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Alexandra of Denmark
Queen consort of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions;
Empress consort of India
Tenure 22 January 1901 – 6 May 1910
Coronation 9 August 1902
Spouse Edward VII of the United Kingdom
Issue
Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale
George V of the United Kingdom
Louise, Princess Royal and Duchess of Fife
Princess Victoria Alexandra
Maud, Queen of Norway
Prince Alexander John
Full name
Alexandra Caroline Marie Charlotte Louise Julia
House House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
House of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
Father Christian IX of Denmark
Mother Louise of Hesse-Cassel
Born 1 December 1844(1844-12-01)
Yellow Palace, Copenhagen, Denmark
Died 20 November 1925 (aged 80)
Sandringham House, Norfolk
Burial 28 November 1925
St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle

Alexandra of Denmark (Alexandra Caroline Marie Charlotte Louise Julia; 1 December 1844 – 20 November 1925) was Queen of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions and Empress of India from 1901 to 1910 as the consort of Edward VII.

Her family had been relatively obscure until her father was chosen with the consent of the great powers to succeed his distant cousin to the Danish throne. At the age of sixteen she was chosen as the future wife of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, the heir of Queen Victoria. They married eighteen months later. As Princess of Wales from 1863 to 1901, the longest anyone has ever held that title, she won the hearts of the British people and became immensely popular; her style of dress and bearing were copied by fashion-conscious women. Although she was largely excluded from wielding any political power, she unsuccessfully attempted to sway the opinion of ministers and her family to favour her relations who reigned in Greece and Denmark. Her public duties were restricted to uncontroversial involvement in charitable work.

On the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, Albert Edward became King-Emperor as Edward VII, with Alexandra as Queen-Empress consort. From Edward's death in 1910 until her own death, she was the Queen Mother, being a queen and the mother of the reigning monarch, George V of the United Kingdom, though she was more generally styled Her Majesty Queen Alexandra. She greatly distrusted her nephew, Wilhelm II of Germany, and supported her son during World War I, in which Britain and its allies defeated Germany.

Contents

Early life

Alexandra's birth place: The Yellow Palace (Danish: Det Gule Palæ) in Copenhagen

Princess Alexandra Caroline Marie Charlotte Louise Julia, or "Alix", as she was known within the family, was born at the Yellow Palace, an 18th-century town house at 18 Amaliegade, right next to the Amalienborg Palace complex in Copenhagen.[1] Her father was Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg and her mother was Princess Louise of Hesse-Cassel.[2] Although she was of royal blood,[3] her family lived a comparatively normal life. They did not possess great wealth; her father's income from an army commission was about £800 per year and their house was a rent-free grace and favour property.[4] Occasionally, Hans Christian Andersen was invited to call and tell the children stories before bedtime.[5]

In 1848, King Christian VIII of Denmark died and his only son, Frederick ascended the throne. Frederick was childless, had been through two unsuccessful marriages, and was assumed to be infertile. A succession crisis arose as Frederick ruled in both Denmark and Schleswig-Holstein, and the succession rules of each were different. In Holstein, the Salic law prevented inheritance through the female line, whereas no such restrictions applied in Denmark. Holstein, being predominantly German, proclaimed independence and called in the aid of Prussia. In 1852, the great powers called a conference in London to discuss the Danish succession. An uneasy peace was agreed, which included the provision that Prince Christian of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg would be Frederick's heir in all his dominions and the prior claims of others (who included Christian's own mother-in-law, brother-in-law and wife) were surrendered.[6][7]

Prince Christian was given the title Prince of Denmark and his family moved into a new official residence, Bernstorff Palace. Although the family's status had risen, there was no or little increase in their income and they did not participate in court life at Copenhagen as they refused to meet Frederick's third wife and former mistress, Louise Rasmussen, who had an illegitimate child by a previous lover.[8] Alexandra shared a draughty attic bedroom with her sister, Dagmar (later Empress Maria of Russia), made her own clothes and waited at table along with her sisters.[9] At Bernstorff, Alexandra grew into a young woman; she was taught English by the English chaplain at Copenhagen and was confirmed in Christiansborg Palace.[10] Alexandra was devout throughout her life, and followed High Church beliefs.[11]

Marriage and family

Queen Victoria and her husband, Prince Albert, were already concerned with finding a bride for their son and heir, Albert Edward, the Prince of Wales. They enlisted the aid of their daughter, Crown Princess Victoria of Prussia, in seeking a suitable candidate. Alexandra was not their first choice, since the Danes were at loggerheads with the Prussians over the Schleswig-Holstein Question and most of the British royal family's relations were German. Eventually, after rejecting other possibilities, they settled on her as "the only one to be chosen".[12]

On 24 September 1861, Crown Princess Victoria introduced her brother Albert Edward to Alexandra at Speyer, but it was not until almost a year later on 9 September 1862 (after his affair with Nellie Clifden and the death of his father) that Albert Edward proposed to Alexandra at the Royal Castle of Laeken, the home of his great-uncle, King Leopold I of Belgium.[13]

The Landing of H.R.H. the Princess Alexandra at Gravesend, 7 March 1863, by Henry Nelson O'Neil (1864, National Maritime Museum)

A few months later, Alexandra travelled from Denmark to the United Kingdom aboard the HMY Victoria and Albert II for her marriage and arrived in Gravesend, Kent on 7 March 1863.[14] Sir Arthur Sullivan composed music for her arrival and Alfred Tennyson, the Poet Laureate, wrote an ode in Alexandra's honour:

Sea King's daughter from over the sea,

Alexandra!
Saxon and Norman and Dane are we,
But all of us Danes in our welcome of thee,
Alexandra!

A Welcome to Alexandra, Alfred Tennyson

The couple were married on 10 March 1863 at St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle by Thomas Longley, the Archbishop of Canterbury.[15] The choice of venue was criticised in the press (as it was outside London large public crowds would not be able to view the spectacle), by prospective guests (it was awkward to get to and, as the venue was small, some people who had expected invitations were not invited) and the Danes (as only Alexandra's closest relations were invited). The court was still in mourning for Prince Albert, so ladies were restricted to wearing grey, lilac or mauve.[16] The couple were seen off on their honeymoon at Osborne House on the Isle of Wight by the schoolboys of neighbouring Eton College, including Lord Randolph Churchill.[17]

1863 bust of Alexandra, in Halifax Town Hall

By the end of the following year, Alexandra's father had ascended the throne of Denmark, her brother George had become King of the Hellenes, her sister Dagmar was engaged to the Tsarevitch of Russia,[18] and Alexandra had given birth to her first child. Her father's accession gave rise to further conflict over the fate of Schleswig-Holstein. The German Confederation successfully invaded Denmark, reducing the area of Denmark by two-fifths. To the great irritation of Queen Victoria and the Crown Princess of Prussia, Alexandra and Albert Edward supported the Danish side in the war. The Prussian conquest of former Danish lands heightened Alexandra's profound dislike of the Germans, a feeling which stayed with her for the rest of her life.[19]

Alexandra's first child, Albert Victor, was born two months premature in early 1864. Alexandra was devoted to her children: "She was in her glory when she could run up to the nursery, put on a flannel apron, wash the children herself and see them asleep in their little beds."[20] Albert Edward and Alexandra had six children in total: Albert Victor, George, Louise, Victoria, Maud, and John.

In public Alexandra was dignified and charming, and in private affectionate and jolly.[9][21] She enjoyed many social activities, including dancing and ice-skating, and was an expert horsewoman and tandem driver.[22] She also enjoyed hunting, to the dismay of Queen Victoria, who asked her to stop, without success.[23] Even after the birth of her first child, she continued to behave much as before, which led to some friction between the Queen and the young couple, exacerbated by Alexandra's loathing of Germans and the Queen's partiality towards them. All of Alexandra's children were apparently born prematurely; she did not want Queen Victoria to be present at their births, so she deliberately misled the Queen as to her probable delivery dates.[24] During the birth of her third child in 1867, the added complication of a bout of rheumatic fever threatened Alexandra's life, leaving her with a permanent limp.[25]

Princess of Wales

Albert Edward and Alexandra visited Ireland in April 1868. After her illness the previous year, she had only just begun to walk again without the aid of two walking sticks, and was already pregnant with her fourth child.[26] They undertook a six-month tour taking in Austria, Egypt and Greece over 1868–9, which included visits to her brother, King George I of Greece, the Crimean battlefields and, for her only, the harem of the Khedive Ismail. In Turkey she became the first woman to sit down to dinner with the Sultan (Abdülâziz).[27]

Albert Edward and Alexandra made Sandringham House their preferred residence, with Marlborough House their London base. Biographers agree that their marriage was in many ways a happy one; however, some have asserted that Albert Edward did not give his wife as much attention as she would have liked and that they gradually became estranged, until his attack of typhoid fever (the disease which was believed to have killed his father) in late 1871 brought about a reconciliation.[28] This is disputed by others, who point out Alexandra's frequent pregnancies throughout this period and use family letters to deny the existence of any serious rift.[29] Nevertheless, Edward was severely criticized from many quarters of society for his apparent lack of interest in her very serious illness with rheumatic fever.[30] Throughout their marriage Albert Edward continued to keep company with other women, among them the actress Lillie Langtry; Daisy Greville, Countess of Warwick; humanitarian Agnes Keyser; and society matron Alice Keppel. Most of these were with the full knowledge of Alexandra, who later invited Alice Keppel to visit the King as he lay dying.[31] Alexandra herself remained faithful throughout her marriage.[32]

An increasing degree of deafness, caused by hereditary otosclerosis, led to Alexandra's social isolation; she spent more time at home with her children and pets.[33] Her sixth and final pregnancy ended in tragedy when her infant son died after only a day of life. Despite Alexandra's pleas for privacy, Queen Victoria insisted on announcing a period of court mourning, which led to unsympathetic elements of the press to describe the birth as "a wretched abortion" and the funeral arrangements as "sickening mummery".[34]

Queen Alexandra (right) with her mother (centre) and eldest daughter, Princess Louise (left)

For eight months over 1875–6, the Prince of Wales was absent from Britain on a tour of India, but to her dismay Alexandra was left behind. The Prince had planned an all-male group and intended to spend much of the time hunting and shooting. During the Prince's tour, one of his friends who was travelling with him, Lord Aylesford, was told by his wife that she was going to leave him for another man: Lord Blandford, who was himself married. Aylesford was appalled and decided to seek a divorce. Meanwhile, Lord Blandford's brother, Lord Randolph Churchill, persuaded the lovers against an elopement. Now concerned by the threat of divorce, Lady Aylesford sought to dissuade her husband from proceeding but Lord Aylesford was adamant and refused to reconsider. In an attempt to pressure Lord Aylesford to drop his divorce suit, Lady Aylesford and Lord Randolph Churchill called on Alexandra and told her that if the divorce was to proceed they would subpoena her husband as a witness and implicate him in the scandal. Distressed at their threats, and following the advice of Sir William Knollys and the Duchess of Teck, Alexandra informed the Queen, who then wrote to the Prince of Wales. The Prince was incensed. Eventually, the Blandfords and the Aylesfords both separated privately. Although Lord Randolph Churchill later apologised, for years afterwards the Prince of Wales refused to speak to or see him.[35]

Alexandra spent the spring of 1877 in Greece recuperating from a period of ill health and visiting her brother King George of the Hellenes.[36] During the Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878), Alexandra was clearly partial against Turkey and towards Russia, where her sister was married to the Tsarevitch, and she lobbied for a revision of the border between Greece and Turkey in favour of the Greeks.[37] Alexandra and her two sons spent the next three years largely parted from each other's company as the boys were sent on a worldwide cruise as part of their naval and general education. The farewell was very tearful and, as shown by her regular letters, she missed them dreadfully.[38] In 1881, Alexandra and Albert Edward travelled to Saint Petersburg after the assassination of Alexander II of Russia, both to represent Britain and so that Alexandra could provide comfort to her sister, who was now the Tsarina.[39]

Alexandra undertook many public duties; in the words of Queen Victoria, "to spare me the strain and fatigue of functions. She opens bazaars, attends concerts, visits hospitals in my place ... she not only never complains, but endeavours to prove that she has enjoyed what to another would be a tiresome duty."[40] She took a particular interest in the London Hospital, visiting it regularly. Joseph Merrick, the so-called "Elephant Man", was one of the patients whom she met.[41] Crowds usually cheered Alexandra rapturously,[42] but during a visit to Ireland in 1885, she suffered a rare moment of public hostility when visiting the City of Cork, a hotbed of Irish nationalism. She, and her husband, were booed by a crowd of two or three thousand people brandishing sticks and black flags. She smiled her way through the ordeal, and the British press still portrayed the visit in a positive light, describing the crowds as "enthusiastic".[43] As part of the same visit, she received a Doctorate in Music from Trinity College, Dublin.[44]

The death of her eldest son, Prince Albert Victor, Duke of Clarence and Avondale, in 1892 was a serious blow to the tender-hearted Alexandra, and his room and possessions were kept exactly as he had left them, much as those of Prince Albert were left after his death in 1861.[45] She said, "I have buried my angel and with him my happiness."[46] Surviving letters between Alexandra and her children indicate that they were mutually devoted.[47] In 1894, her brother-in-law, Alexander III of Russia, died and her nephew, Nicholas II of Russia became Tsar. Alexandra's widowed sister, the Dowager Empress Maria, leant heavily on her for support; Alexandra slept, prayed and stayed beside her sister for the next two weeks until Alexander's burial.[48]

Queen Alexandra

Alexandra was an enthusiastic amateur photographer.[49] Queen Alexandra's Christmas gift book, frontispiece shown above, contained royal photographs and was published to raise money for charities.
Alexandra (right) with her daughter Victoria

Queen Consort

With the death of her mother-in-law, Queen Victoria, in 1901, Alexandra became queen-empress consort to the new king. Just two months later, her surviving son George and daughter-in-law Mary of Teck, left on an extensive tour of the empire, leaving their young children in the care of Alexandra and Edward, who doted on their grandchildren. On George's return, preparations for the coronation of Edward and Alexandra were well in hand. Just a few days before the scheduled coronation in June 1902, however, Edward became seriously ill with appendicitis. Alexandra deputised for him at a military parade, and attended the Royal Ascot races without him, in an attempt to prevent public alarm.[50] Eventually, the coronation had to be postponed and Edward had an operation to drain the infected appendix. After his recovery, Alexandra and Edward were crowned together in August: he by the Archbishop of Canterbury, Frederick Temple, and she by the Archbishop of York, William Dalrymple Maclagan.[51]

Despite now being queen, Alexandra's duties changed little, and she kept many of the same retainers. Alexandra's Woman of the Bedchamber, Charlotte Knollys, served Alexandra loyally for many years. On 10 December 1903, Charlotte, the daughter of Sir William Knollys, woke to find her bedroom full of smoke. She roused Alexandra and shepherded her to safety. In the words of Grand Duchess Augusta of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, "We must give credit to old Charlotte for really saving [Alexandra's] life."[52]

Alexandra again looked after her grandchildren when George and Mary went on a second tour, this time to India, over the winter of 1905–6.[53] Her father, King Christian IX of Denmark, died that January. Eager to retain their family links, to both each other and to Denmark, in 1907 Alexandra and her sister Empress Maria purchased a villa north of Copenhagen, Hvidøre, as a private getaway.[54]

Biographers have asserted that Alexandra was denied access to the King's briefing papers and excluded from some of the King's foreign tours to prevent her meddling in diplomatic matters.[55] She was deeply distrustful of Germans, and invariably opposed anything that favoured German expansion or interests. For example, in 1890 Alexandra wrote a memorandum, distributed to senior British ministers and military personnel, warning against the planned exchange of the British North Sea island of Heligoland for the German colony of Zanzibar, pointing out Heligoland's strategic significance and that it could be used either by Germany to launch an attack, or by Britain to contain German aggression.[56] Despite this, the exchange went ahead anyway. The Germans fortified the island and, in the words of Robert Ensor and as Alexandra had predicted, it "became the keystone of Germany's maritime position for offence as well as for defence".[57] The Frankfurter Zeitung was outspoken in its condemnation of Alexandra and her sister, the Dowager Empress of Russia, saying that the pair were "the centre of the international anti-German conspiracy".[58] She despised and distrusted her nephew, Wilhelm II of Germany, calling him in 1900 "inwardly our enemy".[59]

In 1910, Alexandra became the first queen consort to visit the British House of Commons during a debate. In a remarkable departure from precedent, for two hours she sat in the Ladies' Gallery overlooking the chamber while the Parliament Bill, a bill to reform the role of the House of Lords, was debated.[60] Privately, Alexandra disagreed with the bill.[61] Shortly afterward, she left to visit her brother, King George I of Greece, in Corfu. While there, she received news that King Edward was seriously ill. Alexandra returned at once and arrived just the day before her husband died. In his last hours, she personally administered oxygen from a gas cylinder to help him breathe.[62] She told Frederick Ponsonby, "I feel as if I had been turned into stone, unable to cry, unable to grasp the meaning of it all."[63] Later that year, she moved out of Buckingham Palace to Marlborough House, but she retained possession of Sandringham.[64] The new king, Alexandra's son George, soon faced a decision over the Parliament Bill. Despite her personal views, Alexandra supported the King's decision to help force the bill through Parliament at the Prime Minister's request but against the wishes of the House of Lords when the reforming party won elections to the House of Commons.[65]

Queen Mother

Queen Alexandra, 1923

She did not attend her son's coronation in 1911 since it was not customary for a crowned queen to attend the coronation of another king or queen, but otherwise continued the public side of her life, devoting time to her charitable causes. One such cause included Alexandra Rose Day, where artificial roses made by the disabled were sold in aid of hospitals by women volunteers.[66][67] During the First World War, the custom of hanging the banners of foreign princes invested with Britain's highest order of knighthood, the Order of the Garter, in St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, came under criticism, as the German members of the Order were fighting against Britain. Alexandra joined calls to "have down those hateful German banners".[68] Driven by public opinion, but against his own wishes, the King had the banners removed but to Alexandra's dismay he had down not only "those vile Prussian banners" but also those of her relations who were, in her opinion, "simply soldiers or vassals under that brutal German Emperor's orders".[68] On 17 September 1916, she was at Sandringham during a Zeppelin air raid,[69] but far worse was to befall the royalty of Europe. In Russia, Tsar Nicholas II was overthrown and he, his wife and children were killed by revolutionaries. The Dowager Empress was rescued from Russia in 1919 by HMS Marlborough and brought to England where she lived for some time with her sister, Alexandra.[70]

Alexandra retained a youthful appearance into her senior years,[71] but during the war her age caught up with her.[72] She took to wearing elaborate veils and heavy makeup, which was described by gossipy women as having her face "enamelled".[9] She made no more trips abroad, and suffered increasing ill-health. In 1920, a blood vessel in her eye burst, leaving her partially blind temporarily.[73] Towards the end of her life, her memory and speech became impaired.[74] She died on 20 November 1925 at Sandringham after suffering a heart attack and was buried in an elaborate tomb next to her husband in St. George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.[1]

Legacy

The Queen Alexandra Memorial, situated opposite St. James's Palace

The Queen Alexandra Memorial by Alfred Gilbert was unveiled on 8 June 1932 (Alexandra Rose Day) at Marlborough Gate, London.[75] An ode in her memory, "So many true princesses who have gone", composed by the then Master of the King's Musick Sir Edward Elgar to words by the Poet Laureate John Masefield, was sung at the unveiling and conducted by the composer.[76]

Alexandra was highly popular with the British public.[9][77] Unlike her husband and mother-in-law, she was not castigated by the press.[78] Funds that she helped to collect were used to buy a river launch, called Alexandra, to ferry the wounded during the Sudan campaign,[79] and to fit out a hospital ship, named The Princess of Wales, to bring back wounded from the Boer War.[80] During the Boer War, she also founded Queen Alexandra's Imperial Military Nursing Service, later renamed Queen Alexandra's Royal Army Nursing Corps.

She had little understanding of money.[81] The management of her finances was left in the hands of her loyal Comptroller, Sir Dighton Probyn VC, who undertook a similar role for her husband. In the words of her grandson, Edward VIII (later the Duke of Windsor), "Her generosity was a source of embarrassment to her financial advisers. Whenever she received a letter soliciting money, a cheque would be sent by the next post, regardless of the authenticity of the mendicant and without having the case investigated."[82] Though she was not always extravagant (she had her old stockings darned for re-use and her old dresses were recycled as furniture covers),[83] she would dismiss protests about her heavy spending with a wave of a hand or by claiming that she had not heard.[84]

She hid a small scar on her neck, which was likely the result of a childhood operation,[85] by wearing choker necklaces and high necklines, setting fashions which were adopted for fifty years.[86] Alexandra's effect on fashion was so profound that society ladies even copied her limping gait, after her serious illness in 1867 left her with a stiff leg.[87] She used predominantly the London fashion houses; her favourite was Redfern's, but she shopped occasionally at Doucet and Fromont of Paris.[83]

Queen Alexandra has been portrayed on British television by Deborah Grant and Helen Ryan in Edward the Seventh, by Ann Firbank in Lillie, by Maggie Smith in All the King's Men, and by Bibi Andersson in The Lost Prince.

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Royal styles of
Queen Alexandra

UK Arms 1837.svg

Reference style Her Majesty
Spoken style Your Majesty
Alternative style Ma'am
Arms of Queen Alexandra

Titles and styles

  • 1 December 1844 – 31 July 1853[2]: Her Serene Highness Princess Alexandra of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Glücksburg
  • 31 July 1853 – 21 December 1858[2]: Her Highness Princess Alexandra of Denmark
  • 21 December 1858 – 10 March 1863: Her Royal Highness Princess Alexandra of Denmark
  • 10 March 1863 – 22 January 1901: Her Royal Highness The Princess of Wales
  • 22 January 1901 – 6 May 1910: Her Majesty The Queen
    • in India: Her Imperial Majesty The Queen-Empress
  • 6 May 1910 – 20 November 1925: Her Majesty Queen Alexandra

Honours

In 1901, she became the first woman to be made a Lady of the Garter since 1495.[88]

Arms

Queen Alexandra's arms were the Royal Coat of Arms of the United Kingdom impaled with the arms of her father, Christian IX of Denmark.[89]

Ancestors

See also

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Notes

  1. ^ a b Eilers, Marlene A. - Queen Victoria's Descendants, p. 171
  2. ^ a b c Montgomery-Massingberd, Hugh (ed.) (1977). Burke's Royal Families of the World, Volume 1. (London: Burke's Peerage). ISBN 0 220 66222 3. pp. 69–70
  3. ^ Her mother and father were both great-grandchildren of King Frederick V of Denmark and great-great-grandchildren of King George II of Great Britain.
  4. ^ Duff, pp. 16–17
  5. ^ Duff, p. 18
  6. ^ Battiscombe, p. 8
  7. ^ Maclagan, Michael; Louda, Jiří (1999). Lines of Succession (London: Little, Brown). ISBN 0 856 05469 1. p. 49
  8. ^ Duff, pp. 19–20
  9. ^ a b c d Priestley, p. 17
  10. ^ Duff, p. 21
  11. ^ Battiscombe, pp. 125 and 176
  12. ^ Prince Albert quoted in Duff, p. 31
  13. ^ Battiscombe, pp. 27–37; Bentley-Cranch, p. 44 and Duff, p. 43
  14. ^ The Landing of HRH The Princess Alexandra at Gravesend, 7th March 1863, National Portrait Gallery, retrieved on 16 July 2009
  15. ^ Her bridesmaids were The Ladies Diana Beauclerk, Victoria Montagu-Douglas-Scott, Victoria Howard, Elma Bruce, Agneta Yorke, Emily Villiers, Eleanor Hare and Feodora Wellesley.
  16. ^ Duff, pp. 48–50
  17. ^ Duff, p. 60
  18. ^ He died within a few months of the engagement and she married his brother, Alexander, instead.
  19. ^ Purdue, A. W. (September 2004), "Alexandra (1844–1925)", Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford University Press), doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/30375, http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/30375, retrieved 16 July 2009  (Subscription required)
  20. ^ Mrs. Blackburn, the head nurse, quoted in Duff, p. 115
  21. ^ Battiscombe, pp. 127, 222–223
  22. ^ Duff, p. 143
  23. ^ Hough, p. 102
  24. ^ Hough, p. 116
  25. ^ Battiscombe, pp. 82–86 and Duff, pp. 73 and 81
  26. ^ Battiscombe, p. 94
  27. ^ Duff, pp. 93–100
  28. ^ Duff, p. 111 and Philip Magnus quoted in Battiscombe, pp. 109–110
  29. ^ Battiscombe, p. 110
  30. ^ Hough, pp. 132-134
  31. ^ Battiscombe, p. 271 and Priestley, p. 18 and 180
  32. ^ Battiscombe, pp. 100–101
  33. ^ Battiscombe, p. 88 and Duff, p. 82
  34. ^ Duff, p. 85
  35. ^ Battiscombe, pp. 132–135
  36. ^ Battiscombe, p. 136
  37. ^ Battiscombe, pp. 150–152
  38. ^ Battiscombe, pp. 155–156
  39. ^ Battiscombe, pp. 157–160 and Duff, p. 131
  40. ^ Queen Victoria quoted in Duff, p. 146
  41. ^ Battiscombe, pp. 257–258 and Duff, pp. 148–151
  42. ^ Battiscombe, p. 166
  43. ^ Daily Telegraph quoted in Battiscombe, p. 168
  44. ^ Battiscombe, p. 167
  45. ^ Battiscombe, pp. 189–193, 197 and Duff, p. 184
  46. ^ Alexandra quoted in Duff, p. 186
  47. ^ Battiscombe, pp. 141–142
  48. ^ Battiscombe, p. 205 and Duff, pp. 196–197
  49. ^ Battiscombe, p. 204
  50. ^ Battiscombe, pp. 243–244
  51. ^ Battiscombe, p. 249
  52. ^ Battiscombe, p. 253
  53. ^ Battiscombe, p. 258
  54. ^ Battiscombe, p. 262 and Duff, pp. 239–240
  55. ^ Duff, pp. 225–227
  56. ^ Battiscombe, pp. 176–179
  57. ^ Ensor, p. 194
  58. ^ Quoted in Duff, p. 234
  59. ^ Duff, pp. 207 and 239
  60. ^ Battiscombe, p. 269
  61. ^ Battiscombe, p. 278
  62. ^ Duff, pp. 249–250
  63. ^ Ponsonby's memoirs quoted in Duff, p. 251
  64. ^ Battiscombe, p. 274 and Windsor, p. 77
  65. ^ Battiscombe, pp. 277–278
  66. ^ Duff, pp. 251–257 and 260
  67. ^ The Alexandra Rose Day fund still exists; its patron is Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Lady Ogilvy, Alexandra's great-granddaughter.
  68. ^ a b Alexandra to King George V, quoted in Battiscombe, p. 285
  69. ^ Battiscombe, pp. 291–292
  70. ^ Duff, pp. 285–286
  71. ^ e.g. Mary Gladstone and Lord Carrington, quoted in Battiscombe, p. 206; Margot Asquith, quoted in Battiscombe, pp. 216–217; Jackie Fisher, 1st Baron Fisher quoted in Battiscombe, p. 232
  72. ^ Alexandra herself and Queen Mary quoted by Battiscombe, p. 296
  73. ^ Battiscombe, p. 299
  74. ^ Battiscombe, pp. 301–302
  75. ^ Dorment, Richard (January 1980). "Alfred Gilbert's Memorial to Queen Alexandra" The Burlington Magazine vol. CXXII pp. 47–54
  76. ^ "Alexandra The Rose Queen" The Times, 9 June 1932 p. 13 col. F
  77. ^ Battiscombe, pp. 66–68, 85, 120, and 215, and Duff, p. 215
  78. ^ Duff, pp. 113, 163 and 192
  79. ^ Battiscombe, p. 169
  80. ^ Battiscombe, p. 212–213 and Duff, p. 206
  81. ^ Battiscombe, p. 72
  82. ^ Windsor, pp. 85–86
  83. ^ a b Battiscombe, p. 203
  84. ^ Battiscombe, p. 293
  85. ^ Baron Stockmar, who was a doctor, quoted in Duff, p. 37
  86. ^ Battiscombe, pp. 24–25
  87. ^ Battiscombe, p. 92
  88. ^ Duff, pp. 215–216
  89. ^ See, for example, the cover of Battiscombe

References

  • Battiscombe, Georgina (1969). Queen Alexandra (London: Constable) ISBN 0 094 56560 0
  • Bentley-Cranch, Dana (1992). Edward VII: Image of an Era 1841-1910 (London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office) ISBN 0 112 90508 0
  • Duff, David (1980) Alexandra: Princess and Queen (London: Collins) ISBN 0 002 16667 4
  • Ensor, R. C. K. (1936). England 1870–1914 (Oxford University Press)
  • Hough, Richard (1992). Edward & Alexandra: Their Private And Public Lives (London: Hodder & Stoddart) ISBN 0 340 55825 3
  • Priestley, J. B. (1970). The Edwardians (London: Heinemann) ISBN 0 434 60332 5
  • Windsor, The Duke of (1951). A King's Story: The Memoirs of H.R.H. The Duke of Windsor K.G. (London: Cassell and Co.)

External links

Alexandra of Denmark
Cadet branch of the House of Oldenburg
Born: 1 December 1844 Died: 20 November 1925
British royalty
Vacant
Title last held by
Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
as Prince consort
Queen consort of the United Kingdom
1901–1910
Succeeded by
Mary of Teck
Vacant
No living consort at creation of title
Empress consort of India
1901–1910

Simple English

File:Alexandra of
Alexandra of Denmark

Alexandra of Denmark (Alexandra Carolina Marie Charlotte Louise Julia; 1 December 1844 – 20 November 1925) was the wife of King Edward VII. She was born in Denmark, and married Edward, then Prince of Wales, in 1863. After her husband's death in 1910, she retired from public life. She died at the age of 80 in 1925.

More reading

  • Battiscombe, Georgina (1969). Queen Alexandra. London: Constable. ISBN 09-456560-0. 
  • Bentley-Cranch, Dana (1992). Edward VII: Image of an Era 1841-1910. London: Her Majesty's Stationery Office. ISBN 0-112-90508-0. 
  • Duff, David (1980). Alexandra: Princess and Queen. London: Collins. ISBN 0-002-16667-4. 
  • Ensor, R. C. K. (1936). England 1870–1914. Oxford University Press. 
  • Hough, Richard (1992). Edward & Alexandra: Their Private And Public Lives. London: Hodder & Stoddart. ISBN 0-340-55825-3. 
  • Priestley, J. B. (1970). The Edwardians. London: Heinemann. ISBN 0-434-60332-5. 
  • Windsor, The Duke of (1951). A King's Story: The Memoirs of H.R.H. The Duke of Windsor K.G.. London: Cassell and Co. 

Other websites

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