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Alfred Rosenberg

About this sound Dr. Alfred Rosenberg Ph.D (12 January 1893 – 16 October 1946) was an early and intellectually influential member of the Nazi Party. Rosenberg was first introduced to Adolf Hitler by Dietrich Eckart; he later held several important posts in the Nazi government. He is considered one of the main authors of key Nazi ideological creeds, including its racial theory, persecution of the Jews, Lebensraum, abrogation of the Treaty of Versailles, and opposition to "degenerate" modern art. He is also known for his rejection of Christianity,[1] having played an important role in the development of Positive Christianity, which he intended to be transitional to a new Nazi faith.[2] At Nuremberg he was tried, sentenced to death and executed by hanging as a war criminal.

Contents

Early career

Alfred Rosenberg around 1935

Rosenberg was born in Reval (today's Tallinn, in Estonia, then part of the Russian Empire) to a family of Baltic Germans. It was claimed in the 1930s by Tallinn archivist J. Rajandi that his family had Estonian origins.[3] His father was a wealthy merchant from Latvia, his mother from Estonia. Rosenberg studied architecture at the Riga Polytechnical Institute and engineering at Moscow Highest Technical School,[4] completing his Ph.D. studies in 1917. During the Russian Revolution of 1917, he supported the counter-revolutionaries and, following their failure, Rosenberg emigrated to Germany in 1918 along with Max Scheubner-Richter who was something of a mentor to Rosenberg and his ideology. He arrived in Munich and contributed to Dietrich Eckart's publication, the Völkischer Beobachter (People's Observer). By this time, he was both an anti-Semite, influenced by Houston Stewart Chamberlain's book The Foundations of the Nineteenth Century (one of the key proto-Nazi books of racial theory) and an anti-bolshevist as a result of his family's exile.[5]

Rosenberg was one of the earliest members of the German Workers Party (later the National Socialist German Workers Party, better known as the Nazi Party), joining in January 1919; Adolf Hitler did not join until October 1919. Rosenberg had also been a member of the Thule Society, with Eckart. Rosenberg became editor of the Völkischer Beobachter, the Nazi party newspaper, in 1921.

In 1923 after the failed Beer Hall Putsch, Hitler — who had been imprisoned for treason — appointed Rosenberg as a leader of the Nazi movement, a position he held until Hitler was released. Hitler remarked privately in later years that his choice of Rosenberg, whom he regarded as weak and lazy, was strategic; Hitler did not want the temporary leader of the Nazis to be overly popular or hungry for power, because a person with either of the two qualities might not want to cede the party leadership after Hitler's release.

In 1929, Rosenberg founded the Militant League for German Culture. He later formed the Institute for the Study of the Jewish Question, dedicated to identifying and attacking Jewish influence in German culture and to recording the history of Judaism from an antisemitic perspective. He became a Reichstag Deputy in 1930 and published his book on racial theory The Myth of the Twentieth Century (Der Mythus des 20. Jahrhunderts) which deals with key issues in the national socialist ideology, such as the "Jewish question". It was intended as a sequel to Houston Stewart Chamberlain's above-cited book. Despite selling more than a million copies by 1945, its influence within Nazism is doubtful. It is often said to have been a book that was officially venerated within Nazism, but that few actually read beyond the first chapter or even found comprehensible.[6] Hitler called it "stuff nobody can understand"[7] and disapproved of its pseudo-religious tone.[5]

Rosenberg's attitude towards Soviet Bolshevism obviously had some influence on Hitler. He convinced Hitler of the Communist threat and the supposed fragility of the Soviet political structure. "Jewish-Bolshevism" was accepted as a target for Nazism during the early 1920s.[5]

Rosenberg was named leader of the Nazi Party's foreign political office in 1933, but he played little practical part in the role. His visit to Britain in that year was designed to reassure the British that the Nazis would not be a threat, and to encourage links between the new regime and the British Empire. It was a notable failure. When Rosenberg laid a wreath bearing a swastika at the tomb of the unknown soldier, a British war veteran threw it into the Thames.[8] In January 1934 he was deputized by Hitler with responsibility for the spiritual and philosophical education of the Party and all related organizations.

Racial theories

Rosenberg was also the Nazi Party's chief racial theorist, in charge of building a human racial ladder that justified Hitler's genocidal policies. Rosenberg built on the works of Arthur de Gobineau, Houston Stewart Chamberlain and Madison Grant, as well as the beliefs of Hitler. Rosenberg considered blacks as well as Jews to be at the very bottom of the ladder. At the very top stood the white or "Aryan" race. Rosenberg promoted the Nordic theory which considered Germans to be the "master race", superior to all others, including other Aryans: the Nordic and the Indo-Iranians.

Rosenberg reshaped Nazi racial policy throughout the years, but it always consisted of white supremacy, extreme German nationalism and rabid anti-Semitism. Rosenberg was also an outspoken opponent of homosexuality, notably in his pamphlet "Der Sumpf" ("The Swamp"), having viewed homosexuality (particularly lesbianism) as a hindrance to the expansion of the Nordic population.

Rosenberg's attitude towards the Slavs of Eastern Europe was more uncertain. Many Nazis considered Slavs to be part of an inferior race to be subjugated, but Rosenberg suggested that they were also Aryans who could be integrated into the Third Reich.

Religious theories

Rosenberg argued for a new "religion of the blood," based on the supposed innate promptings of the Nordic soul to defend its noble character against racial and cultural degeneration. He believed that this had been embodied in early Indo-European religions, notably ancient European (Celtic, Germanic, Baltic, Roman) paganism, Zoroastrianism and Vedic Hinduism. Unlike Heinrich Himmler, he had less attachment to Buddhism.[9] Following Chamberlain's ideas, he condemned what he called "negative Christianity," the orthodox beliefs of Protestant and Catholic churches, arguing instead for a so-called "positive" Christianity based on Chamberlain's claim that Jesus was a member of a Nordic enclave resident in ancient Galilee who struggled against Judaism. For Rosenberg religious doctrine was not important; what mattered was that a belief should serve the interests of the Nordic race, connecting the individual to his racial nature. Rosenberg stated that "The general ideas of the Roman and of the Protestant churches are negative Christianity and do not, therefore, accord with our (German) soul."[10]

Wartime activities

In 1940 Rosenberg was made head of the Hohe Schule (literally "high school"), the Centre of National Socialist Ideological and Educational Research. He created a "Special Task Force for Music" (Sonderstab Musik) to collect the best musical instruments and scores for use in a university to be built in Hitler's hometown of Linz, Austria. The orders given the Sonderstab Musik were to loot all forms of Jewish property in Germany and of those found in any country taken over by the German army and any musical instruments or scores were to be immediately shipped to Berlin.[citation needed]

Reich Minister for the Occupied Eastern Territories

Following the invasion of the USSR, Rosenberg was appointed head of the Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories (Reichsministerium für die besetzten Ostgebiete). Alfred Meyer served as his deputy and represented him at the Wannsee Conference. Another official of the Ministry, Georg Leibbrandt, also attended the conference, at Rosenberg's request.

Rosenberg had presented Hitler with his plan for the organization of the conquered Eastern territories, suggesting the establishment of new administrative districts, to replace the previously Soviet-controlled territories with new Reichskommissariats. These would be:

Such suggestions were intended to encourage non-Russian nationalism and to promote German interests for the benefit of future Aryan generations, in accord with geopolitical "Lebensraum im Osten" plans. They would provide a buffer against Soviet expansion in preparation for the total eradication of Communism and Bolshevism by decisive pre-emptive military action.

Following these plans, when Wehrmacht forces invaded Soviet-controlled territory, they immediately implemented the first of the proposed Reichskommissariats of Ostland and Ukraine, under the leadership of Hinrich Lohse and Erich Koch, respectively. The organization of these administrative territories led to conflict between Rosenberg and the SS over the treatment of Slavs under German occupation. Rosenberg was appalled at the displacement, enslavement, and sometimes genocide of non-Jews in occupied Eastern countries. As Nazi Germany's chief racial theorist, Rosenberg considered Slavs, though lesser than Germans, to be Aryan. Rosenberg often complained to Hitler and Himmler about the treatment of non-Jewish occupied peoples.[11] According to Kevin P. Spicer, while most Nazis intended direct German control and exploitation of Slavic peoples, Rosenberg "envisioned a system of Slavic satellite states under German suzerainty."[11] He made no complaints about the murders of Jews, however. At the Nuremberg Trials he claimed to be ignorant of the Holocaust, despite the fact that Leibbrandt and Meyer were present at the Wannsee conference.[12]

Wartime propaganda efforts

Because the invasion of the Soviet Union to impose the New Order was essentially a war of conquest and extermination, German propaganda efforts designed to win over Russian opinion were patchy and inconsistent. Alfred Rosenberg was one of the few in the Nazi hierarchy who advocated a policy designed to encourage anti-Communist opinion.

Amongst other things, Rosenberg issued a series of posters announcing the end of the Soviet collective farms (kolkhoz). He also issued an Agrarian Law in February 1942, annulling all Soviet legislation on farming, restoring family farms for those willing to collaborate with the occupiers. But decollectivisation conflicted with the wider demands of wartime food production, and Hermann Göring demanded that the collective farms be retained, save for a change of name. Hitler himself denounced the redistribution of land as "stupid".[13]

There were also numerous German armed forces (Wehrmacht) posters asking for assistance in the Bandenkrieg, the war against the Soviet partisans, though, once again, German policy had the effect of adding to their problems. Posters for "volunteer" labour, with inscriptions like "Come work with us to shorten the war", hid the appalling realities faced by Russian workers in Germany. Many people joined the partisans rather than risk being sent to an unknown fate in the west.

Another of Rosenberg's initiatives, the "Free Caucasus" campaign, was rather more successful, attracting various nationalities into the so-called Eastern Legion (Ostlegionen), though in the end this made little difference.

Trial and execution

Alfred Rosenberg at the Nuremberg trials. Rosenberg is first from right, with Hans Frank (centre) and Alfred Jodl (left)
Alfred Rosenberg after his hanging

Rosenberg was captured by Allied troops at the end of the war. He was tried at Nuremberg and found guilty of conspiracy to commit crimes against peace; planning, initiating and waging wars of aggression; war crimes; and crimes against humanity.[14] He was sentenced to death and executed with other condemned co-defendants at Nuremberg on the morning of 16 October 1946.[15] Throughout the trial, it was agreed that Rosenberg had a decisive role in shaping Nazi philosophy and ideology; such examples include: his book, Myth of the Twentieth Century, which was published in 1930, where he incited hatred against "Liberal Imperialism" and "Bolshevik Marxism"; furthering the influence of the "Lebensraum" idea in Germany during the war; facilitating the persecution of Christian churches and the Jews in general; and opposition to the Versailles Treaty during the war.[16]

According to Howard K. Smith, who covered the executions for the International News Service, Rosenberg was the only condemned man, who when asked at the gallows if he had any last statement to make, replied with only one word: "No".

Rosenberg and Hermann Göring were born on the same day (12 January 1893), and had Göring not committed suicide the night before his planned execution, they would also have died the same day.

Nazi policy and Rosenberg's views

Hitler was a leader oriented towards practical politics, whereas, for Rosenberg, religion and philosophy were key.

Rosenberg's influence in the Nazi Party is controversial. He was perceived as lacking the charisma and political skills of the other Nazi leaders, and was somewhat isolated. In some of his speeches Hitler appeared to be close to Rosenberg's views: rejecting traditional Christianity as a religion based on Jewish culture, preferring an ethnically and culturally pure "Race" whose destiny was supposed to be assigned to the German people by "Providence". In others, he adhered to the Nazi Party line, which advocated a "positive Christianity".

After Hitler's assumption of power he moved to reassure the Protestant and Catholic churches that the party was not intending to reinstitute Germanic paganism. He placed himself in the position of being the man to save Christianity from utter destruction at the hands of the atheistic Communists of the Soviet Union.[17] This was especially true immediately before and after the elections of 1932; Hitler wanted to appear non-threatening to major Christian faiths and consolidate his power. Further, Hitler felt that Catholic-Protestant infighting had been a major factor in weakening the German state and allowing its dominance by foreign powers.

Some Nazi leaders, such as Martin Bormann, were anti-Christian and sympathetic to Rosenberg.[18] Once in power, however, Hitler and most Nazi leaders sought to unify the Christian denominations in favor of "positive Christianity." They privately complained about Rosenberg's radical, openly anti-Christian views; they also did not support small neo-pagan groups that were seeking parity with Christianity, which Rosenberg encouraged. However, Goebbels and Hitler both agreed that after the Endsieg (Final Victory) the Reich Church should be pressed into evolving into a German social evolutionist organisation proclaiming the cult of race, blood and battle, instead of Redemption and the Ten Commandments of Moses, which they deemed outdated and "Jewish."[19]

Lieutenant-Colonel W.H. Dunn wrote a medical and psychiatric report on him in prison to evaluate him as a suicide risk:

He gave the impression of clinging to his own theories in a fanatical and unyielding fashion and to have been little influenced by the unfolding during the trial of the cruelty and crimes of the party.[20]

Summarizing the unresolved conflict between the personal views of Rosenberg and the pragmatism of the Nazi elite:

The ruthless pursuit of Nazi aims turned out to mean not, as Rosenberg had hoped, the permeation of German life with the new ideology; it meant concentration of the combined resources of party and state on total war.[21]

Family life

Rosenberg was married twice. He married his first wife, Hilda Leesmann, an ethnic Estonian, in 1915; after eight years of marriage, they divorced in 1923. He married his second wife, Hedwig Kramer, in 1925; the marriage lasted until his death. He and Kramer had two children; a son, who died in infancy, and a daughter, Irene; who was born in 1930. His daughter has refused contact with anyone seeking information about her father.

See also

References

  1. ^ Hexham, Irving (2007). "Inventing ‘Paganists’: a Close Reading of Richard Steigmann-Gall's the Holy Reich". Journal of Contemporary History (SAGE Publications) 42 (1): 59–78. doi:10.1177/0022009407071632. http://jch.sagepub.com/cgi/content/abstract/42/1/59. 
  2. ^ "Alfred Rosenberg". Jewish Virtual Library (American-Israeli Cooperative Enterprise). http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/Holocaust/Rosenberg.html. Retrieved 2008-05-07. 
  3. ^ Jüri Remmelgas. Kolm kuuske. Tallinn 2004, p. 50
  4. ^ "В поисках тайны Ленина" (in Russian). Знание—сила. http://www.znanie-sila.ru/online/issue_2542.html. Retrieved 2008-05-07. 
  5. ^ a b c Evans, Richard J (2004). The Coming of the Third Reich. London: Penguin Books. pp. 178–179. ISBN 0-141-00975-6. 
  6. ^ Goldensohn, Leon; Gellately, Robert (ed) (2004). The Nuremberg Interviews. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. xvii, 73–75, 108–109, 200, 284. ISBN 0-375-41469-X. 
  7. ^ Speer, Albert (1970). Inside the Third Reich: Memoirs by Albert Speer. Translated by Richard and Clara Winston. New York: Macmillan. pp. 115. 
  8. ^ Time Magazine, 1941
  9. ^ http://www.gnosticliberationfront.com/hitler%20buddha%20krishna.htm
  10. ^ "Churchmen to Hitler". Time Magazine. 1936-08-10. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,762289,00.html?promoid=googlep. Retrieved 2008-08-14. 
  11. ^ a b Kevin P. Spicer, Antisemitism, Christian ambivalence, and the Holocaust, Center for Advanced Holocaust Studies, Indiana University Press, 2007, p.308
  12. ^ http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/biography/Leibbrandt.html
  13. ^ Leonid Grenkevich, The Soviet Partisan Movement, 1941-1945: A Critical Historiographical Analysis, Routledge, New York (1999), pp. 169-171.
  14. ^ The Avalon Project : Judgment : Rosenberg
  15. ^ International Military Tribunal: the Defendants
  16. ^ Alfred Rosenberg Nuremberg Charges
  17. ^ The "Hitler Myth": Image and Reality in the Third Reich. Oxford University Press. 2001. pp. 109. ISBN 0192802062. OCLC 47063365. http://books.google.com/books?id=9SBndd4Jc0QC. "Hitler’s evident ability to simulate, even to potentially critical Church leaders, an image of a leader keen to uphold and protect Christianity was crucial to the mediation of such an image to the church-going public by influential members of both major denominations. It was the reason why church-going Christians, so often encouraged by their ‘opinion-leaders’ in the Church hierarchies, were frequently able to exclude Hitler from their condemnation of the anti-Christian Party radicals, continuing to see in him the last hope of protecting Christianity from Bolshevism." 
  18. ^ Stiegmann-Gall, Richard, The Holy Reich, CUP, pp.243-5
  19. ^ HÜRTEN, H. `Endlösung` für den Katholizismus? Das nationalsozialistische Regime und seine Zukunftspläne gegenüber der Kirche, in: Stimmen der Zeit, 203 (1985) p. 534-546
  20. ^ Cecil, p.219
  21. ^ Cecil, p.160

Further reading

  • Bollmus, Reinhard (1970). Das Amt Rosenberg und seine Gegner: Studien zum Machtkampf im Nationalsozialistichen Herrschaftssystem. Stuttgart: Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt. 
  • Cecil, Robert (1972). The Myth of the Master Race: Alfred Rosenberg and Nazi Ideology. Dodd Mead & Co.. ISBN 0-396-06577-5. 
  • Chandler, Albert R. (1945). Rosenberg's Nazi Myth. Greenwood Press. 
  • Gilbert, G. M. (1995). Nuremberg Diary. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80661-4. 
  • Goldensohn, Leon (2004). Nuremberg Interviews. Knopf. ISBN 0-375-41469-X. 
  • Nova, Fritz (1986). Alfred Rosenberg: Nazi Theorist of the Holocaust. Buccaneer Books. ISBN 0-87052-222-1. 
  • Rosenberg, Alfred (1930). Der Mythus des zwanzigsten Jahrhunderts. 
  • Rothfeder, Herbert P. (1963). A Study of Alfred Rosenberg’s Organization for National Socialist Ideology (Michigan, Phil. Diss. 1963). University Microfilms, Ann Arbor. 
  • Rothfeder, Herbert P. (1981). Amt Schrifttumspflege: A Study in Literary Control, in: German Studies Review. Vol. IV, Nr. 1, Febr. 1981, p. 63–78. 
  • Steigmann-Gall, Richard (2003). The Holy Reich: Nazi Conceptions of Christianity. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-82371-4. 
  • Whisker, James B. (1990). The Philosophy of Alfred Rosenberg. Noontide Press. ISBN 0-939482-25-8. 

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

How can we still speak of the salvation and reformation of Europe, when we have to ask Europe's destroyer for help?

Alfred Rosenberg (January 12, 1893October 16, 1946) was an early and intellectually influential member of the Nazi party, who later held several important posts in the Nazi government. He is considered one of the main authors of key Nazi ideological creeds, including its racial theory, persecution of the Jews, Lebensraum, abolition of the Treaty of Versailles, and opposition to "degenerate" modern art. At Nuremberg he was tried, sentenced to death, and executed by hanging as a war criminal.

Sourced

  • No.
    • When asked if he had any last words, 10/16/46. Quoted in "The Mammoth Book of Eyewitness World War II" - Page 564 - by Jon E. Lewis - History - 2002
  • From education by the Church to education by Germanic value is a step of several generations. We are the transition from one education to the other. We are the conquerors of one era and the founders of a new - also religious - epoch. We bear a heavy and therefore a great destiny. To destroy images is something every revolution has been able to do. But to establish its cause upon nothing and yet not to burn all bridges behind it: that is the nobility of character of the National Socialist era. The German people is not marked by original sin, but by original nobility. The place of Christian love has been taken by the National Socialist, Germanic idea of comradeship...which has already been symbolically expressed through the replacement of the rosary by the spade of labour.
    • Quoted in Chapter 13, Part 3 of "The Face Of The Third Reich" by Joachim C. Fest
  • How can we still speak of the salvation and reformation of Europe, when we have to ask Europe's destroyer for help?
    • On the Nazi-Soviet Pact. Quoted in "The Face of the Third Reich: Portraits of the Nazi Leadership" - Page 171 - by Joachim C. Fest - History - 1999
Today a new faith is stirring: the myth of blood, the faith that along with blood we are defending the divine nature of man as a whole.
  • I have the feeling that this Moscow Pact will at some time or other exact vengeance upon National Socialism.
    • Quoted in "The Face of the Third Reich: Portraits of the Nazi Leadership" - Page 171 - by Joachim C. Fest - History - 1999
  • I would adopt a standpoint, irrespective of whether someone was for or against it, if I felt deeply that it was right for the movement.
    • Quoted in "The Face of the Third Reich: Portraits of the Nazi Leadership" - Page 165 - by Joachim C. Fest - History - 1999
  • Today a new faith is stirring: the myth of blood, the faith that along with blood we are defending the divine nature of man as a whole.
    • Quoted in "The Face of the Third Reich: Portraits of the Nazi Leadership" - Page 168 - by Joachim C. Fest - History - 1999
  • Anti-Semitism is the unifying element of the reconstruction of Germany.
    • Quoted in "Famous Trials: Cases that Made History" - Page 104 - by Frank McLynn - 1995
  • Germany will regard the Jewish question as solved only after the very last Jew has left the greater German living space... Europe will have its Jewish question solved only after the very last Jew has left the continent.
    • Quoted in "World Politics in Our Time" - Page 375 - by David C. Jordan - 1970
  • I didn't say that the Jews are inferior. I didn't even maintain they are a race. I merely saw that the mixture of different cultures didn't work.
    • January 12, 1946. Quoted in "Nuremberg Diary" - Page 120 - by G. M. Gilbert - History - 1995
We are the transition from one education to the other. We are the conquerors of one era and the founders of a new - also religious - epoch. We bear a heavy and therefore a great destiny.
  • We let 50,000 Jewish intellectuals get across the border. Just as I wanted Lebensraum for Germany, I thought Jews should have a Lebensraum for themselves - outside of Germany.
    • December 15, 1945. Quoted in "Nuremberg Diary" - Page 72 - by G. M. Gilbert - History - 1995
  • As I said, I am grateful that you do take notes, but I do wish that you take them accurately and not misrepresent my rather complex theories and reasoning. After all, I am a philosopher and a student, and my thoughts may be complex. If at any time you don't follow me, please interrupt and I will explain further. I have to smile when some of the defendants say in court that they never read my books or works, because it is a reflection on their inabilities to follow a philosophic trend of thought, which to the common man is much too deep and profound. It is difficult for one to express important opinions and theories scientifically and at the same time use simple construction. However, I have always tried to be as lucid as possible and I never strived to make my work or writings beyond the comprehension of the normally intelligent man.
    • To Leon Goldensohn, June 8, 1946, from "The Nuremberg Interviews" by Leon Goldensohn, Robert Gellately - History - 2004
  • The tribunal here and your American newspapers talk so much about our sharp Nazi methods, but do you realize that within the past year, since the defeat of Germany, 1 million Germans have been evicted from what was originally German territory and which has now been given to Poland? No League of Nations or other body intervened.
    • To Leon Goldensohn, June 8, 1946, from "The Nuremberg Interviews" by Leon Goldensohn, Robert Gellately - History - 2004

About Rosenberg

  • I always had the impression that Rosenberg embodied German mysticism. I felt that he belonged to the Romantic era and that there was only a slight whiff of modernity about him. There was nothing unified or organized about the man. Now I want to say something terrible, which is not for the trial. This pure theoretician carries the main guilt of all those who sit here on the defendants' bench, although he carries that guilt to a certain extent innocently. In my opinion, he had a tremendous influence on Hitler, during the period when Hitler still did some thinking - later that stopped. I mean about between the years 1923 and 1928 Rosenberg influenced Hitler. Let me explain. Hitler was a man who lived in the present and was a tremendously active individual. Rosenberg's importance exists because his ideas, which were only theoretical, became in the hands of Hitler a reality and actually transpired.
  • Rosenberg was completely areligious. That was the deepest of his defects. Rosenberg has a one-track mind. He is a pedant. One gathers the impression certainly that he never obtained knowledge from his surroundings, which would be necessary in order to form new philosophic ideas, but he obtained his ideas from books and from his own mind, which was not subject to the influences of reality. Rosenberg had less influence among the old National Socialists than one would believe. But among the youth his ideas played a great part because they were utilized in every school. The tragic thing is that Rosenberg's fantastic theories were actually put into practice.
  • A party philosopher who was interested in historical research and had no idea of the violence which his philosophy was inciting in the twentieth century.
  • It was Rosenberg, the intellectual high priest of the "master race," who provided the doctrine of hatred which gave the impetus for the annihilation of Jewry, and who put his infidel theories into practice against the Eastern Occupied Territories. His woolly philosophy also added boredom to the long list of Nazi atrocities.
    • Robert H. Jackson

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