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Also see: Bucephala or Alexandria (disambiguation).
Alexandria Bucephalous, or Bucephala (center right), was located on the Hydaspes river, north of nearby Nicaea across the river.

Alexandria Bucephalous, or Alexandria Bucephalus or Bucephala or Bucephalia, was a city founded by Alexander the Great in memory of his beloved horse Bucephalus.[1][2] Founded in May 326 BC, the town was located on the Hydaspes (Jhelum River), east of the Indus River.[2] Bucephalus had died after the Battle of the Hydaspes in 326 BC. The garrison was settled with Greek and Iranian veterans plus natives.[2] It had large dockyards suggesting it was intended as a center of commerce.

Across the river, the nearby town of Alexandria Nicaea[2] was also founded on the battlefield at that time.[2]

G.W.B. Huntingford identifies this Alexandria with a large mound west of Jhelum, a city 150 miles (242 km) south east of Peshawar, Pakistan.[2]

Alexandria Bucephalous is mentioned in the 1st century Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, as well as in the Roman Peutinger Table:

"The country inland of Barigaza is inhabited by numerous tribes, such as the Arattii, the Arachosii, the Gandaraei and the people of Poclais, in which is Bucephalus Alexandria"

Several cities were named with the pre-name "Alexandria" during the period. Alexander the Great founded nearly 20 towns,[2] but also renamed others for a total of about 70 towns reportedly named by him.[2]

Notes

  1. ^ "The History of Alexander the Great", Pseudo-Callisthenes, Ernest Alfred Wallis, 1889, p.161 (see below: References).
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h "Alexander the Great: his towns", Jona Lendering, Livius.org, 2007 (see below: References): states "Nicaea and Bucephala: twin foundation of permanent garrisons on opposite banks" of Hydaspes (Jhelum river), "founded in May 326 on the battle field"; plus "Settled with Greek & Iranian veterans & natives" and might be "modern Jhelum" in Pakistan; towns had "large dockyards" suggesting they were centers of commerce.
  3. ^ Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, Fordham.edu, webpage: Fordham-edu-periplus

References

  • Pseudo-Callisthenes, Ernest Alfred Wallis, The History of Alexander the Great, 1889, page 161, Google Books link: books-google-18.
  • Jona Lendering, "Alexander the Great: his towns", Livius.org, 2007, webpage: Livius-alex-z2.

Coordinates: 32°55′52″N 73°43′51″E / 32.93111°N 73.73083°E / 32.93111; 73.73083

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