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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Right Honourable
 The Lord Melchett 
PC, FRS


In office
10 December 1916 – 1 April 1921
Monarch George V
Prime Minister David Lloyd George
Preceded by Lewis Vernon Harcourt
Succeeded by The Earl of Crawford

In office
1 April 1921 – 19 October 1922
Monarch George V
Prime Minister David Lloyd George
Preceded by Christopher Addison
Succeeded by Sir Arthur Griffith-Boscawen

Born 23 October 1868 (1868-10-23)
Farnworth, Widnes, Lancashire, England
Died 27 December 1930 (1930-12-28)
London
Nationality British
Political party Liberal
Conservative
Spouse(s) Violet Goetze (d. 1945)
Alma mater St. John's College, Cambridge
University of Edinburgh

Alfred Moritz Mond, 1st Baron Melchett PC, FRS (23 October 1868–27 December 1930), known as Sir Alfred Mond, Bt, between 1910 and 1928, was a British industrialist, financier and politician. In his later life he became an active Zionist.

Contents

Early life and education

Mond was born in Farnworth, Widnes, Lancashire, England, the younger son of Ludwig Mond, a chemist and industrialist of Jewish extraction who had emigrated from Germany, and his wife Frieda, née Löwenthal. He was educated at Cheltenham College and St. John's College, Cambridge,[1] but failed his natural sciences tripos. He then studied law at Edinburgh University and was called to the bar by the Inner Temple in 1894.[2]

Business career

Following this he joined his father's business, Brunner Mond & Company as director, later becoming its managing director. He was also managing director of his father's other company the Mond Nickel Company. Other directorships included those of the International Nickel Corporation of Canada, the Westminster Bank and the Industrial Finance Investment Corporation. His major business achievement was in 1926 working to create the merger of four separate companies to form Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI) one of the world's largest industrial corporations at the time.[2] He became its first chairman.[3]

Political career

Mond was also involved in politics and sat as Liberal Member of Parliament for Chester from 1906 to 1910, for Swansea from 1910 to 1918 and for Swansea West from 1918 to 1923. He served in the coalition government of David Lloyd George as First Commissioner of Works from 1916 to 1921 and as Minister of Health (with a seat in the cabinet) from 1921 to 1922. He later switched party and represented Carmarthen from 1924 to 1928, initially as a Liberal. However, in 1926 Mond became a Conservative, after falling out with Lloyd George over the former Prime Minister's controversial plans to nationalise agricultural land.[2] [4]

Mond was created a Baronet, of Hartford Hill in Great Budworth in the County of Chester, in 1910, and was admitted to the Privy Council in 1913.[2][5] In 1928 he was raised to the peerage as Baron Melchett, of Landford in the County of Southampton.[2][6]

Benefactions, Zionism and honours

Mond's father had bequeathed a collection of old master paintings to the National Gallery and Alfred provided housing for them in 1924. In 1929 he provided land in Chelsea for the Chelsea Health Society.[2]

He first visited Palestine in 1921 with Chaim Weizmann and subsequently became an enthusiastic Zionist, contributing money to the Jewish Colonization Corporation for Palestine and writing for Zionist publications.[2] He became President of the British Zionist Foundation and made financial contributions to Zionist causes. He was the first President of the Technion in 1925.[7] Melchett founded the town of Tel Mond, now in Israel.[8]

Mond was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1928 and received a number of honorary degrees from Oxford, Paris and other universities.[2]

Personal life

The Iconoclast
Sir Alfred Mond: "I'm sorry to have to disturb Your Majesty, but, owing to the shortage of sites—"
George III: "Shortage of sights, indeed!"
(It is understood that a number of London statues, including that of George III in Cockspur Street, are to be removed by the Office of Works to make room for new ones.)
Cartoon from Punch magazine, 18 August 1920.

In 1894 Mond married Violet Goetze and they had one son, Henry Ludwig, and three daughters. Mond died in his London home in 1930, and his son succeeded in the barony.[2]

Publications

  • Industry and Politics (1927)
  • Imperial Economic Unity (1930)

Literary references

Mond is mentioned in T. S. Eliot's 1920 poem A Cooking Egg.[9]

References

  1. ^ Mond, Alfred Moritz in Venn, J. & J. A., Alumni Cantabrigienses, Cambridge University Press, 10 vols, 1922–1958.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Greenaway, Frank (2004) 'Mond family (per. 1867–1973)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press. [1] Retrieved on 9 March 2007.
  3. ^ ICI's first chairman Sir Alfred Mond, Picture Stockton, http://picture.stockton.gov.uk/photos/t4010-t396.aspx, retrieved 2007-06-25  
  4. ^ Bolitho, Alfred Mond: First Lord Melchett; Carmarthen Record Office, Dynevor Papers"
  5. ^ London Gazette: no. 29728, p. 4187, 13 June 1913.
  6. ^ London Gazette: no. 33395, p. 4180, 19 June 1928.
  7. ^ Weintraub, Ben, Alfred Mond (Lord Melchett): Great Zionist Leader, The Israel Chemical Society, pp. 6, http://www.weizmann.ac.il/ICS/booklet/14/pdf/weintraub.pdf#page=6, retrieved 2007-06-25  
  8. ^ Tel Mond, Israel, Sarasota Sister Cities Association, http://www.sarasotasistercities.org/Tel_mond.html, retrieved 2007-06-25  
  9. ^ www.bartleby.com
Parliament of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
Robert Armstrong Yerburgh
Member of Parliament for Chester
1906–1910
Succeeded by
Robert Armstrong Yerburgh
Preceded by
Sir George Newnes, Bt
Member of Parliament for Swansea
1910–1918
Constituency abolished
New constituency Member of Parliament for Swansea West
1918–1923
Succeeded by
Howel Walter Samuel
Preceded by
Sir Ellis Ellis-Griffith, Bt
Member of Parliament for Carmarthen
1924–1928
Succeeded by
William Nathaniel Jones
Political offices
Preceded by
Lewis Vernon Harcourt
First Commissioner of Works
1916–1921
Succeeded by
The Earl of Crawford
Preceded by
Christopher Addison
Minister of Health
1921–1922
Succeeded by
Sir Arthur Griffith-Boscawen
Peerage of the United Kingdom
Preceded by
New Creation
Baron Melchett
1928–1930
Succeeded by
Henry Mond

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