Alfonso XII of Spain: Wikis

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Alfonso XII
King of Spain
Reign 29 December 1874 – 25 November 1885
Predecessor First Spanish Republic
Successor Alfonso XIII
Spouse Mercedes of Orléans
Maria Christina of Austria
Issue
Mercedes, Princess of Asturias
Infanta Maria Teresa
Alfonso XIII of Spain
House House of Bourbon
Father Francis, Duke of Cádiz
Mother Isabella II of Spain
Born 28 November 1857(1857-11-28)
Madrid
Died 25 November 1885 (aged 27)
El Pardo

Alfonso XII (born Alfonso Francisco de Asís Fernando Pío Juan María de la Concepción Gregorio Pelayo) (Madrid, 28 November 1857 – El Pardo, 25 November 1885) was king of Spain, reigning from 1875 to 1885, after a coup d'état restored the monarchy and ended the ephemeral First Spanish Republic.

Alfonso was the son of Isabella II of Spain, and allegedly, Francis of Assisi de Borbon, her King Consort. His true biological paternity is uncertain, though his legal paternity is not: his mother was married to her (presumed homosexual) cousin Francis of Assisi de Borbon, the King Consort of Spain, at the time of Alfonso's conception and birth. Some theories suggest that Alfonso's biological father might have been either Enrique Puigmoltó y Mayans, Captain of the Spanish Royal Guard, or General Francisco Serrano.

Contents

In exile

When Queen Isabella and her husband were forced to leave Spain by the Revolution of 1868, Alfonso accompanied them to Paris. From there, he was sent to the Theresianum at Vienna to continue his studies. On 25 June 1870, he was recalled to Paris, where his mother abdicated in his favour, in the presence of a number of Spanish nobles who had tied their fortunes to that of the exiled queen. He assumed the title of Alfonso XII, for although no King of united Spain had borne the name "Alfonso XI", the Spanish monarchy was regarded as continuous with the more ancient monarchy represented by the eleven kings of León and Castile, also named Alfonso.

Shortly afterwards, Alfonso proceeded to the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst in the United Kingdom in order to continue his military studies. While there, he issued, on 1 December 1874, in reply to a birthday greeting from his followers, a manifesto proclaiming himself the sole representative of the Spanish monarchy. At the end of that year, when Marshal Serrano left Madrid to take command of the northern army in the Carlist War, Brigadier Martínez Campos, who had long been working more or less openly for the king, led some battalions of the central army to Sagunto, rallied to his own flag the troops sent against him, and entered Valencia in the king's name. Thereupon the president of the council resigned, and his power was transferred to the king's plenipotentiary and adviser, Antonio Cánovas.

Return from exile

Within a few days after Canovas del Castillo took power, the new king, proclaimed on 29 December 1874, arrived at Madrid, passing through Barcelona and Valencia and was acclaimed everywhere (1875). In 1876, a vigorous campaign against the Carlists, in which the young king took part, resulted in the defeat of Don Carlos and the Duke's abandonment of the struggle.

On 23 January 1878 at the Basilica of Atocha in Madrid, Alfonso married his cousin, Princess Maria de las Mercedes, daughter of Antoine, Duke of Montpensier, but she died within six months of the marriage. Towards the end of the same year, a young workman of Tarragona, Juan Oliva Moncasi, fired at the king in Madrid.

Second marriage and rule

On 29 November 1879 at the Basilica of Atocha in Madrid, Alfonso married a much more distant relative, Maria Christina of Austria, daughter of Archduke Karl Ferdinand of Austria and of his wife Archduchess Elisabeth of Austria. During the honeymoon, a pastry cook named Otero fired at the young sovereign and his wife as they were driving in Madrid.

The children of this marriage were:

In 1881, the King refused to sanction a law by which the ministers were to remain in office for a fixed term of eighteen months. Upon the consequent resignation of Canovas del Castillo, he summoned Práxedes Mateo Sagasta, the Liberal leader, to form a new cabinet.

Death and impact

Monument to Alfonso XII in Parque del Retiro, Madrid.

In November 1885, Alfonso died, just short of his 28th birthday, of tuberculosis.

Coming to the throne at such an early age, Alfonso had served no apprenticeship in the art of ruling, but he possessed great natural tact and a sound judgment ripened by the trials of exile. Benevolent and sympathetic in disposition, he won the affection of his people by fearlessly visiting districts ravaged by cholera or devastated by earthquake in 1885. His capacity for dealing with men was considerable, and he never allowed himself to become the instrument of any particular party. During his short reign, peace was established both at home and abroad, finances were well regulated, and the various administrative services were placed on a basis that afterwards enabled Spain to pass through the disastrous war with the United States without the threat of a revolution.

He was the 996th Knight of the Order of the Golden Fleece in Spain, the 104th Grand Cross of the Order of the Tower and Sword in 1861 and the 775th Knight of the Order of the Garter in 1881.

Illegitimate issue

He has two sons by Elena Sánz y Martínez de Arrizala (Castellón de la Plana, 15 December 1849 - Paris, 24 December 1898), who also had another son by an unknown father other than the King named Jorje Sánz y Martínez de Arrizala:

    • Alfonso Sánz y Martínez de Arrizala (Madrid, 28 January 1880 - 1970), married in 1922 to María de Guadalupe Lymantur y Mariscal (- Marbella, 1977), daughter of Julio Limantour y Marquet (Mexico City, 17 June 1863 - Mexico City, 11 October 1909) and wife Elena Mariscal y ..., paternal granddaughter of French Joseph Yves Limantour (Pleomour, 1812 - Mexico City, 1885) and wife Adèle Marquet (Bordeaux - ?), and maternal granddaughter of Ignacio Mariscal y ... (Oaxaca, Oaxaca, 5 July 1829 - Mexico City, 17 April 1910) and wife ..., and had issue:
    • Elena Sánz y Lymantur (1922 - 1979), married in 1949 to Robert Borgs, and had issue:
      • Bruce Borgs (b. 1953)
      • Warren Borgs (b. 1957)
    • María Luisa Sánz y Limantour (1925 -), married in 1944 to Alberto Wittig y Cooke, son of Alberto Wittig and wife Cecilia Cooke, and had issue:
      • Leslie Wittig y Sánz(b. Santiago-Chile), unmarried and without issue
      • Jaime Wittig y Sánz (b. Lisbon), unmarried and without issue
      • Priscilla Wittig y Sánz (b. Paris, 1945), married to Gonzalo García y Rawson (b. Valparaiso-Chile), and had issue:
        • Priscilla García y Wittig (b. Marbella-Spain 1982)
        • Alejandra García y Wittig (b. Madrid 1984)
      • Patricia Wittig y Sánz (b. Paris, 1946), married to Luis González y López de Carrizosa (b. Jerez de la Frontera), and had issue:
        • Pablo González y Wittig (b. 1975)
        • Marcos González y Wittig (b. 1979)
        • Bruno González y Wittig (b. 1981)
        • Moira González y Wittig (b. 1985)
      • Jennifer Wittig y Sánz (b. Lisbon), unmarried and without issue
      • Fernando Sanz y Martínez de Arizala (Madrid, 28 February 1881 - Nice, 1922), unmarried and without issue

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.He has two sons by Elena Sánz y Martínez de Arrizala (Castellón de la Plana, 15 December 1849 - Paris, 24 December 1898), who also had another son by an unknown father other than the King named Jorje Sánz y Martínez de Arrizala:

Alfonso Sánz y Martínez de Arrizala (Madrid, 28 January 1880 - 1970), married in 1922 to María de Guadalupe Lymantur y Mariscal (- Marbella, 1977), daughter of Julio Limantour y Marquet (Mexico City, 17 June 1863 - Mexico City, 11 October 1909) and wife Elena Mariscal y ..., paternal granddaughter of French Joseph Yves Limantour (Pleomour, 1812 - Mexico City, 1885) and wife Adèle Marquet (Bordeaux - ?), and maternal granddaughter of Ignacio Mariscal y ... (Oaxaca, Oaxaca, 5 July 1829 - Mexico City, 17 April 1910) and wife ..., and had issue: Elena Sánz y Lymantur (1922 - 1979), married in 1949 to Robert Borges, and had issue: Bruce Borges (b. 1953) had issue: Miranda Borges (b. 1987) Warren Borges (b. 1957) had issue: Nathan Borges (b. 1989) María Luisa Sánz y Limantour (1925 -), married in 1944 to Alberto Wittig y Cooke, son of Alberto Wittig and wife Cecilia Cooke, and had issue: Leslie Wittig y Sánz(b. Santiago-Chile), unmarried and without issue Jaime Wittig y Sánz (b. Lisbon), unmarried and without issue Priscilla Wittig y Sánz (b. Paris, 1945), married to Gonzalo García y Rawson (b. Valparaiso-Chile), and had issue: Priscilla García y Wittig (b. Marbella-Spain 1982) Alejandra García y Wittig (b. Madrid 1984) Patricia Wittig y Sánz (b. Paris, 1946), married to Luis González y López de Carrizosa (b. Jerez de la Frontera), and had issue: Pablo González y Wittig (b. 1975) Marcos González y Wittig (b. 1979) Bruno González y Wittig (b. 1981) Moira González y Wittig (b. 1985) Jennifer Wittig y Sánz (b. Lisbon), unmarried and without issue Fernando Sanz y Martínez de Arizala (Madrid, 28 February 1881 - Nice, 1922), unmarried and without issue [edit]

Ancestry

External links

Alfonso XII of Spain
Cadet branch of the Capetian dynasty
Born: 28 November 1857 Died: 25 November 1885
Regnal titles
First Republic
Title last held by
Amadeus I
King of Spain
1875–1885
Vacant
Title next held by
Alfonso XIII
Spanish nobility
Preceded by
Infanta Isabella
First Time
Prince of Asturias
1857-1868
Vacant
Title next held by
Infanta Isabella
second time
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