to Babylon, which immediately surrendered.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander was particularly concerned about their lack of exercise.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.The latter enterprise Alexander designed to conduct in person; under his supervision was prepared in Babylon an immense fleet, a great basin dug out to contain 1000 ships, and the watercommunications of Babylonia taken in hand.^ The Battle of Issus While Darius awaited his reinforcements in Babylon, Alexander was thrusting south across the rocky, volcanic uplands of Cappadocia, under a burning August sun.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Their hands were cut off and seared with pitch; they were then taken on a tour of the Persian army, turned loose, and told to report what they had seen to Alexander.
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Innovations were carried out in the tactical system of the army which were to modify considerably the methods of future battle-fields. .At last all was ready; the 10th of the month Daesius (? June 5) was fixed for the king's setting forth.^ The Battle of Granicus In the early spring 334 King Alexander of Macedonia set out at last from Pella at the head of his expeditionary force, and marched for the Dardanelles.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.On the 15th and 16th Alexander caroused deep into the night at the house by man through his chamber to bid him farewell.^ Darius marched to Issus at the same time that Alexander marched into Syria to meet him, and the two armies passed each other.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This is most likely just a small amount of things that shaped Alexander the Great's life and it is likely some of the memories tormented him through most of his life.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ That night, Alexander held a banquet for a large number of his friends and officers, and he offered a prize for the man who could drink the most wine.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.On the 28th (? June 13) Alexander died.3 His son by Roxana, the so-called Alexander "Aegus," was born a few months later.^ Alexander was born on 356 B.C. He was born in Pella the ancient capital of Macedonia, was the son of Philip II, king of Macedonia, and of Olympias, a princess of Epirus.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ May 20/30: Alexander falls ill after a party; and dies on 10/11th June.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

He and his uncle Philip, as joint kings, here placed under the guardianship of Perdiccas, Peithon and Antipater in succession. .After the death of Antipater (319) Roxana fled with him to Epirus, and was afterwards taken back to Macedonia, together with Olympias, by Polyperchon.^ Alexander was born on 356 B.C. He was born in Pella the ancient capital of Macedonia, was the son of Philip II, king of Macedonia, and of Olympias, a princess of Epirus.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Olympia's brother Alexander succeeds to throne of Epirus with Philip's backing.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.All three fell into the hands of Cassander; Alexander and his mother were in 310-309 put to death by order of Cassander (Justin xiv.^ On this day Alexander gave a long speech to the Thessalians and other Greeks, who answered him with loud shouts, whereupon he put his javelin into his left hand and lifted up his right to the gods in a prayer for victory.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When he had left for India, Alexander had put 30,000 Persian boys into Greek military training, and by now they had developed into strong and expert fighters.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ The Persians did not wait for them, but fell back, and Alexander kept herding them into the center, where Darius stood, along with his best men.
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6, xv. 2). The meaningless surname of Aegus, still given in some books to this Alexander, is derived simply from a modern misreading of the text of the Astronomical Canon, Aifot for Aaaot.
.Alexander the Great is one of the instances of the vanity of appealing from contemporary disputes to "the verdict of posterity"; his character and his policy are estimated to-day as variously as ever.^ Alexander's question to the fifth, and the answer he got was: "Day is older, by one day at least."
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One day, at dawn, after all of the wagons were loaded, Alexander set fire to his own and to those of his friends.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ One day, Philotas was drunk, and he boasted to Antigone that he and his father had won all of the victories, even though the boy Alexander had taken the credit.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

Certain features - the high physical courage, the impulsive energy, the fervid imagination - stand out clear; beyond that disagreement begins. .That he was a great master of war is admitted by most of those who judge his character unfavourably, but even this has been seriously questioned (e.g.^ All actions, even those arising out of the most elementary biological needs, such as excretion and coition, were regulated by the ideological system”.

by Beloch, Griech. Gesch. iii. (i.), p. 66). There is a dispute as to his real desings. That he aimed at conquering the whole world and demanded to be worshipped as a god is the traditional view. Droysen denies the former, and Niese maintains that his ambition was limited by the bounds of the Persian empire and that the claim to divine honours is fabulous (Historische Zeitschr. lxxix., 1897,i f.). .It is true that our best authority, Arrian, fails to substantiate the traditional view satisfactorily; on the other hand those who maintain it urge that Arrian's interests were mainly military, and that the other authorities, if inferior in trustworthiness, are completer in range of vision.^ They suggested that interrogation should start with those who apparently had such an interest in preventing detection.
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.Of those, again, who maintain the traditional view, some, like Niebuhr and Grote, regard it as convicting Alexander of mad ambition and vainglory, whilst to Kaerst Alexander only incorporates ideas which were the timely fruit of a long historical development.^ For a long time Alexander had heard complaints about Philotas.
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^ Alexander was always more displeased with those who refused his generosity than with those who abused it.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This is most likely just a small amount of things that shaped Alexander the Great's life and it is likely some of the memories tormented him through most of his life.
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The policy of fusing Greeks and Orientals again is diversely judged. To Droysen and Kaerst it accords with the historical conditions; to Grote and to Beloch it is a betrayal of the prerogative of Hellenism.
Some notion of the personal appearance of Alexander may be got from the literature and the surviving monuments. He is described as of an athletic frame, though not taller than the common, and a white and ruddy complexion. The expression of his eyes had something "liquid and melting" (TOW o��arwv Tip) Sc aXvaiv Kai iypbrfra), and the hair which stood up over his forehead gave the suggestion of a lion. He had a way of carrying his head somewhat aslant. (See especially Plut. Alex. 4; de Alex. fort. ii. 2.) The greatest masters of the time executed portraits of him, Lysippus in sculpture, Apelles in painting and Pyrgoteles in graven gems. Among surviving monuments, we have no completely certified portraits except the Tivoli herm (now in the Louvre) and the coins struck by his successors. The herm is a dry work and the head upon the coins shows various degrees of idealization. .There are, however, a considerable number of works which can make out a better or worse claim either to be portraits of Alexander or to reproduce his type, and a large field of discussion is therefore open as to their values and classification (F. Kopp, Ober das Bildnis Alexanders d.^ That night, Alexander held a banquet for a large number of his friends and officers, and he offered a prize for the man who could drink the most wine.
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Grossen
(1892); K. J. Ujfalvy, (1902); T. Schreiber, Studien fiber das Bildnis Alexanders d. Grossen (1903); J. J. Bernoulli, Die erhaltenen Darstellungen Alexanders d. Grossen (1905). Alexander shaved clean, and set the fashion in this respect for the Graeco-Roman world for the next 500 years.
Bibliography. - .The campaigns and life of Alexander did not lack contemporary historians, some of them eye-witnesses and even associates.^ This is most likely just a small amount of things that shaped Alexander the Great's life and it is likely some of the memories tormented him through most of his life.
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^ Along the way, they stopped to take some fortified cities, and at one of them Alexander came very close to losing his life.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Most of Alexander's life was either his boyhood when he was being tutored or his manhood when he was campaigning far from home in other lands.
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.They included the philosopher Callisthenes, put to For Alexander's funeral, see F. Jacoby in Rhein.^ When he had left for India, Alexander had put 30,000 Persian boys into Greek military training, and by now they had developed into strong and expert fighters.
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^ They put on a demonstration of their military exercises, which pleased him, but depressed the Macedonians, who now believed that Alexander had no more use for them.
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^ But Alexander paid no attention until they brought Callisthenes, a close friend of Aristotle, to see him, along with another philosopher named Anaxarchus.
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Mus.
(1903), pp. 461 f.
of the favourite Medius. On the 17th he developed fever; for a time he treated it as a momentary impediment to the expedition; but on the 27th his speech was gone, and the Macedonian army were suffered to pass man 1 For the Indian campaigns of Alexander see especially McCrindle, Invasion of India by Alexander the Great (1896); Vincent A. Smith, Early History of India (1904), and the references there given to the researches of Sir T. H. Holdich, Raverty and Foucher; A. Anspach, De Alex. Magni exiled. ind. (1903).
2 Tomaschek, "Topographische Erlauterung der Kustenfahrt Nearchs" in the Sitzungsberichte der kaiserl. Akad. d. Wissensch. of Vienna (Philosoph.-histor. Klasse, vol. cxxi.); Major P. M. Sykes, Ten Thousand Miles in Persia (1902), pp. 166 f.
death by .Alexander in 327, whose history went up to the death of Darius, Alexander's general Ptolemy, afterwards king in Egypt, Nearchus who commanded the fleet that sailed from the Indus to the Persian Gulf, Onesicritus who served as pilot in the same fleet, Aristobulus who was with Alexander in India, Clitarchus, a contemporary, if not an eye-witness, important from the fact that his highly coloured version of the life of Alexander became the popular authority for the succeeding centuries.^ Nearchus and the fleet reach Harmozia, link up with Alexander at Salmous.
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^ Alexander often lamented to his friends that the way things were going, nothing would be left for him to do once he became king.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When he had left for India, Alexander had put 30,000 Persian boys into Greek military training, and by now they had developed into strong and expert fighters.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.Besides the historical narrative, there were works mainly geographical or topographical left by persons like Baeton and Diognetus, whom Alexander had employed (as Onyarcaral.) to survey the roads over which he passed.^ Alexander personally commanded the right wing, which crushed the Persian left.
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All such original sources have now perished. The fragments are collected in the Didot edition of Arrian by Karl Muller. Not reckoning scattered notices, we depend principally upon five later compositions, Diodorus, book xvii. (c. 20 B.C.), the work of Quintus Curtius (c. A.D. 42), Plutarch's (c. .45-125 A.D.) Life of Alexander, Arrian's Anabasis and Indica (c. A.D. 150), and the relevant books of Justin's abridgment (2nd cent.^ Alexander McNab,K2/45,62,150 9.
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^ Alexander McNab,K2/45,75,150 5.
  • myKART 2006 Season Reports 20 November 2009 7:24 UTC club.my-kart.org [Source type: Academic]

A.D.) of the history of Trogus (c. 10 B.C.?). .To these we may add the Latin Itinerarium Alexandri, a skeleton outline of Alexander's campaigns dedicated to the emperor Constantius (A.D. 324-361), printed at the end of the Didot edition of Arrian, and the Epitome Rerum Gestarum Alexandri magni, an abridgment made in the 4th or 5th century of a lost Latin work of uncertain date, combining history with elements taken from the Romance (edited by O. Wagner, Leipzig, 1900).^ In the consolition final race, Danny Chooz was virtually unchallenged as he made strong progress from 4th in the sub-category to 1st at the end of the 1st lap.
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^ Mary Renault remarks that, " for Alexander, his father's constant absences on campaign, combined with his mother's possessive love, made this a certainty."
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^ In the consolition final race, Chris Chuang was virtually unchallenged as he made strong progress from 4th in the category to 1st at the end of the 1st lap.
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.The relation of these works to the various original sources constitutes the critical problem before the modern historian in reference to the history of Alexander.^ The examination of Ukrainian Protestant/Baptist church history, with particular reference to its origin and development until 1939.
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See Droysen vol. i. appendix i.; A. Schoene, De rerum Alexandri Magni scriptorum imprimis Arriani Plutarchi fontibus (1870); Fraenkel, Die Geschichtschreiber Alex. d. Grossen (1883); O. Maas, Kleitarch and Diodor (Petersburg, 1894); Kaerst, Forschungen zur Gesch. Alex. d. Grossen (1887), and Gesch. d. hellenist. Zeitalters (vol.i., 1901), pp. 421 f.; F. L. Schoenle, Diodorstudien (1891); E. Schwartz, articles "Aristobulos (14)," "Arrianus," "Quintus Curtius," "Diodorus" in Pauly-Wissowa's Realencyclopadie. For modern views of Alexander see Thirlwall, History of Greece; Niebuhr, Lectures on Ancient History (Eng. trans. rev. by author, 1852); Grote, History of Greece; Droysen, Histoire de l'Hellenisme (translation by Bouche-Leclerq); Ad. Holm, History of Greece (Eng. trans., 1898); B. Niese, Gesch. der griech. u. maked. Staaten (vol. i.); Kaerst, Gesch. des hellenist. Zeitalters (1901); J. Beloch, Griechische Gesch. (vol. iii., 1904); J. B. Bury, History of Greece (1902); A. von Gutschmid, Geschichte Irans (1888). Among the mass of monographs and special articles, reference may be made to Freeman, Historical Essays, 2nd series, pp. .182 f.; Dodge, Alexander (in a series called Great Captains) 1890; Mahaffy, Problems in Greek History (1892), ch.^ By now Alexander's center and left were both seriously threatened, and he had no option but to postpone his pursuit of the Great King.
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viii.; .D. G. Hogarth, Philip and Alexander of Macedon (1897), a striking effort of historical imagination to reconstruct Alexander as a man of the real world; Benjamin I. Wheeler, Alexander the Great (1900) in the "Heroes of the Nations Series."^ Alexander the Great's Parents Alexander's father was Philip II, the king of Macedonia, who put together a great army and crushed his foes.
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^ For a moment there was a real danger that the horses of Darius' chariot might carry the Great King headlong through Alexander's lines.
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^ The Triumph and Tragedy of Alexander the Great Alexander the Great's relation to triumph is obvious, he created an army which took over most of the known world.
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The purely military aspect of Alexander's campaigns is treated in general histories of warfare (Rustow-Kochly, Bauer, Delbriick, Verdy du Vernois), and in special monographs by Hogarth, Journ. of Philol. vol. xvii., 1888, pp. 1 foil.; H. Droysen, Untersuchungen fiber A. des Gr. Heerwesen (1885), and Graf Yorck von Wartenburg, Kurze Ubersicht der Feldziege A. de Gr. (1897). For further references to the literature on Alexander, see Kaerst's article in Pauly-Wissowa's Realencyclopadie (1894). (E. R. B.) The Romance of Alexander. The figure of Alexander naturally impressed itself upon the imagination of the world which his career had shaken. .Even in India we are told that he was held in honour by the native kings who took his farthest provinces in possession.^ Thus, she said, it might be said that even the women who followed Alexander took greater revenge on the Persians than all of the Greek generals who had tried before.
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.But Eastern tradition, so tenacious of the old myths of primitive man, has a short memory for actual history, and five centuries later Alexander was only remembered in Iran as the accursed destroyer of the sacred books, whose wisdom he had at the same time pilfered by causing translations to be made into "Roman."^ This is essentially the same choice any young man must make: love, money, or wisdom.
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^ Darius marched to Issus at the same time that Alexander marched into Syria to meet him, and the two armies passed each other.
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^ Alexander's companions, on the way back, were making fun of the simple-minded old man, but Alexander told them: "Laugh if you must, but if I were not Alexander I would choose to be Diogenes."
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.That the East to-day has so much to tell about Alexander is only due to the fact that old mythical stories of gods or heroes who go travelling through lands of monsters and darkness, of magical fountains and unearthly oceans, became attached to his name in the popular literature of the Roman empire, and this mythical Alexander was reintroduced in the 7th century A.D. into the farther East, where the historical Alexander was almost forgotten.^ He took the city by storm and razed it, sparing only the temples of the gods and the houses of the Greek lyric poet Pindar, and selling the surviving inhabitants, about 8000 in number, into slavery.
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^ On this day Alexander gave a long speech to the Thessalians and other Greeks, who answered him with loud shouts, whereupon he put his javelin into his left hand and lifted up his right to the gods in a prayer for victory.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ This Limnus, a Macedonian, conspired to assassinate Alexander, and he tried to bring in Nicomachus, who refused to go along.
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.The romance of Alexander is found written in the languages of nearly all peoples from the Indian Ocean to the Atlantic, but all these versions are derived, mediately or immediately, from the Greek original which circulated under the false name of Callisthenes.^ But Alexander paid no attention until they brought Callisthenes, a close friend of Aristotle, to see him, along with another philosopher named Anaxarchus.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander's council advised him to give up trying to subjugate the Greeks and to concentrate his resources on keeping the barbarian nations of the north under control.
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^ All of these dangers and difficulties did not matter to Alexander, who could not be diverted from his plan once he had decided to do something.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

.The Greek pseudo-Callisthenes (otherwise Aisopos we possess in three recensions, based all upon a book produced in Egypt in the 2nd century A.D. But this book itself was a farrago of heterogeneous elements - pieces of genuine history, ancient stories once told in Babylon of Gilgamesh or Etanna, literary forgeries of the days soon after Alexander, like the oldest part of the "Testament of Alexander," variations due to Egyptian patriotic sentiment, like that which made Alexander the son of the last Pharaoh, Nectanebus.^ Alexander was born on 356 B.C. He was born in Pella the ancient capital of Macedonia, was the son of Philip II, king of Macedonia, and of Olympias, a princess of Epirus.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ All that night and the next day, Alexander cried bitterly, until finally he ran out of tears and could only lie on the floor of his chamber and sigh.
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^ This early bravery made his father so fond of him that Philip liked nothing better than to hear his soldiers say that Philip was their general, but Alexander was their king.
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.As the story was reproduced, variations were freely introduced according to the bent of different times and peoples; in the Persian version Alexander (Iskander) became a son of Darius; among the Mahommedans he turned into a prophet, hot against idols; the pen of Christian monks made him an ascetic saint.^ Alexander often lamented to his friends that the way things were going, nothing would be left for him to do once he became king.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When he had left for India, Alexander had put 30,000 Persian boys into Greek military training, and by now they had developed into strong and expert fighters.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When Alexander was sixteen, Philip left him in charge of Macedonia while he went away on a campaign against the people of Byzantium.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

The Alexander romance found its way into Europe through the medium of Latin, but originated mainly from the versions of the pseudo-Callisthenes, not from the more sober narrative of Quintus Curtius. .The pseudo-Callisthenes, in a recension which has not been preserved, was translated into Latin by Julius Valerius about the end of the 3rd century, and an epitome of this translation, also in Latin, was made some time before the 9th century, and is introduced by Vincent de Beauvais into his Speculum historiale.^ Before he took his bath he seems to have been suffering from some kind of bronchial infection, which now quickly turned into acute pneumonia.
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Much of the legend is a running travesty of the true history of the conqueror. The first book deals with his birth and early exploits. The trace of Alexandrian influence is to be found in the pretence that his actual father was Nectanebus, a fugitive king of Egypt. The latter was a great magician, able, by operating upon waxen figures of the armies and ships of his enemies, to obtain complete power over their real actions. .Obliged, however, to flee to Pella in Macedonia, he established himself as an astrologer, and as such was consulted by the childless Olympias.^ Alexander was born on 356 B.C. He was born in Pella the ancient capital of Macedonia, was the son of Philip II, king of Macedonia, and of Olympias, a princess of Epirus.
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.Having promised that Zeus Ammon would visit her in the form of a dragon, he himself assumed the disguise.^ The oracle replied that the snake was a form of Ammon -- Greek gods were capable of assuming different shapes.
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.In due course Alexander was born, and Philip's suspicions were overcome by a second appearance of the dragon, which was held to prove the divine fatherhood.^ Alexander was born on 356 B.C. He was born in Pella the ancient capital of Macedonia, was the son of Philip II, king of Macedonia, and of Olympias, a princess of Epirus.
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^ Alexander also sent assassins to kill Philotas' father, Parmenio, who was second in command of the army and had been a loyal friend of Alexanders father, King Philip.
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^ Olympias, aided by a few of Alexander's companions, filled Alexander's head with suspicions that Philip was preparing to hand over the kingdom to Arrhidaeus.
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The child was small and somewhat deformed, but of great courage and intelligence. .When he was twelve years old he was instructed in starcraft by Nectanebus, who was killed by a fall into a pit, into which he had been playfully pushed by Alexander.^ Alexander also sent assassins to kill Philotas' father, Parmenio, who was second in command of the army and had been a loyal friend of Alexanders father, King Philip.
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^ Alexander's losses were very light, only 450 killed and 4,500 wounded, including Alexander, who got a sword cut on his thigh.
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^ Philip had Thessalus sent to him in chains, and he banished some of Alexander's companions who had talked Alexander into this.
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.The first book also relates his conquests in Italy, Africa, Syria and Asia Minor; his return to Macedonia and the submission of Greece.^ Defection of Harpalus from Asia Minor to Greece.
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.The second book continues the history of his conquests, and the third contains the victory over Porus, the relations with the Brahmins, the letter to Aristotle on the wonders of India, the histories of Candace and the Amazons, the letter to Olympias on the marvels of Farther Asia, and lastly the account of Alexander's death in Babylon.^ Alexander listened to her account and then told her to continue to pump Philotas and bring him reports of what he said.
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^ After a long fight, Alexander won the victory, and Porus came to him as a prisoner.
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.The most wide-spread Latin version of the story, however, was the Historia de proeliis,' printed at Strassburg in 1486, which began to supersede the Epitome of Julius Valerius in general favour about the end of the 13th century.^ The development of ideas about pain and suffering in the works of 13th-century masters of theology at Paris, c.1230-c.1300.
  • History On-Line 10 September 2009 18:44 UTC www.history.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

It is said to have been written by the Neapolitan arch-presbyter Leo, who was sent by Johannes and Marinus, dukes of Campania (941-965) to Constantinople, where he found his Greek original. .Auxiliary sources for the medieval romance-writers were: - the opuscule (4th century) known as Alexandri magni iter ad Paradisum, a fable of Eastern origin directed against ambition; the Itinerarium Alexandri (340), based partly on Julius Valerius and dedicated to Constans, son of the emperor Constantine; the letter of Alexander to Aristotle (Epist.^ Images of Constantius II: the philanthropic emperor and imperial propaganda in the 4th century A.D. Nicholas J. Henck.
  • History On-Line 10 September 2009 18:44 UTC www.history.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

de situ et mirabilibus Indiae), and the correspondence between Alexander and the king � of the Brahmins, Dindimus, both of which are often contained in MSS. of the Epitome; and the treatise (based on a lost history of Alexander by Onesicritus), De gentibus Indiae et Bragmanibus, ascribed without certainty to Palladius (d. c. 430), successively bishop of Helenopolis and Aspona.
The Ethiopic versions are of great interest as a striking example of literary "accommodation." Not only is the whole atmosphere Christian in colouring, but we actually find the Greek gods in the guise of Enoch, Elijah, &c., while Philip is a Christian martyr, and Alexander himself a great apostle, even a saint; quotations from the Bible are frequent. Syriac and Armenian versions were made in the 5th century. Persians and Arabs told the 1 Nativitas et victoriae Alexandri magni regis was the original title.
deeds of Iskander; and Firdousi made use of the story in the Shdhndma. Another early Persian poet, Nizami, made the story specially his own. .The crusaders brought back fresh developments; Gog and Magog (partly Arab and partly Greek) and some Jewish stories were then added.^ Some Macedonian scouts had brought back a few bags of water from a distant river, and they offered Alexander a helmet-full.
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In the i i th century Simeon Seth, protovestiarius at the Byzantine court, translated the fabulous history from the Persian back into Greek.
.The Alexander legend was the theme of poetry in all European languages; six or seven German poets dealt with the subject, and it may be read in French, English, Spanish, Danish, Swedish, Icelandic, Flemish and Bohemian.^ The Thebans gave him an insulting reply, so Alexander killed six thousand of them, demolished their city, and sold all of the surviving inhabitants as slaves.
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French

.The earliest known French romance of Alexander, by Alberic of Besancon (or more properly Briancon), was, until the discovery of a fragment of ioq lines at Florence in 1852, known only through the German adaptation by Lamprecht the preacher, who wrote towards the end of the 12th century, and by the version made by a Poitevin poet named Simon in decasyllabic lines.^ They put on a demonstration of their military exercises, which pleased him, but depressed the Macedonians, who now believed that Alexander had no more use for them.
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^ Alexander not only allowed Porus to keep his kingdom as a satrap, but he also gave him more territory.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Alexander was always more displeased with those who refused his generosity than with those who abused it.
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Alberic followed the epitome of Julius Valerius. He had some knowledge of authentic history, and rejected the more marvellous elements of the story. The French feudal romance, Li Romans d'Alexandre, was written in the 12th century by [[hero, making him especially the type of lavish generosity. They used as their sources Valerius, the letter to Aristotle and the Iter ad Paradisum, adding much of their own. Pierre de Saint Cloud, the writer of the fourth section of the romance, was evidently acquainted with the Historia de proeliis. The incident of the Fuerre de Gadres (Foray of Gaza), interpolated in the second section, is assigned to a certain Eustache. The redaction of the whole work is due to Alexandre de Bernai, who replaced the original assonance by rhyme. According to all the traditions of romance it was necessary to avenge the death of Alexander. .At the end of the 12th century Gui de Cambrai and Jean le Nevelon (or Nevelaux or Venelais), each wrote a Vengeance d'Alexandre. Jean le Nevelon relates how Alior, the son of Alexander and Candace, avenged his father's death on Antipater and others.^ Alexander's father and the others looked on nervously until they saw Alexander turn at the end of his run and come back in triumph.
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^ Arrival of Antipater's son Cassander to negotiate with Alexander.
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.Between 1310 and 1315 Jacques de Longuyon (or Langhion) introduced into the account of the Indian war Les Viceux du paon, a romanesque and fantastic episode very loosely connected with Alexander.^ Meanwhile, the Persians should themselves assemble a large fleet and army, and carry the war across into Macedonia while Alexander's forces were still divided.
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.It is interesting for its connexion with the 15th-century romance of Perceforest, since in it Alexander visits Britain, where he bestows Scotland on Gadifer and England on Betis (otherwise Perceforest).^ The use and reception of forged documents in 15th-century England.
  • History On-Line 10 September 2009 18:44 UTC www.history.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

^ Encouragements and constraints in the development of experimental animal behaviour studies in Great Britain since the late 19th century.
  • History On-Line 10 September 2009 18:44 UTC www.history.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

Les Viceux du paon enjoyed great popularity, and had two sequels, Le Restor du paon, written before 1338 by Jean Brisebarre de Douai, and Le Parfait du paon,written in 1340 by Jean de la Mote. Florimont, a 12th-century poem by Aimon de Varenne, relates to a fictitious personage said to have been the grandfather of Alexander. This poem gave rise to two prose romances - La Conqueste de Grece faicte par Philippe de Madien, by Perrinet du Pin, first printed in 1527, and Histoire du roi Florimond (1528). Quintus Curtius was largely used for the Alexandreis (c. 1180) of Gaultier de Lille or de Chatillon (Galtherus ab Insulis or de Castellione). It is a Latin poem in ten books of hexameters, and contains a curious admixture of Biblical history. It was translated at the end of the next century into Flemish by J. van Maerlant and into German by Ulrich von Eschenbach.
Of the French prose versions of the Historia de proeliis may be noticed the late romance, L' Histoire du noble et vaillant roy Alixandre le Grant (1506). .After an account of the ancient history of Macedonia and of the intrigue of Nectanebus we are told how Philip dies, and how Alexander subdues Rome and receives tribute from all European nations.^ To show how willing he was to forgive what was in the past, Alexander offered a full pardon for all those that would take it.
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^ When Alexander was sixteen, Philip left him in charge of Macedonia while he went away on a campaign against the people of Byzantium.
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^ Alexander the Great's Parents Alexander's father was Philip II, the king of Macedonia, who put together a great army and crushed his foes.
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He then makes his Persian expedition; the Indian campaign gives occasion for descriptions of all kinds of wonders. The conqueror visits a cannibal kingdom and finds many marvels in the palace of Porus, among them a vine with golden branches, emerald leaves and fruit of other precious stones. In one country he meets with women who, after the burial in the winter, become alive again in the spring full of youth and beauty. .Having reached the ends of the earth and conquered all nations, he aspires to the dominion of the air.^ Having collected all available reinforcements, the satraps advanced to the River Granicus, which Alexander would have to cross if he wanted to reach Dascylium - or to force an engagement.
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^ The news about the difficulties he had in India, his brush with death, and the huge attrition of his army in the desert, all made the conquered nations think of revolution.
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He obtains a magic glass cage, yoked with eight griffins, flies through the clouds, and, thanks to enchanters who know the language of birds, gets information as to their manners and customs, and ultimately receives their submission. The excessive heat of the upper regions compels him to descend, and he next visits the bottom of the sea in a kind of diving-bell. The fish crowd round him and pay homage. .Alexander returns to Babylon, is crowned with much pomp and mass is celebrated.^ Alexander's Campaign against the Cossaeans and return to Babylon.
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He dies by poison soon afterwards.

English Versions

.The Alexander cycle was no less popular in Great Britain.^ By now Alexander's center and left were both seriously threatened, and he had no option but to postpone his pursuit of the Great King.
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The letter from Alexander to Aristotle and his correspondence with Dindimus are found in Early English versions dating from the 11th century. These are printed by O. Cockayne in his Narratiunculae Anglice conscriptae (1861). The Monk (De Cas. ill. vir.) in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales prefaces his account of Alexander with the statement that his story is so common That every wight that hath discrecioun Hath herd somewhat or all of his fortune.
There are two considerable fragments of an English alliterative romance on the subject written in the west midland dialect, and dating from the second half of the 14th century. The first, The Gestes of the Worthy King and Emperor Alisaunder of Macedoine (ed. W. W. Skeat, E.E.T.S., 1877, with William of Palerme) contains an account of the wars of Philip, of Nectanebus and of the education of Alexander. A second fragment (ed. Skeat, E.E.T.S., 1878) contains Alexander's visit to the Gymnosophists and his correspondence with Dindimus. .Another alliterative poem in the northern dialect, of 15th-century origin, is based on the Historia de proeliis, and was edited by Skeat for the E.E.T.S. (1886) as The Wars of Alexander. Earlier than any of these is the rhyming Lyfe of Alisaunder (c. 1330) which is printed in H. Weber's Metrical Romances (vol.^ Troy was the site of the Trojan War (circa 1250 B.C.), where Alexander's ancestor, the great Achilles, grandson of Aeacus, did the deeds immortalized in the Iliad by Homer.
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^ Then Alexander turned to the judge, who decided that each one had answered worse than another.
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^ These two philosophers, Anaxarchus and Callisthenes, warred over the soul of Alexander.
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i., 1810). It is written in unusually picturesque and vigorous language, and is based on the Roman de toute chevalerie, a French compilation made about 1250 by a certain Eustace or Thomas of Kent. Fragments of another rhyming poem (pr. c. 1550) are preserved in the British Museum. .The Scots Buik of the most noble and vailyzeand Conqueror Alexander the Great, printed by Alexander Arbuthnot (d.^ The Triumph and Tragedy of Alexander the Great Alexander the Great's relation to triumph is obvious, he created an army which took over most of the known world.
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^ This is most likely just a small amount of things that shaped Alexander the Great's life and it is likely some of the memories tormented him through most of his life.
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1585) about 1580, reprinted in 1831 for the Bannatyne Club, is not really a life. It contains three episodes of the cycle, the "Forray of Gadderis" (not taken from the Fuerre de Gadres but from the Assaut de Tyr in the Romans d'Alixandre), " The Avowes of Alexander," and "The Great Battel of Effesoun," taken from the Viceux du paon. Many passages in John Barbour's Bruce are almost identical with this book, and it is suggested by G. Neilson (John Barbour, Poet and Translator, London, 1900) that Barbour was the author, although the colophon states that it was written in 1438. Bruce at Bannockburn makes the same oration as Alexander at "Effesoun." A Buke of the Conqueror Alexander the Great by Sir Gilbert Hay (fl. 1456) is in MS. at Taymouth Castle.
Bibliography. - The best sketch of the Alexander romance literature is by Paul Meyer, Alexandre le grand dans la littrature francaise au moyen age (2 vols., Paris, 1886). .The first volume contains some French texts, and the second a detailed discussion of the various versions from the pseudo-Callisthenes downwards.^ Cambridgeshire society during the First and Second Civil Wars, c.1638-c.1649: some aspects of patterns of allegiance.
  • History On-Line 10 September 2009 18:44 UTC www.history.ac.uk [Source type: Academic]

See also J. Zacher, Pseudo-Callisthenes, Forschungen zur. ... Alexandersage (Halle, 1867), and for Oriental versions, T. NOldeke, "Beitrage zur Geschichte des Alexanderromans" (Denkschriften der ksl. Akad. d. Wissenschaften, Phil.-hist. Klasse, vol.38: Vienna, 1890). For early printed versions see Brunet, Manuel du libraire, s.v. "Alexandre." The text of the pseudo-Callisthenes was edited by C. W. Muller from three MSS. in the Bibl. Nat. and printed in the Arrian of the Coll. Didot (Paris, 1846), and by H. Meusel (Leipzig, 1871) from a Leiden MS. A. Mai edited Julius Valerius (Milan, 1817) and the Itinerarium Alexandri (Class. Auct. vol. vii.; Milan, 18 35); J. Zacher, the Epitome (Halle, 1867) and Alex. iter ad Paradisum (Regensburg, 1859); the Oxford MS. of the Epitome was edited by G. Cilli (Strassburg, 1905); G. Landgraf, Die "Vita Alexandri". .. des Archpresbyter Leo (Historia de proeliis), (Erlangen, 1885); Alexander's letter to Aristotle and his correspondence with Dindimus are included in the Teubner edition of Julius Valerius (ed. B. Kiibler, Leipzig, 1888). A newly discovered anonymous Epitome was edited by O. Wagner (Leipzig, 1900).
.The fragment by Alberic was edited by P. Heyse (Berlin, 1856); Lamprecht's German text by H. Weismann (Frankfort, 1850) and by C. Kinzel (Halle, 1884); the Alexandreis of Gaultier de Lille, by F. A. W. Miildener (Leipzig, 1863); an Icelandic prose version (c. 1250) of the same, Alexanders Saga, by C. R. Unger (Christiania, 1848); Li Romans d'Alixandre, by H. Michelant (Stuttgart, 1846); the Ethiopic version by E. A. T. Wallis Budge (1896, 2 vols., with English translation); the Syriac text of pseudo-Callisthenes by Budge (Cambridge, 1889); cp.^ Troy was the site of the Trojan War (circa 1250 B.C.), where Alexander's ancestor, the great Achilles, grandson of Aeacus, did the deeds immortalized in the Iliad by Homer.
  • Bios: User Submitted: Alexander the Great 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC library.thinkquest.org [Source type: Original source]

K. F. Weymann, Die dthiopische and arabische Ubersetzungen des Pseudo-Kallisthenes (Kirchhain, 1901).
Besides the English editions quoted in the text, the alliterative English poems were partially edited by J. Stevenson for the Roxburghe Club (1849). There is a great deal of information on the various texts in H. L. Wood's Catalogue of Romances in the British Museum (1883, vol. i. pp. 94 et seq.). See also A. Hermann, Untersuchungen fiber das Scottische Alexanderbuch (1893); and Unters. fiber das med. Gedicht, The Wars of Alexander (Berlin, 1889). Among other works see E. Rohde, Der griechische Roman (2nd ed. Leipzig, 1900); B. Meissner, Alexander u. Gilgamos (Leipzig, 1894); F. Kampers, "Alex. d. Grosse and die Idee des Weltimperiums in Prophetie and Sage" (in H. Granert's Studien, &c., Freiburg, 1901); Adolf Ausfeld, Der griechische Alexanderroman (Leipzig, 1907), edited after the author's death by W. Kroll; Wilhelm Hertz, "Aristoteles in den Alex. Dichtungen d. Mittelalters" (Kgl. Acad. d. Wissenschaften, Munich, 1891); H. Becker, Die Brahmanen in d. Alex. Sage (Konigsberg, 1889). (M. BR.)


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Proper noun

Singular
Alexander the Great
Plural
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  1. (356–323 BC) A king of ancient Macedon and conqueror of much of Asia.

Translations


Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki

the king of Macedonia, the great conqueror; probably represented in Daniel by the "belly of brass" (Dan 2:32), and the leopard and the he-goat (7:6; 11:3,4). He succeeded his father Philip, and died at the age of thirty-two from the effects of intemperance, B.C. 323. His empire was divided among his four generals.
This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.
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Child of Philip  +
Ruler of Macedonia  +

Simple English

File:AlexanderTheGreat
A sculpture of Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great (July 20 or 26, 356 BC - June 10 323 BC) was an Ancient Greek king of the kingdom of Macedon. He was born in the city of Pella and his father was the king Philip II. He was taught most of his skills in Athens during his childhood. He was taught by a great teacher and world famous philosopher named Aristotle, and through his teachings he became the world's first great military commander. At the age of 20 he became the king of Macedonia, after his father had been assassinated by a former bodyguard. He is known for his military skills. He wanted to rule a large empire called Persia. He is often listed as one of the greatest military commanders in history, along with Hannibal Barca, Ashoka the Great, Julius Caesar, Genghis Khan, Subutai, Napoleon I of France, and others.

File:Conquests alexander.gif
A map of Alexander the Great's empire at its biggest point. Click to enlarge.

By the time of his death he had conquered most of the Middle Eastern world known to Europeans, which included ancient Pakistan, Persia, Egypt, and Asia Minor. He died in Babylon in 323 BC of an unknown cause. Nobody knows the cause of Alexander's death. Some people have said his death was caused by poison in wine, murder or a fever after a battle.

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rue:Александер Великый


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