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Algae
Laurencia, a marine genus of Red Algae from Hawaii.
Laurencia, a marine genus of Red Algae from Hawaii.
Scientific classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Included groups
Excluded groups
The lineage of algae according to Thomas Cavalier-Smith. The exact number and placement of endosymbiotic events is not yet clear, so this diagram can be taken only as a general guide[1][2] It represents the most parsimonious way of explaining the three types of endosymbiotic origins of chloroplasts. These types include the endosymbiotic events of cyanobacteria, red algae and green algae, leading to the hypothesis of the supergroups Archaeplastida, Chromalveolata and Cabozoa respectively. However, the monophyly of Cabozoa has been refuted and the monophylies of Archaeplastida and Chromalveolata are currently strongly challenged. Endosymbiotic events are noted by dotted lines.
Algae (pronounced /ˈældʒiː/ or /ˈælɡiː/; singular alga /ˈælɡə/, Latin for "seaweed") are a large and diverse group of simple, typically autotrophic organisms, ranging from unicellular to multicellular forms. The largest and most complex marine forms are called seaweeds. They are photosynthetic, like plants, and "simple" because they lack the many distinct organs found in land plants.
Though the prokaryotic Cyanobacteria (commonly referred to as blue-green algae) were traditionally included as "algae" in older textbooks, many modern sources regard this as outdated[3] as they are now considered to be closely related to bacteria.[4] The term algae is now restricted to eukaryotic organisms.[5] All true algae therefore have a nucleus enclosed within a membrane and chloroplasts bound in one or more membranes.[3][6] Algae constitute a paraphyletic and polyphyletic group,[3] as they do not include all the descendants of the last universal ancestor nor do they all descend from a common algal ancestor, although their chloroplasts seem to have a single origin.[1] Diatoms are also examples of algae.
Algae lack the various structures that characterize land plants, such as phyllids (leaves) and rhizoids in nonvascular plants, or leaves, roots, and other organs that are found in tracheophytes (vascular plants). Many are photoautotrophic, although some groups contain members that are mixotrophic, deriving energy both from photosynthesis and uptake of organic carbon either by osmotrophy, myzotrophy, or phagotrophy. Some unicellular species rely entirely on external energy sources and have limited or no photosynthetic apparatus.
Nearly all algae have photosynthetic machinery ultimately derived from the Cyanobacteria, and so produce oxygen as a by-product of photosynthesis, unlike other photosynthetic bacteria such as purple and green sulfur bacteria. Fossilized filamentous algae from the Vindhya basin have been dated back to 1.6 to 1.7 billion years ago.[7]
The first alga to have its genome sequenced was Cyanidioschyzon merolae.

Contents

Etymology and study

Title page of Samuel Gottlieb Gmelin, Historia Fucorum, dated 1768.
The singular alga is the Latin word for a particular seaweed and retains that meaning in English.[8] The etymology is obscure. Although some speculate that it is related to Latin algēre, "be cold",[9] there is no known reason to associate seaweed with temperature. A more likely source is alliga, "binding, entwining."[10] Since Algae has become a biological classification, alga can also mean one classification under Algae, parallel to a fungus being a species of fungi, a plant being a species of plant, and so on.
The ancient Greek word for seaweed was φῦκος (fūkos or phykos), which could mean either the seaweed, probably Red Algae, or a red dye derived from it. The Latinization, fūcus, meant primarily the cosmetic rouge. The etymology is uncertain, but a strong candidate has long been some word related to the Biblical פוך (pūk), "paint" (if not that word itself), a cosmetic eye-shadow used by the ancient Egyptians and other inhabitants of the eastern Mediterranean. It could be any color: black, red, green, blue.[11]
Accordingly the modern study of marine and freshwater algae is called either phycology or algology. The name Fucus appears in a number of taxa.

Classification

False-colour Scanning electron micrograph of the unicellular coccolithophore, Gephyrocapsa oceanica.
While Cyanobacteria have been traditionally included among the Algae, recent works usually exclude them due to large differences such as the lack of membrane-bound organelles, the presence of a single circular chromosome, the presence of peptidoglycan in the cell walls, and ribosomes different in size and content from those of the Eukaryotes.[12][13] Rather than in chloroplasts, they conduct photosynthesis on specialized infolded cytoplasmic membranes called thylakoid membranes. Therefore, they differ significantly from the Algae despite occupying similar ecological niches.
By modern definitions Algae are Eukaryotes and conduct photosynthesis within membrane-bound organelles called chloroplasts. Chloroplasts contain circular DNA and are similar in structure to Cyanobacteria, presumably representing reduced cyanobacterial endosymbionts. The exact nature of the chloroplasts is different among the different lines of Algae, reflecting different endosymbiotic events. The table below describes the composition of the three major groups of Algae. Their lineage relationships are shown in the figure in the upper right. Many of these groups contain some members that are no longer photosynthetic. Some retain plastids, but not chloroplasts, while others have lost plastids entirely.
Phylogeny based on plastid.[14] not nucleocytoplasmic genealogy:

Cyanobacteria





Rhodoplasts











Chloroplasts



















Supergroup affiliation Members Endosymbiont Summary
Primoplantae/
Archaeplastida
Cyanobacteria These Algae have primary chloroplasts, i.e. the chloroplasts are surrounded by two membranes and probably developed through a single endosymbiotic event. The chloroplasts of Red Algae have chlorophylls a and c (often), and phycobilins, while those of Green Algae have chloroplasts with chlorophyll a and b. Higher plants are pigmented similarly to Green Algae and probably developed from them, and thus Chlorophyta is a sister taxon to the plants; sometimes they are grouped as Viridiplantae.
Excavata and Rhizaria Green Algae
These groups have green chloroplasts containing chlorophylls a and b [12]. Their chloroplasts are surrounded by four and three membranes, respectively, and were probably retained from ingested Green Algae.
Chlorarachniophytes, which belong to the phylum Cercozoa, contain a small nucleomorph, which is a relict of the algae's nucleus.
Euglenids, which belong to the phylum Euglenozoa, live primarily in freshwater and have chloroplasts with only three membranes. It has been suggested that the endosymbiotic Green Algae were acquired through myzocytosis rather than phagocytosis.
Chromista and Alveolata Red Algae
These groups have chloroplasts containing chlorophylls a and d, and phycobilins. The latter chlorophyll type is not known from any prokaryotes or primary chloroplasts, but genetic similarities with the Red Algae suggest a relationship there.
In the first three of these groups (Chromista), the chloroplast has four membranes, retaining a nucleomorph in Cryptomonads, and they likely share a common pigmented ancestor, although other evidence casts doubt on whether the Heterokonts, Haptophyta, and Cryptomonads are in fact more closely related to each other than to other groups.[2][15]
The typical dinoflagellate chloroplast has three membranes, but there is considerable diversity in chloroplasts within the group, and it appears there were a number of endosymbiotic events.[1] The Apicomplexa, a group of closely related parasites, also have plastids called apicoplasts. Apicoplasts are not photosynthetic but appear to have a common origin with Dinoflagellate chloroplasts.[1]
W.H.Harvey (1811—1866) was the first to divide the Algae into four divisions based on their pigmentation. This is the first use of a biochemical criterion in plant systematics. Harvey's four divisions are: Red Algae (Rhodophyta), Brown Algae (Heteromontophyta), Green Algae (Chlorophyta) and Diatomaceae.[16]

Relationship to higher plants

The first plants on earth evolved from shallow freshwater algae much like Chara some 400 million years ago. These probably had an isomorphic alternation of generations and were probably filamentous. Fossils of isolated land plant spores suggest land plants may have been around as long as 475 million years ago.[17][18]

Morphology

The kelp forest exhibit at the Monterey Bay Aquarium. A three-dimensional, multicellular thallus.
A range of algal morphologies are exhibited, and convergence of features in unrelated groups is common. The only groups to exhibit three dimensional multicellular thalli are the reds and browns, and some chlorophytes.[19] Apical growth is constrained to subsets of these groups: the florideophyte reds, various browns, and the charophytes.[19] The form of charophytes is quite different to those of reds and browns, because have distinct nodes, separated by internode 'stems'; whorls of branches reminiscent of the horsetails occur at the nodes.[19] Conceptacles are another polyphyletic trait; they appear in the coralline algae and the Hildenbrandiales, as well as the browns.[19]
Most of the simpler algae are unicellular flagellates or amoeboids, but colonial and non-motile forms have developed independently among several of the groups. Some of the more common organizational levels, more than one of which may occur in the life cycle of a species, are
  • Colonial: small, regular groups of motile cells
  • Capsoid: individual non-motile cells embedded in mucilage
  • Coccoid: individual non-motile cells with cell walls
  • Palmelloid: non-motile cells embedded in mucilage
  • Filamentous: a string of non-motile cells connected together, sometimes branching
  • Parenchymatous: cells forming a thallus with partial differentiation of tissues
In three lines even higher levels of organization have been reached, with full tissue differentiation. These are the brown algae,[20]—some of which may reach 50 m in length (kelps)[21]—the red algae,[22] and the green algae.[23] The most complex forms are found among the green algae (see Charales and Charophyta), in a lineage that eventually led to the higher land plants. The point where these non-algal plants begin and algae stop is usually taken to be the presence of reproductive organs with protective cell layers, a characteristic not found in the other alga groups.

Symbiotic algae

Some species of algae form symbiotic relationships with other organisms. In these symbioses, the algae supply photosynthates (organic substances) to the host organism providing protection to the algal cells. The host organism derives some or all of its energy requirements from the algae. Examples are as follows.

Lichens

Rock lichens in Ireland.
Lichens are defined by the International Association for Lichenology to be "an association of a fungus and a photosynthetic symbiont resulting in a stable vegetative body having a specific structure."[24] The fungi, or mycobionts, are from the Ascomycota with a few from the Basidiomycota. They are not found alone in nature but when they began to associate is not known.[25] One mycobiont associates with the same phycobiont species, rarely two, from the Green Algae, except that alternatively the mycobiont may associate with the same species of Cyanobacteria (hence "photobiont" is the more accurate term). A photobiont may be associated with many specific mycobionts or live independently; accordingly, lichens are named and classified as fungal species.[26] The association is termed a morphogenesis because the lichen has a form and capabilities not possessed by the symbiont species alone (they can be experimentally isolated). It is possible that the photobiont triggers otherwise latent genes in the mycobiont.[27]

Coral reefs

Floridian coral reef
Coral reefs are accumulated from the calcareous exoskeletons of marine invertebrates of the Scleractinia order; i.e., the Stony Corals. As animals they metabolize sugar and oxygen to obtain energy for their cell-building processes, including secretion of the exoskeleton, with water and carbon dioxide as byproducts. As the reef is the result of a favorable equilibrium between construction by the corals and destruction by marine erosion, the rate at which metabolism can proceed determines the growth or deterioration of the reef.
Algae of the Dinoflagellate phylum are often endosymbionts in the cells of marine invertebrates, where they accelerate host-cell metabolism by generating immediately available sugar and oxygen through photosynthesis using incident light and the carbon dioxide produced in the host. Endosymbiont algae in the Stony Corals are described by the term zooxanthellae, with the host Stony Corals called on that account hermatypic corals, which although not a taxon are not in healthy condition without their endosymbionts. Zooxanthellae belong almost entirely to the genus Symbiodinium.[28] The loss of Symbiodinium from the host is known as coral bleaching, a condition which unless corrected leads to the deterioration and loss of the reef.

Sea sponges

Green Algae live close to the surface of some sponges, for example, breadcrumb sponge (Halichondria panicea). The alga is thus protected from predators; the sponge is provided with oxygen and sugars which can account for 50 to 80% of sponge growth in some species.[29]

Life-cycle

Rhodophyta, Chlorophyta and Heterokontophyta, the three main algal Phyla, have life-cycles which show tremendous variation with considerable complexity. In general there is an asexual phase where the seaweed's cells are diploid, a sexual phase where the cells are haploid followed by fusion of the male and female gametes. Asexual reproduction is advantageous in that it permits efficient population increases, but less variation is possible. Sexual reproduction allows more variation, but is more costly. Often there is no strict alternation between the sporophyte and also because there is often an asexual phase, which could include the fragmentation of the thallus.[21][30][31]

Numbers

The Algal Collection of the U.S. National Herbarium (located in the National Museum of Natural History) consists of approximately 320500 dried specimens, which, although not exhaustive (no exhaustive collection exists), gives an idea of the order of magnitude of the number of algal species (that number remains unknown).[32] Estimates vary widely. For example, according to one standard textbook,[33] in the British Isles the UK Biodiversity Steering Group Report estimated there to be 20000 algal species in the UK. Another checklist reports only about 5000 species. Regarding the difference of about 15000 species, the text concludes: "It will require many detailed field surveys before it is possible to provide a reliable estimate of the total number of species ...."
Regional and group estimates have been made as well: 5000—5500 species of Red Algae worldwide, "some 1300 in Australian Seas,"[34] 400 seaweed species for the western coastline of South Africa,[35] 669 marine species from California (U.S.A.),[36] 642 in the check-list of Britain and Ireland,[37] and so on, but lacking any scientific basis or reliable sources, these numbers have no more credibility than the British ones mentioned above. Most estimates also omit the microscopic Algae, such as the phytoplankta, entirely.

Distribution

The topic of distribution of algal species has been fairly well studied since the founding of phytogeography in the mid-19th century AD.[38] Algae spread mainly by the dispersal of spores analogously to the dispersal of Plantae by seeds and spores. Spores are everywhere in all parts of the Earth: the waters fresh and marine, the atmosphere, free-floating and in precipitation or mixed with dust, the humus and in other organisms, such as humans. Whether a spore is to grow into an organism depends on the combination of the species and the environmental conditions.
The spores of fresh-water Algae are dispersed mainly by running water and wind, as well as by living carriers.[39] The bodies of water into which they are transported are chemically selective. Marine spores are spread by currents. Ocean water is temperature selective, resulting in phytogeographic zones, regions and provinces.[40]
To some degree the distribution of Algae is subject to floristic discontinuities caused by geographical features, such as Antarctica, long distances of ocean or general land masses. It is therefore possible to identify species occurring by locality, such as "Pacific Algae" or "North Sea Algae". When they occur out of their localities, it is usually possible to hypothesize a transport mechanism, such as the hulls of ships. For example, Ulva reticulata and Ulva fasciata travelled from the mainland to Hawaii in this manner.
Mapping is possible for select species only: "there are many valid examples of confined distribution patterns."[41] For example, Clathromorphum is an arctic genus and is not mapped far south of there.[42] On the other hand, scientists regard the overall data as insufficient due to the "difficulties of undertaking such studies."[43]

Locations

Phytoplankton, Lake Chuzenji
Algae are prominent in bodies of water, common in terrestrial environments and are found in unusual environments, such as on snow and on ice. Seaweeds grow mostly in shallow marine waters, under 100 metres (330 ft); however some have been recorded to a depth of 360 metres (1,180 ft)[44]
The various sorts of algae play significant roles in aquatic ecology. Microscopic forms that live suspended in the water column (phytoplankton) provide the food base for most marine food chains. In very high densities (algal blooms) these algae may discolor the water and outcompete, poison, or asphyxiate other life forms.
Algae are variously sensitive to different factors, which has made them useful as biological indicators in the Ballantine Scale and its modification.

Uses

Harvesting Algae

Agar

Agar, an Algae derivative, has a number of commercial uses.[45]

Alginates

Between 100,000 and 170,000 wet tons of Macrocystis are harvested annually in California for alginate extraction and abalone feed.[46][47]

Energy source

To be competitive and independent from fluctuating support from (local) policy on the long run, biofuels should equal or beat the cost level of fossil fuels. Here, algae based fuels hold great promise, directly related to the potential to produce more biomass per unit area in a year than any other form of biomass. The break-even point for algae-based biofuels should be within reach in about ten years.[citation needed]

Fertilizer

Seaweed is used as a fertilizer.
For centuries seaweed has been used as a fertilizer; George Owen of Henllys writing in the 16th century referring to drift weed in South Wales:[48]
This kind of ore they often gather and lay on great heapes, where it heteth and rotteth, and will have a strong and loathsome smell; when being so rotten they cast on the land, as they do their muck, and thereof springeth good corn, especially barley ... After spring-tydes or great rigs of the sea, they fetch it in sacks on horse backes, and carie the same three, four, or five miles, and cast it on the lande, which doth very much better the ground for corn and grass.
Today Algae are used by humans in many ways; for example, as fertilizers, soil conditioners and livestock feed.[49] Aquatic and microscopic species are cultured in clear tanks or ponds and are either harvested or used to treat effluents pumped through the ponds. Algaculture on a large scale is an important type of aquaculture in some places. Maerl is commonly used as a soil conditioner.

Nutrition

Seaweed gardens on Inisheer.
Naturally growing seaweeds are an important source of food, especially in Asia. They provide many vitamins including: A, B1, B2, B6, niacin and C, and are rich in iodine, potassium, iron, magnesium and calcium.[50] In addition commercially cultivated microalgae, including both Algae and Cyanobacteria, are marketed as nutritional supplements, such as Spirulina,[51] Chlorella and the Vitamin-C supplement, Dunaliella, high in beta-carotene.
Algae are national foods of many nations: China consumes more than 70 species, including fat choy, a cyanobacterium considered a vegetable; Japan, over 20 species;[52] Ireland, dulse; Chile, cochayuyo.[53] Laver is used to make "laver bread" in Wales where it is known as bara lawr; in Korea, gim; in Japan, nori and aonori. It is also used along the west coast of North America from California to British Columbia, in Hawaii and by the Māori of New Zealand. Sea lettuce and badderlocks are a salad ingredient in Scotland, Ireland, Greenland and Iceland.
Dulse, a food.
The oils from some Algae have high levels of unsaturated fatty acids. For example, Parietochloris incisa is very high in arachidonic acid, where it reaches up to 47% of the triglyceride pool.[54] Some varieties of Algae favored by vegetarianism and veganism contain the long-chain, essential omega-3 fatty acids, Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), in addition to vitamin B12.[citation needed] The vitamin B12 in algae is not biologically active. Fish oil contains the omega-3 fatty acids, but the original source is algae (microalgae in particular), which are eaten by marine life such as copepods and are passed up the food chain.[55] Algae has emerged in recent years as a popular source of omega-3 fatty acids for vegetarians who cannot get long-chain EPA and DHA from other vegetarian sources such as flaxseed oil, which only contains the short-chain Alpha-Linolenic acid (ALA).

Pollution control

  • Sewage can be treated with algae, reducing the need for greater amounts of toxic chemicals than are already used.
  • Algae can be used to capture fertilizers in runoff from farms. When subsequently harvested, the enriched algae itself can be used as fertilizer.

Pigments

The natural pigments produced by algae can be used as an alternative to chemical dyes and coloring agents.[56]

Stabilizing substances

Carrageenan, from the red alga Chondrus crispus, is used as a stabiliser in milk products.

See also

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d Patrick J. Keeling (2004). "Diversity and evolutionary history of plastids and their hosts". American Journal of Botany 91: 1481–1493. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.10.1481. http://www.amjbot.org/cgi/content/full/91/10/1481. 
  2. ^ a b Laura Wegener Parfrey, Erika Barbero, Elyse Lasser, Micah Dunthorn, Debashish Bhattacharya, David J Patterson, and Laura A Katz (December 2006). "Evaluating Support for the Current Classification of Eukaryotic Diversity". PLoS Genet. 2 (12): e220. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.0020220. PMID 17194223. PMC 1713255. http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=1713255. 
  3. ^ a b c Nabors, Murray W. (2004). Introduction to Botany. San Francisco, CA: Pearson Education, Inc. ISBN 0805344160. 
  4. ^ Ed. Guiry, M.D., John, D.M., Rindi, F and McCarthy, T.K. 2007. New Survey of Clare Island Volume 6: The Freshwater and Terrestrial Algae. Royal Irish Academy. isbn 13: 978-1-904890-31-7
  5. ^ Allaby, M ed. (1992). "Algae". The Concise Dictionary of Botany. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 
  6. ^ Round (1981)
  7. ^ Bengtson, S.; Belivanova, V.; Rasmussen, B.; Whitehouse, M. (May 2009). "The controversial "Cambrian" fossils of the Vindhyan are real but more than a billion years older". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106 (19): 7729–7734. doi:10.1073/pnas.0812460106. ISSN 0027-8424. PMID 19416859.  edit
  8. ^ "alga, algae". Webster's Third New International Dictionary of the English Language Unabridged with Seven Language Dictionary. 1. Encyclopedia Britannica, Inc. 1986. 
  9. ^ Partridge, Eric (1983). "algae". Origins. 
  10. ^ Lewis, Charlton T.; Charles Short (1879). "alga". alga. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0198642016. http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/cgi-bin/ptext?layout.reflang=la;layout.refdoc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0059;layout.reflookup=Alga;layout.refcit=;doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.04.0059%3Aentry%3D%231812. 
  11. ^ Cheyne, Thomas Kelly; John Sutherland Black (1899–1903). "Paint". Encyclopædia Biblica – A Dictionary of the Bible. 3. New York: Macmillan Co.. pp. 3524–3525.  Downloadable Google Books.
  12. ^ a b Losos, Jonathan B.; Mason, Kenneth A.; Singer, Susan R. (2007). Biology (8 ed.). McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0073041106. 
  13. ^ Jochem, Frank J. "Botany 4404 Lecture Notes". Florida International University (FIU). http://www.jochemnet.de/fiu/bot4404/BOT4404_12.html. Retrieved 2008-12-20. 
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  15. ^ Burki F, Shalchian-Tabrizi K, Minge M, Skjæveland Å, Nikolaev SI, et al. (2007). "Phylogenomics Reshuffles the Eukaryotic Supergroups". PLoS ONE 2 (8: e790): e790. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000790. PMID 17726520. 
  16. ^ Dixon, P S (1973). Biology of the Rhodophyta. Edinburgh: Oliver & Boyd. p. 232. ISBN 005002485X. ISBN 005002485X. 
  17. ^ Ivan Noble (18 September 2003). "When plants conquered land". BBC. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/3117034.stm. 
  18. ^ Wellman, C.H.; Osterloff, P.L.; Mohiuddin, U. (2003). "Fragments of the earliest land plants". Nature 425 (6955): 282–285. doi:10.1038/nature01884. PMID 13679913. 
  19. ^ a b c d Xiao, S.; Knoll, A.H.; Yuan, X.; Pueschel, C.M. (2004). "Phosphatized multicellular algae in the Neoproterozoic Doushantuo Formation, China, and the early evolution of florideophyte red algae". American Journal of Botany 91 (2): 214–227. doi:10.3732/ajb.91.2.214. http://www.amjbot.org/cgi/content/full/91/2/214. 
  20. ^ Waggoner, Ben (1994–2008). "Introduction to the Phaeophyta: Kelps and brown "Algae"". University of California Museum of Palaeontology (UCMP). http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/chromista/phaeophyta.html. Retrieved 2008-12-19. 
  21. ^ a b Thomas, D N (2002). Seaweeds. London: The Natural History Museum. ISBN 0565091751. 
  22. ^ Waggoner, Ben (1994–2008). "Introduction to the Rhodophyta, The red "algae"". University of California Museum of Palaeontology (UCMP). http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/protista/rhodophyta.html. Retrieved 2008-12-19. 
  23. ^ Introduction to the Green Algae
  24. ^ Brodo, Irwin M; Sharnoff, Sylvia Duran; Sharnoff, Stephen; Laurie-Bourque, Susan (2001). Lichens of North America. New Haven: Yale University Press. p. 8. ISBN 0300082495, 9780300082494. 
  25. ^ Pearson, Lorentz C (1995). The Diversity and Evolution of Plants. CRC Press. p. 221. ISBN 0849324831, 9780849324833. 
  26. ^ Brodo et al. (2001), page 6: "A species of lichen collected anywhere in its range has the same lichen-forming fungus and, generally, the same photobiont. (A particular photobiont, on the other hand, may associate with scores of different lichen fungi)."
  27. ^ Brodo et al. (2001), page 8.
  28. ^ Taylor, Dennis L (1983). "The coral-algal symbiosis". in Goff, Lynda J. Algal Symbiosis: A Continuum of Interaction Strategies. CUP Archive. pp. 19–20. ISBN 0521255414, 9780521255417. 
  29. ^ http://uwsp.edu/cnr/UWEXlakes/laketides/vol26-4/vol26-4.pdf
  30. ^ Lobban, C S and Harrison, P J (1997) Seaweed Ecology and Physiology. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-40897-00
  31. ^ Algae II
  32. ^ "Algae Herbarium". National Museum of Natural History, Department of Botany. 2008. http://botany.si.edu/projects/algae/herbarium.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-19. 
  33. ^ John (2002), page 1.
  34. ^ Huisman (2000), page 25.
  35. ^ Stegenga (1997).
  36. ^ Abbott and Hollenberg (1976), page 2.
  37. ^ Hardy and Guiry (2006).
  38. ^ Round (1981), Chapter 8, Dispersal, continuity and phytogeography.
  39. ^ Round (1981), page 360.
  40. ^ Round (1981), page 362.
  41. ^ Round (1981), Page 357.
  42. ^ Round (1981), page 371.
  43. ^ Round (1981), page 366.
  44. ^ Round (1981), page 176.
  45. ^ Lewis, J G; Stanley, N F; Guist, G G (1988). "9 Commercial production of algal hydrocolloides". in Lembi, C.A.; Waaland, J.R.. Algae and Human Affairs. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521321150. 
  46. ^ "Macrocystis C. Agardh 1820: 46". AlgaeBase. http://www.algaebase.org/generadetail.lasso?genus_id=35715&-session=abv3:51909EC307dcf25DFApmi3530315. Retrieved 2008-12-28. 
  47. ^ "Secondary Products of Brown Algae". Algae Research. Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History. http://botany.si.edu/projects/algae/economicuses/brownalgae.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-29. 
  48. ^ Read, Clare Sewell (1849). "On the Farming of South Wales: Prize Report". Journal of the Royal Agricultural Society of England (John Murray) 10: 142–143.  Downloadable Google Books.
  49. ^ McHugh, Dennis J. (2003). "9, Other Uses of Seaweeds". A Guide to the Seaweed Industry: FAO Fisheries Technical Paper 441. Rome: Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations. ISBN 9251049580, ISBN 0499345. http://www.fao.org/DOCREP/006/Y4765E/y4765e0c.htm#TopOfPage. 
  50. ^ Simoons, Frederick J (1991). "6, Seaweeds and Other Algae". Food in China: A Cultural and Historical Inquiry. CRC Press. pp. 179–190. ISBN 084938804X, 9780849388040. ISBN 0936923296. 
  51. ^ Morton, Steve L. "Modern Uses of Cultivated Algae". Ethnobotanical Leaflets. Southern Illinois University Carbondale. http://www.siu.edu/~ebl/leaflets/algae.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-26. 
  52. ^ Mondragon, J; Mondragon, J (2003). Seaweeds of the Pacific Coast. Monterey, California: Sea Challengers Publications. ISBN 0930118294. 
  53. ^ "Durvillaea antarctica (Chamisso) Hariot". AlgaeBase. http://www.algaebase.org/speciesdetail.lasso?species_id=11752&sk=0&from=results&-session=abv3:51909EC30802716127sVj3EDC9C7. 
  54. ^ Bigogno, C; I Khozin-Goldberg; S Boussiba; A Vonshak; Z Cohen (2002). "Lipid and fatty acid composition of the green oleaginous alga Parietochloris incisa, the richest plant source of arachidonic acid.". Phytochemistry 60 (5): 497–503. doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(02)00100-0. PMID 12052516. 
  55. ^ Allison Aubrey (Morning Edition, November 1, 2007). "Getting Brain Food Straight from the Source". National Public Radio. http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=15823852. 
  56. ^ Arad, Shoshana; Spharim, Ishai (1998). "Production of Valuable Products from Microalgae: An Emerging Agroindustry". in Altman, Arie. Agricultural Biotechnology. Books in Soils, Plants, and the Environment. 61. CRC Press. p. 638. ISBN 0824794397, 9780824794392. 

Bibliography

General

  • Chapman, V.J. (1950). Seaweeds and their Uses. London: Methuen & Co. Ltd. ISBN 0412157403. 
  • Lembi, C.A.; Waaland, J.R. (1988). Algae and Human Affairs. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521321158. 
  • Round, F E (1981). The Ecology of Algae. London: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521225833. 
  • Mumford, T F; Miura, A (1988). "Porphyra as food: cultivation and economic". in Lembi, C A; Waaland, J R. Algae and Human Affairs. Cambridge University Press. pp. 87–117. ISBN 0521321158. .

Regional

Britain and Ireland
  • Brodie, Juliet; Burrows, Elsie M; Chamberlain, Yvonne M.; Christensen, Tyge; Dixon, Peter Stanley; Fletcher, R.L.; Hommersand, Max H; Irvine, Linda M et al. (1977–2003). Seaweeds of the British Isles: A Collaborative Project of the British Phycological Society and the British Museum (Natural History). London, Andover: British Museum (Natural History), HMSO, Intercept. ISBN 0565007815, 9780565007812, 0113100450, 9780113100453, 0113100167, 9780113100163, 1898298874, 9781898298878, 056500980X, 9780565009809, 0565009818, 0565009923, 0565008714. 
  • Cullinane, John P (1973). Phycology of the South Coast of Ireland. Cork: Cork University Press. 
  • Hardy, F G; Aspinall, R J (1988). An Atlas of the Seaweeds of Northumberland and Durham. The Hancock Museum, University Newcastle upon Tyne: Northumberland Biological Records Centre. ISBN 0950968056, 9780950968056. 
  • Hardy, F G; Guiry, Michael D; Arnold, Henry R (2006). A Check-list and Atlas of the Seaweeds of Britain and Ireland (Revised ed.). London: British Phycological Society. ISBN 390616635X 9783906166353. 
  • John, D M; Whitton, B A; Brook, J A (2002). The Freshwater Algal Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge, UK; New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521770513. 
  • Knight, Margery; Parke, Mary W (1931). Manx Algae: An Algal Survey of the South End of the Isle of Man. Liverpool Marine Biology Committee (LMBC) Memoirs on Typical British Marine Plants & Animals. XXX. Liverpool: University Press. 
  • Morton, Osborne (1994). Marine Algae of Northern Ireland. Belfast: Ulster Museum. ISBN 0900761288 9780900761287. 
  • Morton, Osborne (1 December 2003). "The Marine Macroalgae of County Donegal, Ireland". Bulletin of the Irish Biogeographical Society 27: 3–164. 
Australia
  • Huisman, J M (2000). Marine Plants of Australia. University of Western Australian (UWA) Press. ISBN 1876268336. 
New Zealand
  • Chapman, Valentine Jackson; Lindauer, VW; Aiken, M; Dromgoole, FI (1900, 1956, 1961, 1969, 1970). The Marine algae of New Zealand. London; Lehre, Germany: Linnaean Society of London; Cramer. 
Europe
  • Cabioc'h, Jacqueline; Floc'h, Jean-Yves; Le Toquin, Alain; Boudouresque, Charles-François; Meinesz, Alexandre; Verlaque, Marc (1992) (in French). Guide des algues des mers d'Europe: Manche/Atlantique-Méditerranée. Lausanne, Suisse: Delachaux et Niestlé. ISBN 260300848X, 9782603008485. 
  • Gayral, Paulette (1966) (in French). Les Algues de côtes françaises (manche et atlantique), notions fondamentales sur l'écologie, la biologie et la systématique des algues marines. Paris: Doin, Deren et Cie. 
  • Guiry, M.D.; Blunden, G. (1991). Seaweed Resources in Europe: Uses and Potential. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 0471929476. 
  • Míguez Rodríguez, Luís (1998) (in Galician). Algas mariñas de Galicia: bioloxía, gastronomía, industria. Vigo: Edicións Xerais de Galicia. ISBN 84-8302-263-X. 
  • Otero, J. (2002) (in Galician). Guía das macroalgas de Galicia. A Coruña: Baía Edicións. ISBN 84-89803-22-6. 
  • Bárbara, I.; Cremades, J. (1993) (in Spanish). Guía de las algas del litoral gallego. A Coruña: Concello da Coruña - Casa das Ciencias. 
Arctic
  • Kjellman, Frans Reinhold (1883). The algae of the Arctic Sea: a survey of the species, together with an exposition of the general characters and the development of the flora. 20. Stockholm: Kungl. Svenska vetenskapsakademiens handlingar. pp. 1–350. 
Greenland
  • Lund, Søren Jensen (1959). The Marine Algae of East Greenland. Kövenhavn: C.A. Reitzel. ISBN 9584734. 
Faroe Islands
  • Børgesen, Frederik (1903, 1970 reprint). "Marine Algae". in Warming, Eugene. Botany of the Faröes Based Upon Danish Investigations. Part II. Det nordiske Forlag. pp. 339–532. .
Canary Islands
  • Børgesen, Frederik (1925, 1926, 1927, 1929, 1930, 1936). Marine Algae from the Canary Islands. København: Bianco Lunos. 
Morocco
  • Gayral, Paulette (1958) (in French). Algues de la côte atlantique marocaine. Casablanca: Rabat [Société des sciences naturelles et physiques du Maroc]. 
South Africa
  • Stegenga, H.; Bolton, J.J.; Anderson, R.J. (1997). Seaweeds of the South African West Coast. Bolus Herbarium, University of Cape Town. ISBN 079921793x. 
North America

External links



1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.ALGAE. The Latin word alga seems to have been the equivalent of the English word " seaweed " and probably stood for any or all of the species of plants which form the C/assifl- " wrack " of a seashore.^ Seaweed are not plants, but are algae.
  • ecology.com | Algae; The Most Important Organism? 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC ecology.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Not all aquatic plants are algae.
  • Algae Solutions 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.gotalgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ALGAE. The Latin word alga seems to have been the equivalent of the English word " seaweed " and probably stood for any or all of the species of plants which form the C/assifl- " wrack " of a seashore.

.When the word " Algae " cation. g came to be employed in botanical classification as the name of a class, an arbitrary limitation had to be set to its signification, and this was not always in keeping with its original meaning.^ After this survey of the four groups comprised under Algae it is easier to indicate the variations in the limits of the class as defined by different authorities.

^ While related, the name doesn't come from any devilish origins, but rather the latin 'lucifer' meaning "light bringer".
  • Grow Your Own Bioluminescent Algae 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.instructables.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The EPA originally gave Florida a 2004 deadline to set limits for nutrient pollution, which the state failed to meet.
  • EPA Proposes Limits on Fertilizer, Animal Waste, and Sewage Pollution in State Waters | CommonDreams.org 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.commondreams.org [Source type: News]

.The absence of differentiation into root, stem and leaf which prevails among seaweeds, seems, for example, to have led Linnaeus to employ the term in the Genera Plantarum for a sub-class of Cryptogamia, the members of which presented this character in a greater or less degree.^ Simple plants that do not show differentiation into roots, stems, and leaves.
  • algae Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about algae 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The absence of differentiation into root, stem and leaf which prevails among seaweeds, seems, for example, to have led Linnaeus to employ the term in the Genera Plantarum for a sub-class of Cryptogamia, the members of which presented this character in a greater or less degree.

^ The ash of seaweeds, known in Scotland as kelp , and in Brittany as varec, was formerly used as a source of iodine to a greater extent than is at present the case.

.Of the fifteen genera included by Linnaeus among algae, not more than six - viz.^ Of the fifteen genera included by Linnaeus among algae, not more than six - viz.

^ More than half of the algae is gone!!!
  • BioWorld Algae Control Treatment | BioWorld Products LLC 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.bioworldusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Activity in the nascent algae fuel sector also includes more than a few deals whose amounts have not been disclosed, but which may hold significance for the industry over time.
  • CHEAT SHEET: Heavy Hitters in Algae Fuel Deals 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC earth2tech.com [Source type: General]

Chara, Fucus, Ulva and Conferva, and in � part Tremella and Byssus - would to-day, in any sense in which the term is employed, be regarded as algae. .The excluded genera are distributed among the liverworts, lichens and fungi; but notwithstanding the great advance in knowledge since the time of Linnaeus, the difficulty of deciding what limits to assign to the group to be designated Algae still remains.^ The excluded genera are distributed among the liverworts, lichens and fungi ; but notwithstanding the great advance in knowledge since the time of Linnaeus, the difficulty of deciding what limits to assign to the group to be designated Algae still remains.

^ Additionally, a great many are also terrestrial, living in soil, snow, or in association with other organisms, especially fungi (as lichens), and animals.
  • Algae algal blooms green algae blue green algae brown slime copper chelate treatment prevention safety checklist 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.algae.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some will still linger, but it will help limit the overpopulation of algae and other aquatic plants.
  • Algae Solutions 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.gotalgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It arises from the fact that algae, as generally understood, do not constitute a homogeneous group, suggesting a descent from a common stock.^ It arises from the fact that algae, as generally understood, do not constitute a homogeneous group, suggesting a descent from a common stock.

^ Algae constitute a paraphyletic and polyphyletic group, as they do not all descend from a common algal ancestor, although their chloroplasts seem to have a single origin.
  • Introduction to Algae & Basics, Types of Algae, Forms of Algal Strains 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Further discussion of the general characters of algae will be deferred in order to take a brief survey of the subdivisions of the group.

.Among them there exist, as will be seen hereafter, many well-marked but isolated natural groups, and their inclusion in the larger group is generally felt to be a matter of convenience rather than the expression of a belief in their close inter-relationship.^ Among them there exist, as will be seen hereafter, many well-marked but isolated natural groups, and their inclusion in the larger group is generally felt to be a matter of convenience rather than the expression of a belief in their close inter-relationship.

^ Euglenophytes (one-celled, mobile algae) in particular respond to increases in ammonium and Kjeldahl nitrogen (rather than to nitrate alone), as well as to other substances associated with decomposing organic matter (Hutchinson 1975).
  • 5.0 Wetland Algae | Wetlands | US EPA 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.epa.gov [Source type: Academic]

^ Considering, however, that it is generally believed that Bryophyta and vascular plants are descended from an algal ancestry, it is natural to suppose that, prior to the luxuriant vegetable growths of the Carboniferous period, there must have existed an age of algae.

.Efforts are therefore continually being made by successive writers to exclude certain outlying sub-groups, and to reserve the term Algae for a central group reconstituted on a more natural basis within narrower limits.^ Efforts are therefore continually being made by successive writers to exclude certain outlying sub-groups, and to reserve the term Algae for a central group reconstituted on a more natural basis within narrower limits.

^ The definition applied here is that the algae is that artificial subset of the photosynthetic eukaryotes which excludes the sister group to the Charales (land plants).
  • Algae: Protists with Chloroplasts 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC tolweb.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In terms of significance to the continued existence life, therefore, algae as the world's dominant producers, play an equally dominant role in the world's ecology.

.It is perhaps desirable, in an article like this, to treat of algae in the widest possible sense in which the term may be used, an indication being at the same time given of the narrower senses in which it has been proposed to employ it.^ It is perhaps desirable, in an article like this, to treat of algae in the widest possible sense in which the term may be used, an indication being at the same time given of the narrower senses in which it has been proposed to employ it.

^ Algae may be used over a variety of stores.
  • Algae RDF Query Language 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.w3.org [Source type: Reference]

^ I would like to repeat, if I may, that chemical additions to combat algae should be the last resort in my opinion.
  • Hair Algae And How To Control It | Aquarists Online | Aquarium Fish Resources And Information 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.aquaristsonline.com [Source type: General]

.Interpreted in this way, the place of algae in the vegetable kingdom may be shown by means of a table: - ' Myxomycetes Thallophyta.^ Interpreted in this way, the place of algae in the vegetable kingdom may be shown by means of a table: - ' Myxomycetes Thallophyta.

^ In the grand scheme of things science-wise all algae are part of the Sub-Kingdom Thallophyta, meaning "all about the same plant body"; an allusion to their lack of organized tissues.
  • The Brown Algae 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.wetwebmedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Each has a slightly different way of attacking algae and some may work better in different situations and applications.
  • Algae Solutions 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.gotalgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Fungi Algae Bryophyta Pteridophyta Phanerogamia Gymnosperms Angiosperms Algae in this wide sense may be briefly described as the aggregate of those simpler forms of plant life usually devoid, like the rest of the Thallophyta, of differentiation into root, stem and leaf; but, unlike other Thallophyta, possessed of a colouring matter;.^ Simple plants that do not show differentiation into roots, stems, and leaves.
  • algae Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about algae 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Algae is plant life.
  • The FM Cure for Green Water 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC skippysstuff.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All other forms of pond plant life also use nitrogen.
  • The FM Cure for Green Water 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC skippysstuff.com [Source type: Original source]

by means of which they are enabled, in the presence of sunlight, to make use of the .carbonic acid gas of the atmosphere as a source of carbon.^ By virtue of the possession of chlorophyll all algae are capable of utilizing carbonic acid gas as a source of carbon in the presence of sunlight.

^ That’s different from fossil fuels such as oil and coal, which take stored carbon out of the ground and release it into the atmosphere, for a net increase in greenhouse gas.
  • 15 Algae Startups Bringing Pond Scum to Fuel Tanks 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC earth2tech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although algae generally are able to use carbonic acid gas as a, source of carbon, some algae, like certain of the higher plants, are capable of utilizing organic compounds for this purpose.

.It is true that certain Bryophyta (Marchantiaceae, Anthoceroteae) possess a thalloid structure similar to that of Thallophyta, and are at the same time possessed of the colouring matter of the Green Algae.^ It is true that certain Bryophyta (Marchantiaceae, Anthoceroteae) possess a thalloid structure similar to that of Thallophyta, and are at the same time possessed of the colouring matter of the Green Algae.

^ Fungi Algae Bryophyta Pteridophyta Phanerogamia Gymnosperms Angiosperms Algae in this wide sense may be briefly described as the aggregate of those simpler forms of plant life usually devoid, like the rest of the Thallophyta, of differentiation into root, stem and leaf; but, unlike other Thallophyta, possessed of a colouring matter;.

^ We do not treat the same way for green water algae and string or blanket algae because they really are two different forms and what works for one form will not work for the other.
  • Water Treatments and Methods of Getting Rid of Algae Bloom and String or Blanket Algae in Garden Ponds 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.ponddoc.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Their life-cycle, however, the structure of the reproductive organs and their whole organization proclaim them to be Bryophyta.^ Their life- cycle , however, the structure of the reproductive organs and their whole organization proclaim them to be Bryophyta.

^ Biologists have categorized micro algae in a variety of classes, mainly distinguished by their pigmentation, life cycle and basic cellular structure.
  • Oil from Algae : biomass , bio mass , renewable , alternative , fuel , energy , algae , blue green , biomasa , bio masa , reanudable , alternativa , combustible , energ�a , algas , verde azul , biomasse , la bio masse , renouvelable , carburant , �nergie , algues , vert bleu , Lebendmasse , Biomasse , auswechselbar , alternativ , Kraftstoff , Energie , Algen , blaues Gr�n 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.svlele.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Excluding Bangiaceae, however, from consideration, the Euflorideae present in the product of the development of the oospore like Bryophyta a structure partly sterile and partly fertile.

.On the other hand, certain undoubted animals (Stentor, Hydra, Bonellia) are provided with a green colouring matter by means of which they make use of atmospheric carbonic acid.^ On the other hand, certain undoubted animals (Stentor, Hydra , Bonellia ) are provided with a green colouring matter by means of which they make use of atmospheric carbonic acid .

^ Before leaving the Chlorophyceae, it should be mentioned that the genus Volvox has been included by some zoologists (Btitschli, for example) among Flagellata ; on the other hand, certain green Flagellata, such as Euglena, are included by some botanists (for example, van Tieghem) among unicellular plants.

^ They are introduced into the pool by airborne spores, from make-up water, from covers which have been dragged over grass and moss and from vegitable matter.
  • Technical Terms for Frames 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC jshep.users.ftech.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A more important consideration is the occasional absence of this colour in species, or groups of species, with, in other respects, algal affinities.^ Click here for other algal groups .

^ A more important consideration is the occasional absence of this colour in species, or groups of species, with, in other respects, algal affinities.

^ In fact, some so-called algae groups are more different from each other--- than plants are from animals.
  • BioMEDIA ASSOCIATES 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC ebiomedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Such aberrant forms are to be regarded in the same light as Cuscuta and Orobanchaceae, for example, among Phanerogams.^ Such aberrant forms are to be regarded in the same light as Cuscuta and Orobanchaceae, for example, among Phanerogams.

.As these non-green plants do not cease to be classed with other Phanerogams, so must the forms in question be retained among algae.^ Other algae are plants.
  • Algae | Valcent Blog 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC blog.valcent.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As these non-green plants do not cease to be classed with other Phanerogams, so must the forms in question be retained among algae.

^ Plants and green algae have chlophylls A and B. .
  • BioMEDIA ASSOCIATES 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC ebiomedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In all cases the loss of the colouring matter is associated with an incapacity to take up carbon from so simple a compound as carbonic acid.^ In all cases the loss of the colouring matter is associated with an incapacity to take up carbon from so simple a compound as carbonic acid.

^ Algae take up dissolved carbon dioxide and therefore cause the pH to rise rapidly.
  • Technical Terms for Frames 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC jshep.users.ftech.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ By virtue of the possession of chlorophyll all algae are capable of utilizing carbonic acid gas as a source of carbon in the presence of sunlight.

.It might be mentioned here that the whole group of the Fungi (q.v.^ It might be mentioned here that the whole group of the Fungi ( q.v.

),with its many thousands of species, is now generally regarded as having been derived from algae, and the system of classification of fungi devised by .Brefeld is based upon this belief.^ Brefeld is based upon this belief.

.The similarity of the morphological characters of one group of fungi to those of certain algae has earned for it the name of Phycomycetes or alga -fungi.^ The similarity of the morphological characters of one group of fungi to those of certain algae has earned for it the name of Phycomycetes or alga -fungi.

^ "We know that algae is likely to become the world's biofuel of choice, which means that no one producer group is going to dominate," said Eckelberry.
  • OriginOil CEO Proposes Ways to Accelerate the Pace of Renewable Energy Adoption at World Biofuels Markets 2009. | Energy & Utilities > Renewable Energy from AllBusiness.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.allbusiness.com [Source type: News]

^ A certain inequality in the character of the two cilia of the zoospores of some of the members of the group has earned for it the title Heterokontae, from the Greek xovros, a punting- pole .

.Further discussion of the general characters of algae will be deferred in order to take a brief survey of the subdivisions of the group.^ Further discussion of the general characters of algae will be deferred in order to take a brief survey of the subdivisions of the group.

^ Generally, algae as a whole can be divided into groups depending on their colouration, size, and conditions when they develop.

^ After this survey of the four groups comprised under Algae it is easier to indicate the variations in the limits of the class as defined by different authorities.

.For this purpose there will be adopted the classification of algae into four sub-groups, founded on the nature the.^ While most algae from this family are actually found in marine or brackish water environments, there are a few species that inhabit freshwater (including the genera Audouinella ).
  • Control of Red Algae in the Freshwater Aquarium 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.thekrib.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The four most important (at least in terms of abundance) are: The diatoms (Bacillariophyceae) : These algae dominate the phytoplankton of the oceans, but are also found in fresh and brackish water.
  • Oil from Algae : biomass , bio mass , renewable , alternative , fuel , energy , algae , blue green , biomasa , bio masa , reanudable , alternativa , combustible , energ�a , algas , verde azul , biomasse , la bio masse , renouvelable , carburant , �nergie , algues , vert bleu , Lebendmasse , Biomasse , auswechselbar , alternativ , Kraftstoff , Energie , Algen , blaues Gr�n 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.svlele.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Algae is found in every natural body of water that contains life, even under the polar caps.
  • The FM Cure for Green Water 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC skippysstuff.com [Source type: Original source]

colouring matters present in the plant: I. Cyanophyceae, or Blue-green Algae.
.II. Chlorophyceae, or Green Algae.^ Class Chlorophyceae: Most green algae belong to this class.
  • Water Resource Characterization DSS - Algae 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.water.ncsu.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Step-by-step instruction building a 55 gallon aquarium Step-by-step instruction building a 140 gallon aquarium Material lists Parts Lists Book III: Scaling Up (Part II) Building an Algae Green House .

^ Green algae (Chlorophyceae) .
  • Algae algal blooms green algae blue green algae brown slime copper chelate treatment prevention safety checklist 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.algae.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.III. Phaeophyceae, or Brown Algae.^ III. Phaeophyceae , or Brown Algae.

.IV. Rhodophyceae, or Red Algae.^ IV. Rhodophyceae , or Red Algae.

.The merits and demerits of this system will appear during the description of the characters of the members of the several subdivisions.^ The merits and demerits of this system will appear during the description of the characters of the members of the several subdivisions.

I. Cyanophyceae. - .This group derives its name from the circumstance that the cells contain in addition to the green colouring matter, chlorophyll, a blue-green colouring matter to which the term phycocyanin has been applied.^ This group derives its name from the circumstance that the cells contain in addition to the green colouring matter, chlorophyll , a blue-green colouring matter to which the term phycocyanin has been applied.

^ The members of this group are characterized by the possession of a red colouring matter, phycoerythrin, in addition to chlorophyll.

^ One such lethal organism is referred to as blue-green algae, so named because the foam or scum it produces gives a green or blue-green cast to water.
  • algae | DailyPuppy.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.dailypuppy.com [Source type: General]

.To the eye, however, members of this group present a greater variety of colour than those of any other - yellow, brown, olive, red, purple, violet and variations of all these being known.^ To the eye, however, members of this group present a greater variety of colour than those of any other - yellow, brown, olive , red, purple , violet and variations of all these being known.

^ Also, some species of algae produce toxic blooms known as red or brown tides, which can poison fish and mollusks.
  • Professors see solutions in slime | ASU News 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC asunews.asu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While the most common type of algae is green algae, other varieties exist, such as brown, radioactive, red, man-eating, Australian, and (the most fascinating) common.
  • Algae - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They undoubtedly represent the lowest grade of algal life, and their distribution rivals that of the Green Algae.^ They undoubtedly represent the lowest grade of algal life, and their distribution rivals that of the Green Algae.

^ The main types of algal life cycles are exhibited by green algae.

^ Marine, lime-secreting green algae have contributed to algal limestone reefs since the Cambrian .
  • green algae Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about green algae 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.They occur in the sea, in fresh water, on moist earth, on damp rocks and on the bark of trees.^ They occur in the sea, in fresh water, on moist earth, on damp rocks and on the bark of trees.

^ Algae are non-flowering water plants that grow in almost every drop of sunlit water and every gram of soil, on the barks of trees and the surfaces of rocks.
  • Healing Power of Algae for Humans and Animals - Plankton and AFA 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They are distributed worldwide in the sea, in freshwater, and in moist situations on land.
  • algae Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about algae 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Certain species are regularly found in the intercellular spaces of higher plants; such are species of Nostoc in the thallus of Anthoceros, the leaves of Azolla and the roots of Cycads.^ Certain species are regularly found in the intercellular spaces of higher plants; such are species of Nostoc in the thallus of Anthoceros, the leaves of Azolla and the roots of Cycads.

^ These organisms were previously classified as a primitive subkingdom of the plant kingdom, the thallophytes (plants that lack true roots, stems, leaves, and flowers).
  • algae Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about algae 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Before leaving the Chlorophyceae, it should be mentioned that the genus Volvox has been included by some zoologists (Btitschli, for example) among Flagellata ; on the other hand, certain green Flagellata, such as Euglena, are included by some botanists (for example, van Tieghem) among unicellular plants.

.Many of them enter into the structure of the lichen-thallus, as the so-called gonidia.^ Many of them enter into the structure of the lichen -thallus, as the so-called gonidia.

It is remarkable that species belonging to the Oscillatoriaceae are known to flourish in Hot Springs, The Temperature Of Which Rises As High As 85°C.
The Vegetable Kingdom
Cryptogamia
.The thallus may be unicellular or multicellular.^ The thallus may be unicellular or multicellular.

.When unicellular, it may consist of isolated cells, but more commonly the cells are held together in a common jelly (Chroococcaceae) derived from the outer layers of the cell-wall.^ When unicellular, it may consist of isolated cells, but more commonly the cells are held together in a common jelly (Chroococcaceae) derived from the outer layers of the cell -wall.

^ In the simplest case it may consist of a single cell, which may tions occur, and the thallus is more or less the continuous tube from remain free during the whole of the greater part of its t xistence, which the group is named.

^ Coenocytic algae are essentially unicellular, multinucleated algae in which the protoplasm (cytoplasmic and nuclear content of a cell) is not subdivided by cell walls.
  • algae (biology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.The multicellular species consist of filaments, branched or unbranched, which arise by the repeated divisions of the cells in parallel planes, no formation of mucilage occurring in the dividing walls.^ FILAMENTS Filamentous algae result from cell division in one plane.

^ These arise from the axial cell, and are multicellular and branched.

^ The multicellular species consist of filaments, branched or unbranched, which arise by the repeated divisions of the cells in parallel planes, no formation of mucilage occurring in the dividing walls.

.Such filaments may not give rise to mucilage on the I. 19 a lateral surface either, in which case they are said to be free; when mucilage does occur on the lateral wall, it appears as the sheath surrounding either the single filament, or a sheaf of filaments of common origin.^ Algae constitute a paraphyletic and polyphyletic group, as they do not all descend from a common algal ancestor, although their chloroplasts seem to have a single origin.
  • Introduction to Algae & Basics, Types of Algae, Forms of Algal Strains 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.oilgae.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Others in cross-section appear to be parenchymatous but are in fact really made up of interwoven filaments which give this appearance!

^ Euglena , are commonly found in freshwater streams and ponds, reproduce rapidly and are especially common in warm seasons when they may form a green scum on the surfaces of storages, irrigation bays or drainage ditches.
  • Algae algal blooms green algae blue green algae brown slime copper chelate treatment prevention safety checklist 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.algae.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The mucilage may also form an embedding substance similar to that of Chroococcaceae, in which the filaments lie parallel or radiate from a common centre (Rivulariaceae).^ The mucilage may also form an embedding substance similar to that of Chroococcaceae, in which the filaments lie parallel or radiate from a common centre (Rivulariaceae).

^ Yet the siphonaceous algae may assume or be loosely aggregated together within a common mucilage, or be great variety of form and reach a high degree of differentiation.

^ The multicellular species consist of filaments, branched or unbranched, which arise by the repeated divisions of the cells in parallel planes, no formation of mucilage occurring in the dividing walls.

.The cells of the filament may be all alike, and growth may occur equally in all parts (Oscillatoriaceae); or certain cells (heterocysts) may become marked off by their larger size and the transparency of their contents; in which case growth may still be distributed equally throughout (Nostoc), or the filament may be attached where the heterocyst arises, and grow out at the opposite extremity into a fine hair (Rivulariaceae).^ The cells of the filament may be all alike, and growth may occur equally in all parts (Oscillatoriaceae); or certain cells (heterocysts) may become marked off by their larger size and the transparency of their contents; in which case growth may still be distributed equally throughout ( Nostoc ), or the filament may be attached where the heterocyst arises, and grow out at the opposite extremity into a fine hair (Rivulariaceae).

^ Others are larger and more complex, forming spherical (round) colonies composed of many cells or occurring as straight or branched filaments (long, thin series of cells).
  • Algae - humans, body, used, water, process, Earth, life, plants, type, chemical, form, energy, animals, carbon, oxygen, air, cells, cause, primary 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.scienceclarified.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Thus in Lemaneaceae asexual spores are unknown; in Batracho-spermum, Bonnemaisonia and Polysiphonia byssoides both kinds of sexual cells appear on the same plant; and in some cases the asexual cells may occur in conjunction with either the male or female sexual cells.

.An African form (Camptothrix), devoid of heterocysts and hair-like at both extremities, has recently been described.^ This long, hair-like organism is a filamentous alga that can form large benthic (on the bottom) and surface mats (blooms).
  • Florida Algae - Your Guide to Florida Freshwaters 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC plants.ifas.ufl.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • algae removal-filamentous algae-cyanobacteria blue green pond, lake, cylindrospermopsis,lyngbya 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.virtualviz.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Branching has been described as " false " and " true."^ Branching has been described as " false " and " true."

.The former arises when a filament in a sheath, either in consequence of growth in length beyond the capacity of the sheath to accommodate it, FIG. I. - Cyanophyceae, variously magnified.^ The former arises when a filament in a sheath, either in consequence of growth in length beyond the capacity of the sheath to accommodate it, FIG. I. - Cyanophyceae, variously magnified.

Nostoc sp., young colony-fila ment with heterocysts. .Scytonema sp., false branching.^ Scytonema sp., false branching.

Rivularia sp. .Stigonema sp., with hormogonium and true branching.^ Stigonema sp., with hormogonium and true branching.

.H. Spirulina sp. (From Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfamilien, by permission of Wilhelm Engelman.^ (From Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfamilien, by permission of Wilhelm Engelman.

^ (A, C, E, F, G, H, K, L, M 1 M 2 from Engler and Prantl, Pfianzenfamilien,by permission of Wilhelm Engelmann; B 1, N from Vines, Students' Text Book of Botany , by permission of Swan Sonnenschein and Co.; B 2, D. 0 from Oltmanns, Morphologie u.

^ Kirchner, " Schizophyceae," in Engler and Prantl's Pflanzenfamilien (Leipzig, 1900).

) or because of the decay of a cell, becomes interrupted by breaking, and the free ends slip past one another. ." True " branching arises only by the longitudinal division of a cell of a filament and the lateral outgrowth of one of the cells resulting from the division (Sirosiphonaceae).^ FILAMENTS Filamentous algae result from cell division in one plane.

^ True " branching arises only by the longitudinal division of a cell of a filament and the lateral outgrowth of one of the cells resulting from the division (Sirosiphonaceae).

^ They exhibit no true leaves, stems or root systems and reproduce by means of spores, cell division or fragmentation.
  • algae, blue green algae, green algae, algae control information, picture of algae,algae blooms 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC pondsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The nature of the contents of the cells of Cyanophyceae has given rise to considerable controversy. .The cells are for the most part exceedingly minute, and are not easy to free from their colouring matters, so that investigation has been attended with great difficulty.^ The cells are for the most part exceedingly minute, and are not easy to free from their colouring matters, so that investigation has been attended with great difficulty.

^ This group derives its name from the circumstance that the cells contain in addition to the green colouring matter, chlorophyll , a blue-green colouring matter to which the term phycocyanin has been applied.

^ Fortunately it is usually attached to old plant stems and the bottom gravel, and the recently grown parts of thin-stemmed plants that might not survive 4 minutes of bleach are usually free of it.
  • Hair (thread) Algae 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.thekrib.com [Source type: Original source]

.Occupying as these algae do perhaps the lowest grade of plant life, it is a matter of interest to ascertain whether a nucleus or chromatophore is differentiated in their cells, or whether the functions and properties of these bodies are diffused through the whole protoplast.^ Algae is plant life.
  • The FM Cure for Green Water 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC skippysstuff.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Form and function of algae - The algal cell .
  • algae (biology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Occupying as these algae do perhaps the lowest grade of plant life, it is a matter of interest to ascertain whether a nucleus or chromatophore is differentiated in their cells, or whether the functions and properties of these bodies are diffused through the whole protoplast.

.It is certain that the centre of the cell, which is usually non-vacuolated, is occupied by protoplasm of different properties from the peripheral region; and A. Fischer has further established the fact that the peripheral mass, which is a hollow sphere in spherical cells, and either a hollow cylinder or barrel-shaped body in filamentous forms, must be regarded as the single chromatophore of the Cyanophyceous cell.^ It is certain that the centre of the cell, which is usually non-vacuolated, is occupied by protoplasm of different properties from the peripheral region; and A. Fischer has further established the fact that the peripheral mass, which is a hollow sphere in spherical cells, and either a hollow cylinder or barrel -shaped body in filamentous forms, must be regarded as the single chromatophore of the Cyanophyceous cell.

^ Euglena and similar genera are free-swimming one-celled forms that contain chlorophyll but that are also able, under certain conditions, to ingest food in an animallike manner.
  • algae Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about algae 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ First the cell balls up, usually forming a raft with others.
  • BioMEDIA ASSOCIATES 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC ebiomedia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But what precisely is the nature of the central mass is still uncertain.^ But what precisely is the nature of the central mass is still uncertain.

.Some investigators, such as R. Hegler, F. G. Kohl and E. W. Olive, claim that this body is a true nucleus comparable with that of the higher plants.^ Some investigators, such as R. Hegler, F. G. Kohl and E. W. Olive, claim that this body is a true nucleus comparable with that of the higher plants.

^ Certain species are regularly found in the intercellular spaces of higher plants; such are species of Nostoc in the thallus of Anthoceros, the leaves of Azolla and the roots of Cycads.

^ VIDEO Some types of microscopic algae are plantlike and live suspended in bodies of water such as oceans.
  • algae (biology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

is said to undergo division by mitosis essentially of the same character, with the formation of a spindle and the differentiation of chromosomes. .It is further stated by Olive that the chromosomes undergo longitudinal fission, and that for the same species the same number of chromosomes appear at each division.^ It is further stated by Olive that the chromosomes undergo longitudinal fission, and that for the same species the same number of chromosomes appear at each division.

^ In Dictyota the unfertilized oosphere is found to be capable of undergoing a limited number of divisions, but the body thus formed appears to atrophy sooner or later.

^ Eight chromosomes appear again in the ultimate divisions which give rise to the carpospores.

.H. Wager speaks with greater reserve, acknowledging, however, the central body to be a nucleus of a rudimentary type, but devoid of nuclear membrane and nucleolus.^ H. Wager speaks with greater reserve, acknowledging, however, the central body to be a nucleus of a rudimentary type, but devoid of nuclear membrane and nucleolus.

.He thinks it may possibly originate in the vacuolization of the central region, and the accumulation of chromatin granules therein.^ He thinks it may possibly originate in the vacuolization of the central region, and the accumulation of chromatin granules therein.

.He finds no spindle fibres or true chromosomes, and considers the division direct, not indirect.^ He finds no spindle fibres or true chromosomes, and considers the division direct, not indirect.

^ They exhibit no true leaves, stems or root systems and reproduce by means of spores, cell division or fragmentation.
  • algae, blue green algae, green algae, algae control information, picture of algae,algae blooms 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC pondsolutions.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With reference to the existence of a chromatophore, he with others finds the colouring matter localized in granules in the peripheral region, but does not consider these individually or in the aggregate as chromatophores.^ With reference to the existence of a chromatophore, he with others finds the colouring matter localized in granules in the peripheral region, but does not consider these individually or in the aggregate as chromatophores.

^ This complex unicellular organism referred to as a protist in the eukaryotic kingdom does not have true roots or stems and therefore is not considered a plant.
  • Aquarium Algae - How to Get Rid of Algae in Aquariums, Fish Bowls, and Ponds. 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.aquariumfish.net [Source type: General]

^ However, he refers clients to a patent attorney who does represent others in court, if it appears likely that patent related representation in court is appropriate.

.Among other contents of the cell, fatty substances and tannin are known.^ No other substance is known to trigger such movement of the NK cells in the body.
  • SBGA 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.doglogic.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A curious adaptation seems to occur in certain floating forms, in the presence of a gas-vacuole, which may be made to vary its volume with varying pressure.^ A curious adaptation seems to occur in certain floating forms, in the presence of a gas-vacuole, which may be made to vary its volume with varying pressure.

^ When this happen gas exchange becomes limited and low Oxygen levels might occur causing various issues e.g.
  • Aquarium Algae ID (updated 16th Spet '08) 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC aquariumalgae.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A submersed transducer generates ultrasonic waves that shock the algae and kill the algae by tearing the gas vacuole which allows them to float.
  • Algae Solutions 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.gotalgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.There is evidence that the dividing wall of filamentous forms is deeply pitted, as is found to be the case in red algae.^ In algae three forms are found: .

^ There is evidence that the dividing wall of filamentous forms is deeply pitted, as is found to be the case in red algae.

^ The earliest multicellular alga known is the red fossil alga Bangiomorpha (at right), found in 1,200 million year old rocks in Arctic Canada.

.Reproduction is chiefly effected by the vegetative method.^ Reproduction is chiefly effected by the vegetative method.

.Asexual reproductive cells are not infrequent, but sexual reproduction even in its initial stages is unknown.^ Asexual reproductive cells are not infrequent, but sexual reproduction even in its initial stages is unknown.

^ Sexual and asexual reproduction prevail.

^ Reproduction is both asexual and sexual.

.Nor is motility by means of cilia known in the group.^ Nor is motility by means of cilia known in the group.

^ Fertilization by means of non-motile spermatia and a trichogyne are known among the Fungi in the families Collemaceae and Laboulbeniaceae.

^ In all the multicellular plants of this group which have been adequately investigated, vegetative multiplication by means of what are known as hormogonia has been found to occur.

.In the unicellular forms, cell-division involves multiplication of the plant.^ In the unicellular forms, cell-division involves multiplication of the plant.

^ The organisms take many forms, ranging from unicellular to relatively complex multicellular plants.
  • green algae Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about green algae 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In these cases, certain cells of a colony of unicellular plants or of the filaments of multicellular plants enlarge greatly and thicken their wall.

.In all the multicellular plants of this group which have been adequately investigated, vegetative multiplication by means of what are known as hormogonia has been found to occur.^ In all the multicellular plants of this group which have been adequately investigated, vegetative multiplication by means of what are known as hormogonia has been found to occur.

^ Nor is motility by means of cilia known in the group.

^ The earliest multicellular alga known is the red fossil alga Bangiomorpha (at right), found in 1,200 million year old rocks in Arctic Canada.

.These are short segments of filaments consisting of a few cells which disengage themselves from the ambient jelly, if it be present, in virtue of a peculiar creeping movement which they possess at this stage.^ These are short segments of filaments consisting of a few cells which disengage themselves from the ambient jelly, if it be present, in virtue of a peculiar creeping movement which they possess at this stage.

^ Its filaments consist of series of cells being joined end to end giving a thread-like appearance.
  • Algae algal blooms green algae blue green algae brown slime copper chelate treatment prevention safety checklist 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.algae.info [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The oogonium, seated on a stalk cell, is surrounded by an investment consisting of five spirallywound cells, from the projecting ends of which segments are cut off, constituting the so-called stigma.

.After a time they come to rest and give rise to new colonies.^ After a time they come to rest and give rise to new colonies.

^ "The time has come for more resources to go into nutrition research, new food technology and ways to increase productivity per acre.
  • Information About Algae, Klamath Lake Blue Green Algae, AFA Blue Green Algae, Blue Green Algae - KlamathBlueGreen.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.klamathbluegreen.com [Source type: Academic]

^ When zoospores come to rest, a new cell is formed and germination ensues at once.

.True reproduction of the asexual kind occurs, however, in the formation of sporangia, particularly in the Chamaesiphonaceae.^ True reproduction of the asexual kind occurs, however, in the formation of sporangia, particularly in the Chamaesiphonaceae.

^ Both asexual and sexual reproduction occur among Euphaeophyceae.

^ With regard to true reproduction, which is characterized by the formation of special cells, the group Euchlorophyceae is characterized by the production of zoospores (Gr.

.Here the contents of certain cells break up endogenously into a great number of spores, which are distributed as a fine dust.^ Here the contents of certain cells break up endogenously into a great number of spores, which are distributed as a fine dust .

^ They are introduced into the pool by airborne spores, from make-up water, from covers which have been dragged over grass and moss and from vegitable matter.
  • Technical Terms for Frames 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC jshep.users.ftech.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The germination of a zygospore or oospore is effected by the rupture of an outer cuticularized exosporium; then the cell may protrude an inner wall, the endosporium, and grow out into the new plant ( Vaucheria ), or the contents may break up into a first brood of zoospores.

.Resting spores are also known.^ Resting spores are also known.

.In these cases, certain cells of a colony of unicellular plants or of the filaments of multicellular plants enlarge greatly and thicken their wall.^ In these cases, certain cells of a colony of unicellular plants or of the filaments of multicellular plants enlarge greatly and thicken their wall.

^ These algae are coenocytic which means they undergo repeated nuclear division without the accompanying formation of cell walls.

^ Of these the first three include multicellular plants, some of them of great size; the last three are unicellular organisms, with little in common with the rest excepting the possession of a brown colouring matter.

.When unfavourable external conditions supervene and the ordinary cells become atrophied, these cells persist and reproduce the plant with the return of more favourable conditions.^ When unfavourable external conditions supervene and the ordinary cells become atrophied, these cells persist and reproduce the plant with the return of more favourable conditions.

^ Oltmanns has recently re-investigated the phenomena in this plant, among others, and has shown that the nucleus of the cell which is being preyed upon recedes to the wall and gradually atrophies.

^ Limiting nutrients will not help fighting this algae but rather cause problems in planted tanks where plants will be exposed to nutrient deficiency and that condition will just favour other algae types.
  • Aquarium Algae ID (updated 16th Spet '08) 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC aquariumalgae.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Oscillatoriaceae are capable of a peculiar oscillatory movement, which has earned for them their name, and which enables them to move through considerable distances.^ The Oscillatoriaceae are capable of a peculiar oscillatory movement, which has earned for them their name, and which enables them to move through considerable distances.

.It is not clear how the movement is effected, though it has frequently been the subject of careful investigation.^ It is not clear how the movement is effected, though it has frequently been the subject of careful investigation.

^ Popp was able to show that the effects of a compound could be duplicated just by bombarding water with the electromagnetic frequency of the compound, which is how homeopathy works.
  • Healing Power of Algae for Humans and Animals - Plankton and AFA 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.With the Cyanophyceae must be included, as their nearest allies, the Bacteriaceae (see Bacteriology).^ With the Cyanophyceae must be included, as their nearest allies, the Bacteriaceae (see Bacteriology ).

^ Cyanophyceae, or, in recognition of the incongruity of effecting such a separation, the whole group of the Schizophyta - that is to say, the Cyanophyceae in the narrow sense, together with Bacteriaceae, is included or excluded together.

.Notwithstanding the absence of chlorophyll, and the consequent parasitic or saprophytic habit, Bacteriaceae agree in so many morphological features with Cyanophyceae that the affinity can hardly be doubted.^ Notwithstanding the absence of chlorophyll, and the consequent parasitic or saprophytic habit, Bacteriaceae agree in so many morphological features with Cyanophyceae that the affinity can hardly be doubted.

.A census of the Cyanophyceae with their two main groups is given below: I. Coccogoneae -2 families, 29 genera, 253 species.^ Characeae-2 families, 6 genera, 181 species.

^ A census of Phaeophyceae is given below: (I) Cyclosporinae (Fucaceae)-4 families, 32 genera, 347 species.

^ A census of the Cyanophyceae with their two main groups is given below: I. Coccogoneae -2 families, 29 genera, 253 species.

.2. Hormogoneae-6 families, 59 genera, 701 species.^ Hormogoneae-6 families, 59 genera, 701 species.

^ Characeae-2 families, 6 genera, 181 species.

^ While most algae from this family are actually found in marine or brackish water environments, there are a few species that inhabit freshwater (including the genera Audouinella ).
  • Control of Red Algae in the Freshwater Aquarium 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.thekrib.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.(Engler and Prantl's Pflanzenfamilien, 1900.) II. Chlorophyceae.^ (Engler and Prantl's Pflanzenfamilien, 1900.

^ Kirchner, " Schizophyceae," in Engler and Prantl's Pflanzenfamilien (Leipzig, 1900).

^ (Engler and Prantl's Pflanzenfamilien.

- .This group includes those algae in which the green colouring matter, chlorophyll, is not accompanied by a second colouring matter, as it is in other groups.^ This group includes those algae in which the green colouring matter, chlorophyll, is not accompanied by a second colouring matter, as it is in other groups.

^ The other major group of terrestrial algae are those in lichen symbioses.

^ In common with higher land plants, green algae include chlorophylls a and b among their principal pigments, have cellulose as the main constituent of cell walls, and form food reserves of starch.
  • green algae Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about green algae 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

.It consists of three subdivisions - Conjugatae, Euchlorophyceae and Characeae.^ It consists of three subdivisions - Conjugatae, Euchlorophyceae and Characeae.

.Of these the first and last are relatively small and sharply defined families, distinguished from the second family, which forms the bulk of the group, by characters so diverse that their inclusion with them in one larger group can only be justified on the ground of convenience.^ Of these the first and last are relatively small and sharply defined families, distinguished from the second family, which forms the bulk of the group, by characters so diverse that their inclusion with them in one larger group can only be justified on the ground of convenience.

^ Specific groups can be distinguished from protozoan s and fungi ( see fungus ) only by the presence of chloroplasts and by their ability to carry out photosynthesis; these specific groups thus have a closer evolutionary relationship with the protozoa or fungi than with other algae.
  • algae (biology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Among them there exist, as will be seen hereafter, many well-marked but isolated natural groups, and their inclusion in the larger group is generally felt to be a matter of convenience rather than the expression of a belief in their close inter-relationship.

.Chlorophyceae include both marine and freshwater plants.^ Chlorophyceae include both marine and freshwater plants.

^ The great majority of the aquatic algae, both freshwater and marine, are attached plants.

^ Conjugatae, Protococcales and Characeae are exclusively freshwater; Confervales and Siphonales are both freshwater and marine, but the latter group attains its greatest development in the sea.

.Euchlorophyceae in their turn have been until recently regarded as made up of the three series of families - Protococcales, Confervales and Siphonales.^ Euchlorophyceae in their turn have been until recently regarded as made up of the three series of families - Protococcales, Confervales and Siphonales.

^ Conjugatae, Protococcales and Characeae are exclusively freshwater; Confervales and Siphonales are both freshwater and marine, but the latter group attains its greatest development in the sea.

^ Aquatic reef - A solid, three-dimensional ecological community made up of densely packed oysters or other artificial substances.
  • Glossary - Bay Resource Library - Chesapeake Bay Program 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.chesapeakebay.net [Source type: Reference]

.As the result of recent investigations by two Swedish algologists, Bohlin and Luther, it has been proposed to make a re-classification of a far-reaching nature.^ As the result of recent investigations by two Swedish algologists, Bohlin and Luther, it has been proposed to make a re-classification of a far-reaching nature.

^ The results were recently published under the title: Effects of the Blue Green Algae Aphanizomenon flos-aquae on Human Natural Killer Cells.
  • Healing Power of Algae for Humans and Animals - Plankton and AFA 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Oltmanns has recently re-investigated the phenomena in this plant, among others, and has shown that the nucleus of the cell which is being preyed upon recedes to the wall and gradually atrophies.

.Algae are withdrawn from each of the three series enumerated above and consolidated into an entirely new group.^ Algae are withdrawn from each of the three series enumerated above and consolidated into an entirely new group.

^ Your Algae Bar will be as good as new and continue emitting copper ions into your water killing the algae.
  • Algae Bar - Learn how you can prevent, swimming pool algae, koi pond algae, hot tub algae, and spa water algae. 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC algaebar.com [Source type: General]

^ In consonance with this name, its authors propose to re-name the Conjugatae; Akontae and Oedogoniaceae with a chaplet of cilia become Stephanokontae, and the algae remaining over in the three series from which the Heterokontae and Stephanokontae are withdrawn become Isokontae.

.In these algae, the colouring matter is said to be yellowish-green, not strictly green, and contained in numerous small discoid chromatophores which are devoid of pyrenoids.^ In these algae, the colouring matter is said to be yellowish-green, not strictly green, and contained in numerous small discoid chromatophores which are devoid of pyrenoids.

^ As the body uses only a small amount of energy to convert this superfood into fuel, consuming Klamath Blue Green Algae is a fast, efficient and energizing .
  • Information About Algae, Klamath Lake Blue Green Algae, AFA Blue Green Algae, Blue Green Algae - KlamathBlueGreen.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.klamathbluegreen.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In Botrydium the chromatophores are small, without pyrenoids, and oil-drops are present; in Protosiphon the chromatophores form a net-work with pyrenoids, and the contents include starch.

.The products of assimilation are stored up in the form of a fatty substance and not starch.^ The products of assimilation are stored up in the form of a fatty substance and not starch .

^ One of the most basic forms of the drum dryer, where a film of the product to be dried up on the durface of the dryer drum as it rotates through a feed tray mounted below.
  • http://www.70centsagallon.com/Algae.html: Algae Photo-Bioreactors: These Commercial Algae Photo-Bioreactors make algae oil commercially. 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.70centsagallon.com [Source type: Reference]

.A certain inequality in the character of the two cilia of the zoospores of some of the members of the group has earned for it the title Heterokontae, from the Greek xovros, a punting-pole.^ A certain inequality in the character of the two cilia of the zoospores of some of the members of the group has earned for it the title Heterokontae, from the Greek xovros, a punting- pole .

^ Note many of these groups contain some members that are no longer photosynthetic.
  • Algae K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The similarity of the morphological characters of one group of fungi to those of certain algae has earned for it the name of Phycomycetes or alga -fungi.

.In consonance with this name, its authors propose to re-name the Conjugatae; Akontae and Oedogoniaceae with a chaplet of cilia become Stephanokontae, and the algae remaining over in the three series from which the Heterokontae and Stephanokontae are withdrawn become Isokontae.^ In consonance with this name, its authors propose to re-name the Conjugatae; Akontae and Oedogoniaceae with a chaplet of cilia become Stephanokontae, and the algae remaining over in the three series from which the Heterokontae and Stephanokontae are withdrawn become Isokontae.

^ Algae are withdrawn from each of the three series enumerated above and consolidated into an entirely new group.

^ Re: ALGAE have (at least) FOUR BIG ADVANTAGES Three comments: 1)Brackish water is probably more important to this technology than sea water.
  • Technology Review: Algae-Based Fuels Set to Bloom 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: General]

.Conjugatae, Protococcales and Characeae are exclusively freshwater; Confervales and Siphonales are both freshwater and marine, but the latter group attains its greatest development in the sea.^ Conjugatae, Protococcales and Characeae are exclusively freshwater; Confervales and Siphonales are both freshwater and marine, but the latter group attains its greatest development in the sea.

^ The great majority of the aquatic algae, both freshwater and marine, are attached plants.

^ To the aggregate of such forms, both animal and vegetable, the term plankton has been applied, and the investigation of the vegetable plankton, both freshwater and marine, has been pursued in recent times with energy and success.

.Some Chlorophyceae are terrestrial in habit, usually growing on a damp substratum, however.^ Some Chlorophyceae are terrestrial in habit, usually growing on a damp substratum, however.

^ The great majority of algae, however, grow like land-plants attached to a substratum, and to these the term benthos is now generally applied.

^ Algae are usually found in damp places or bodies of water and thus are common in terrestrial as well as aquatic environments.
  • Algae K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Trentepohlia grows on rocks and can survive considerable desiccation.^ Trentepohlia grows on rocks and can survive considerable desiccation .

.Phycopeltis grows on the surface of leaves, Phyllobium and Phyllosiphon in their tissues.^ Phycopeltis grows on the surface of leaves, Phyllobium and Phyllosiphon in their tissues.

.Gomontia is a shell-boring alga, A. Gloeocapsa sp., colony in mucilage.^ Gomontia is a shell - boring alga, A. Gloeocapsa sp., colony in mucilage.

^ Allusion has already been made to the peculiar habit of the shell-boring algae.

.B. Phormidium sp., single filament with hormogonium.^ B. Phormidium sp., single filament with hormogonium.

.C. Microcoleus sp., several filaments in common sheath.^ C. Microcoleus sp., several filaments in common sheath.

.BI FIG. 2. - Chlorophyceae, variously magnified.^ The former arises when a filament in a sheath, either in consequence of growth in length beyond the capacity of the sheath to accommodate it, FIG. I. - Cyanophyceae, variously magnified.

^ Chlorophyceae, variously magnified.

.A. Chlamydomonas sp., unicellular; chr.,chromatophore; p.,pyrenoid; H. Oedogonium sp., intercalated growth by insertion of new piece(a) n., nucleus; p.v., pulsating vacuoles; e.s., eyespot.^ Embedded in the chromatophore, much in the same way as the nucleus is embedded in the cytoplasm, are the pyrenoids.

^ A. Chlamydomonas sp., unicellular; chr.,chromatophore; p.,pyrenoid; H. Oedogonium sp., intercalated growth by insertion of new piece(a) n., nucleus; p.v., pulsating vacuoles; e.s., eyespot.

leaving caps.
B i. .Volvox sp., with a, antheridia, and o, oogonia.^ Volvox sp., with a, antheridia, and o, oogonia.

.K. Struvea sp., showing branches forming a net-work.^ K. Struvea sp., showing branches forming a net -work.

^ In Botrydium the chromatophores are small, without pyrenoids, and oil-drops are present; in Protosiphon the chromatophores form a net-work with pyrenoids, and the contents include starch.

^ A. Polysiphonia sp., apical region showing leading cell and cutting K. Nemalion sp., carpogonial and antheridial branches.

.B2. Volvox sp., surface view of a single cell showing connexions.^ Volvox sp., surface view of a single cell showing connexions.

^ In such cases as Lemanea, the terminal cells of the lateral branches form a superficial layer which has all the appearance of a parenchyma when viewed from the surface.

^ These flagellates range from single cells, such as Ochromonas , to colonial organisms with thousands of cells, such as Volvox .
  • algae (biology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

.L. Caulerpa sp., showing portion 'of axis with leaf-like and root C. Pandorina sp., a 16-celled colony.^ M, Chara sp., axis with leaf-like appendages and a branch.

^ L. Caulerpa sp., showing portion 'of axis with leaf-like and root C. Pandorina sp., a 16-celled colony.

^ C. Lomentaria sp., apex showing growth in length through coN. Constantinea sp., with flattened leaf-like appendages.

like appendages.
.D. Hydrodictyon, a single mesh surrounded by 6 cells.^ D. Hydrodictyon, a single mesh surrounded by 6 cells.

.M, Chara sp., axis with leaf-like appendages and a branch.^ E. Chrysymenia uvaria, axis with swollen leaf-like appendages.

^ F. Polyzonia sp., branch with leaf-like branches of limited growth.

^ M, Chara sp., axis with leaf-like appendages and a branch.

.E. Microspora sp., showing H-pieces in the wall.^ E. Microspora sp., showing H-pieces in the wall.

.M2. Chara sp., apical region.^ Chara sp., apical region.

^ A. Polysiphonia sp., apical region showing leading cell and cutting K. Nemalion sp., carpogonial and antheridial branches.

^ Dudresnaya coccinea, fusion of ooblastema filaments with ' auxil- ' D. Delesseria sp., showing apical region with leading cell.

.F. Entoderma sp., endophytic in Ectocarpus. N. Botrydium, a simple siphonaceous alga with root-like attachment.^ N. Botrydium, a simple siphonaceous alga with root-like attachment .

^ Acetabularia Mediterranea, mushroom -like calcareous siphonaceous alga.

^ L. Caulerpa sp., showing portion 'of axis with leaf-like and root C. Pandorina sp., a 16-celled colony.

.G. Coleochaete sp., growing as a plate.^ G. Coleochaete sp., growing as a plate.

.0. Acetabularia Mediterranea, mushroom-like calcareous siphonaceous alga.^ Acetabularia Mediterranea, mushroom -like calcareous siphonaceous alga.

^ N. Botrydium, a simple siphonaceous alga with root-like attachment .

.(A, C, E, F, G, H, K, L, M 1 M 2 from Engler and Prantl, Pfianzenfamilien,by permission of Wilhelm Engelmann; B 1, N from Vines, Students' Text Book of Botany, by permission of Swan Sonnenschein and Co.; B 2, D. 0 from Oltmanns, Morphologie u.^ (A, B, C, D, E, H, L, M, P, from Engler and Prantl, by permission of Wilhelm Engelmann; F, G, K, 0, from Oltmanns, by permission of Gustav Fischer; Q, from by permission of the Clarendon Press; N 1, N 2, from Hauck, by permission of Eduard Kummer.

^ (A, C, E, F, G, H, K, L, M 1 M 2 from Engler and Prantl, Pfianzenfamilien,by permission of Wilhelm Engelmann; B 1, N from Vines, Students' Text Book of Botany , by permission of Swan Sonnenschein and Co.; B 2, D. 0 from Oltmanns, Morphologie u.

^ (From Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfamilien, by permission of Wilhelm Engelman.

.Biologie der Algen,
by permission of Gustav Fischer.^ Biologie der Algen, by permission of Gustav Fischer.

^ (A, B, C, D, E, H, L, M, P, from Engler and Prantl, by permission of Wilhelm Engelmann; F, G, K, 0, from Oltmanns, by permission of Gustav Fischer; Q, from by permission of the Clarendon Press; N 1, N 2, from Hauck, by permission of Eduard Kummer.

^ (A, C, D, E, F, G, H, K, L, M, P, Q, from Oltmanns, by permission of Gustav Fischer; B, N, 0, R, from Engler and Prantl, by permission of Wilhelm Engelman,) mass and from it all the nuclei of the carpospores are thus derived.

) .Dermatophyton grows on the carapace of the tortoise and Trichophilus nucleus, each cell is found to contain many small nuclei, and is in the hairs of the sloth.^ Dermatophyton grows on the carapace of the tortoise and Trichophilus nucleus, each cell is found to contain many small nuclei, and is in the hairs of the sloth .

^ Other granules, easily mistaken for the " starch " granules, are also found in the cells of Phaeophyceae; these possess a power of movement apart from the protoplasm, and are considered to be vesicles and to contain phloroglucin.

^ He founded his generalization to a large extent upon the observation that in Gloeosiphonia capillaris two cells completely fuse, and that only one nucleus can be detected in the fused mass.

.Certain Protococcales and Confervales exist spoken of as a coenocyte.^ Certain Protococcales and Confervales exist spoken of as a coenocyte.

.This character becomes still more proas the gonidia of the lichenthallus.^ This character becomes still more proas the gonidia of the lichenthallus.

^ In the whole group of the Cryptonemiales the parasitism becomes more marked still.

nounced in the large group of the Siphonales. .Valoniaceae and The thallus is of more varied structure in this group than in any Dasycladaceae are partially septate, but elsewhere no cellulose partiother.^ Valoniaceae and The thallus is of more varied structure in this group than in any Dasycladaceae are partially septate, but elsewhere no cellulose partiother.

^ Their photosynthetic pigments are more varied than those of plants, and their cells have features not found among plants and animals.
  • algae (biology) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

^ Various approaches being examined by the research groups focusing on algae biodiesel range from being the same general system, to far more complicated systems.

.In the simplest case it may consist of a single cell, which may tions occur, and the thallus is more or less the continuous tube from remain free during the whole of the greater part of its t xistence, which the group is named.^ In the simplest case it may consist of a single cell, which may tions occur, and the thallus is more or less the continuous tube from remain free during the whole of the greater part of its t xistence, which the group is named.

^ Thus in Lemaneaceae asexual spores are unknown; in Batracho-spermum, Bonnemaisonia and Polysiphonia byssoides both kinds of sexual cells appear on the same plant; and in some cases the asexual cells may occur in conjunction with either the male or female sexual cells.

^ The attachment of the cell of an ooblastema filament to a cell of the thallus may be effected by means of a minute pore, or the two cells may fuse their contents into one protoplasmic mass.

.Yet the siphonaceous algae may assume or be loosely aggregated together within a common mucilage, or be great variety of form and reach a high degree of differentiation.^ Yet the siphonaceous algae may assume or be loosely aggregated together within a common mucilage, or be great variety of form and reach a high degree of differentiation.

^ Characeae are separated from other Chlorophyceae by Ulvaceae that there is any pretension to the formation of a true a long interval, and present the highest degree of differentiation of parenchyma within the limits of the Chlorophyceae.

^ May the God Lead the people together for a common good, better and the best Earth at an early date before it is too late.
  • Technology Review: Algae-Based Fuels Set to Bloom 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: General]

held together by the .adhesion of the cell-walls at the surface of Protosiphon and Botrydium, on the one hand, are minute vesicles contact.^ Protosiphon and Botrydium, on the one hand, are minute vesicles contact.

^ Again, in oogamous reproduction, while in general only one oosphere is differentiated in the oogonium, in Sphaeroplea several oospheres arise in each oogonium; and while the oospheres usually contract away from the oogonial wall, acquiring for themselves a new cell-wall after fertilization, in Coleochaete the oosphere remains throughout in contact with the oogonial wall.

^ The attachment of the cell of an ooblastema filament to a cell of the thallus may be effected by means of a minute pore, or the two cells may fuse their contents into one protoplasmic mass.

.These aggregations or colonies, as they are termed, may attached to muddy surfaces by rhizoids; Caulerpa, on the other, assume the form of a plate, a ring, a solid sphere, a hollow sphere, presents a remarkable instance of the way in which much the same a perforate sphere, a closed net, or a simple or branched filament.^ These aggregations or colonies, as they are termed, may attached to muddy surfaces by rhizoids; Caulerpa, on the other, assume the form of a plate, a ring, a solid sphere, a hollow sphere, presents a remarkable instance of the way in which much the same a perforate sphere, a closed net, or a simple or branched filament.

^ Peysonellia squamaria, Melobesia lichenoides, Leathesia difformis are forms which are not attached throughout but grow in plates like the foliaceous lichens.

^ I had another type of red algae a long time ago that had greenish to copper colored, branching strands that were thickest where they were attached and became more slender as they branched.
  • Hair (thread) Algae 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.thekrib.com [Source type: Original source]

external .morphology as that of cormophytes has been reached by a It is not easy in all cases to draw a distinction between a colony totally different internal structure.^ It is not easy in all cases to draw a distinction between a colony totally different internal structure.

^ The ultimate product in all cases is a number of carpospores, but before this stage is reached the development is different in different subgroups.

^ The suspicion that a distinction of sex accompanied this difference of structure has been justified by the discovery by Sauvageau of undoubted fertilization in Giffordia secunda and G. fenestrata.

.Many Siphonales are encrusted of planes and a multicellular individual.^ Many Siphonales are encrusted of planes and a multicellular individual.

.In a Volvox sphere, for with lime like Corallina among Red Algae.^ In a Volvox sphere, for with lime like Corallina among Red Algae.

.Penicillus is brush-like, example, there is a marked protoplasmic continuity between all the Halimeda and Cymopolia are jointed, Acetabularia has much the same cells of the colony.^ Penicillus is brush -like, example, there is a marked protoplasmic continuity between all the Halimeda and Cymopolia are jointed, Acetabularia has much the same cells of the colony.

^ It is not easy in all cases to draw a distinction between a colony totally different internal structure.

^ L. Caulerpa sp., showing portion 'of axis with leaf-like and root C. Pandorina sp., a 16-celled colony.

.The Ulvaceae, the thallus of which consists of external form as an expanded Coprinus, Neomeris simulates the laminae, one or more cells thick, or hollow tubes, probably represent fertile shoot of Equisetum with its densely packed whorled branches, a still more advanced stage in the passage of a colony into a multiand in Microdictyon, Anadyomene, Struvea and Boodlea the branches, cellular plant.^ The Ulvaceae, the thallus of which consists of external form as an expanded Coprinus, Neomeris simulates the laminae, one or more cells thick, or hollow tubes, probably represent fertile shoot of Equisetum with its densely packed whorled branches, a still more advanced stage in the passage of a colony into a multiand in Microdictyon, Anadyomene , Struvea and Boodlea the branches, cellular plant.

^ In Coleochaetaceae the branches are often welded into nexion with each whorl there arise, singly or in pairs, branches which a plate, simulating a parenchyma.

^ In the simplest case it may consist of a single cell, which may tions occur, and the thallus is more or less the continuous tube from remain free during the whole of the greater part of its t xistence, which the group is named.

.Her(: there is some amount of localization of growth spreading in one plane, become bound together in a more or less close and distinction of parts.^ Her(: there is some amount of localization of growth spreading in one plane, become bound together in a more or less close and distinction of parts.

^ The point of this article is not to argue that this approach is the only one that makes sense, or that we should ignore other options (there are some other very appealing options as well, and realistically it makes more sense for a combination of options to be used).

^ Rather than depending on a flat plane surface for growth, a much more productive vertical hanging scheme is used.
  • 15 Algae Startups Bringing Pond Scum to Fuel Tanks 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC earth2tech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is only in such cases as Volvox and network.^ It is only in such cases as Volvox and network.

^ The only case among Phaeophyceae which has been considered to point to the existence of such a phenomenon is Cutleria.

.Characeae are separated from other Chlorophyceae by Ulvaceae that there is any pretension to the formation of a true a long interval, and present the highest degree of differentiation of parenchyma within the limits of the Chlorophyceae.^ Characeae are separated from other Chlorophyceae by Ulvaceae that there is any pretension to the formation of a true a long interval, and present the highest degree of differentiation of parenchyma within the limits of the Chlorophyceae.

^ The reproduction of Characeae is characterized by a pronounced oogamy, the reproductive organs being the most highly differentiated among Chlorophyceae.

^ In filamentous forms there is a differentiation into branches of limited and branches of unlimited growth ( Sphacelaria).

.In the whole parts known among Green Algae.^ In the whole parts known among Green Algae.

^ One of the most popular microalgal species is Spirulina (Arthrospira platensis), which is a Cyanobacteria (known as blue-green algae), and has been hailed by some as a superfood [6] .
  • Algae K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The elaborate provision for the conduct of water from part to part which has played so important its allies, nor is it known in the whole of the Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae.

.Attached to the bottom of pools series of the Confervales, the thallus consists of filaments branched by means of rhizoids, the thallus of Characeae grows upwards by or unbranched, attached at one extremity, and growing almost means of an apical cell, giving off whorled appendages at regular wholly at the free end.^ Attached to the bottom of pools series of the Confervales, the thallus consists of filaments branched by means of rhizoids, the thallus of Characeae grows upwards by or unbranched, attached at one extremity, and growing almost means of an apical cell, giving off whorled appendages at regular wholly at the free end.

^ The oogonium, seated on a stalk cell, is surrounded by an investment consisting of five spirallywound cells, from the projecting ends of which segments are cut off, constituting the so-called stigma.

^ The Ulvaceae, the thallus of which consists of external form as an expanded Coprinus, Neomeris simulates the laminae, one or more cells thick, or hollow tubes, probably represent fertile shoot of Equisetum with its densely packed whorled branches, a still more advanced stage in the passage of a colony into a multiand in Microdictyon, Anadyomene , Struvea and Boodlea the branches, cellular plant.

.The branches end in fine hairs in Chaetointervals.^ The branches end in fine hairs in Chaetointervals.

.The appendages have a limited growth; but in conphoraceae.^ The appendages have a limited growth; but in conphoraceae.

.In Coleochaetaceae the branches are often welded into nexion with each whorl there arise, singly or in pairs, branches which a plate, simulating a parenchyma.^ In Coleochaetaceae the branches are often welded into nexion with each whorl there arise, singly or in pairs, branches which a plate, simulating a parenchyma.

^ In filamentous forms there is a differentiation into branches of limited and branches of unlimited growth ( Sphacelaria).

^ Besides the differentiation into holdfast and shoot, and into branches of limited and branches of unlimited growth, there appear superficial structures of the nature of hairs.

.In all Conjugatae and most have the same unlimited growth as the main axis.^ In all Conjugatae and most have the same unlimited growth as the main axis.

^ When such a lateral branch overtops the main axis whose growth has become limited, as in Plocamium and Dasya, a sympodium is formed.

^ The branching of the thallus, which meets the eye in all these cases, is due to the unlimited growth of a few branches.

.There is thus a Protococcales, and in the bulk of the Confervales, the thallus consists close approach to the external morphology of the higher plants.^ There is thus a Protococcales, and in the bulk of the Confervales, the thallus consists close approach to the external morphology of the higher plants.

^ Certain species are regularly found in the intercellular spaces of higher plants; such are species of Nostoc in the thallus of Anthoceros, the leaves of Azolla and the roots of Cycads.

^ Among Phaeophyceae it is well known that the oospore of Fucaceae germinates directly into the sexual plant, and there is thus only one generation.

of a cell or cells, the protoplast of which contains a single nucleus. .The streaming of the protoplasm, known elsewhere among ChloroIn Hydrodictyaceae, Cladophoraceae, Sphaeropleaceae and Gomontiphyceae, is a conspicuous feature of the cells of Characeae.^ The streaming of the protoplasm, known elsewhere among ChloroIn Hydrodictyaceae, Cladophoraceae, Sphaeropleaceae and Gomontiphyceae, is a conspicuous feature of the cells of Characeae.

^ Elsewhere among Siphonales, in those cases where reproductive cells are known, the reproduction is either isogamous or asexual.

aceae this is no longer the case. .Instead of a single relatively large The Chlorophyceae excel all other groups of algae in the magnitude and variety of form of the chlorophyll-bodies.^ Instead of a single relatively large The Chlorophyceae excel all other groups of algae in the magnitude and variety of form of the chlorophyll-bodies.

^ ALGAE. The Latin word alga seems to have been the equivalent of the English word " seaweed " and probably stood for any or all of the species of plants which form the C/assifl- " wrack " of a seashore.

^ This means that the algae, recognized by the body as a food, absorbs with unsurpassed efficiency and rapidity when com- pared to most other natural or perhaps unnatural substances.
  • Healing Power of Algae for Humans and Animals - Plankton and AFA 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Ulva and Mesocarpus the chromatophore is a single plate, which in the latter genus places its edge towards the incident light; in Spirogyra they are spiral bands embedded in the primordial utricle; in Zygnema they are a pair of stellate masses, the rays of which branch peripherally; in Oedogonium they are longitudinally-disposed anastomosing bands; in Desmids plates with irregular margins; in Cladophora polyhedral plates; in Vaucheria minute elliptical bodies occurring in immense numbers.^ In Ulva and Mesocarpus the chromatophore is a single plate, which in the latter genus places its edge towards the incident light; in Spirogyra they are spiral bands embedded in the primordial utricle; in Zygnema they are a pair of stellate masses, the rays of which branch peripherally; in Oedogonium they are longitudinally-disposed anastomosing bands; in Desmids plates with irregular margins; in Cladophora polyhedral plates; in Vaucheria minute elliptical bodies occurring in immense numbers.

^ Thus Spirogyra filaments, which have been denuded of starch by being placed in the dark, form starch in one day if they are placed in a io to 20% solution of dextrose.

^ Put your grow light and bottles in a dark place (closet) where you can strictly control how much light they get.
  • Grow Your Own Bioluminescent Algae 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.instructables.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Embedded in the chromatophore, much in the same way as the nucleus is embedded in the cytoplasm, are the pyrenoids.^ Embedded in the chromatophore, much in the same way as the nucleus is embedded in the cytoplasm, are the pyrenoids.

^ A. Chlamydomonas sp., unicellular; chr.,chromatophore; p.,pyrenoid; H. Oedogonium sp., intercalated growth by insertion of new piece(a) n., nucleus; p.v., pulsating vacuoles; e.s., eyespot.

.Unknown in Cyanophyceae and Phoeophyceae, known only in Bangiaceae and Nemalion among Rhodophyceae, they are of frequent occurrence among Chlorophyceae, excepting Characeae.^ Unknown in Cyanophyceae and Phoeophyceae, known only in Bangiaceae and Nemalion among Rhodophyceae, they are of frequent occurrence among Chlorophyceae, excepting Characeae.

^ Finally, while Chlorophyceae and Phaeophyceae exhibit important affinities, the Rhodophyceae are so distinct that the term " algae " cannot be made to include them, except when used in its widest sense.

.Sometimes several pyrenoids occur in each chloroplast, as in Mesocarpus and Spirogyra; sometimes only an occasional chloroplast contains pyrenoid at all, as in Cladophora. The pyrenoid seems to be of proteid nature and gelatinous consistency, and to arise as a new formation or by division of pre-existing pyrenoids.^ Sometimes several pyrenoids occur in each chloroplast, as in Mesocarpus and Spirogyra; sometimes only an occasional chloroplast contains pyrenoid at all, as in Cladophora.

^ The pyrenoid seems to be of proteid nature and gelatinous consistency, and to arise as a new formation or by division of pre-existing pyrenoids.

^ Like a string of pearls, their cells have a gelatinous cell wall surrounding the chloroplast and a protoplast DNA container.
  • Information About Algae, Klamath Lake Blue Green Algae, AFA Blue Green Algae, Blue Green Algae - KlamathBlueGreen.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.klamathbluegreen.com [Source type: Academic]

.When carbon-assimilation is active, starch-granules crowd upon the surface of the pyrenoid and completely obscure it from view.^ When carbon-assimilation is active, starch-granules crowd upon the surface of the pyrenoid and completely obscure it from view.

.Special provision for vegetative multiplication is not common among Chlorophyceae.^ Special provision for vegetative multiplication is not common among Chlorophyceae.

.Valonia and Caulerpa among Siphonales detach portions of their thallus, which are capable of independent growth.^ Valonia and Caulerpa among Siphonales detach portions of their thallus, which are capable of independent growth.

.In Caulerpa no other means of multiplication is as yet known.^ In Caulerpa no other means of multiplication is as yet known.

^ We have multiple continuous algae harvesting technologies that require no filters, screens or other consumables.
  • 15 Algae Startups Bringing Pond Scum to Fuel Tanks 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC earth2tech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In others only the asexual method is yet known.

.In Characeae no fewer than four methods of vegetative reproduction have been described, and the facility with which buds and branches are in these cases detached has been adduced as an evidence of affinity with Bryophyta, which, as a class, are distinguished by their ready resort to vegetative reproduction.^ Reproduction is chiefly effected by the vegetative method.

^ In Characeae no fewer than four methods of vegetative reproduction have been described, and the facility with which buds and branches are in these cases detached has been adduced as an evidence of affinity with Bryophyta, which, as a class, are distinguished by their ready resort to vegetative reproduction.

^ When a species resorts to both methods, it is generally found that the asexual method prevails in the early part of the vegetative period and the sexual towards the close of that period.

.With regard to true reproduction, which is characterized by the formation of special cells, the group Euchlorophyceae is characterized by the production of zoospores (Gr.^ With regard to true reproduction, which is characterized by the formation of special cells, the group Euchlorophyceae is characterized by the production of zoospores (Gr.

^ The multicellular species consist of filaments, branched or unbranched, which arise by the repeated divisions of the cells in parallel planes, no formation of mucilage occurring in the dividing walls.

^ True reproduction of the asexual kind occurs, however, in the formation of sporangia, particularly in the Chamaesiphonaceae.

animal, o-iropa, seed); that is to say, cells capable of motility through the agency of cilia. .Such ciliary motion is known in the adult condition of the cells of Volvocaceae, but where this is not the case the reproductive cells are endowed with motility for a brief period.^ Such ciliary motion is known in the adult condition of the cells of Volvocaceae, but where this is not the case the reproductive cells are endowed with motility for a brief period.

^ In such cases as Lemanea, the terminal cells of the lateral branches form a superficial layer which has all the appearance of a parenchyma when viewed from the surface.

^ In Synura and Chromulina the cells form a spherical motile colony, recalling Volvocaceae.

.The zoospore is usually a pyriform mass of naked protoplasm, the beaked end of which where the cilia arise is devoid of colouring matter.^ The zoospore is usually a pyriform mass of naked protoplasm, the beaked end of which where the cilia arise is devoid of colouring matter.

^ The carpospores are in all cases bright red naked masses of protoplasm when first discharged.

^ The antherozoid is a spirally-coiled thread of protoplasm, furnished at one end with a pair of cilia.

.A reddish-brown body, known as the eyespot, is usually situated near the limits of the hyaline portion, and in the protoplasm contractile vacuoles similar to those of lower animals have been occasionally detected.^ A reddish-brown body, known as the eyespot, is usually situated near the limits of the hyaline portion, and in the protoplasm contractile vacuoles similar to those of lower animals have been occasionally detected.

^ The brightest belongs to those species which grow near low-water mark, or under the shade of larger algae at higher levels; species which grow near high-water mark are usually of so dark a hue that they are easily mistaken for brown seaweeds.

.The movement of the zoospore is effected by the lashing of the cilia and is in the direction of the beak, while the zoospore slowly rotates on its long axis at the same time.^ The movement of the zoospore is effected by the lashing of the cilia and is in the direction of the beak , while the zoospore slowly rotates on its long axis at the same time.

^ The zoospore is usually a pyriform mass of naked protoplasm, the beaked end of which where the cilia arise is devoid of colouring matter.

.Usually two cilia are present; in Botrydium and Hydrodictyon only one is present; in certain species of Cladophora four; in Dasycladus a chaplet, and in Oedogonium a ring of many cilia.^ Usually two cilia are present; in Botrydium and Hydrodictyon only one is present; in certain species of Cladophora four; in Dasycladus a chaplet, and in Oedogonium a ring of many cilia.

^ A certain inequality in the character of the two cilia of the zoospores of some of the members of the group has earned for it the title Heterokontae, from the Greek xovros, a punting- pole .

^ GSPI reactors require only two minutes completing the biodiesel conversion reaction compared to over one hour that is typical for a conventional biodiesel plant.

The so-called zoospore of Vaucheria is a coenocyte covered over with paired cilia corresponding in position to nuclei lying below. .In all other cases, zoospores are uninucleate bodies.^ In all other cases, zoospores are uninucleate bodies.

^ Instead of a single relatively large The Chlorophyceae excel all other groups of algae in the magnitude and variety of form of the chlorophyll-bodies.

^ Multiplication takes place in some cases by the endogenous formation of zoospores, the organism having come to rest; in others by longitudinal division, when the organism is still motile.

.Zoospores arise in cells of ordinary size and form termed zoosporangia.^ Zoospores arise in cells of ordinary size and form termed zoosporangia.

^ When zoospores come to rest, a new cell is formed and germination ensues at once.

^ In coenocytic forms the zoospores would seem to arise simultaneously, probably because many nuclei are already present.

In unicellular forms (Sphaerella) the thallus becomes transformed into a zoosporangium at the reproductive stage. .In the zoosporangia of Oedogonium, Tetraspora and Coleochaete the contents become transformed into a single zoospore.^ In the zoosporangia of Oedogonium, Tetraspora and Coleochaete the contents become transformed into a single zoospore.

^ In unicellular forms ( Sphaerella ) the thallus becomes transformed into a zoosporangium at the reproductive stage.

.In most cases repeated division seems to take place, and the final number is represented by some power of two.^ In most cases repeated division seems to take place, and the final number is represented by some power of two.

^ A gradual repeal would also take some of the uncertainty away from the financial/commodities markets.
  • Technology Review: Algae-Based Fuels Set to Bloom 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: General]

^ Growth in these cases takes place by means of an apical cell, from which successive segments are cut off by means of a transverse wall.

.In coenocytic forms the zoospores would seem to arise simultaneously, probably because many nuclei are already present.^ In coenocytic forms the zoospores would seem to arise simultaneously, probably because many nuclei are already present.

^ ALGAE. The Latin word alga seems to have been the equivalent of the English word " seaweed " and probably stood for any or all of the species of plants which form the C/assifl- " wrack " of a seashore.

^ Surface agitation is also beneficial because it helps to mix up the algae that is already present within the water column.
  • Algae Solutions 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.gotalgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The escape of zoospores is effected by the degeneration of the sporangial wall (Chaetophora), or by a pore (Cladophora), a slit (Pediastrum), or a circular fracture (Oedogonium). Zoospores are of two kinds: (I) Those which come to rest and germinate to form a new plant; these are asexual and are zoospores proper.^ Because a pond suffers from two basic types of aquatic pollution, soluble and insoluble, it is key to control these two forms as best as possible.
  • The Pond Report > Pond Algae, Smelly Pond Water, Floating Pond Algae, Natural Algae Control 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.thepondreport.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ I have been putting my treated plants in gallon jars on the windowsill, and, when I noticed the Oedogonium getting started in the jar with the myriophylum, I just pulled out the plant, retreated it in bleach for two minutes, and set it up in a new jar.
  • Hair (thread) Algae 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.thekrib.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I have treated densely furred plants two to three minutes and seen the Oedogonium return.
  • Hair (thread) Algae 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.thekrib.com [Source type: Original source]

.(2) Those which are unable to germinate of themselves, but fuse with another cell, the product giving rise to a new individual; these are sexual and are zoogametes (Gr.^ Those which are unable to germinate of themselves, but fuse with another cell, the product giving rise to a new individual; these are sexual and are zoogametes (Gr.

^ The spores of the Aglaozonia form are known to give rise to sexual plants, and the oospore of Cutleria has been observed to grow into rudimentary Aglaozonia.

^ In Zygnemaceae and Mesocarpaceae the zygospore, after a period of rest, germinates, to form a new filamentous colony; in Desmidiaceae its contents divide on germination, and thus give rise to two or more Desmids.

"ciiov, animal, and ya,c rns, yaFcerim, husband, wife). When two similar zoogametes fuse, the process is conjugation, and the product a zygospore (Gr. ?"vy6, yoke). .Usually, however, only one of the fusing cells is a zoogamete, the other gamete being a much larger resting cell.^ Usually, however, only one of the fusing cells is a zoogamete, the other gamete being a much larger resting cell.

^ However, terrestrial algae are usually rather inconspicuous and far more common in moist, tropical regions than dry ones, because algae lack vascular tissues and other adaptations to live on land.
  • Algae K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Again, among Siphonales only one family (Vaucheriaceae)has reached the stage of oogamy, although an incipient heterogamy is said to occur in two other families (Codiaceae, Bryoosidaceae).

.In such a case the zoogamete is male, is called an antherozoid or spermatozoid, and arises in an antheridium; the larger gamete is an oosphere and arises in an oogonium.^ In such a case the zoogamete is male, is called an antherozoid or spermatozoid, and arises in an antheridium; the larger gamete is an oosphere and arises in an oogonium.

^ The oosphere is in all cases fertilized while still within the oogonium, the antherozoids being admitted by means of a pore.

^ Usually, however, only one of the fusing cells is a zoogamete, the other gamete being a much larger resting cell.

.The fusion is now known as fertilization, and the product is an oospore.^ The fusion is now known as fertilization, and the product is an oospore.

^ Excluding Bangiaceae, however, from consideration, the Euflorideae present in the product of the development of the oospore like Bryophyta a structure partly sterile and partly fertile.

^ Q. Callithamnion corymbosum, fusion of products of fertilization with H. Corallina sp., tetrasporangia with zonate arrangement of tetraauxiliary cells, the nuclei of which a and b retire to the wall.

.Reproduction by conjugation is also known as isogamy, by fertilization as oogamy.^ Reproduction by conjugation is also known as isogamy, by fertilization as oogamy.

^ Among Confervales there is no family in which sexual reproduction - isogamy or oogamy - is not known to occur among some of the component species, and as many as four families (Cylindrocapsaceae, Sphaeropleaceae, Oedogoniaceae, Coleochaetaceae) are oogamous.

.When zoospores come to rest, a new cell is formed and germination ensues at once.^ When zoospores come to rest, a new cell is formed and germination ensues at once.

^ Zoospores are of two kinds: (I) Those which come to rest and germinate to form a new plant; these are asexual and are zoospores proper.

^ After a time they come to rest and give rise to new colonies.

.When zygospores and oospores are produced a new cell-wall is also formed, but a long period of rest ensues.^ When zygospores and oospores are produced a new cell-wall is also formed, but a long period of rest ensues.

^ When zoospores come to rest, a new cell is formed and germination ensues at once.

^ The germination of a zygospore or oospore is effected by the rupture of an outer cuticularized exosporium; then the cell may protrude an inner wall, the endosporium, and grow out into the new plant ( Vaucheria ), or the contents may break up into a first brood of zoospores.

.All investigation goes to show that an essential part of sexual union is the fusion of the two nuclei concerned.^ All investigation goes to show that an essential part of sexual union is the fusion of the two nuclei concerned.

^ Schmitz was of opinion that in the cases of open union there occurred a fusion of nuclei similar to that which occurs in the sexual union of two cells.

.It is interesting to know, on the authority of Oltmanns, that when the oosphere is forming in the oogonium of Vaucheria, there is a retrocession of all the included nuclei but one.^ It is interesting to know, on the authority of Oltmanns, that when the oosphere is forming in the oogonium of Vaucheria, there is a retrocession of all the included nuclei but one.

^ Pond owners know that there are two common forms of algae that are bound to show their mucky green faces at one time or another in the life of a pond.
  • The Pond Report > Pond Algae, Smelly Pond Water, Floating Pond Algae, Natural Algae Control 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.thepondreport.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Actually, it was probably there all the time in vegetative form, but there wasn't enough of it to be noticed until it multiplied.
  • Hair (thread) Algae 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.thekrib.com [Source type: Original source]

.That the antherozoid of Vaucheria contains a single nucleus had been inferred before.^ That the antherozoid of Vaucheria contains a single nucleus had been inferred before.

.From a comparison of those Euchlorophyceae which have been most closely investigated, it appears probable that sexual reproductive cells have in the course of evolution arisen as the result of specialization among asexual reproductive cells, and that in turn oogamous reproduction has arisen as the result of differentiation of the two conjugating cells into the smaller male gamete and the larger male gamete.^ Reproduction is both asexual and sexual.

^ Many Euchlorophyceae are endowed with both asexual and sexual reproduction.

^ Sexual and asexual reproduction prevail.

.It would further appear that oogamous reproduction has arisen independently in each of the three main groups of Euchlorophyceae, viz.^ It would further appear that oogamous reproduction has arisen independently in each of the three main groups of Euchlorophyceae, viz.

^ From a comparison of those Euchlorophyceae which have been most closely investigated, it appears probable that sexual reproductive cells have in the course of evolution arisen as the result of specialization among asexual reproductive cells, and that in turn oogamous reproduction has arisen as the result of differentiation of the two conjugating cells into the smaller male gamete and the larger male gamete.

^ Although the phenomena attending isogamous and oogamous reproduction respectively are essentially the same in all cases, slight variations in both instances appear in different families, attributable doubtless to the independent origin of the process in different groups.

.Protococcales, Siphonales and Confervales.^ Conjugatae, Protococcales and Characeae are exclusively freshwater; Confervales and Siphonales are both freshwater and marine, but the latter group attains its greatest development in the sea.

^ Protococcales, Siphonales and Confervales.

^ Euchlorophyceae in their turn have been until recently regarded as made up of the three series of families - Protococcales, Confervales and Siphonales.

.Thus among Volvocaceae, a family of Protococcales, while in some of the genera (Chloraster, Sphondylomorum) no sexual union has as yet been observed, in others (Pandorina, Chlorogonium, Stephanosphaera, Sphaerella) conjugation of similar gametes takes place, in others still (Phacotus, Eudorina, Volvox) the union is of the nature of fertilization.^ Thus among Volvocaceae, a family of Protococcales, while in some of the genera ( Chloraster, Sphondylomorum ) no sexual union has as yet been observed, in others ( Pandorina, Chlorogonium, Stephanosphaera, Sphaerella ) conjugation of similar gametes takes place, in others still ( Phacotus, Eudorina, Volvox ) the union is of the nature of fertilization.

^ No process of fertilization has as yet been observed.

^ Some will still linger, but it will help limit the overpopulation of algae and other aquatic plants.
  • Algae Solutions 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.gotalgae.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.No other family of Protococcales has advanced beyond the stage of isogamous reproduction.^ No other family of Protococcales has advanced beyond the stage of isogamous reproduction.

^ Again, among Siphonales only one family (Vaucheriaceae)has reached the stage of oogamy, although an incipient heterogamy is said to occur in two other families (Codiaceae, Bryoosidaceae).

^ Indeed the genus Oedogonium exhibits a high degree of specialization in its reproductive system , considering that its thallus has not advanced beyond the stage of an unbranched filament.

.Again, among Siphonales only one family (Vaucheriaceae)has reached the stage of oogamy, although an incipient heterogamy is said to occur in two other families (Codiaceae, Bryoosidaceae).^ Again, among Siphonales only one family (Vaucheriaceae)has reached the stage of oogamy, although an incipient heterogamy is said to occur in two other families (Codiaceae, Bryoosidaceae).

^ GSPI reactors require only two minutes completing the biodiesel conversion reaction compared to over one hour that is typical for a conventional biodiesel plant.

^ No other family of Protococcales has advanced beyond the stage of isogamous reproduction.

.Elsewhere among Siphonales, in those cases where reproductive cells are known, the reproduction is either isogamous or asexual.^ Elsewhere among Siphonales, in those cases where reproductive cells are known, the reproduction is either isogamous or asexual.

^ Thus in Lemaneaceae asexual spores are unknown; in Batracho-spermum, Bonnemaisonia and Polysiphonia byssoides both kinds of sexual cells appear on the same plant; and in some cases the asexual cells may occur in conjunction with either the male or female sexual cells.

^ Such ciliary motion is known in the adult condition of the cells of Volvocaceae, but where this is not the case the reproductive cells are endowed with motility for a brief period.

.Among Confervales there is no family in which sexual reproduction - isogamy or oogamy - is not known to occur among some of the component species, and as many as four families (Cylindrocapsaceae, Sphaeropleaceae, Oedogoniaceae, Coleochaetaceae) are oogamous.^ Among Confervales there is no family in which sexual reproduction - isogamy or oogamy - is not known to occur among some of the component species, and as many as four families (Cylindrocapsaceae, Sphaeropleaceae, Oedogoniaceae, Coleochaetaceae) are oogamous.

^ Reproduction by conjugation is also known as isogamy, by fertilization as oogamy.

^ No method of sexual reproduction is known with certainty.

.On these, as well as other grounds, Confervales are regarded as having attained to the highest rank among Euchlorophyceae.^ On these, as well as other grounds, Confervales are regarded as having attained to the highest rank among Euchlorophyceae.

^ Euchlorophyceae in their turn have been until recently regarded as made up of the three series of families - Protococcales, Confervales and Siphonales.

^ In these cases the activity of one of the gametes, and the passivity of the other, is regarded as evidence of incipient sex .

.Although the phenomena attending isogamous and oogamous reproduction respectively are essentially the same in all cases, slight variations in both instances appear in different families, attributable doubtless to the independent origin of the process in different groups.^ Although the phenomena attending isogamous and oogamous reproduction respectively are essentially the same in all cases, slight variations in both instances appear in different families, attributable doubtless to the independent origin of the process in different groups.

^ Thus in Lemaneaceae asexual spores are unknown; in Batracho-spermum, Bonnemaisonia and Polysiphonia byssoides both kinds of sexual cells appear on the same plant; and in some cases the asexual cells may occur in conjunction with either the male or female sexual cells.

^ I did an independent calculation to check his results and ended up with essentially the same number.

.Thus, although isogamy consists in typical cases of a union of naked motile gametes by a fusion which begins at the beaked ends, and results in the formation of an immotile spherical zygote surrounded by a cell-wall, in Leptosira it is noticeable that the fusion begins at the blunt end; in a species of Chlamydomonas the two gametes are each included in a cell-wall before fusion; and in many cases the zygote retains for some time its motility with the double number of cilia.^ Thus, although isogamy consists in typical cases of a union of naked motile gametes by a fusion which begins at the beaked ends, and results in the formation of an immotile spherical zygote surrounded by a cell-wall, in Leptosira it is noticeable that the fusion begins at the blunt end; in a species of Chlamydomonas the two gametes are each included in a cell-wall before fusion; and in many cases the zygote retains for some time its motility with the double number of cilia.

^ Thus in Lemaneaceae asexual spores are unknown; in Batracho-spermum, Bonnemaisonia and Polysiphonia byssoides both kinds of sexual cells appear on the same plant; and in some cases the asexual cells may occur in conjunction with either the male or female sexual cells.

^ The oogonium, seated on a stalk cell, is surrounded by an investment consisting of five spirallywound cells, from the projecting ends of which segments are cut off, constituting the so-called stigma.

.Again, in oogamous reproduction, while in general only one oosphere is differentiated in the oogonium, in Sphaeroplea several oospheres arise in each oogonium; and while the oospheres usually contract away from the oogonial wall, acquiring for themselves a new cell-wall after fertilization, in Coleochaete the oosphere remains throughout in contact with the oogonial wall.^ Again, in oogamous reproduction, while in general only one oosphere is differentiated in the oogonium, in Sphaeroplea several oospheres arise in each oogonium; and while the oospheres usually contract away from the oogonial wall, acquiring for themselves a new cell-wall after fertilization, in Coleochaete the oosphere remains throughout in contact with the oogonial wall.

^ The oogonia arise on a stalk cell from the lining layer of the cavity, the contents dividing to form eight oospheres as in Fucus, four as in Ascophyllum, two as in Pelvetia, or one only as in Halidrys.

^ True " branching arises only by the longitudinal division of a cell of a filament and the lateral outgrowth of one of the cells resulting from the division (Sirosiphonaceae).

.The oosphere is in all cases fertilized while still within the oogonium, the antherozoids being admitted by means of a pore.^ The oosphere is in all cases fertilized while still within the oogonium, the antherozoids being admitted by means of a pore.

^ In rare cases the oosphere has been known to germinate without fertilization ( Oedogonium, Cylindrocapsa).

^ The doubling process is provided by the act of fertilization, where an antherozoid with the single number of chromosomes fuses with an oosphere also with the single number to provide a fertilized egg with the double number.

.There is usually distinguishable upon the surface of the oosphere an area free from chlorophyll, known as the receptive spot, at which the fusion with the antherozoid takes place; and in many cases, before fertilization, a small mucilaginous mass has been observed to separate itself off from the oosphere at this point and to escape through the pore.^ There is usually distinguishable upon the surface of the oosphere an area free from chlorophyll, known as the receptive spot, at which the fusion with the antherozoid takes place; and in many cases, before fertilization, a small mucilaginous mass has been observed to separate itself off from the oosphere at this point and to escape through the pore.

^ Fertilization is effected by the passive convection of a spermatium from the antheridium to the trichogyne, to which it adheres, and to which it passes over its nucleus through an open communication set up at the point of contact.

^ Growth in these cases takes place by means of an apical cell, from which successive segments are cut off by means of a transverse wall.

.In Coleochaete the oogonial wall is drawn out into a considerable tube, which is provided with an apical pore, and this tube has a somewhat similar appearance to the imperforate trichogyne of Florideae to be hereafter described.^ In Coleochaete the oogonial wall is drawn out into a considerable tube, which is provided with an apical pore, and this tube has a somewhat similar appearance to the imperforate trichogyne of Florideae to be hereafter described.

^ On the maturation of the oospheres the outer layer of the oogonial wall ruptures, and the oospheres, still surrounded by a middle and inner layer, pass out through the mouth of the conceptacle.

^ Jetty - A wall or other barrier built out into a body of water to shelter a harbor, protect a shoreline from erosion and/or redirect water currents.
  • Glossary - Bay Resource Library - Chesapeake Bay Program 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.chesapeakebay.net [Source type: Reference]

.In certain species of Oedogonium minute male plantlets, known as dwarf males, become attached to the female plant in the neighbourhood of the oogonia, thus facilitating fertilization.^ In certain species of Oedogonium minute male plantlets, known as dwarf males, become attached to the female plant in the neighbourhood of the oogonia, thus facilitating fertilization.

^ Certain species are regularly found in the intercellular spaces of higher plants; such are species of Nostoc in the thallus of Anthoceros, the leaves of Azolla and the roots of Cycads.

^ Thus in Lemaneaceae asexual spores are unknown; in Batracho-spermum, Bonnemaisonia and Polysiphonia byssoides both kinds of sexual cells appear on the same plant; and in some cases the asexual cells may occur in conjunction with either the male or female sexual cells.

.Indeed the genus Oedogonium exhibits a high degree of specialization in its reproductive system, considering that its thallus has not advanced beyond the stage of an unbranched filament.^ Indeed the genus Oedogonium exhibits a high degree of specialization in its reproductive system , considering that its thallus has not advanced beyond the stage of an unbranched filament.

^ From the analogy of the higher plants observers have justly argued that when they have seen and marked the characters of the reproductive organs they have found the plant at the stage when it exhibits its most noteworthy features, and they have named and classified the species in accordance with these observations.

^ No other family of Protococcales has advanced beyond the stage of isogamous reproduction.

.Many Euchlorophyceae are endowed with both asexual and sexual reproduction.^ Sexual and asexual reproduction prevail.

^ Reproduction is both asexual and sexual.

^ Many Euchlorophyceae are endowed with both asexual and sexual reproduction.

.Such are Coleochaete, Oedogonium, Cylindrocapsa, Ulothrix, Vaucheria, Volvox, &c.^ In Sphaeroplea it is only at this stage that zoospores are formed at all; but in most cases, such as Oedogonium, Ulothrix, Coleochaete, similar zoospores are produced again and again upon the thallus, and the product of the oospore may be regarded as merely a first brood of a series.

^ Such are Coleochaete, Oedogonium, Cylindrocapsa, Ulothrix, Vaucheria, Volvox, &c.

.In others only the asexual method is yet known.^ In others only the asexual method is yet known.

^ In Caulerpa no other means of multiplication is as yet known.

.When a species resorts to both methods, it is generally found that the asexual method prevails in the early part of the vegetative period and the sexual towards the close of that period.^ When a species resorts to both methods, it is generally found that the asexual method prevails in the early part of the vegetative period and the sexual towards the close of that period.

^ Sexual and asexual reproduction prevail.

^ Both fungal and algal species found in lichens are capable of living independently, although habitat requirements may be greatly different from those of the lichen pair.
  • Algae K-12 Experiments for Lesson Plans & Science Fair Projects 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.juliantrubin.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This is in consonance with the facts already mentioned that zoospores germinate forthwith, and that the sexually-produced cell or zygote enters upon a period of rest.^ This is in consonance with the facts already mentioned that zoospores germinate forthwith, and that the sexually-produced cell or zygote enters upon a period of rest.

^ Zoospores are of two kinds: (I) Those which come to rest and germinate to form a new plant; these are asexual and are zoospores proper.

^ As a rule the asexual cells, and the male and female sexual cells arise upon different plants, so that the species may be said to be trioecious.

.It is known that zoogametes, which usually conjugate, may, when conjugation fails, germinate directly (Sphaerella). In rare cases the oosphere has been known to germinate without fertilization (Oedogonium, Cylindrocapsa). The germination of a zygospore or oospore is effected by the rupture of an outer cuticularized exosporium; then the cell may protrude an inner wall, the endosporium, and grow out into the new plant (Vaucheria), or the contents may break up into a first brood of zoospores.^ In these cases, however, the potential gametes may, failing conjugation, germinate directly, like the zoospores derived from unilocular sporangia.

^ Among Chlorophyceae it is often the case that the oospore on germination divides up directly to form a brood of zoospores.

^ In rare cases the oosphere has been known to germinate without fertilization ( Oedogonium, Cylindrocapsa).

.It is held that in Coleochaete a parenchyma results from the division of the oospore, from each cell of which a zoospore arises.^ It is held that in Coleochaete a parenchyma results from the division of the oospore, from each cell of which a zoospore arises.

^ True " branching arises only by the longitudinal division of a cell of a filament and the lateral outgrowth of one of the cells resulting from the division (Sirosiphonaceae).

^ In Coleochaete this seems to be preceded by the formation of a minute parenchymatous mass, in each cell of which a zoospore is produced.

.Reproduction is also effected among Euchlorophyceae by means of aplanospores and akinetes.^ Among Conjugatae reproduction is effected solely by means of conjugation of what are literally aplanospores.

^ Reproduction is also effected among Euchlorophyceae by means of aplanospores and akinetes.

.Aplanospores would seem to represent zoospores arrested in their development; without reaching the stage of motility, they germinate within the sporangium.^ Both aplanospores and akinetes may germinate with or without the formation of zoospores at the initial stage.

^ Aplanospores would seem to represent zoospores arrested in their development; without reaching the stage of motility, they germinate within the sporangium.

^ They soon acquire a cell-wall, and germinate without a period of rest.

Akinetes are ordinary thallus cells, which on account of their acquisition of a thick wall are capable of surviving unfavourable conditions. .Both aplanospores and akinetes may germinate with or without the formation of zoospores at the initial stage.^ Both aplanospores and akinetes may germinate with or without the formation of zoospores at the initial stage.

^ In these cases, however, the potential gametes may, failing conjugation, germinate directly, like the zoospores derived from unilocular sporangia.

^ Aplanospores would seem to represent zoospores arrested in their development; without reaching the stage of motility, they germinate within the sporangium.

.Among Conjugatae reproduction is effected solely by means of conjugation of what are literally aplanospores.^ Among Conjugatae reproduction is effected solely by means of conjugation of what are literally aplanospores.

^ Reproduction is also effected among Euchlorophyceae by means of aplanospores and akinetes.

.Among those Desmidiaceae which live a free life, two plants become surrounded by a common mucilage, in which they lie either parallel (Closterium) or crosswise (Cosmarium). Gaps then appear in the apposed surfaces, usually at the isthmus; the entire protoplasts either pass out to melt into one another clear of the old walls, or partly pass out and fuse without complete detachment from the old walls.^ Gaps then appear in the apposed surfaces, usually at the isthmus ; the entire protoplasts either pass out to melt into one another clear of the old walls, or partly pass out and fuse without complete detachment from the old walls.

^ Among those Desmidiaceae which live a free life, two plants become surrounded by a common mucilage, in which they lie either parallel ( Closterium) or crosswise ( Cosmarium).

^ Such filaments may not give rise to mucilage on the I. 19 a lateral surface either, in which case they are said to be free; when mucilage does occur on the lateral wall, it appears as the sheath surrounding either the single filament, or a sheaf of filaments of common origin.

.Among colonial Desmidiaceae, the break-up of the filament is a preliminary to this conjugation; otherwise the process is the same.^ Among colonial Desmidiaceae, the break-up of the filament is a preliminary to this conjugation; otherwise the process is the same.

.The zygospore becomes surrounded with its own wall, consisting finally of three layers, the outer of which is furnished with spicular prominences of various forms.^ The zygospore becomes surrounded with its own wall, consisting finally of three layers, the outer of which is furnished with spicular prominences of various forms.

^ When unicellular, it may consist of isolated cells, but more commonly the cells are held together in a common jelly (Chroococcaceae) derived from the outer layers of the cell -wall.

^ On the maturation of the oospheres the outer layer of the oogonial wall ruptures, and the oospheres, still surrounded by a middle and inner layer, pass out through the mouth of the conceptacle.

.In Zygnemaceae there is no dissolution of the filaments, but the whole contents of one cell pass over by means of a conjugation-tube into the cavity of a cell of a neighbouring filament, where the zygospore is formed by the fusion of the two FIG. 3. - Chlorophyceae, variously magnified.^ In Zygnemaceae there is no dissolution of the filaments, but the whole contents of one cell pass over by means of a conjugation-tube into the cavity of a cell of a neighbouring filament, where the zygospore is formed by the fusion of the two FIG. 3.

^ Chlorophyceae, variously magnified.

^ Some Zygnemaceae and Mesocarpaceae form either a short conjugating tube, or none at all, but the filaments approach each other by a knee -like bend, and the zygospore is formed at the point of contact, often being partially contained within the walls of the parent-cell.

.A. Spirogyra sp., in conjugation.^ A. Spirogyra sp., in conjugation.

.Coleochaete sp., zoospore.^ Coleochaete sp., zoospore.

.B. Zoospore of Pandorina. Fl Protosiphon, conjugation of stages of conjugation.^ Fl Protosiphon, conjugation of stages of conjugation.

zoogametes.
.C. Ulothrix sp., zoospores escapG. Derbesia sp., zoospore with ing.^ C. Ulothrix sp., zoospores escapG. Derbesia sp., zoospore with ing.

stages of conchaplet of cilia.
jugation. .H1. Chara sp., oogonium and D1. Oedogonium sp., oogonium antheridium at a node on at moment of fertilization a lateral appendage.^ Chara sp., oogonium and D1.

^ Oedogonium sp., oogonium antheridium at a node on at moment of fertilization a lateral appendage.

^ M, Chara sp., axis with leaf-like appendages and a branch.

with dwarf male attached. .Chara sp., antherozoid.^ Chara sp., antherozoid.

.D2. Oedogonium sp., zoospore K1. Vaucheria sp., oogonium and with crown of cilia.^ Oedogonium sp., zoospore K1.

^ Vaucheria sp., oogonium and with crown of cilia.

^ Oedogonium sp., oogonium antheridium at a node on at moment of fertilization a lateral appendage.

antheridium before fertiliz .E1. Coleochaete sp., with antheation.^ Coleochaete sp., with antheation.

ridia and an oogonium. .Vaucheria sp., after fertiliza E2. Coleochaete sp., fertilized egg tion.^ Coleochaete sp., fertilized egg tion.

^ Vaucheria sp., after fertiliza E2.

with investment of filaments.
.(A from Cooke, British Freshwater Algae, by permission of Kegan Paul, Trench, Triibner and Co.; C, E, F, G, H, K from Engler and Prantl, by permission of Wilhelm Engel mann; B 1 from Vines, by permission of Swan Sonnenschein and Co.; B2, D from Oltmanns, by permission of Gustav Fischer.^ (From Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfamilien, by permission of Wilhelm Engelman.

^ (A, C, E, F, G, H, K, L, M 1 M 2 from Engler and Prantl, Pfianzenfamilien,by permission of Wilhelm Engelmann; B 1, N from Vines, Students' Text Book of Botany , by permission of Swan Sonnenschein and Co.; B 2, D. 0 from Oltmanns, Morphologie u.

^ Biologie der Algen, by permission of Gustav Fischer.

) protoplasts. .In these cases the activity of one of the gametes, and the passivity of the other, is regarded as evidence of incipient sex.^ In these cases the activity of one of the gametes, and the passivity of the other, is regarded as evidence of incipient sex .

^ In these cases, however, the potential gametes may, failing conjugation, germinate directly, like the zoospores derived from unilocular sporangia.

^ Again, among Siphonales only one family (Vaucheriaceae)has reached the stage of oogamy, although an incipient heterogamy is said to occur in two other families (Codiaceae, Bryoosidaceae).

.In Sirogonium there is cell-division in the parent-cell prior to conjugation; and as two segments are cut off in the case of the active gamete, and only one in the case of the passive gamete, there is a corresponding difference of size, marking another step in the sexual differentiation.^ In Sirogonium there is cell-division in the parent-cell prior to conjugation; and as two segments are cut off in the case of the active gamete, and only one in the case of the passive gamete, there is a corresponding difference of size, marking another step in the sexual differentiation.

^ There is, nevertheless, this important difference between the two cases.

^ The oogonium, seated on a stalk cell, is surrounded by an investment consisting of five spirallywound cells, from the projecting ends of which segments are cut off, constituting the so-called stigma.

.In Zygogonium, although no cell-division takes place, the gametes consist of a portion only of the contents of a cell, and this is regularly the case in Mesocarpaceae, which occupy the highest grade among Conjugatae.^ In Zygogonium, although no cell-division takes place, the gametes consist of a portion only of the contents of a cell, and this is regularly the case in Mesocarpaceae, which occupy the highest grade among Conjugatae.

^ Of endophytes a distinction must be made between those which occupy the cell-wall only and those which perforate the cells, bringing about their destruction.

^ In most cases repeated division seems to take place, and the final number is represented by some power of two.

.Some Zygnemaceae and Mesocarpaceae form either a short conjugating tube, or none at all, but the filaments approach each other by a knee-like bend, and the zygospore is formed at the point of contact, often being partially contained within the walls of the parent-cell.^ Some Zygnemaceae and Mesocarpaceae form either a short conjugating tube, or none at all, but the filaments approach each other by a knee -like bend, and the zygospore is formed at the point of contact, often being partially contained within the walls of the parent-cell.

^ In Zygnemaceae there is no dissolution of the filaments, but the whole contents of one cell pass over by means of a conjugation-tube into the cavity of a cell of a neighbouring filament, where the zygospore is formed by the fusion of the two FIG. 3.

^ It is, on the other hand, a danger in the opposite sense to conclude that all Chantransia species are stages in the life-cycle of other plants, and, similarly, that all irregular colonial forms, like Palmella, represent phases in the life of other Green Algae.

.It would seem that in some cases the nuclei of the gametes remain distinct in the zygospore for a considerable time after conjugation.^ It would seem that in some cases the nuclei of the gametes remain distinct in the zygospore for a considerable time after conjugation.

^ Good for the purification process, but it would seem to restrict safe usage for the algae remains.
  • Technology Review: Algae-Based Fuels Set to Bloom 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: General]

^ In most cases repeated division seems to take place, and the final number is represented by some power of two.

.It is probable that in all cases nuclear fusion takes place sooner or later.^ It is probable that in all cases nuclear fusion takes place sooner or later.

^ In most cases repeated division seems to take place, and the final number is represented by some power of two.

^ In all cases the loss of the colouring matter is associated with an incapacity to take up carbon from so simple a compound as carbonic acid.

.In Zygnemaceae and Mesocarpaceae the zygospore, after a period of rest, germinates, to form a new filamentous colony; in Desmidiaceae its contents divide on germination, and thus give rise to two or more Desmids.^ After a time they come to rest and give rise to new colonies.

^ In Zygnemaceae and Mesocarpaceae the zygospore, after a period of rest, germinates, to form a new filamentous colony; in Desmidiaceae its contents divide on germination, and thus give rise to two or more Desmids.

^ Zoospores are of two kinds: (I) Those which come to rest and germinate to form a new plant; these are asexual and are zoospores proper.

.Gametes which fail to conjugate sometimes assume the appearance of zygospores and germinate in due course.^ Gametes which fail to conjugate sometimes assume the appearance of zygospores and germinate in due course.

^ In these cases, however, the potential gametes may, failing conjugation, germinate directly, like the zoospores derived from unilocular sporangia.

^ It would seem that in some cases the nuclei of the gametes remain distinct in the zygospore for a considerable time after conjugation.

.They are known as azygospores.^ They are known as azygospores.

.The reproduction of Characeae is characterized by a pronounced oogamy, the reproductive organs being the most highly differentiated among Chlorophyceae.^ The reproduction of Characeae is characterized by a pronounced oogamy, the reproductive organs being the most highly differentiated among Chlorophyceae.

^ Characeae are separated from other Chlorophyceae by Ulvaceae that there is any pretension to the formation of a true a long interval, and present the highest degree of differentiation of parenchyma within the limits of the Chlorophyceae.

.The antheridia and oogonia are formed at the nodes of the appendages.^ The antheridia and oogonia are formed at the nodes of the appendages.

.The oogonium, seated on a stalk cell, is surrounded by an investment consisting of five spirallywound cells, from the projecting ends of which segments are cut off, constituting the so-called stigma.^ The oogonium, seated on a stalk cell, is surrounded by an investment consisting of five spirallywound cells, from the projecting ends of which segments are cut off, constituting the so-called stigma.

^ The segment so cut off does not usually divide again by means of a transverse wall, nor indeed by a longitudinal wall which passes through the organic axis of the cell.

^ While, however, in Dictyota the product of the subsequent division in the segment enlarges with each subdivision, the divisions in the cylindrical segment of Sphacelariaceae are such that the whole product after subdivision, however many cells it may consist of, does not exceed in bulk the segment as cut off from the apical cell.

.The oosphere is not differentiated within the wall of the oogonium, but certain cells known as wendungszellen, the significance of which has given rise to much speculation, are cut off from the basal portion of the parent-cell during its development.^ The oosphere is not differentiated within the wall of the oogonium, but certain cells known as wendungszellen, the significance of which has given rise to much speculation , are cut off from the basal portion of the parent-cell during its development.

^ The oogonium, seated on a stalk cell, is surrounded by an investment consisting of five spirallywound cells, from the projecting ends of which segments are cut off, constituting the so-called stigma.

^ The nature of the contents of the cells of Cyanophyceae has given rise to considerable controversy.

.The antheridia are spherical orange-coloured bodies of very complex structure.^ The antheridia are spherical orange-coloured bodies of very complex structure.

.The antherozoid is a spirally-coiled thread of protoplasm, furnished at one end with a pair of cilia.^ The antherozoid is a spirally-coiled thread of protoplasm, furnished at one end with a pair of cilia.

^ From each locule of a plurilocular sporangium there is set free an oosphere, which, being furnished with a pair of cilia, swarms for a time.

^ The zoospore is usually a pyriform mass of naked protoplasm, the beaked end of which where the cilia arise is devoid of colouring matter.

.It much more resembles the antherozoids of Bryophyta and certain Pteridophyta than any known among other algae.^ It much more resembles the antherozoids of Bryophyta and certain Pteridophyta than any known among other algae.

^ Unlike supplement pills and unlike most other foods, the AFA algae has a greater than 90 percent assimilation rate.
  • Healing Power of Algae for Humans and Animals - Plankton and AFA 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Karl J. Abrams, Professor of Chemistry - "AFA has more bio-available chlorophyll than any other food.
  • Healing Power of Algae for Humans and Animals - Plankton and AFA 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The fertilized egg charged with food reserves rests for a considerable period, surrounded by its cortex, the whole having assumed a reddish-brown colour.^ The fertilized egg charged with food reserves rests for a considerable period, surrounded by its cortex, the whole having assumed a reddish-brown colour.

.On germination it gives rise to a row of cells in which short (nodal) and long (internodal) cells alternate.^ On germination it gives rise to a row of cells in which short (nodal) and long (internodal) cells alternate.

^ In Laminariaceae the inflation of the ends of conducting cells gives rise to the so-called trumpet -hyphae.

^ Those which are unable to germinate of themselves, but fuse with another cell, the product giving rise to a new individual; these are sexual and are zoogametes (Gr.

.From the first node arise rhizoids; from the second a lateral bud, which becomes the new plant.^ From the first node arise rhizoids; from the second a lateral bud, which becomes the new plant.

^ It will be remembered that in M usci, the asexual spore somewhat similarly gives rise to a protonema, from which the adult plant is produced as a lateral bud.

^ New cells may be cut off laterally, which become the apical cells of branches.

.This peculiar product of germination, which intervenes between the oospore and the adult form, is the proembryo.^ This peculiar product of germination, which intervenes between the oospore and the adult form, is the proembryo.

^ Among Chlorophyceae it is often the case that the oospore on germination divides up directly to form a brood of zoospores.

.It will be remembered that in M usci, the asexual spore somewhat similarly gives rise to a protonema, from which the adult plant is produced as a lateral bud.^ It will be remembered that in M usci, the asexual spore somewhat similarly gives rise to a protonema, from which the adult plant is produced as a lateral bud.

^ The spores of the Aglaozonia form are known to give rise to sexual plants, and the oospore of Cutleria has been observed to grow into rudimentary Aglaozonia.

^ From the first node arise rhizoids; from the second a lateral bud, which becomes the new plant.

.The proembryonic branches of Characeae, one of the means of vegetative reproduction already referred to, are so called because they repeat the characters of the proembryo.^ The proembryonic branches of Characeae, one of the means of vegetative reproduction already referred to, are so called because they repeat the characters of the proembryo.

^ In Naccaria, one of the Gelidiaceae, it is observable that the ooblastema filament, as the tube arising from the fertilized carpogonium has been called, fuses completely with a cell contiguous to the carpogonium before giving rise to the foraging filaments already refered to.

^ In Characeae no fewer than four methods of vegetative reproduction have been described, and the facility with which buds and branches are in these cases detached has been adduced as an evidence of affinity with Bryophyta, which, as a class, are distinguished by their ready resort to vegetative reproduction.

.Before leaving the Chlorophyceae, it should be mentioned that the genus Volvox has been included by some zoologists (Btitschli, for example) among Flagellata; on the other hand, certain green Flagellata, such as Euglena, are included by some botanists (for example, van Tieghem) among unicellular plants.^ Before leaving the Chlorophyceae, it should be mentioned that the genus Volvox has been included by some zoologists (Btitschli, for example) among Flagellata ; on the other hand, certain green Flagellata, such as Euglena, are included by some botanists (for example, van Tieghem) among unicellular plants.

^ Certain species are regularly found in the intercellular spaces of higher plants; such are species of Nostoc in the thallus of Anthoceros, the leaves of Azolla and the roots of Cycads.

^ On the other hand, it has been held by Bernhard Frank and other observers that atmo spheric nitrogen is fixed by the agency of Green Algae in the soil.

.A similar uncertainty exists with reference to certain groups of Phaeophyceae, and the matter will thus arise again.^ A similar uncertainty exists with reference to certain groups of Phaeophyceae, and the matter will thus arise again.

^ From what has been already said it is evident that among algae also strikingly similar forms exist in widely different groups.

^ There is thus a certain resemblance to Euflorideae, but sufficient difference to necessitate their being grouped apart.

.A census of the Chlorophyceae is furnished below: I. Confervoideae-12 families, 77 genera, 1021 species.^ Characeae-2 families, 6 genera, 181 species.

^ A census of the Chlorophyceae is furnished below: I. Confervoideae-12 families, 77 genera, 1021 species.

^ A census of Phaeophyceae is given below: (I) Cyclosporinae (Fucaceae)-4 families, 32 genera, 347 species.

.2. Siphoneae-9 families, 26 genera, 271 species.^ Characeae-2 families, 6 genera, 181 species.

^ Siphoneae-9 families, 26 genera, 271 species.

^ Hormogoneae-6 families, 59 genera, 701 species.

.3. Protococcoideae-2 families, 90 genera, 342 species.^ Characeae-2 families, 6 genera, 181 species.

^ Protococcoideae-2 families, 90 genera, 342 species.

^ A census of Phaeophyceae is given below: (I) Cyclosporinae (Fucaceae)-4 families, 32 genera, 347 species.

.4. Conjugateae-2 families, 33 genera, 1296 species.^ Characeae-2 families, 6 genera, 181 species.

^ Nemalioninae-4 families, 33 genera, 343 species.

^ Conjugateae-2 families, 33 genera, 1296 species.

.(De Toni's Sylloge Algarum, 1889.) 5. Characeae-2 families, 6 genera, 181 species.^ Hormogoneae-6 families, 59 genera, 701 species.

^ Characeae-2 families, 6 genera, 181 species.

^ (De Toni's Sylloge Algarum.

.(Engler and Prantl's Pflanzenfamilien, 1897.) III. Phaeophyceae.^ (Engler and Prantl's Pflanzenfamilien, 1900.

^ (Cherbourg, 18 95); F. R. Kjellmann, " Phaeophyceae," in Engler and Prantl's Pflanzenfamilien (Leipzig, 1897); F. Oltmanns, " Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Fucaceen," Bibliotheca botanica, xiv.

^ Kirchner, " Schizophyceae," in Engler and Prantl's Pflanzenfamilien (Leipzig, 1900).

- .The Phaeophyceae are distinguished by the possession of a brown colouring matter, phycophaein, in addition to chlorophyll.^ The members of this group are characterized by the possession of a red colouring matter, phycoerythrin, in addition to chlorophyll.

^ The Phaeophyceae are distinguished by the possession of a brown colouring matter, phycophaein, in addition to chlorophyll.

^ Of these the first three include multicellular plants, some of them of great size; the last three are unicellular organisms, with little in common with the rest excepting the possession of a brown colouring matter.

.They consist of the following groups: - Fucaceae, Phaeosporeae, Dictyotaceae, Cryptomonadaceae, Peridiniaceae and Diatomaceae.^ They consist of the following groups: - Fucaceae, Phaeosporeae, Dictyotaceae, Cryptomonadaceae, Peridiniaceae and Diatomaceae .

^ In comparing algae with the great archegoniate series which has doubtless sprung from them, it is natural to inquire to what extent, if any, they present evidence of the existence Peridiniaceae Diatomaceae Cryptomonadaceae - Hydruraceae - EuPHAEOPHYnEAE Protozoa Flagellata protomastigina...

^ In Fucaceae, Dictyotacea, and in Laminariaceae and Sphacelariaceae, among Phaeosporeae, the thallus consists of a true parenchyma; elsewhere it consists of free filaments, or filaments so compacted together, as in Cutleriaceae and Desmarestiaceae, as to form a false parenchyma.

.Of these the first three include multicellular plants, some of them of great size; the last three are unicellular organisms, with little in common with the rest excepting the possession of a brown colouring matter.^ Of these the first three include multicellular plants, some of them of great size; the last three are unicellular organisms, with little in common with the rest excepting the possession of a brown colouring matter.

^ No unicellular Rhodophyceae are known, although a flagellate organism, Rhodomonas, has recently been described as possessed of the same red colouring matter.

^ With reference to the existence of a chromatophore, he with others finds the colouring matter localized in granules in the peripheral region, but does not consider these individually or in the aggregate as chromatophores.

.Fucaceae and Phaeosporeae are doubtless closely allied, and to these Dictyotaceae may be joined, though the relationship is less close.^ Fucaceae and Phaeosporeae are doubtless closely allied, and to these Dictyotaceae may be joined, though the relationship is less close.

^ In Fucaceae, Dictyotacea, and in Laminariaceae and Sphacelariaceae, among Phaeosporeae, the thallus consists of a true parenchyma; elsewhere it consists of free filaments, or filaments so compacted together, as in Cutleriaceae and Desmarestiaceae, as to form a false parenchyma.

^ They consist of the following groups: - Fucaceae, Phaeosporeae, Dictyotaceae, Cryptomonadaceae, Peridiniaceae and Diatomaceae .

.They constitute the Euphaeophyceae, and will be dealt with in the first place.^ They constitute the Euphaeophyceae, and will be dealt with in the first place.

.Euphaeophyceae are almost exclusively marine, growing on rocks and stones on the coast, or epiphytic upon other algae.^ Euphaeophyceae are almost exclusively marine, growing on rocks and stones on the coast, or epiphytic upon other algae.

^ Epiphyte - A plant that grows upon another plant.
  • Glossary - Bay Resource Library - Chesapeake Bay Program 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.chesapeakebay.net [Source type: Reference]

^ Algae are non-flowering water plants that grow in almost every drop of sunlit water and every gram of soil, on the barks of trees and the surfaces of rocks.
  • Healing Power of Algae for Humans and Animals - Plankton and AFA 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In tidal seas they range from the limits of high water to some distance beyond the low-water line.^ In tidal seas they range from the limits of high water to some distance beyond the low-water line.

^ The brightest belongs to those species which grow near low-water mark, or under the shade of larger algae at higher levels; species which grow near high-water mark are usually of so dark a hue that they are easily mistaken for brown seaweeds.

^ They've been cultivating algae for quite some time now as feedstock and I've heard some of them throw cold water on the idea of massive algae farming for fuel.
  • Gene scientist to create algae biofuel with Exxon Mobil | Environment | guardian.co.uk 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.On the British coasts zones are observable in passing from high to low water mark, characterized by the prevalence of different species, thus : - Pelvetia canaliculata, Fucus platycarpus, Fucus vesiculosus, Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus serratus, Laminaria digitata. Some species are minute filamentous plants, requiring the microscope for their detection; others, like Lessonia, are of considerable bulk, or, like Macrocystis, of enormous length.^ On the British coasts zones are observable in passing from high to low water mark , characterized by the prevalence of different species, thus : - Pelvetia canaliculata, Fucus platycarpus, Fucus vesiculosus, Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus serratus, Laminaria digitata.

^ Some species are minute filamentous plants, requiring the microscope for their detection; others, like Lessonia, are of considerable bulk, or, like Macrocystis, of enormous length.

^ In Fucus vesiculosus they arise in lateral pairs; in Ascophyllum they are single and median; in Macrocystis one vesicle arises at the base of each thallus segment; in Sargassum and Halidrys the vesicles arise on special branches.

.In Fucaceae, Dictyotacea, and in Laminariaceae and Sphacelariaceae, among Phaeosporeae, the thallus consists of a true parenchyma; elsewhere it consists of free filaments, or filaments so compacted together, as in Cutleriaceae and Desmarestiaceae, as to form a false parenchyma.^ In Fucaceae, Dictyotacea, and in Laminariaceae and Sphacelariaceae, among Phaeosporeae, the thallus consists of a true parenchyma; elsewhere it consists of free filaments, or filaments so compacted together, as in Cutleriaceae and Desmarestiaceae, as to form a false parenchyma.

^ It generally takes the form of a single flattened disc as in the Fucaceae, or a group of fingerlike processes as in Laminariaceae, or a tuft of filaments as in many instances.

^ Fucaceae and Phaeosporeae are doubtless closely allied, and to these Dictyotaceae may be joined, though the relationship is less close.

.In Fucaceae and Laminariaceae the inner tissue is differentiated into a conducting system.^ In Fucaceae and Laminariaceae the inner tissue is differentiated into a conducting system.

.In Laminariaceae the inflation of the ends of conducting cells gives rise to the so-called trumpet-hyphae.^ In Laminariaceae the inflation of the ends of conducting cells gives rise to the so-called trumpet -hyphae.

^ The oogonium, seated on a stalk cell, is surrounded by an investment consisting of five spirallywound cells, from the projecting ends of which segments are cut off, constituting the so-called stigma.

^ Laminaria sp., hyphae with trumpet-like ends also from medulla.

.In Nereocystis and Macrocystis a zone of tubes occurs, which present the appearance of sieve-tubes even to the eventual obliteration of the perforations by a callus.^ In Nereocystis and Macrocystis a zone of tubes occurs, which present the appearance of sieve -tubes even to the eventual obliteration of the perforations by a callus.

.While there is a general tendency in the group to mucilaginous degeneration of the cell-wall, in Laminaria digitata there are also glands secreting a plentiful mucilage.^ While there is a general tendency in the group to mucilaginous degeneration of the cell-wall, in Laminaria digitata there are also glands secreting a plentiful mucilage.

^ The multicellular species consist of filaments, branched or unbranched, which arise by the repeated divisions of the cells in parallel planes, no formation of mucilage occurring in the dividing walls.

.Secondary growth in thickness is effected by the tangential division of superficial cells.^ Secondary growth in thickness is effected by the tangential division of superficial cells.

.The most fundamental external differentiation is into holdfast and shoot.^ The most fundamental external differentiation is into holdfast and shoot.

^ Besides the differentiation into holdfast and shoot, and into branches of limited and branches of unlimited growth, there appear superficial structures of the nature of hairs.

.In Laminariaceae secondary cylindrical props arise obliquely from the base of the thallus.^ In Laminariaceae secondary cylindrical props arise obliquely from the base of the thallus.

.In epiphytic forms the rhizoids of the epiphyte often penetrate into the tissue of the host, and certain epiphytes are not known to occur excepting in connexion with a certain host; but to what extent, if any, there is a partial parasitism in these cases has not been ascertained.^ In epiphytic forms the rhizoids of the epiphyte often penetrate into the tissue of the host, and certain epiphytes are not known to occur excepting in connexion with a certain host; but to what extent, if any, there is a partial parasitism in these cases has not been ascertained.

^ As in the case of epiphytic brown seaweeds, the rhizoids of the epiphyte often penetrate the substance of the supporting alga.

^ There can be little doubt that in some cases the epiphytism approaches parasitism.

.In filamentous forms there is a differentiation into branches of limited and branches of unlimited growth (Sphacelaria). In Laminariaceae there is a distinction of stipe and blade.^ In Laminariaceae there is a distinction of stipe and blade.

^ In filamentous forms there is a differentiation into branches of limited and branches of unlimited growth ( Sphacelaria).

^ Besides the differentiation into holdfast and shoot, and into branches of limited and branches of unlimited growth, there appear superficial structures of the nature of hairs.

.The blade is centrally-ribbed in Alaria and laterally-ribbed in Macrocystis. It is among the Sargassaceae that the greatest amount of external differentiation, rivalling that of the higher leafy plants, is reached.^ The blade is centrally-ribbed in Alaria and laterally-ribbed in Macrocystis.

^ It is among the Sargassaceae that the greatest amount of external differentiation, rivalling that of the higher leafy plants, is reached.

^ Higher light levels provide plants with a huge amount of energy promoting luxurious lush plant growth.
  • Aquarium Algae ID (updated 16th Spet '08) 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC aquariumalgae.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A characteristic feature of the more massive species is the occurrence of air-vesicles in their tissues.^ A characteristic feature of the more massive species is the occurrence of air -vesicles in their tissues.

^ In a whole series of Red Algae, the existence of a highly specialized auxiliary cell in the neighbourhood of the carpogonium is a characteristic feature.

^ They are able to fix nitrogen from the air, so can become more populous when nitrogen levels are low and competing algae species are limited.

.In Fucus vesiculosus they arise in lateral pairs; in Ascophyllum they are single and median; in Macrocystis one vesicle arises at the base of each thallus segment; in Sargassum and Halidrys the vesicles arise on special branches.^ In Fucus vesiculosus they arise in lateral pairs; in Ascophyllum they are single and median; in Macrocystis one vesicle arises at the base of each thallus segment; in Sargassum and Halidrys the vesicles arise on special branches.

^ On the British coasts zones are observable in passing from high to low water mark , characterized by the prevalence of different species, thus : - Pelvetia canaliculata, Fucus platycarpus, Fucus vesiculosus, Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus serratus, Laminaria digitata.

^ In Coleochaetaceae the branches are often welded into nexion with each whorl there arise, singly or in pairs, branches which a plate, simulating a parenchyma.

.They serve to buoy up the plant when attached to the sea-bottom, and thus light is admitted into the forest-like growths of the gregarious species.^ They serve to buoy up the plant when attached to the sea-bottom, and thus light is admitted into the forest-like growths of the gregarious species.

^ Among Phaeophyceae it is well known that the oospore of Fucaceae germinates directly into the sexual plant, and there is thus only one generation.

^ Thus red light is reduced to such an extent as to be insufficient for growth at a depth of 34 metres, yellow light at a depth of 1 7 7 metres and green light at 322 metres.

.When such plants are detached they are enabled to float for great distances, and the great Sargasso Sea of the North Atlantic Ocean is probably only renewed by the constant addition of plants detached from the shores of the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico.^ When such plants are detached they are enabled to float for great distances, and the great Sargasso Sea of the North Atlantic Ocean is probably only renewed by the constant addition of plants detached from the shores of the Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico .

^ The German Plankton Expedition of 1889 added greatly to our knowledge of the floating vegetable life of the North Atlantic Ocean, while many laboratories established on the shores of inland seas and lakes have rendered a similar service in the case of our freshwater phyto-plankton.

^ In addition, they use far less space to grow than traditional biofuel crops such as corn or palm oil.
  • Gene scientist to create algae biofuel with Exxon Mobil | Environment | guardian.co.uk 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.Growth in length is effected in a variety of ways.^ Growth in length is effected in a variety of ways.

.In Dictyota, Sphacelariaceae and Fucaceae there is a definite apical cell.^ In Dictyota, Sphacelariaceae and Fucaceae there is a definite apical cell.

^ While, however, in Dictyota the product of the subsequent division in the segment enlarges with each subdivision, the divisions in the cylindrical segment of Sphacelariaceae are such that the whole product after subdivision, however many cells it may consist of, does not exceed in bulk the segment as cut off from the apical cell.

^ Dictyota sp., apical cells immediately after dichotomy .

.In the first it is a biconvex lens, from which segments are continually cut off parallel to the posterior surface; and in the second an elongated dome, from which segments are cut off by a transverse wall.^ In the first it is a biconvex lens , from which segments are continually cut off parallel to the posterior surface; and in the second an elongated dome , from which segments are cut off by a transverse wall.

^ The oogonium, seated on a stalk cell, is surrounded by an investment consisting of five spirallywound cells, from the projecting ends of which segments are cut off, constituting the so-called stigma.

^ The segment so cut off does not usually divide again by means of a transverse wall, nor indeed by a longitudinal wall which passes through the organic axis of the cell.

.While, however, in Dictyota the product of the subsequent division in the segment enlarges with each subdivision, the divisions in the cylindrical segment of Sphacelariaceae are such that the whole product after subdivision, however many cells it may consist of, does not exceed in bulk the segment as cut off from the apical cell.^ In Dictyota, Sphacelariaceae and Fucaceae there is a definite apical cell.

^ While, however, in Dictyota the product of the subsequent division in the segment enlarges with each subdivision, the divisions in the cylindrical segment of Sphacelariaceae are such that the whole product after subdivision, however many cells it may consist of, does not exceed in bulk the segment as cut off from the apical cell.

^ New cells may be cut off laterally, which become the apical cells of branches.

.In Dictyotaceae the apical cell occasionally divides longitudinally, and thus the dichotomous branching is provided for.^ In Dictyotaceae the apical cell occasionally divides longitudinally, and thus the dichotomous branching is provided for.

^ The multicellular species consist of filaments, branched or unbranched, which arise by the repeated divisions of the cells in parallel planes, no formation of mucilage occurring in the dividing walls.

^ The segment so cut off does not usually divide again by means of a transverse wall, nor indeed by a longitudinal wall which passes through the organic axis of the cell.

.In some Sphacelariaceae branches may appear at their inception as lateral protuberances of the apical cell itself.^ In some Sphacelariaceae branches may appear at their inception as lateral protuberances of the apical cell itself.

^ New cells may be cut off laterally, which become the apical cells of branches.

^ Thus in Lemaneaceae asexual spores are unknown; in Batracho-spermum, Bonnemaisonia and Polysiphonia byssoides both kinds of sexual cells appear on the same plant; and in some cases the asexual cells may occur in conjunction with either the male or female sexual cells.

.In Fucaceae an apical cell is situate at the surface of the thallus in a slit-like depression at the apex.^ In Fucaceae an apical cell is situate at the surface of the thallus in a slit-like depression at the apex .

^ Halidrys, apical depression with leading cell.

^ In Dictyota, Sphacelariaceae and Fucaceae there is a definite apical cell.

.From this cell segments are cut off in three or four lateral oblique planes.^ From this cell segments are cut off in three or four lateral oblique planes.

^ The oogonium, seated on a stalk cell, is surrounded by an investment consisting of five spirallywound cells, from the projecting ends of which segments are cut off, constituting the so-called stigma.

^ While, however, in Dictyota the product of the subsequent division in the segment enlarges with each subdivision, the divisions in the cylindrical segment of Sphacelariaceae are such that the whole product after subdivision, however many cells it may consist of, does not exceed in bulk the segment as cut off from the apical cell.

.A peculiar manner of growth in length is that to which the term trichothallic has been applied.^ A peculiar manner of growth in length is that to which the term trichothallic has been applied.

.It may readily be observed that in the hair-like branches of Ectocarpaceae, the point at which most rapid division occurs is situate near the base of the hair.^ It may readily be observed that in the hair-like branches of Ectocarpaceae, the point at which most rapid division occurs is situate near the base of the hair.

^ While rocks and boulders are the favoured situation for the growth of marine algae, those which readily disintegrate, like the coarser sandstones, are naturally less favoured than the hard and resistant.

^ Most omnivorous fish like Angels or Barbs will supplement their diet with hair algae if not over-fed.
  • Aquarium Algae ID (updated 16th Spet '08) 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC aquariumalgae.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In Desmarestia and Arthrocladia, for example, it is found that the thallus ends in a tuft of such hairs, each of them growing by means of an intercalated growing point.^ In Desmarestia and Arthrocladia, for example, it is found that the thallus ends in a tuft of such hairs, each of them growing by means of an intercalated growing point.

^ Certain species are regularly found in the intercellular spaces of higher plants; such are species of Nostoc in the thallus of Anthoceros, the leaves of Azolla and the roots of Cycads.

^ The intercalated growing region of Laminaria affords an example of another variety of growth in Phaeophyceae.

.In these cases, however, the portions of the hairs behind the growing region become agglutinated together into a solid cylindrical pseudo-parenchymatous axis.^ In these cases, however, the portions of the hairs behind the growing region become agglutinated together into a solid cylindrical pseudo-parenchymatous axis.

^ In these cases, however, the potential gametes may, failing conjugation, germinate directly, like the zoospores derived from unilocular sporangia.

^ In all these cases, however, the end-cells of the filaments each give rise to a carpospore, and the aggregate of such sporiferous filaments is a cystocarp.

.In Cutleria the laminated thallus is formed in the same way.^ In Cutleria the laminated thallus is formed in the same way.

.The intercalated growing region of Laminaria affords an example of another variety of growth in Phaeophyceae.^ The intercalated growing region of Laminaria affords an example of another variety of growth in Phaeophyceae.

^ In Desmarestia and Arthrocladia, for example, it is found that the thallus ends in a tuft of such hairs, each of them growing by means of an intercalated growing point.

.While the laminated portion of the thallus is being gradually worn off in our latitudes during the autumnal storms, a vigorous new growth appears at the junction of the stipe and the blade, as the result of which a new piece is added to the stipe and the lamina entirely renovated.^ While the laminated portion of the thallus is being gradually worn off in our latitudes during the autumnal storms, a vigorous new growth appears at the junction of the stipe and the blade, as the result of which a new piece is added to the stipe and the lamina entirely renovated.

^ Valonia and Caulerpa among Siphonales detach portions of their thallus, which are capable of independent growth.

^ A. Chlamydomonas sp., unicellular; chr.,chromatophore; p.,pyrenoid; H. Oedogonium sp., intercalated growth by insertion of new piece(a) n., nucleus; p.v., pulsating vacuoles; e.s., eyespot.

.Both asexual and sexual reproduction occur among Euphaeophyceae.^ Reproduction is both asexual and sexual.

^ Many Euchlorophyceae are endowed with both asexual and sexual reproduction.

^ Both asexual and sexual reproduction occur among Euphaeophyceae.

.Fucaceae are marked by an entire absence of the asexual method.^ Fucaceae are marked by an entire absence of the asexual method.

.The sexual organs - oogonia and antheridia - are borne on special portions of the thallus in cavities known as conceptacles.^ The sexual organs - oogonia and antheridia - are borne on special portions of the thallus in cavities known as conceptacles.

^ In certain species of Oedogonium minute male plantlets, known as dwarf males, become attached to the female plant in the neighbourhood of the oogonia, thus facilitating fertilization.

^ The ventral portion of the carpogonium may be imbedded deep in the thallus in the massive species; the trichogyne, however, always reaches the surface.

.Both organs may occur in one conceptacle, as in Pelvetia, or each may be confined to one conceptacle or even one plant, as in Fucus vesiculosus. The oogonia arise on a stalk cell from the lining layer of the cavity, the contents dividing to form eight oospheres as in Fucus, four as in Ascophyllum, two as in Pelvetia, or one only as in Halidrys. It would seem that eight nuclei primarily arise in all Fucaceae, and that a number corresponding to the number of oospheres subsequently formed is reserved, the restbeing discharged to the periphery, where they may be detected at a late stage.^ Both organs may occur in one conceptacle, as in Pelvetia, or each may be confined to one conceptacle or even one plant, as in Fucus vesiculosus.

^ Chromophyton forms an eight-celled colony.

^ It would seem that eight nuclei primarily arise in all Fucaceae, and that a number corresponding to the number of oospheres subsequently formed is reserved, the restbeing discharged to the periphery, where they may be detected at a late stage.

.On the maturation of the oospheres the outer layer of the oogonial wall ruptures, and the oospheres, still surrounded by a middle and inner layer, pass out through the mouth of the conceptacle.^ On the maturation of the oospheres the outer layer of the oogonial wall ruptures, and the oospheres, still surrounded by a middle and inner layer, pass out through the mouth of the conceptacle.

^ The germination of a zygospore or oospore is effected by the rupture of an outer cuticularized exosporium; then the cell may protrude an inner wall, the endosporium, and grow out into the new plant ( Vaucheria ), or the contents may break up into a first brood of zoospores.

^ The segment so cut off does not usually divide again by means of a transverse wall, nor indeed by a longitudinal wall which passes through the organic axis of the cell.

.Then usually these layers successively give way, and the spherical naked oospheres float free in the water.^ Most are invisible to the naked eye except to give the water a green colour.

.The antheridia, which arise in the conceptacular cavity as special cells of branched filaments, are similarly discharged whole, the antherozoids only escaping when the antheridia are clear of the conceptacle.^ The antheridia, which arise in the conceptacular cavity as special cells of branched filaments, are similarly discharged whole, the antherozoids only escaping when the antheridia are clear of the conceptacle.

^ The oogonia arise on a stalk cell from the lining layer of the cavity, the contents dividing to form eight oospheres as in Fucus, four as in Ascophyllum, two as in Pelvetia, or one only as in Halidrys.

^ In other species of that genus an apparent cortication arises by the downward growth of rhizoids, which are retained within the gelatinous wall of the axial cells.

.The antherozoids are attracted to the oospheres, round each of which they swarm in great numbers.^ The antherozoids are attracted to the oospheres, round each of which they swarm in great numbers.

^ The doubling process is provided by the act of fertilization, where an antherozoid with the single number of chromosomes fuses with an oosphere also with the single number to provide a fertilized egg with the double number.

.Suddenly the attraction ceases, and the oosphere is fertilized, probably at that moment, by the entry of a single antherozoid into the substance of the oosphere; a cell-wall is formed thereupon, in some cases in so short an interval as five minutes.^ Suddenly the attraction ceases, and the oosphere is fertilized, probably at that moment, by the entry of a single antherozoid into the substance of the oosphere; a cell-wall is formed thereupon, in some cases in so short an interval as five minutes.

^ In the case of Scenedesmus acutus it is said that the alga is unable to take up nitrogen in the form of a nitrate or ammoniacal salt, and requires some such substance as an amide or a peptone.

^ When zygospores and oospores are produced a new cell-wall is also formed, but a long period of rest ensues.

.Remarkable changes of size and outline of the oosphere have recently been described as accompanying fertilization in Halidrys. Probably the act of fertilization in plants has nowhere been observed in such detail as in Fucaceae.^ Probably the act of fertilization in plants has nowhere been observed in such detail as in Fucaceae.

^ Remarkable changes of size and outline of the oosphere have recently been described as accompanying fertilization in Halidrys.

^ Fertilization has been observed at Naples ; but it apparently depends on climatic conditions, as at Plymouth the oospheres have been observed to germinate parthenogenetically.

.Dictyotaceae resemble Fucaceae in their pronounced oogamy.^ Dictyotaceae resemble Fucaceae in their pronounced oogamy.

.They differ, however, in being also asexually reproduced.^ They differ, however, in being also asexually reproduced.

.The asexual cells are immotile spores arising in fours in sporangia from superficial cells of the thallus.^ The asexual cells are immotile spores arising in fours in sporangia from superficial cells of the thallus.

^ The asexual cells are termed tetraspores on account of the usual occurrence of four in each sporangium.

^ While the spore of Bryophyta on germination gives rise to the sexual plant, the carpospore of the alga may give rise on germination to a plant bearing a second sort of asexual cells, viz.

.In Dictyota the oospheres arise singly in oogonia, crowded together in sori on the surface of the female plant.^ In Dictyota the oospheres arise singly in oogonia, crowded together in sori on the surface of the female plant.

^ In certain species of Oedogonium minute male plantlets, known as dwarf males, become attached to the female plant in the neighbourhood of the oogonia, thus facilitating fertilization.

^ As a rule the asexual cells, and the male and female sexual cells arise upon different plants, so that the species may be said to be trioecious.

.The antheridia have a similar origin and grouping on the male plant.^ The antheridia have a similar origin and grouping on the male plant.

.Until the recent discovery by Williams of motility, by means of a single cilium, of the antherozoids of Dictyota and Taonia, they were believed to be immotile bodies, like the male cells of red seaweeds.^ Until the recent discovery by Williams of motility, by means of a single cilium, of the antherozoids of Dictyota and Taonia, they were believed to be immotile bodies, like the male cells of red seaweeds.

^ Seaweed baths are Nature's perfect body-psyche balancer, and they're a good way get natural iodine.
  • Healing Power of Algae for Humans and Animals - Plankton and AFA 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Williams, " On the Antherozoids of Dictyota and Taonia," Ann.

.In Dictyota the unfertilized oosphere is found to be capable of undergoing a limited number of divisions, but the body thus formed appears to atrophy sooner or later.^ In Dictyota the unfertilized oosphere is found to be capable of undergoing a limited number of divisions, but the body thus formed appears to atrophy sooner or later.

^ It is further stated by Olive that the chromosomes undergo longitudinal fission, and that for the same species the same number of chromosomes appear at each division.

.Of the small family of the Tilopteridaceae our knowledge is as yet inadequate, but they probably present the only case of pronounced oogamy among Phaeosporeae.;.They are filamentous forms, exhibiting, however, a tendency to division in more than one plane, even in the vegetative parts.^ Here are 10 companies that are doing more than talking about turning pond scum into fuel — they are small companies actually doing it.
  • 15 Algae Startups Bringing Pond Scum to Fuel Tanks 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC earth2tech.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ One more thing, I didn't prune plants in a long time so they covered the entire surface.
  • Aquarium Algae ID (updated 16th Spet '08) 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC aquariumalgae.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Re: ALGAE have (at least) FOUR BIG ADVANTAGES Three comments: 1)Brackish water is probably more important to this technology than sea water.
  • Technology Review: Algae-Based Fuels Set to Bloom 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.technologyreview.com [Source type: General]

.The discovery by Brebner of the specific identity of Haplospora globosa and Scaphospora speciosa marks an important step in the advance of our knowledge of the group.^ We have the science and engineering talent in our firm and the advanced knowledge of where technology should be driven to solve the “Xerox” conundrum.

.Three kinds of reproductive organs are known: first, sporangia, which each give rise to a single tetra-, or multi-nucleate non-motile, probably asexual spore; second, plurilocular sporangia, which are probably antheridia, generating antherozoids; and third, sporangia, which are probably oogonia, giving rise to single uninucleate non-motile oospheres.^ Three kinds of reproductive organs are known: first, sporangia, which each give rise to a single tetra-, or multi-nucleate non-motile, probably asexual spore; second, plurilocular sporangia, which are probably antheridia, generating antherozoids; and third, sporangia, which are probably oogonia, giving rise to single uninucleate non-motile oospheres.

^ The possession of two kinds of reproductive organs, unilocular and plurilocular sporangia, is general among the rest of the Phaeosporeae.

^ It would thus seem that the explanation of the existence of two kinds of sporangia, unilocular and plurilocular, among Phaeosporeae, lies in the fact that unilocular sporangia are for asexual reproduction, and that plurilocular sporangia are gametangia - potential or actual.

No process of fertilization has as yet been observed.
.The Cutleriaceae exhibit a heterogamy in which the female sexual cell is not highly specialized, as it is in the groups already described.^ The Cutleriaceae exhibit a heterogamy in which the female sexual cell is not highly specialized, as it is in the groups already described.

^ This is in consonance with the facts already mentioned that zoospores germinate forthwith, and that the sexually-produced cell or zygote enters upon a period of rest.

^ With regard to true reproduction, which is characterized by the formation of special cells, the group Euchlorophyceae is characterized by the production of zoospores (Gr.

.From each locule of a plurilocular sporangium there is set free an oosphere, which, being furnished with a pair of cilia, swarms for a time.^ From each locule of a plurilocular sporangium there is set free an oosphere, which, being furnished with a pair of cilia, swarms for a time.

^ The antherozoid is a spirally-coiled thread of protoplasm, furnished at one end with a pair of cilia.

.In similar organs on separate plants the much smaller antherozoids arise.^ In similar organs on separate plants the much smaller antherozoids arise.

^ Among land plants, as is well known, similarity of environment has of ten called forth similar adaptations among plants of widely separated families.

.Fertilization has been observed at Naples; but it apparently depends on climatic conditions, as at Plymouth the oospheres have been observed to germinate parthenogenetically.^ Fertilization has been observed at Naples ; but it apparently depends on climatic conditions, as at Plymouth the oospheres have been observed to germinate parthenogenetically.

^ In rare cases the oosphere has been known to germinate without fertilization ( Oedogonium, Cylindrocapsa).

.The asexual organs in the case of Cutleria multifida arise on a crustaceous form, Aglaozonia reptans, formerly considered to be a distinct species.^ The asexual organs in the case of Cutleria multifida arise on a crustaceous form, Aglaozonia reptans, formerly considered to be a distinct species.

^ Here the asexual cells are borne upon the so-called Aglaozonia reptans and the sexual cells upon the plants known as Cutleria.

^ The spores of the Aglaozonia form are known to give rise to sexual plants, and the oospore of Cutleria has been observed to grow into rudimentary Aglaozonia.

.They are unilocular, each producing a small number of zoospores.^ They are unilocular, each producing a small number of zoospores.

.The possession of two kinds of reproductive organs, unilocular and plurilocular sporangia, is general among the rest of the Phaeosporeae.^ The possession of two kinds of reproductive organs, unilocular and plurilocular sporangia, is general among the rest of the Phaeosporeae.

^ Bornet, however, called attention in 1871 to the fact that two kinds of plurilocular sporangia occurred in certain species of the genus Ectocarpus - somewhat transparent organs of an orange tint producing small zoospores, and also more opaque organs of a darker colour producing relatively larger zoospores.

^ Three kinds of reproductive organs are known: first, sporangia, which each give rise to a single tetra-, or multi-nucleate non-motile, probably asexual spore; second, plurilocular sporangia, which are probably antheridia, generating antherozoids; and third, sporangia, which are probably oogonia, giving rise to single uninucleate non-motile oospheres.

.Bornet, however, called attention in 1871 to the fact that two kinds of plurilocular sporangia occurred in certain species of the genus Ectocarpus - somewhat transparent organs of an orange tint producing small zoospores, and also more opaque organs of a darker colour producing relatively larger zoospores.^ Bornet, however, called attention in 1871 to the fact that two kinds of plurilocular sporangia occurred in certain species of the genus Ectocarpus - somewhat transparent organs of an orange tint producing small zoospores, and also more opaque organs of a darker colour producing relatively larger zoospores.

^ The assertion of Areschoug that conjugation occurs among zoospores derived from unilocular sporangia, in the case of Dictyosiphon hippuroides, is no doubt to be ascribed to error of observation.

^ On the discovery of another such species by F. H. Buffham, Batters in 1892 separated the three species, Ectocarpus secundus, E. fenestratus, E. Lebelii, together with the new species, into a genus, Giffordia, characterized by the possession of two kinds of plurilocular sporangia.

.On the discovery of another such species by F. H. Buffham, Batters in 1892 separated the three species, Ectocarpus secundus, E. fenestratus, E. Lebelii, together with the new species, into a genus, Giffordia, characterized by the possession of two kinds of plurilocular sporangia.^ On the discovery of another such species by F. H. Buffham, Batters in 1892 separated the three species, Ectocarpus secundus, E. fenestratus, E. Lebelii, together with the new species, into a genus, Giffordia, characterized by the possession of two kinds of plurilocular sporangia.

^ Bornet, however, called attention in 1871 to the fact that two kinds of plurilocular sporangia occurred in certain species of the genus Ectocarpus - somewhat transparent organs of an orange tint producing small zoospores, and also more opaque organs of a darker colour producing relatively larger zoospores.

^ Zoospores are of two kinds: (I) Those which come to rest and germinate to form a new plant; these are asexual and are zoospores proper.

.The suspicion that a distinction of sex accompanied this difference of structure has been justified by the discovery by Sauvageau of undoubted fertilization in Giffordia secunda and G. fenestrata. The conjugation of similar gametes, arising from distinct plurilocular sporangia, was observed by Berthold in Ectocarpus siliculosus and Scytosiphon lomentarius in 1880; and these observations have been recently confirmed in the case of the former species by Sauvageau, and in the case of the latter by Kuckuck.^ The suspicion that a distinction of sex accompanied this difference of structure has been justified by the discovery by Sauvageau of undoubted fertilization in Giffordia secunda and G. fenestrata.

^ The conjugation of similar gametes, arising from distinct plurilocular sporangia, was observed by Berthold in Ectocarpus siliculosus and Scytosiphon lomentarius in 1880; and these observations have been recently confirmed in the case of the former species by Sauvageau, and in the case of the latter by Kuckuck.

^ Thus among Volvocaceae, a family of Protococcales, while in some of the genera ( Chloraster, Sphondylomorum ) no sexual union has as yet been observed, in others ( Pandorina, Chlorogonium, Stephanosphaera, Sphaerella ) conjugation of similar gametes takes place, in others still ( Phacotus, Eudorina, Volvox ) the union is of the nature of fertilization.

.In these cases, however, the potential gametes may, failing conjugation, germinate directly, like the zoospores derived from unilocular sporangia.^ In these cases, however, the potential gametes may, failing conjugation, germinate directly, like the zoospores derived from unilocular sporangia.

^ It is known that zoogametes, which usually conjugate, may, when conjugation fails, germinate directly ( Sphaerella).

^ The assertion of Areschoug that conjugation occurs among zoospores derived from unilocular sporangia, in the case of Dictyosiphon hippuroides, is no doubt to be ascribed to error of observation.

.The assertion of Areschoug that conjugation occurs among zoospores derived from unilocular sporangia, in the case of Dictyosiphon hippuroides, is no doubt to be ascribed to error of observation.^ The assertion of Areschoug that conjugation occurs among zoospores derived from unilocular sporangia, in the case of Dictyosiphon hippuroides, is no doubt to be ascribed to error of observation.

^ In these cases, however, the potential gametes may, failing conjugation, germinate directly, like the zoospores derived from unilocular sporangia.

^ Moreover, for the important family of the Laminariaceae only unilocular sporangia are known to occur; and for many species of other families, only one or other kind, and in some cases neither kind, has hitherto been observed.

.It would thus seem that the explanation of the existence of two kinds of sporangia, unilocular and plurilocular, among Phaeosporeae, lies in the fact that unilocular sporangia are for asexual reproduction, and that plurilocular sporangia are gametangia - potential or actual.^ It would thus seem that the explanation of the existence of two kinds of sporangia, unilocular and plurilocular, among Phaeosporeae, lies in the fact that unilocular sporangia are for asexual reproduction, and that plurilocular sporangia are gametangia - potential or actual.

^ The possession of two kinds of reproductive organs, unilocular and plurilocular sporangia, is general among the rest of the Phaeosporeae.

^ Bornet, however, called attention in 1871 to the fact that two kinds of plurilocular sporangia occurred in certain species of the genus Ectocarpus - somewhat transparent organs of an orange tint producing small zoospores, and also more opaque organs of a darker colour producing relatively larger zoospores.

.It must, however, be remembered that so important a generalization is as yet supported upon a somewhat narrow base of observation.^ It must, however, be remembered that so important a generalization is as yet supported upon a somewhat narrow base of observation.

^ He founded his generalization to a large extent upon the observation that in Gloeosiphonia capillaris two cells completely fuse, and that only one nucleus can be detected in the fused mass.

.Moreover, for the important family of the Laminariaceae only unilocular sporangia are known to occur; and for many species of other families, only one or other kind, and in some cases neither kind, has hitherto been observed.^ Moreover, for the important family of the Laminariaceae only unilocular sporangia are known to occur; and for many species of other families, only one or other kind, and in some cases neither kind, has hitherto been observed.

^ Thus in Lemaneaceae asexual spores are unknown; in Batracho-spermum, Bonnemaisonia and Polysiphonia byssoides both kinds of sexual cells appear on the same plant; and in some cases the asexual cells may occur in conjunction with either the male or female sexual cells.

^ The assertion of Areschoug that conjugation occurs among zoospores derived from unilocular sporangia, in the case of Dictyosiphon hippuroides, is no doubt to be ascribed to error of observation.

.The four species - Ectocarpus siliculosus, Giffordia secunda, Cutleria multifida and Haplospora globosa - may be taken to represent, within the Phaeosporeae, successive steps in the advance from isogamy to oogamy.^ The four species - Ectocarpus siliculosus, Giffordia secunda, Cutleria multifida and Haplospora globosa - may be taken to represent, within the Phaeosporeae, successive steps in the advance from isogamy to oogamy.

^ The asexual organs in the case of Cutleria multifida arise on a crustaceous form, Aglaozonia reptans, formerly considered to be a distinct species.

^ The discovery by Brebner of the specific identity of Haplospora globosa and Scaphospora speciosa marks an important step in the advance of our knowledge of the group.

.The Peridiniaceae have been included among Flagellata under the title of Dinoflagellata.^ The Peridiniaceae have been included among Flagellata under the title of Dinoflagellata.

^ Like the Peridiniaceae, the Cryptomonadaceae have been included among Flagellata.

.The majority of the species belong to the sea, but many are found in fresh water.^ The majority of the species belong to the sea, but many are found in fresh water.

^ Thorea, Lemanea, Tuomeya, Stenocladia, Batrachospermum, Balbiania are genera belonging entirely to fresh water; and Bangia, Chantransia, Caloglossa, Bostrychia and Delesseria contain each one or more freshwater species.

^ Marshes are found in fresh, brackish and salt water areas.
  • Glossary - Bay Resource Library - Chesapeake Bay Program 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.chesapeakebay.net [Source type: Reference]

.The thallus is somewhat spherical and unicellular, exhibiting a distinction between anterior and posterior extremities, and dorsal and ventral surfaces.^ The thallus is somewhat spherical and unicellular, exhibiting a distinction between anterior and posterior extremities, and dorsal and ventral surfaces.

^ The ventral portion of the carpogonium may be imbedded deep in the thallus in the massive species; the trichogyne, however, always reaches the surface.

.The wall consists of a basis of cellulose, and in some cases readily breaks up into a definite number of plates, fitting into one another like the plates of the carapace of a tortoise; it is, moreover, often finely sculptured or coarsely ridged and flanged.^ The wall consists of a basis of cellulose, and in some cases readily breaks up into a definite number of plates, fitting into one another like the plates of the carapace of a tortoise; it is, moreover, often finely sculptured or coarsely ridged and flanged.

^ Gaps then appear in the apposed surfaces, usually at the isthmus ; the entire protoplasts either pass out to melt into one another clear of the old walls, or partly pass out and fuse without complete detachment from the old walls.

^ In most cases repeated division seems to take place, and the final number is represented by some power of two.

.Two grooves are a constant feature of the family, one running transversely and another longitudinally.^ Two grooves are a constant feature of the family, one running transversely and another longitudinally.

^ Again, among Siphonales only one family (Vaucheriaceae)has reached the stage of oogamy, although an incipient heterogamy is said to occur in two other families (Codiaceae, Bryoosidaceae).

.In these grooves lie two cilia, attached at the point of meeting on the dorsal surface.^ In these grooves lie two cilia, attached at the point of meeting on the dorsal surface.

.The protoplast is uninucleate and vacuolate, and contains chromatophores of a brownish colour.^ The protoplast is uninucleate and vacuolate, and contains chromatophores of a brownish colour.

^ Each cell contains a flattened chromatophore of a brown or yellow colour.

^ In these algae, the colouring matter is said to be yellowish-green, not strictly green, and contained in numerous small discoid chromatophores which are devoid of pyrenoids.

It is not clear that FIG. 4. - Phaeophyceae, variously magnified.
.Halopteris, apical region.^ Halopteris, apical region.

.Chordaria sp., apical region showing so-called trichothallic growth.^ Chara sp., apical region.

^ Cutleria sp., margin of thallus showing trichothallic growth.

^ Chordaria sp., apical region showing so-called trichothallic growth.

.Dictyota sp., apical cells immediately after dichotomy.^ Dictyota sp., apical cells immediately after dichotomy .

^ A. Polysiphonia sp., apical region showing leading cell and cutting K. Nemalion sp., carpogonial and antheridial branches.

^ Dudresnaya coccinea, fusion of ooblastema filaments with ' auxil- ' D. Delesseria sp., showing apical region with leading cell.

.Cutleria sp., margin of thallus showing trichothallic growth.^ Cutleria sp., margin of thallus showing trichothallic growth.

^ Chordaria sp., apical region showing so-called trichothallic growth.

^ C. Lomentaria sp., apex showing growth in length through coN. Constantinea sp., with flattened leaf-like appendages.

.Halidrys, apical depression with leading cell.^ Halidrys, apical depression with leading cell.

^ A. Polysiphonia sp., apical region showing leading cell and cutting K. Nemalion sp., carpogonial and antheridial branches.

^ Dudresnaya coccinea, fusion of ooblastema filaments with ' auxil- ' D. Delesseria sp., showing apical region with leading cell.

.Macrocystis sp., tubular elements from the medulla, with sieve-like transverse walls.^ Macrocystis sp., tubular elements from the medulla, with sieve-like transverse walls.

^ Laminaria sp., hyphae with trumpet-like ends also from medulla.

.Laminaria sp., hyphae with trumpet-like ends also from medulla.^ Laminaria sp., hyphae with trumpet-like ends also from medulla.

^ In Laminariaceae the inflation of the ends of conducting cells gives rise to the so-called trumpet -hyphae.

^ Macrocystis sp., tubular elements from the medulla, with sieve-like transverse walls.

.Elachistea sp., plurilocular sporanges.^ Elachistea sp., plurilocular sporanges.

.K. Ectocarpus sp., unilocular sporange.^ K. Ectocarpus sp., unilocular sporange.

.L. Ectocarpus siliculosus, female gamete surrounded by male gametes.^ L. Ectocarpus siliculosus, female gamete surrounded by male gametes.

a, b, c, d, e, stages of conjugation.
M. Cutleria multifida. a, antherozoids, b, a female gamete.
.N1. Fucus vesiculosus, young oogonium.^ Fucus vesiculosus, young oogonium.

^ Fucus vesiculosus, discharge of eight oospheres from oogonium.

.N2. Fucus vesiculosus, discharge of eight oospheres from oogonium.^ Fucus vesiculosus, young oogonium.

^ Fucus vesiculosus, discharge of eight oospheres from oogonium.

.0. Laminaria sp., sporanges among paraphyses.^ Laminaria sp., sporanges among paraphyses.

.P. Dictyota dichotoma, a sorus of oogonia.^ Q. Dictyota dichotoma, part of a sorus of antheridia.

^ P. Dictyota dichotoma, a sorus of oogonia.

.Q. Dictyota dichotoma, part of a sorus of antheridia.^ Q. Dictyota dichotoma, part of a sorus of antheridia.

^ P. Dictyota dichotoma, a sorus of oogonia.

.(A, B, C, D, E, H, L, M, P, from Engler and Prantl, by permission of Wilhelm Engelmann; F, G, K, 0, from Oltmanns, by permission of Gustav Fischer; Q, from by permission of the Clarendon Press; N 1, N 2, from Hauck, by permission of Eduard Kummer.^ (A, B, C, D, E, H, L, M, P, from Engler and Prantl, by permission of Wilhelm Engelmann; F, G, K, 0, from Oltmanns, by permission of Gustav Fischer; Q, from by permission of the Clarendon Press; N 1, N 2, from Hauck, by permission of Eduard Kummer.

^ Biologie der Algen, by permission of Gustav Fischer.

^ (A, C, E, F, G, H, K, L, M 1 M 2 from Engler and Prantl, Pfianzenfamilien,by permission of Wilhelm Engelmann; B 1, N from Vines, Students' Text Book of Botany , by permission of Swan Sonnenschein and Co.; B 2, D. 0 from Oltmanns, Morphologie u.

) the brown colouring matter which is added to chlorophyll is identical with phycophaein; two varieties of it have been termed phycopyrrin and peridinine. .Certain species, such as Gymnodinium spirale, are colourless and therefore saprophytic in their method of nutrition.^ Certain species, such as Gymnodinium spirale, are colourless and therefore saprophytic in their method of nutrition .

^ Certain species are regularly found in the intercellular spaces of higher plants; such are species of Nostoc in the thallus of Anthoceros, the leaves of Azolla and the roots of Cycads.

.Multiplication takes place in some cases by the endogenous formation of zoospores, the organism having come to rest; in others by longitudinal division, when the organism is still motile.^ Multiplication takes place in some cases by the endogenous formation of zoospores, the organism having come to rest; in others by longitudinal division, when the organism is still motile.

^ Thus among Volvocaceae, a family of Protococcales, while in some of the genera ( Chloraster, Sphondylomorum ) no sexual union has as yet been observed, in others ( Pandorina, Chlorogonium, Stephanosphaera, Sphaerella ) conjugation of similar gametes takes place, in others still ( Phacotus, Eudorina, Volvox ) the union is of the nature of fertilization.

^ Zoospores are of two kinds: (I) Those which come to rest and germinate to form a new plant; these are asexual and are zoospores proper.

.No method of sexual reproduction is known with certainty.^ No method of sexual reproduction is known with certainty.

^ Among Confervales there is no family in which sexual reproduction - isogamy or oogamy - is not known to occur among some of the component species, and as many as four families (Cylindrocapsaceae, Sphaeropleaceae, Oedogoniaceae, Coleochaetaceae) are oogamous.

.The Cryptomonadaceae also are unicellular, and live free or in colonies.^ The Cryptomonadaceae also are unicellular, and live free or in colonies.

.Each cell contains a flattened chromatophore of a brown or yellow colour.^ Each cell contains a flattened chromatophore of a brown or yellow colour.

^ In these algae, the colouring matter is said to be yellowish-green, not strictly green, and contained in numerous small discoid chromatophores which are devoid of pyrenoids.

^ This group derives its name from the circumstance that the cells contain in addition to the green colouring matter, chlorophyll , a blue-green colouring matter to which the term phycocyanin has been applied.

.Hydrurus forms a branched gelatinous colony attached to stones in mountain streams.^ Hydrurus forms a branched gelatinous colony attached to stones in mountain streams.

^ Such colonial forms as Hydrurus and Phaeocystis are supposed, however, to indicate a stage in the passage to the multicellular condition.

.Chromophyton forms an eight-celled colony.^ Chromophyton forms an eight-celled colony.

^ In Synura and Chromulina the cells form a spherical motile colony, recalling Volvocaceae.

.Both plants multiply solely by means of zoospores.^ Both plants multiply solely by means of zoospores.

.The Cryptomonadeae and Chromulineae are motile through the greater part of their life.^ The Cryptomonadeae and Chromulineae are motile through the greater part of their life.

.Cryptomonas, when dividing in a mucilage after encystment, recalls the condition in Gloeocystis. In Synura and Chromulina the cells form a spherical motile colony, recalling Volvocaceae.^ In Synura and Chromulina the cells form a spherical motile colony, recalling Volvocaceae.

^ Chromophyton forms an eight-celled colony.

^ Cryptomonas, when dividing in a mucilage after encystment, recalls the condition in Gloeocystis.

.Chromulina is uniciliate, and is contained in a hyaline capsule.^ Chromulina is uniciliate, and is contained in a hyaline capsule .

.Like the Peridiniaceae, the Cryptomonadaceae have been included among Flagellata.^ Like the Peridiniaceae, the Cryptomonadaceae have been included among Flagellata.

^ Similarly, while Diatomaceae may be excluded from among Phaeophyceae, though retained among algae, the Cryptomonadaceae and Peridiniaceae, like Euglena and other Chlorophyceae, may be excluded from Thallophyta and ranged among the flagellate Protozoa .

^ The Peridiniaceae have been included among Flagellata under the title of Dinoflagellata.

.They have no close affinity with Euphaeophyceae.^ They have no close affinity with Euphaeophyceae.

.Such colonial forms as Hydrurus and Phaeocystis are supposed, however, to indicate a stage in the passage to the multicellular condition.^ Such colonial forms as Hydrurus and Phaeocystis are supposed, however, to indicate a stage in the passage to the multicellular condition.

^ Hydrurus forms a branched gelatinous colony attached to stones in mountain streams.

.Diatomaceae have long been recognized as plants.^ Diatomaceae have long been recognized as plants.

.Together with Peridiniaceae they constitute the bulk of marine plankton, and thus play an important part in the support of marine animal life.^ Together with Peridiniaceae they constitute the bulk of marine plankton , and thus play an important part in the support of marine animal life.

^ To the aggregate of such forms, both animal and vegetable, the term plankton has been applied, and the investigation of the vegetable plankton, both freshwater and marine, has been pursued in recent times with energy and success.

^ The elaborate provision for the conduct of water from part to part which has played so important its allies, nor is it known in the whole of the Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae.

.They exhibit striking adaptations in these circumstances to the floating habit.^ They exhibit striking adaptations in these circumstances to the floating habit.

(See Diatomaceae.) .A census of Phaeophyceae is given below: (I) Cyclosporinae (Fucaceae)-4 families, 32 genera, 347 species.^ Characeae-2 families, 6 genera, 181 species.

^ Peridiniales-3 families, 32 genera, 167 species.

^ A census of Phaeophyceae is given below: (I) Cyclosporinae (Fucaceae)-4 families, 32 genera, 347 species.

.(2) Tetrasporinae (Dictyotaceae) - i family, 17 genera, 130 species.^ Hormogoneae-6 families, 59 genera, 701 species.

^ Characeae-2 families, 6 genera, 181 species.

^ A census of the Chlorophyceae is furnished below: I. Confervoideae-12 families, 77 genera, 1021 species.

.(3) Phaeozoosporineae (Phaeosporeae)-24 families, 143 genera, 57 1 species.^ Hormogoneae-6 families, 59 genera, 701 species.

^ Characeae-2 families, 6 genera, 181 species.

^ A census of the Chlorophyceae is furnished below: I. Confervoideae-12 families, 77 genera, 1021 species.

.(De Toni's Sylloge Algarum.^ (De Toni's Sylloge Algarum.

^ (De Toni's Sylloge Algarum, 1889.

^ For a detailed catalogue of Algological literature, see the " Bibliotheca Phycologica " in de Toni's Syllope Algarum, vol.

)
.(4) Peridiniales-3 families, 32 genera, 167 species.^ Hormogoneae-6 families, 59 genera, 701 species.

^ Characeae-2 families, 6 genera, 181 species.

^ A census of the Chlorophyceae is furnished below: I. Confervoideae-12 families, 77 genera, 1021 species.

.(5) Cryptomonadaceae (including Chrysomonadaceae)-2 families, 28 genera, 50-60 species.^ Hormogoneae-6 families, 59 genera, 701 species.

^ Characeae-2 families, 6 genera, 181 species.

^ A census of the Chlorophyceae is furnished below: I. Confervoideae-12 families, 77 genera, 1021 species.

.(6) Bacillariales (Diatomaceae) - about 150 genera and 5000 species, fossil and recent.^ Bacillariales (Diatomaceae) - about 150 genera and 5000 species, fossil and recent.

.(Engler and Prantl's Pflanzenfamilien.^ (From Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfamilien, by permission of Wilhelm Engelman.

^ Kirchner, " Schizophyceae," in Engler and Prantl's Pflanzenfamilien (Leipzig, 1900).

^ (Engler and Prantl's Pflanzenfamilien, 1900.

)
.IV. Rhodophyceae, or Florideae.^ IV. Rhodophyceae, or Florideae .

- .The members of this group are characterized by the possession of a red colouring matter, phycoerythrin, in addition to chlorophyll.^ The members of this group are characterized by the possession of a red colouring matter, phycoerythrin, in addition to chlorophyll.

^ The Phaeophyceae are distinguished by the possession of a brown colouring matter, phycophaein, in addition to chlorophyll.

^ No unicellular Rhodophyceae are known, although a flagellate organism, Rhodomonas, has recently been described as possessed of the same red colouring matter.

.There is, however, a considerable amount of difference in the shades of red which mark different species.^ There is, however, a considerable amount of difference in the shades of red which mark different species.

^ There is, however, considerable variation in the nature of the membrane in different species; thus the cell-wall of Oedogonium, treated with sulphuric acid and iodine , turns a bright blue, while the colour is very faint in the case of Spirogyra, the wall of which is said to consist for the most part of pectose.

.The brightest belongs to those species which grow near low-water mark, or under the shade of larger algae at higher levels; species which grow near high-water mark are usually of so dark a hue that they are easily mistaken for brown seaweeds.^ The brightest belongs to those species which grow near low-water mark, or under the shade of larger algae at higher levels; species which grow near high-water mark are usually of so dark a hue that they are easily mistaken for brown seaweeds.

^ This algae can be found in low and high pH waters.
  • Aquarium Algae ID (updated 16th Spet '08) 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC aquariumalgae.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the British coasts zones are observable in passing from high to low water mark , characterized by the prevalence of different species, thus : - Pelvetia canaliculata, Fucus platycarpus, Fucus vesiculosus, Ascophyllum nodosum, Fucus serratus, Laminaria digitata.

.Rhodophyceae are mostly marine, but not exclusively so.^ Rhodophyceae are mostly marine, but not exclusively so.

.Thorea, Lemanea, Tuomeya, Stenocladia, Batrachospermum, Balbiania are genera belonging entirely to fresh water; and Bangia, Chantransia, Caloglossa, Bostrychia and Delesseria contain each one or more freshwater species.^ Thorea, Lemanea, Tuomeya, Stenocladia, Batrachospermum, Balbiania are genera belonging entirely to fresh water; and Bangia, Chantransia, Caloglossa, Bostrychia and Delesseria contain each one or more freshwater species.

^ The majority of the species belong to the sea, but many are found in fresh water.

^ Higher salinity means the water is more salty, while low salinity means that the water is more fresh.
  • Glossary - Bay Resource Library - Chesapeake Bay Program 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.chesapeakebay.net [Source type: Reference]

.Most of the larger species of marine Rhodophyceae are attached by means of a disc to rocks, stones or shells.^ Most of the larger species of marine Rhodophyceae are attached by means of a disc to rocks, stones or shells.

^ In the case of marine algae, the hosts are chiefly the larger Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae.

^ Euphaeophyceae are almost exclusively marine, growing on rocks and stones on the coast, or epiphytic upon other algae.

.Many are epiphytic on other algae, more especially the larger Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae.^ Many are epiphytic on other algae, more especially the larger Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae.

^ In the case of marine algae, the hosts are chiefly the larger Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae.

^ It much more resembles the antherozoids of Bryophyta and certain Pteridophyta than any known among other algae.

.As in the case of epiphytic brown seaweeds, the rhizoids of the epiphyte often penetrate the substance of the supporting alga.^ As in the case of epiphytic brown seaweeds, the rhizoids of the epiphyte often penetrate the substance of the supporting alga.

^ In epiphytic forms the rhizoids of the epiphyte often penetrate into the tissue of the host, and certain epiphytes are not known to occur excepting in connexion with a certain host; but to what extent, if any, there is a partial parasitism in these cases has not been ascertained.

.Some Red Algae find a home in the gelatinous substance of Flustra, Alcyonidium and other polyzoa, only emerging for the formation of the reproductive organs.^ Some Red Algae find a home in the gelatinous substance of Flustra, Alcyonidium and other polyzoa , only emerging for the formation of the reproductive organs.

^ This means that the algae, recognized by the body as a food, absorbs with unsurpassed efficiency and rapidity when com- pared to most other natural or perhaps unnatural substances.
  • Healing Power of Algae for Humans and Animals - Plankton and AFA 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the literature of vegetable physiology there has thus accumulated a great body of facts relating not only to the phenomena of reproduction, but also to the nutrition of algae.

.Some are perforating algae and burrow into the substance of molluscan shells, in company with certain Green and Blue-green Algae.^ Blue-green, Slime or Smear algae .
  • Aquarium Algae ID (updated 16th Spet '08) 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC aquariumalgae.blogspot.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Some are perforating algae and burrow into the substance of molluscan shells, in company with certain Green and Blue-green Algae.

^ The results were recently published under the title: Effects of the Blue Green Algae Aphanizomenon flos-aquae on Human Natural Killer Cells.
  • Healing Power of Algae for Humans and Animals - Plankton and AFA 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Some species belonging to the families Squamariaceae and Corallinaceae grow attached through their whole length and breadth, and are often encrusted with lime.^ Some species belonging to the families Squamariaceae and Corallinaceae grow attached through their whole length and breadth, and are often encrusted with lime.

^ When the new cells grow no further, but constitute a palisading round the central cell covering its whole length, the condition is reached which characterizes the species of Polysiphonia, the " siphons " of which may be regarded as one-celled branches.

^ Some species are minute filamentous plants, requiring the microscope for their detection; others, like Lessonia, are of considerable bulk, or, like Macrocystis, of enormous length.

.The forms which grow away from the substratum vary greatly in external configuration.^ The forms which grow away from the substratum vary greatly in external configuration.

^ In the next group of forms the simplest are crusts attached to the substratum throughout their extent, and growing at the margin.

.In point of size the largest cannot rival the larger Brown Algae, while the majority require the aid of the microscope for their investigation.^ In point of size the largest cannot rival the larger Brown Algae, while the majority require the aid of the microscope for their investigation.

^ However, producing biofuel from algae on such a massive commercial scale is a major challenge, which will require many years of research and development."
  • Gene scientist to create algae biofuel with Exxon Mobil | Environment | guardian.co.uk 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.No unicellular Rhodophyceae are known, although a flagellate organism, Rhodomonas, has recently been described as possessed of the same red colouring matter.^ No unicellular Rhodophyceae are known, although a flagellate organism, Rhodomonas, has recently been described as possessed of the same red colouring matter.

^ Of these the first three include multicellular plants, some of them of great size; the last three are unicellular organisms, with little in common with the rest excepting the possession of a brown colouring matter.

^ The members of this group are characterized by the possession of a red colouring matter, phycoerythrin, in addition to chlorophyll.

.If the sub-group, Bangiaceae, be excluded, they may be said to consist exclusively of branched filaments.^ If the sub-group, Bangiaceae, be excluded, they may be said to consist exclusively of branched filaments.

^ The multicellular species consist of filaments, branched or unbranched, which arise by the repeated divisions of the cells in parallel planes, no formation of mucilage occurring in the dividing walls.

^ They consist of the following groups: - Fucaceae, Phaeosporeae, Dictyotaceae, Cryptomonadaceae, Peridiniaceae and Diatomaceae .

.Growth in these cases takes place by means of an apical cell, from which successive segments are cut off by means of a transverse wall.^ Growth in these cases takes place by means of an apical cell, from which successive segments are cut off by means of a transverse wall.

^ The oogonium, seated on a stalk cell, is surrounded by an investment consisting of five spirallywound cells, from the projecting ends of which segments are cut off, constituting the so-called stigma.

^ To the law that no subsequent transverse division takes place in segments cut off from the apical cell, there seem to be two exceptions: first, the calcareous genus Corallina, in the pliable joints of which intercalated division occurs; and, second, the Nitophylleae, in which, moreover, median longitudinal division of axial cells is said to occur.

.The segment so cut off does not usually divide again by means of a transverse wall, nor indeed by a longitudinal wall which passes through the organic axis of the cell.^ Growth in these cases takes place by means of an apical cell, from which successive segments are cut off by means of a transverse wall.

^ The segment so cut off does not usually divide again by means of a transverse wall, nor indeed by a longitudinal wall which passes through the organic axis of the cell.

^ The oogonium, seated on a stalk cell, is surrounded by an investment consisting of five spirallywound cells, from the projecting ends of which segments are cut off, constituting the so-called stigma.

.New cells may be cut off laterally, which become the apical cells of branches.^ New cells may be cut off laterally, which become the apical cells of branches.

^ The oogonium, seated on a stalk cell, is surrounded by an investment consisting of five spirallywound cells, from the projecting ends of which segments are cut off, constituting the so-called stigma.

^ When such a lateral branch overtops the main axis whose growth has become limited, as in Plocamium and Dasya, a sympodium is formed.

.When the new cells grow no further, but constitute a palisading round the central cell covering its whole length, the condition is reached which characterizes the species of Polysiphonia, the " siphons " of which may be regarded as one-celled branches.^ When the new cells grow no further, but constitute a palisading round the central cell covering its whole length, the condition is reached which characterizes the species of Polysiphonia, the " siphons " of which may be regarded as one-celled branches.

^ True " branching arises only by the longitudinal division of a cell of a filament and the lateral outgrowth of one of the cells resulting from the division (Sirosiphonaceae).

^ As a rule the asexual cells, and the male and female sexual cells arise upon different plants, so that the species may be said to be trioecious.

.To the law that no subsequent transverse division takes place in segments cut off from the apical cell, there seem to be two exceptions: first, the calcareous genus Corallina, in the pliable joints of which intercalated division occurs; and, second, the Nitophylleae, in which, moreover, median longitudinal division of axial cells is said to occur.^ Growth in these cases takes place by means of an apical cell, from which successive segments are cut off by means of a transverse wall.

^ To the law that no subsequent transverse division takes place in segments cut off from the apical cell, there seem to be two exceptions: first, the calcareous genus Corallina, in the pliable joints of which intercalated division occurs; and, second, the Nitophylleae, in which, moreover, median longitudinal division of axial cells is said to occur.

^ The oogonium, seated on a stalk cell, is surrounded by an investment consisting of five spirallywound cells, from the projecting ends of which segments are cut off, constituting the so-called stigma.

.Like the Fungi, therefore, the Red Algae consist for the most part of branched filaments, even where the thallus appears massive to the eye, and, as in the case of Fungi, this fact is not inconsistent with a great variety of external morphology.^ Like the Fungi, therefore, the Red Algae consist for the most part of branched filaments, even where the thallus appears massive to the eye, and, as in the case of Fungi, this fact is not inconsistent with a great variety of external morphology.

^ For the most part the branching is monopodial.

^ A white efflorescence which appears on certain Brown Algae ( Saccorhiza bulbosa, Laminaria saccharina ), when they are dried in the air, is found to consist of mannite.

.In the great majority the thallus is obviously filamentous, as in some species of Callithamnion. In other species of that genus an apparent cortication arises by the downward growth of rhizoids, which are retained within the gelatinous wall of the axial cells.^ In other species of that genus an apparent cortication arises by the downward growth of rhizoids, which are retained within the gelatinous wall of the axial cells.

^ In the great majority the thallus is obviously filamentous, as in some species of Callithamnion.

^ Oltmanns has recently re-investigated the phenomena in this plant, among others, and has shown that the nucleus of the cell which is being preyed upon recedes to the wall and gradually atrophies.

.In Batrachospermum the whole system of branches are retained within a diffluent gelatinous substance derived from the outer layers of the cell-walls.^ In Batrachospermum the whole system of branches are retained within a diffluent gelatinous substance derived from the outer layers of the cell-walls.

^ The multicellular species consist of filaments, branched or unbranched, which arise by the repeated divisions of the cells in parallel planes, no formation of mucilage occurring in the dividing walls.

^ With reference to their chemical physiology, the gelatinization of the cell-wall, which is so marked a feature, is doubtless attributable to the occurrence along with cellulose of pectic compounds.

.In other cases the mucilage is denser and the branches more closely compacted (Helminthora). In such cases as Lemanea, the terminal cells of the lateral branches form a superficial layer which has all the appearance of a parenchyma when viewed from the surface.^ In other cases the mucilage is denser and the branches more closely compacted ( Helminthora).

^ In such cases as Lemanea, the terminal cells of the lateral branches form a superficial layer which has all the appearance of a parenchyma when viewed from the surface.

^ It is not difficult in such compact species to distinguish between superficial cells, whose chief function is assimilation, subjacent cells charged with reserve material, and a core of tissue engaged in the convection of elaborated material from part to part.

.In Champia and allied genera, the cylindrical axis is due not to the derivatives of one axial filament, but of several, the growth of which is co-ordinated to form a septated tube.^ In Champia and allied genera, the cylindrical axis is due not to the derivatives of one axial filament, but of several, the growth of which is co-ordinated to form a septated tube.

^ When such a lateral branch overtops the main axis whose growth has become limited, as in Plocamium and Dasya, a sympodium is formed.

^ Thus Spirogyra filaments, which have been denuded of starch by being placed in the dark, form starch in one day if they are placed in a io to 20% solution of dextrose.

.The branching of the thallus, which meets the eye in all these cases, is due to the unlimited growth of a few branches.^ The branching of the thallus, which meets the eye in all these cases, is due to the unlimited growth of a few branches.

^ In all Conjugatae and most have the same unlimited growth as the main axis.

^ Like the Fungi, therefore, the Red Algae consist for the most part of branched filaments, even where the thallus appears massive to the eye, and, as in the case of Fungi, this fact is not inconsistent with a great variety of external morphology.

.When such a lateral branch overtops the main axis whose growth has become limited, as in Plocamium and Dasya, a sympodium is formed.^ When such a lateral branch overtops the main axis whose growth has become limited, as in Plocamium and Dasya, a sympodium is formed.

^ F. Polyzonia sp., branch with leaf-like branches of limited growth.

^ In all Conjugatae and most have the same unlimited growth as the main axis.

.For the most part the branching is monopodial.^ For the most part the branching is monopodial.

^ These are for the most part long, thin-walled, unicellular and colourless, and arise from the outer cells of the pseudo-cortex, or from the terminal cells of branches when the filaments are free.

.Besides the differentiation into holdfast and shoot, and into branches of limited and branches of unlimited growth, there appear superficial structures of the nature of hairs.^ In filamentous forms there is a differentiation into branches of limited and branches of unlimited growth ( Sphacelaria).

^ The most fundamental external differentiation is into holdfast and shoot.

^ Besides the differentiation into holdfast and shoot, and into branches of limited and branches of unlimited growth, there appear superficial structures of the nature of hairs.

.These are for the most part long, thin-walled, unicellular and colourless, and arise from the outer cells of the pseudo-cortex, or from the terminal cells of branches when the filaments are free.^ These arise from the axial cell, and are multicellular and branched.

^ These are for the most part long, thin-walled, unicellular and colourless, and arise from the outer cells of the pseudo-cortex, or from the terminal cells of branches when the filaments are free.

^ For the most part the branching is monopodial.

.Among Rhodomelaceae, hair-like structures of a higher order are known.^ Among Rhodomelaceae, hair-like structures of a higher order are known.

.These arise from the axial cell, and are multicellular and branched.^ These arise from the axial cell, and are multicellular and branched.

^ True " branching arises only by the longitudinal division of a cell of a filament and the lateral outgrowth of one of the cells resulting from the division (Sirosiphonaceae).

^ They soon fall off, and it is from the persistent basal cell that the branches of unlimited growth arise.

.They soon fall off, and it is from the persistent basal cell that the branches of unlimited growth arise.^ They soon fall off, and it is from the persistent basal cell that the branches of unlimited growth arise.

^ True " branching arises only by the longitudinal division of a cell of a filament and the lateral outgrowth of one of the cells resulting from the division (Sirosiphonaceae).

^ In other species of that genus an apparent cortication arises by the downward growth of rhizoids, which are retained within the gelatinous wall of the axial cells.

.Upon them also the reproductive organs arise in this family.^ Upon them also the reproductive organs arise in this family.

.It is not surprising, therefore, that they have been regarded as the rudiments of leaves.^ It is not surprising, therefore, that they have been regarded as the rudiments of leaves.

.In Iridaea the thallus is an entire lamina; in Callophyllis a lobed lamina; in Delesseria it is provided with midrib and veins, simulating the appearance of a leaf of the higher plants; in Constantinea the axis remains cylindrical, and the lateral branches assume the form of leaves.^ In Iridaea the thallus is an entire lamina; in Callophyllis a lobed lamina; in Delesseria it is provided with midrib and veins , simulating the appearance of a leaf of the higher plants; in Constantinea the axis remains cylindrical, and the lateral branches assume the form of leaves.

^ Certain species are regularly found in the intercellular spaces of higher plants; such are species of Nostoc in the thallus of Anthoceros, the leaves of Azolla and the roots of Cycads.

^ The Ulvaceae, the thallus of which consists of external form as an expanded Coprinus, Neomeris simulates the laminae, one or more cells thick, or hollow tubes, probably represent fertile shoot of Equisetum with its densely packed whorled branches, a still more advanced stage in the passage of a colony into a multiand in Microdictyon, Anadyomene , Struvea and Boodlea the branches, cellular plant.

.In the compact thalli a secondary development often takes place by the growth of rhizoid-like internal filaments.^ In the compact thalli a secondary development often takes place by the growth of rhizoid-like internal filaments.

^ Growth in these cases takes place by means of an apical cell, from which successive segments are cut off by means of a transverse wall.

.They present a hypha-like appearance, running longitudinally for considerable distances.^ They present a hypha-like appearance, running longitudinally for considerable distances.

^ Excluding Bangiaceae, however, from consideration, the Euflorideae present in the product of the development of the oospore like Bryophyta a structure partly sterile and partly fertile.

.It is not difficult in such compact species to distinguish between superficial cells, whose chief function is assimilation, subjacent cells charged with reserve material, and a core of tissue engaged in the convection of elaborated material from part to part.^ It is not difficult in such compact species to distinguish between superficial cells, whose chief function is assimilation, subjacent cells charged with reserve material, and a core of tissue engaged in the convection of elaborated material from part to part.

^ In such cases as Lemanea, the terminal cells of the lateral branches form a superficial layer which has all the appearance of a parenchyma when viewed from the surface.

^ Therefore, it contains almost everything one needs to restore health by providing the raw materials to make new cells that function normally.
  • Healing Power of Algae for Humans and Animals - Plankton and AFA 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.An interesting feature of the minute anatomy of Euflorideae, as the Red Algae, exclusive of the Bangiaceae, have been termed, is the existence of the so-called Floridean pit. When a cell divides it is found that there remains in the middle of the new wall a single large circular pit, which persists throughout the life of the cells, becoming more and more conspicuous with the progress of the thickening of the wall.^ An interesting feature of the minute anatomy of Euflorideae, as the Red Algae, exclusive of the Bangiaceae, have been termed, is the existence of the so-called Floridean pit .

^ There is evidence that the dividing wall of filamentous forms is deeply pitted, as is found to be the case in red algae.

^ When a cell divides it is found that there remains in the middle of the new wall a single large circular pit, which persists throughout the life of the cells, becoming more and more conspicuous with the progress of the thickening of the wall.

.These pits serve to indicate the genetic relationship of adjacent cells, when they form a compact pesudo-parenchyma, notwithstanding the fact that somewhat smaller secondary pits appear later between any contiguous cells.^ These pits serve to indicate the genetic relationship of adjacent cells, when they form a compact pesudo-parenchyma, notwithstanding the fact that somewhat smaller secondary pits appear later between any contiguous cells.

^ In Fucaceae, Dictyotacea, and in Laminariaceae and Sphacelariaceae, among Phaeosporeae, the thallus consists of a true parenchyma; elsewhere it consists of free filaments, or filaments so compacted together, as in Cutleriaceae and Desmarestiaceae, as to form a false parenchyma.

^ In Dictyota the unfertilized oosphere is found to be capable of undergoing a limited number of divisions, but the body thus formed appears to atrophy sooner or later.

.Protoplasmic continuity has been observed in the delicate membrane closing the pit.^ Protoplasmic continuity has been observed in the delicate membrane closing the pit.

.Vegetative multiplication occurs only sparingly in Rhodophyceae.^ Vegetative multiplication occurs only sparingly in Rhodophyceae.

^ In all the multicellular plants of this group which have been adequately investigated, vegetative multiplication by means of what are known as hormogonia has been found to occur.

Melobesia callithamnioides gives rise to multicellular propagula; Griffithsia corallina is said to give rise to new individuals, by detaching portions of the thallus from the base of which new attachment organs have already arisen. .The spores of Monospora are by some regarded as unicellular propagula.^ The spores of Monospora are by some regarded as unicellular propagula.

.Reproduction is both asexual and sexual.^ Sexual and asexual reproduction prevail.

^ Reproduction is both asexual and sexual.

^ Many Euchlorophyceae are endowed with both asexual and sexual reproduction.

.It is noteworthy that although all the members of the group are aquatic no zoospores are produced, a negative character common to them and the Blue-green Algae.^ It is noteworthy that although all the members of the group are aquatic no zoospores are produced, a negative character common to them and the Blue-green Algae.

^ A certain inequality in the character of the two cilia of the zoospores of some of the members of the group has earned for it the title Heterokontae, from the Greek xovros, a punting- pole .

^ The results were recently published under the title: Effects of the Blue Green Algae Aphanizomenon flos-aquae on Human Natural Killer Cells.
  • Healing Power of Algae for Humans and Animals - Plankton and AFA 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As a rule the asexual cells, and the male and female sexual cells arise upon different plants, so that the species may be said to be trioecious.^ As a rule the asexual cells, and the male and female sexual cells arise upon different plants, so that the species may be said to be trioecious.

^ Thus in Lemaneaceae asexual spores are unknown; in Batracho-spermum, Bonnemaisonia and Polysiphonia byssoides both kinds of sexual cells appear on the same plant; and in some cases the asexual cells may occur in conjunction with either the male or female sexual cells.

^ The multicellular species consist of filaments, branched or unbranched, which arise by the repeated divisions of the cells in parallel planes, no formation of mucilage occurring in the dividing walls.

.Numerous exceptions, however, occur.^ Numerous exceptions, however, occur.

.Thus in Lemaneaceae asexual spores are unknown; in Batracho-spermum, Bonnemaisonia and Polysiphonia byssoides both kinds of sexual cells appear on the same plant; and in some cases the asexual cells may occur in conjunction with either the male or female sexual cells.^ Reproduction is both asexual and sexual.

^ Both asexual and sexual reproduction occur among Euphaeophyceae.

^ Thus in Lemaneaceae asexual spores are unknown; in Batracho-spermum, Bonnemaisonia and Polysiphonia byssoides both kinds of sexual cells appear on the same plant; and in some cases the asexual cells may occur in conjunction with either the male or female sexual cells.

.The asexual cells are termed tetraspores on account of the usual occurrence of four in each sporangium.^ The asexual cells are termed tetraspores on account of the usual occurrence of four in each sporangium.

^ The asexual cells are immotile spores arising in fours in sporangia from superficial cells of the thallus.

.What may be termed monospores, bispores and octospores, however, are not unknown.^ What may be termed monospores, bispores and octospores, however, are not unknown.

.The sporangia may be terminal or intercalated.^ The sporangia may be terminal or intercalated.

When they are confined to special branches such branches are spoken of as stichidia. .The tetraspores may arise by the simultaneous division of the contents of a sporangium, when they are arranged tetrahedrally, or they may arise by two successive divisions, in which case the arrangement may be zonate when the spores are in a row, or cruciate when the second divisions are at right angles to the first, or tetrahedral when the second divisions are at right angles to the first and also to one another.^ The tetraspores may arise by the simultaneous division of the contents of a sporangium, when they are arranged tetrahedrally, or they may arise by two successive divisions, in which case the arrangement may be zonate when the spores are in a row, or cruciate when the second divisions are at right angles to the first, or tetrahedral when the second divisions are at right angles to the first and also to one another.

^ True " branching arises only by the longitudinal division of a cell of a filament and the lateral outgrowth of one of the cells resulting from the division (Sirosiphonaceae).

^ In most cases repeated division seems to take place, and the final number is represented by some power of two.

.Tetraspores are at first naked, but soon acquire a cell-wall and germinate without a period of rest.^ Tetraspores are at first naked, but soon acquire a cell-wall and germinate without a period of rest.

^ They soon acquire a cell-wall, and germinate without a period of rest.

^ Mottier first observed that a reduction in the number takes place in the mother-cells of the tetraspore.

.The male sexual cells are produced singly in the terminal cells of branches.^ The male sexual cells are produced singly in the terminal cells of branches.

^ This is in consonance with the facts already mentioned that zoospores germinate forthwith, and that the sexually-produced cell or zygote enters upon a period of rest.

^ In such cases as Lemanea, the terminal cells of the lateral branches form a superficial layer which has all the appearance of a parenchyma when viewed from the surface.

.They are spoken of as spermatia.^ They are spoken of as spermatia.

.Great numbers of antheridia are usually crowded together, when the part is distinguishable by the absence of the usual red colour.^ Great numbers of antheridia are usually crowded together, when the part is distinguishable by the absence of the usual red colour.

.In Polysiphonia they cover the joints of the so-called leaves; in Chondria they arise on flattened disks; in the more massive forms they arise in patches on the ordinary surface; in a few cases (Gracilaria, Corallina, Galaxaura) they line the walls of conceptacle-like depressions.^ In Polysiphonia they cover the joints of the so-called leaves; in Chondria they arise on flattened disks; in the more massive forms they arise in patches on the ordinary surface; in a few cases ( Gracilaria, Corallina, Galaxaura ) they line the walls of conceptacle-like depressions.

^ In such cases as Lemanea, the terminal cells of the lateral branches form a superficial layer which has all the appearance of a parenchyma when viewed from the surface.

^ In Fucaceae an apical cell is situate at the surface of the thallus in a slit-like depression at the apex .

.The female sexual cell is represented by the contents of a cell which is terminal on ordinary or specialized branches.^ The male sexual cells are produced singly in the terminal cells of branches.

^ The female sexual cell is represented by the contents of a cell which is terminal on ordinary or specialized branches.

^ The multicellular species consist of filaments, branched or unbranched, which arise by the repeated divisions of the cells in parallel planes, no formation of mucilage occurring in the dividing walls.

.This is the carpogonium; it consists of a ventral portion which contains a nucleus, but in which no oosphere is differentiated, and an elongated tubular portion known as the trichogyne, into which the cytoplasm extends.^ This is the carpogonium; it consists of a ventral portion which contains a nucleus, but in which no oosphere is differentiated, and an elongated tubular portion known as the trichogyne, into which the cytoplasm extends.

^ The ventral portion of the carpogonium may be imbedded deep in the thallus in the massive species; the trichogyne, however, always reaches the surface.

^ The oosphere is not differentiated within the wall of the oogonium, but certain cells known as wendungszellen, the significance of which has given rise to much speculation , are cut off from the basal portion of the parent-cell during its development.

.Fertilization is effected by the passive convection of a spermatium from the antheridium to the trichogyne, to which it adheres, and to which it passes over its nucleus through an open communication set up at the point of contact.^ Fertilization is effected by the passive convection of a spermatium from the antheridium to the trichogyne, to which it adheres, and to which it passes over its nucleus through an open communication set up at the point of contact.

^ The nucleus then passes down the trichogyne and fuses with that of the egg.

^ The first effect of fertilization is the occlusion of the trichogyne from the fertilized carpogonium.

.The nucleus then passes down the trichogyne and fuses with that of the egg.^ The nucleus then passes down the trichogyne and fuses with that of the egg.

^ Fertilization is effected by the passive convection of a spermatium from the antheridium to the trichogyne, to which it adheres, and to which it passes over its nucleus through an open communication set up at the point of contact.

.This fusion has been observed by Wille in Nemalion multifidim, and by Schmidle in Batrachospermum. It is singular that in the last-named species two nuclei occur regularly in the spermatium.^ It is singular that in the last-named species two nuclei occur regularly in the spermatium.

^ This fusion has been observed by Wille in Nemalion multifidim, and by Schmidle in Batrachospermum.

^ All investigation goes to show that an essential part of sexual union is the fusion of the two nuclei concerned.

.The ventral portion of the carpogonium may be imbedded deep in the thallus in the massive species; the trichogyne, however, always reaches the surface.^ The ventral portion of the carpogonium may be imbedded deep in the thallus in the massive species; the trichogyne, however, always reaches the surface.

^ This is the carpogonium; it consists of a ventral portion which contains a nucleus, but in which no oosphere is differentiated, and an elongated tubular portion known as the trichogyne, into which the cytoplasm extends.

^ The sexual organs - oogonia and antheridia - are borne on special portions of the thallus in cavities known as conceptacles.

.The first effect of fertilization is the occlusion of the trichogyne from the fertilized carpogonium.^ The first effect of fertilization is the occlusion of the trichogyne from the fertilized carpogonium.

^ Fertilization is effected by the passive convection of a spermatium from the antheridium to the trichogyne, to which it adheres, and to which it passes over its nucleus through an open communication set up at the point of contact.

^ L. Batrachospermum sp., trichogyne with spermatia attached; carpo B. Polysiphonia sp., transverse section through a branch, and at spores arising from fertilized carpogonium.

.The subsequent course of development is characteristic of the Florideae.^ The subsequent course of development is characteristic of the Florideae.

.The carpogonium germinates forthwith, drawing its nourishment almost wholly from the parent plant.^ The carpogonium germinates forthwith, drawing its nourishment almost wholly from the parent plant.

.The ultimate product in all cases is a number of carpospores, but before this stage is reached the development is different in different subgroups.^ The ultimate product in all cases is a number of carpospores, but before this stage is reached the development is different in different subgroups.

^ It is not easy in all cases to draw a distinction between a colony totally different internal structure.

^ In all these cases, however, the end-cells of the filaments each give rise to a carpospore, and the aggregate of such sporiferous filaments is a cystocarp.

.In Batrachospermum filaments arise from the carpogonium on all sides; in Chantransia and Scinaia on one side only; in Helminthora the filaments are enclosed in a dense mucilage; in Nemalion, prior to the formation of the filaments, a sterile segment is cut off below.^ In Batrachospermum filaments arise from the carpogonium on all sides; in Chantransia and Scinaia on one side only; in Helminthora the filaments are enclosed in a dense mucilage; in Nemalion, prior to the formation of the filaments, a sterile segment is cut off below.

^ The oogonium, seated on a stalk cell, is surrounded by an investment consisting of five spirallywound cells, from the projecting ends of which segments are cut off, constituting the so-called stigma.

^ The multicellular species consist of filaments, branched or unbranched, which arise by the repeated divisions of the cells in parallel planes, no formation of mucilage occurring in the dividing walls.

.In all these cases, however, the end-cells of the filaments each give rise to a carpospore, and the aggregate of such sporiferous filaments is a cystocarp.^ In all these cases, however, the end-cells of the filaments each give rise to a carpospore, and the aggregate of such sporiferous filaments is a cystocarp.

^ Again, in the family of the Gelidiaceae, the single filament arising from the carpogonium grows back into the tissue and preys upon the cells of the axis and larger branches, after which the end-cells give rise to carpospores and a diffused cystocarp is formed.

^ Growth in these cases takes place by means of an apical cell, from which successive segments are cut off by means of a transverse wall.

.Again, in the family of the Gelidiaceae, the single filament arising from the carpogonium grows back into the tissue and preys upon the cells of the axis and larger branches, after which the end-cells give rise to carpospores and a diffused cystocarp is formed.^ Again, in the family of the Gelidiaceae, the single filament arising from the carpogonium grows back into the tissue and preys upon the cells of the axis and larger branches, after which the end-cells give rise to carpospores and a diffused cystocarp is formed.

^ In all these cases, however, the end-cells of the filaments each give rise to a carpospore, and the aggregate of such sporiferous filaments is a cystocarp.

^ In Naccaria, one of the Gelidiaceae, it is observable that the ooblastema filament, as the tube arising from the fertilized carpogonium has been called, fuses completely with a cell contiguous to the carpogonium before giving rise to the foraging filaments already refered to.

.In the whole group of the Cryptonemiales the parasitism becomes more marked still.^ In the whole group of the Cryptonemiales the parasitism becomes more marked still.

^ This character becomes still more proas the gonidia of the lichenthallus.

.The filaments arising from the carpogonia grow into long thin tubes, which fuse with special cells rich in protoplasm contents; and from these points issue isolated tufts of sporogenous filaments, several of which may form the product of one fertilized female cell.^ The attachment of the cell of an ooblastema filament to a cell of the thallus may be effected by means of a minute pore, or the two cells may fuse their contents into one protoplasmic mass.

^ The filaments arising from the carpogonia grow into long thin tubes, which fuse with special cells rich in protoplasm contents; and from these points issue isolated tufts of sporogenous filaments, several of which may form the product of one fertilized female cell.

^ The germination of a zygospore or oospore is effected by the rupture of an outer cuticularized exosporium; then the cell may protrude an inner wall, the endosporium, and grow out into the new plant ( Vaucheria ), or the contents may break up into a first brood of zoospores.

.In Naccaria, one of the Gelidiaceae, it is observable that the ooblastema filament, as the tube arising from the fertilized carpogonium has been called, fuses completely with a cell contiguous to the carpogonium before giving rise to the foraging filaments already refered to.^ In Naccaria, one of the Gelidiaceae, it is observable that the ooblastema filament, as the tube arising from the fertilized carpogonium has been called, fuses completely with a cell contiguous to the carpogonium before giving rise to the foraging filaments already refered to.

^ Again, in the family of the Gelidiaceae, the single filament arising from the carpogonium grows back into the tissue and preys upon the cells of the axis and larger branches, after which the end-cells give rise to carpospores and a diffused cystocarp is formed.

^ The proembryonic branches of Characeae, one of the means of vegetative reproduction already referred to, are so called because they repeat the characters of the proembryo.

This is also the case among Cryptonemiales. .In a whole series of Red Algae, the existence of a highly specialized auxiliary cell in the neighbourhood of the carpogonium is a characteristic feature.^ In a whole series of Red Algae, the existence of a highly specialized auxiliary cell in the neighbourhood of the carpogonium is a characteristic feature.

^ The Cutleriaceae exhibit a heterogamy in which the female sexual cell is not highly specialized, as it is in the groups already described.

^ A characteristic feature of the more massive species is the occurrence of air -vesicles in their tissues.

.In the Gigartinales it is already differentiated previous to fertilization; in Rhodymeniales it arises subsequent to fertilization.^ In the Gigartinales it is already differentiated previous to fertilization; in Rhodymeniales it arises subsequent to fertilization.

.In the Gigartinales, the filaments which arise from the auxiliary cell may spread and give rise to isolated tufts of sporogenous filaments, as in the Cryptonemiales.^ In the Rhodymeniales a single tuft arises directly from' the auxiliary cell.

^ In the Gigartinales, the filaments which arise from the auxiliary cell may spread and give rise to isolated tufts of sporogenous filaments, as in the Cryptonemiales.

^ The multicellular species consist of filaments, branched or unbranched, which arise by the repeated divisions of the cells in parallel planes, no formation of mucilage occurring in the dividing walls.

.In the Rhodymeniales a single tuft arises directly from' the auxiliary cell.^ In the Rhodymeniales a single tuft arises directly from' the auxiliary cell.

^ In the Gigartinales, the filaments which arise from the auxiliary cell may spread and give rise to isolated tufts of sporogenous filaments, as in the Cryptonemiales.

.The carpospores are in all cases bright red naked masses of protoplasm when first discharged.^ The carpospores are in all cases bright red naked masses of protoplasm when first discharged.

^ In all these cases, however, the end-cells of the filaments each give rise to a carpospore, and the aggregate of such sporiferous filaments is a cystocarp.

^ The ultimate product in all cases is a number of carpospores, but before this stage is reached the development is different in different subgroups.

.They soon acquire a cell-wall, and germinate without a period of rest.^ Tetraspores are at first naked, but soon acquire a cell-wall and germinate without a period of rest.

^ They soon acquire a cell-wall, and germinate without a period of rest.

^ They soon fall off, and it is from the persistent basal cell that the branches of unlimited growth arise.

.When the cystocarps or segments of cystocarps are formed in the substance of a thallus, the site is marked merely by a swelling of the substance.^ When the cystocarps or segments of cystocarps are formed in the substance of a thallus, the site is marked merely by a swelling of the substance.

.When the cystocarp is produced externally, it may form a berry-like mass without an envelope, in which case it is known as a favella.^ When the cystocarp is produced externally, it may form a berry -like mass without an envelope, in which case it is known as a favella.

^ In these cases, however, the potential gametes may, failing conjugation, germinate directly, like the zoospores derived from unilocular sporangia.

^ In Sphaeroplea it is only at this stage that zoospores are formed at all; but in most cases, such as Oedogonium, Ulothrix, Coleochaete, similar zoospores are produced again and again upon the thallus, and the product of the oospore may be regarded as merely a first brood of a series.

.In Rhodomelaceae there is a special urn-shaped envelope surrounding the sporogenous filaments.^ In Rhodomelaceae there is a special urn -shaped envelope surrounding the sporogenous filaments.

This is a ceramidium.
.The attachment of the cell of an ooblastema filament to a cell of the thallus may be effected by means of a minute pore, or the two cells may fuse their contents into one protoplasmic mass.^ The attachment of the cell of an ooblastema filament to a cell of the thallus may be effected by means of a minute pore, or the two cells may fuse their contents into one protoplasmic mass.

^ The germination of a zygospore or oospore is effected by the rupture of an outer cuticularized exosporium; then the cell may protrude an inner wall, the endosporium, and grow out into the new plant ( Vaucheria ), or the contents may break up into a first brood of zoospores.

^ The filaments arising from the carpogonia grow into long thin tubes, which fuse with special cells rich in protoplasm contents; and from these points issue isolated tufts of sporogenous filaments, several of which may form the product of one fertilized female cell.

.In the latter case, and especially where the union is with a special auxiliary cell, it is of importance to know what happens to the nuclei of the fusing cells.^ In the latter case, and especially where the union is with a special auxiliary cell, it is of importance to know what happens to the nuclei of the fusing cells.

^ Schmitz was of opinion that in the cases of open union there occurred a fusion of nuclei similar to that which occurs in the sexual union of two cells.

^ In a whole series of Red Algae, the existence of a highly specialized auxiliary cell in the neighbourhood of the carpogonium is a characteristic feature.

.Schmitz was of opinion that in the cases of open union there occurred a fusion of nuclei similar to that which occurs in the sexual union of two cells.^ Schmitz was of opinion that in the cases of open union there occurred a fusion of nuclei similar to that which occurs in the sexual union of two cells.

^ Thus in Lemaneaceae asexual spores are unknown; in Batracho-spermum, Bonnemaisonia and Polysiphonia byssoides both kinds of sexual cells appear on the same plant; and in some cases the asexual cells may occur in conjunction with either the male or female sexual cells.

^ But it is difficult to apply such a term at all to those cases in which there intervene between the oospore and the next sexual stage a series of generations, the zoospores of which are all precisely similar.

.He founded his generalization to a large extent upon the observation that in Gloeosiphonia capillaris two cells completely fuse, and that only one nucleus can be detected in the fused mass.^ He founded his generalization to a large extent upon the observation that in Gloeosiphonia capillaris two cells completely fuse, and that only one nucleus can be detected in the fused mass.

^ Among Phaeophyceae it is well known that the oospore of Fucaceae germinates directly into the sexual plant, and there is thus only one generation.

^ Again, among Siphonales only one family (Vaucheriaceae)has reached the stage of oogamy, although an incipient heterogamy is said to occur in two other families (Codiaceae, Bryoosidaceae).

.Oltmanns has recently re-investigated the phenomena in this plant, among others, and has shown that the nucleus of the cell which is being preyed upon recedes to the wall and gradually atrophies.^ Oltmanns has recently re-investigated the phenomena in this plant, among others, and has shown that the nucleus of the cell which is being preyed upon recedes to the wall and gradually atrophies.

^ Some investigators, such as R. Hegler, F. G. Kohl and E. W. Olive, claim that this body is a true nucleus comparable with that of the higher plants.

^ In other species of that genus an apparent cortication arises by the downward growth of rhizoids, which are retained within the gelatinous wall of the axial cells.

.The nucleus of the ooblastema filament dominates the FIG. 5. - Rhodophyceae, variously magnified.^ Rhodophyceae, variously magnified.

^ The nucleus of the ooblastema filament dominates the FIG. 5.

^ The former arises when a filament in a sheath, either in consequence of growth in length beyond the capacity of the sheath to accommodate it, FIG. I. - Cyanophyceae, variously magnified.

.A. Polysiphonia sp., apical region showing leading cell and cutting K. Nemalion sp., carpogonial and antheridial branches.^ Chara sp., apical region.

^ A. Polysiphonia sp., apical region showing leading cell and cutting K. Nemalion sp., carpogonial and antheridial branches.

^ Chordaria sp., apical region showing so-called trichothallic growth.

off of pericentral cell. .L. Batrachospermum sp., trichogyne with spermatia attached; carpo B. Polysiphonia sp., transverse section through a branch, and at spores arising from fertilized carpogonium.^ L. Batrachospermum sp., trichogyne with spermatia attached; carpo B. Polysiphonia sp., transverse section through a branch, and at spores arising from fertilized carpogonium.

^ R. Polysiphonia sp., section through young cystocarp.

^ P. Callithamnion corymbosum, a joint cell with carpogonial branch G. Callithamnion sp., tetrasporangium with spores arranged in a and a, b, two auxiliary cells.

a, mother-cell of tetraspores. .M. Polysiphonia sp., antheridium.^ M. Polysiphonia sp., antheridium.

.C. Lomentaria sp., apex showing growth in length through coN. Constantinea sp., with flattened leaf-like appendages.^ C. Lomentaria sp., apex showing growth in length through coN. Constantinea sp., with flattened leaf-like appendages.

^ F. Polyzonia sp., branch with leaf-like branches of limited growth.

^ M, Chara sp., axis with leaf-like appendages and a branch.

ordinated growth of many filaments. .0. Dudresnaya coccinea, fusion of ooblastema filaments with 'auxil- ' D. Delesseria sp., showing apical region with leading cell.^ Chara sp., apical region.

^ A. Polysiphonia sp., apical region showing leading cell and cutting K. Nemalion sp., carpogonial and antheridial branches.

^ Dudresnaya coccinea, fusion of ooblastema filaments with ' auxil- ' D. Delesseria sp., showing apical region with leading cell.

iary cells; a is an axial cell in transverse section with four .E. Chrysymenia uvaria, axis with swollen leaf-like appendages.^ E. Chrysymenia uvaria, axis with swollen leaf-like appendages.

^ M, Chara sp., axis with leaf-like appendages and a branch.

^ C. Lomentaria sp., apex showing growth in length through coN. Constantinea sp., with flattened leaf-like appendages.

appendages.
.F. Polyzonia sp., branch with leaf-like branches of limited growth.^ F. Polyzonia sp., branch with leaf-like branches of limited growth.

^ M, Chara sp., axis with leaf-like appendages and a branch.

^ C. Lomentaria sp., apex showing growth in length through coN. Constantinea sp., with flattened leaf-like appendages.

.P. Callithamnion corymbosum, a joint cell with carpogonial branch G. Callithamnion sp., tetrasporangium with spores arranged in a and a, b, two auxiliary cells.^ P. Callithamnion corymbosum, a joint cell with carpogonial branch G. Callithamnion sp., tetrasporangium with spores arranged in a and a, b, two auxiliary cells.

^ A. Polysiphonia sp., apical region showing leading cell and cutting K. Nemalion sp., carpogonial and antheridial branches.

^ Q. Callithamnion corymbosum, fusion of products of fertilization with H. Corallina sp., tetrasporangia with zonate arrangement of tetraauxiliary cells, the nuclei of which a and b retire to the wall.

tetrad. .Q. Callithamnion corymbosum, fusion of products of fertilization with H. Corallina sp., tetrasporangia with zonate arrangement of tetraauxiliary cells, the nuclei of which a and b retire to the wall.^ Q. Callithamnion corymbosum, fusion of products of fertilization with H. Corallina sp., tetrasporangia with zonate arrangement of tetraauxiliary cells, the nuclei of which a and b retire to the wall.

^ P. Callithamnion corymbosum, a joint cell with carpogonial branch G. Callithamnion sp., tetrasporangium with spores arranged in a and a, b, two auxiliary cells.

^ Schmitz was of opinion that in the cases of open union there occurred a fusion of nuclei similar to that which occurs in the sexual union of two cells.

spores. .R. Polysiphonia sp., section through young cystocarp.^ R. Polysiphonia sp., section through young cystocarp.

^ L. Batrachospermum sp., trichogyne with spermatia attached; carpo B. Polysiphonia sp., transverse section through a branch, and at spores arising from fertilized carpogonium.

.(A, C, D, E, F, G, H, K, L, M, P, Q, from Oltmanns, by permission of Gustav Fischer; B, N, 0, R, from Engler and Prantl, by permission of Wilhelm Engelman,) mass and from it all the nuclei of the carpospores are thus derived.^ (From Engler and Prantl, Pflanzenfamilien, by permission of Wilhelm Engelman.

^ Biologie der Algen, by permission of Gustav Fischer.

^ (A, C, D, E, F, G, H, K, L, M, P, Q, from Oltmanns, by permission of Gustav Fischer; B, N, 0, R, from Engler and Prantl, by permission of Wilhelm Engelman,) mass and from it all the nuclei of the carpospores are thus derived.

.There thus seems to be no justification for believing, as Schmitz taught, that a second sexual act occurs in the life-cycle of these Florideae.^ There thus seems to be no justification for believing, as Schmitz taught, that a second sexual act occurs in the life-cycle of these Florideae.

^ Among Phaeophyceae it is well known that the oospore of Fucaceae germinates directly into the sexual plant, and there is thus only one generation.

^ Among Confervales there is no family in which sexual reproduction - isogamy or oogamy - is not known to occur among some of the component species, and as many as four families (Cylindrocapsaceae, Sphaeropleaceae, Oedogoniaceae, Coleochaetaceae) are oogamous.

.The Bangiales are a relatively small group of Red Algae, to which much of the description now given does not apply.^ The Bangiales are a relatively small group of Red Algae, to which much of the description now given does not apply.

^ It is thus an obvious advantage to Red Algae, which flourish at considerable depths, to be able to utilize yellow light rather than the red, which is ' extinguished so much sooner.

^ The great majority of algae, however, grow like land-plants attached to a substratum, and to these the term benthos is now generally applied.

.Structurally they are either a plate of cells, as in Porphyra, or filaments, as in Bangia. There is no exclusive apical growth, and the cells divide in all directions.^ There is no exclusive apical growth, and the cells divide in all directions.

^ Structurally they are either a plate of cells, as in Porphyra, or filaments, as in Bangia.

^ They soon fall off, and it is from the persistent basal cell that the branches of unlimited growth arise.

.The characteristic pit is also absent.^ The characteristic pit is also absent.

.Sexual and asexual reproduction prevail.^ Reproduction is both asexual and sexual.

^ Sexual and asexual reproduction prevail.

^ When a species resorts to both methods, it is generally found that the asexual method prevails in the early part of the vegetative period and the sexual towards the close of that period.

.The male cell is a spermatium, but the female cell bears no such receptive trichogyne as occurs in other Rhodophyceae.^ The male cell is a spermatium, but the female cell bears no such receptive trichogyne as occurs in other Rhodophyceae.

^ Thus in Lemaneaceae asexual spores are unknown; in Batracho-spermum, Bonnemaisonia and Polysiphonia byssoides both kinds of sexual cells appear on the same plant; and in some cases the asexual cells may occur in conjunction with either the male or female sexual cells.

^ As a rule the asexual cells, and the male and female sexual cells arise upon different plants, so that the species may be said to be trioecious.

.After fertilization the equivalent of the oospore divides directly to form a group of carpospores.^ After fertilization the equivalent of the oospore divides directly to form a group of carpospores.

^ Not even Riccia, with its rudimentary sporogonium, has so simple a corresponding stage as Bangia, for, while there is some amount of sterile tissue in Riccia, in Bangia the oospore completely divides to form carpospores.

^ Among Chlorophyceae it is often the case that the oospore on germination divides up directly to form a brood of zoospores.

.There is thus a certain resemblance to Euflorideae, but sufficient difference to necessitate their being grouped apart.^ There is thus a certain resemblance to Euflorideae, but sufficient difference to necessitate their being grouped apart.

^ A similar uncertainty exists with reference to certain groups of Phaeophyceae, and the matter will thus arise again.

.Fertilization by means of non-motile spermatia and a trichogyne are known among the Fungi in the families Collemaceae and Laboulbeniaceae.^ Fertilization by means of non-motile spermatia and a trichogyne are known among the Fungi in the families Collemaceae and Laboulbeniaceae.

^ Nor is motility by means of cilia known in the group.

^ L. Batrachospermum sp., trichogyne with spermatia attached; carpo B. Polysiphonia sp., transverse section through a branch, and at spores arising from fertilized carpogonium.

.A census of Rhodophyceae is furnished below: - (i) Bangiaceae-4 families, 9 genera, 58 species.^ Tetrasporinae (Dictyotaceae) - i family, 17 genera, 130 species.

^ Peridiniales-3 families, 32 genera, 167 species.

^ A census of the Chlorophyceae is furnished below: I. Confervoideae-12 families, 77 genera, 1021 species.

.(2) Nemalioninae-4 families, 33 genera, 343 species.^ Hormogoneae-6 families, 59 genera, 701 species.

^ Characeae-2 families, 6 genera, 181 species.

^ A census of the Chlorophyceae is furnished below: I. Confervoideae-12 families, 77 genera, 1021 species.

.(3) Gigartininae-3 families, 54 genera, 409 species.^ Tetrasporinae (Dictyotaceae) - i family, 17 genera, 130 species.

^ Gigartininae-3 families, 54 genera, 409 species.

^ A census of Rhodophyceae is furnished below: - (i) Bangiaceae-4 families, 9 genera, 58 species.

.(4) Rhodymeninae-4 families, 92 genera, 602 species.^ Hormogoneae-6 families, 59 genera, 701 species.

^ Characeae-2 families, 6 genera, 181 species.

^ A census of the Chlorophyceae is furnished below: I. Confervoideae-12 families, 77 genera, 1021 species.

.(De Toni's Sylloge Algarum, 5897.) After this survey of the four groups comprised under Algae it is easier to indicate the variations in the limits of the class as defined by different authorities.^ (De Toni's Sylloge Algarum, 1889.

^ After this survey of the four groups comprised under Algae it is easier to indicate the variations in the limits of the class as defined by different authorities.

^ (De Toni's Sylloge Algarum, 5897.

.To consider the Cyanophyceae excludingacteriaceae from algae altogether, notwith g g g ?^ To consider the Cyanophyceae excludingacteriaceae from algae altogether, notwith g g g ?

standing their acknowledged morphological affinity with .Cyanophyceae, or, in recognition of the incongruity of effecting such a separation, the whole group of the Schizophyta - that is to say, the Cyanophyceae in the narrow sense, together with Bacteriaceae, is included or excluded together.^ Cyanophyceae, or, in recognition of the incongruity of effecting such a separation, the whole group of the Schizophyta - that is to say, the Cyanophyceae in the narrow sense, together with Bacteriaceae, is included or excluded together.

^ With the Cyanophyceae must be included, as their nearest allies, the Bacteriaceae (see Bacteriology ).

.Again, while Conjugatae may be shut out from Chlorophyceae as an independent group co-ordinate with them in rank, the Characeae constitute so aberrant a group that it has even been proposed to raise them as Charophyta to the dignity of a main division co-ordinate with Thallophyta.^ Again, while Conjugatae may be shut out from Chlorophyceae as an independent group co- ordinate with them in rank, the Characeae constitute so aberrant a group that it has even been proposed to raise them as Charophyta to the dignity of a main division co-ordinate with Thallophyta.

^ Conjugatae, Protococcales and Characeae are exclusively freshwater; Confervales and Siphonales are both freshwater and marine, but the latter group attains its greatest development in the sea.

^ Similarly, while Diatomaceae may be excluded from among Phaeophyceae, though retained among algae, the Cryptomonadaceae and Peridiniaceae, like Euglena and other Chlorophyceae, may be excluded from Thallophyta and ranged among the flagellate Protozoa .

.Similarly, while Diatomaceae may be excluded from among Phaeophyceae, though retained among algae, the Cryptomonadaceae and Peridiniaceae, like Euglena and other Chlorophyceae, may be excluded from Thallophyta and ranged among the flagellate Protozoa.^ Similarly, while Diatomaceae may be excluded from among Phaeophyceae, though retained among algae, the Cryptomonadaceae and Peridiniaceae, like Euglena and other Chlorophyceae, may be excluded from Thallophyta and ranged among the flagellate Protozoa .

^ Like the Peridiniaceae, the Cryptomonadaceae have been included among Flagellata.

^ In comparing algae with the great archegoniate series which has doubtless sprung from them, it is natural to inquire to what extent, if any, they present evidence of the existence Peridiniaceae Diatomaceae Cryptomonadaceae - Hydruraceae - EuPHAEOPHYnEAE Protozoa Flagellata protomastigina...

.It is doubtful, however, whether the conventional distinction between plants and animals will continue to be urged; and the suggestion of Haeckel that a class Protista should be established to receive the forms exhibiting both animal and plant affinities has much I. 38 first, either the marked contrast in the method of nutrition of the generally colourless Bacteriaceae to that of the blue-green Cyanophyceae is regarded as sufficient ground for to recommend it on phylogenetic grounds.^ It is doubtful, however, whether the conventional distinction between plants and animals will continue to be urged; and the suggestion of Haeckel that a class Protista should be established to receive the forms exhibiting both animal and plant affinities has much I. 38 first, either the marked contrast in the method of nutrition of the generally colourless Bacteriaceae to that of the blue-green Cyanophyceae is regarded as sufficient ground for to recommend it on phylogenetic grounds.

^ When a species resorts to both methods, it is generally found that the asexual method prevails in the early part of the vegetative period and the sexual towards the close of that period.

^ The positive results of adding Super Blue Green Algae to the children's diets were noted and qualified, as were the improvements in the children's class participation, academic scores, and overall health.
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.To adopt a figure, it is probable that the sources from which the two streams of life - animal and vegetable - spring may not be separable by a well-defined watershed at all, but consist of a great level upland, in which the waterways anastomose.^ To adopt a figure, it is probable that the sources from which the two streams of life - animal and vegetable - spring may not be separable by a well-defined watershed at all, but consist of a great level upland, in which the waterways anastomose.

^ The quantitative estimate of the amount of this flora has revealed its enormous aggregate amount and therefore its great importance in the economy of oceanic and lacustrine animal life.

^ I believe that when we eat sea vegetables, and when we take seaweed baths, we are tapping into the ancestral and restorative source of all life- the ocean.
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.Finally, while Chlorophyceae and Phaeophyceae exhibit important affinities, the Rhodophyceae are so distinct that the term " algae " cannot be made to include them, except when used in its widest sense.^ Finally, while Chlorophyceae and Phaeophyceae exhibit important affinities, the Rhodophyceae are so distinct that the term " algae " cannot be made to include them, except when used in its widest sense.

^ The elaborate provision for the conduct of water from part to part which has played so important its allies, nor is it known in the whole of the Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae.

^ In the case of marine algae, the hosts are chiefly the larger Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae.

.It has been well said that the attempt to classify plants according to their natural affinities is an attempt to construct for them the genealogical tree by which their relation ships can be traced.^ It has been well said that the attempt to classify plants according to their natural affinities is an attempt to construct for them the genealogical tree by which their relation ships can be traced.

.Algae are, however, so heterogeneous a class, of which the constituent groups are so inadequately known, that it is at present futile to endeavour thus to exhibit their pedigree.^ Algae are, however, so heterogeneous a class, of which the constituent groups are so inadequately known, that it is at present futile to endeavour thus to exhibit their pedigree .

^ After this survey of the four groups comprised under Algae it is easier to indicate the variations in the limits of the class as defined by different authorities.

^ Algae are the most well known of a group of organisms called phytoplankton .
  • Healing Power of Algae for Humans and Animals - Plankton and AFA 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.shirleys-wellness-cafe.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A synoptical representation of the present state of knowledge would be expressed by a network rather than by a tree.^ A synoptical representation of the present state of knowledge would be expressed by a network rather than by a tree.

.The following table is an adaptation of a scheme devised by Klebs, and indicates the inter-relationships of the marked alternation of generations which of genera- b' dominates the life-history of the higher plants.^ The following table is an adaptation of a scheme devised by Klebs, and indicates the inter-relationships of the marked alternation of generations which of genera- b' dominates the life-history of the higher plants.

^ Although algae generally are able to use carbonic acid gas as a, source of carbon, some algae, like certain of the higher plants, are capable of utilizing organic compounds for this purpose.

^ As is well known, the dividing nuclei of the cells of the sporophyte generation of the higher plants exhibit a double number of chromosomes, while the dividing nuclei of the cells of the gametophyte generation exhibit the single number.

.Turn ing first to the Rhodophyceae, both on account of the high place which they occupy among algae and also the remarkable uniformity in their reproductive processes, it is clear that, as is the case among Archegoniatae, the product of the sexual act never germinates directly into a plant which gives rise to the sexual organs.^ Turn ing first to the Rhodophyceae, both on account of the high place which they occupy among algae and also the remarkable uniformity in their reproductive processes, it is clear that, as is the case among Archegoniatae, the product of the sexual act never germinates directly into a plant which gives rise to the sexual organs.

^ Thus in Lemaneaceae asexual spores are unknown; in Batracho-spermum, Bonnemaisonia and Polysiphonia byssoides both kinds of sexual cells appear on the same plant; and in some cases the asexual cells may occur in conjunction with either the male or female sexual cells.

^ They serve to buoy up the plant when attached to the sea-bottom, and thus light is admitted into the forest-like growths of the gregarious species.

.Even among Bangiaceae the carpospores arise from the fertilized cell by division, while in all other Rhodophyceae the oospore, as it may be called, gives rise to a filamentous structure, varying greatly in its dimensions, epiphytic, and to a large extent parasitic upon the egg-bearing parent plant, and in the end giving rise to carpospores in the terminal cells of certain branches.^ Even among Bangiaceae the carpospores arise from the fertilized cell by division, while in all other Rhodophyceae the oospore, as it may be called, gives rise to a filamentous structure, varying greatly in its dimensions, epiphytic, and to a large extent parasitic upon the egg-bearing parent plant, and in the end giving rise to carpospores in the terminal cells of certain branches.

^ In Laminariaceae the inflation of the ends of conducting cells gives rise to the so-called trumpet -hyphae.

^ Eight chromosomes appear again in the ultimate divisions which give rise to the carpospores.

.There is here obviously a certain parallelism with the case of Bryophyta, where the sporogonium arising from the oospore is epiphytic and partially parasitic upon the female plant, and always culminates in the production of spores.^ There can be little doubt that in some cases the epiphytism approaches parasitism.

^ There is here obviously a certain parallelism with the case of Bryophyta, where the sporogonium arising from the oospore is epiphytic and partially parasitic upon the female plant, and always culminates in the production of spores.

^ Thus in Lemaneaceae asexual spores are unknown; in Batracho-spermum, Bonnemaisonia and Polysiphonia byssoides both kinds of sexual cells appear on the same plant; and in some cases the asexual cells may occur in conjunction with either the male or female sexual cells.

.Not even Riccia, with its rudimentary sporogonium, has so simple a corresponding stage as Bangia, for, while there is some amount of sterile tissue in Riccia, in Bangia the oospore completely divides to form carpospores.^ This simple organism is complete nutrition in its most basic form - the "building blocks of health".
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^ Marine phytoplankton, a simple organism, is complete nutrition in its most basic form - the "building blocks of health" and is the foundation of the marine food chain.
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Excluding Bangiaceae, however, from consideration, the Euflorideae present in the product of the development of the oospore like Bryophyta a structure partly sterile and partly fertile. .There is, nevertheless, this important difference between the two cases.^ There is, nevertheless, this important difference between the two cases.

^ It is not easy in all cases to draw a distinction between a colony totally different internal structure.

^ Schmitz was of opinion that in the cases of open union there occurred a fusion of nuclei similar to that which occurs in the sexual union of two cells.

.While the spore of Bryophyta on germination gives rise to the sexual plant, the carpospore of the alga may give rise on germination to a plant bearing a second sort of asexual cells, viz.^ While the spore of Bryophyta on germination gives rise to the sexual plant, the carpospore of the alga may give rise on germination to a plant bearing a second sort of asexual cells, viz.

^ Thus in Lemaneaceae asexual spores are unknown; in Batracho-spermum, Bonnemaisonia and Polysiphonia byssoides both kinds of sexual cells appear on the same plant; and in some cases the asexual cells may occur in conjunction with either the male or female sexual cells.

^ To take an example, Lemanea and Batrachospermum are Florideae which bear densely-whorled branches, but which, on the germination of the carpospore, give rise to a laxly-filamentous, somewhat irregularly-branched plant, from which the ordinary sexual plants arise at a later stage.

the tetraspores, and the sexual plant may only be reached after a series of such plants have been successively generated. .It is possible, however, that the tetraspore formation should be regarded as comparable with the prolific vegetative reproduction of Bryophyta, and in favour of this view there is the fact that the tetraspores originate on the thallus in a different way from carpospores with which the spores of Bryophyta are in the first place to be compared; moreover, in certain Nemalionales the production of tetraspores does not occur, and the difficulty referred to does not arise in such cases.^ It is possible, however, that the tetraspore formation should be regarded as comparable with the prolific vegetative reproduction of Bryophyta, and in favour of this view there is the fact that the tetraspores originate on the thallus in a different way from carpospores with which the spores of Bryophyta are in the first place to be compared; moreover, in certain Nemalionales the production of tetraspores does not occur, and the difficulty referred to does not arise in such cases.

^ Considering, however, that it is generally believed that Bryophyta and vascular plants are descended from an algal ancestry, it is natural to suppose that, prior to the luxuriant vegetable growths of the Carboniferous period, there must have existed an age of algae.

^ There is here obviously a certain parallelism with the case of Bryophyta, where the sporogonium arising from the oospore is epiphytic and partially parasitic upon the female plant, and always culminates in the production of spores.

.Altogether it is difficult on morphological grounds to resist the conclusion that Florideae present the same fundamental phenomenon of alternation of generations as prevails in the higher plants.^ Altogether it is difficult on morphological grounds to resist the conclusion that Florideae present the same fundamental phenomenon of alternation of generations as prevails in the higher plants.

^ The following table is an adaptation of a scheme devised by Klebs, and indicates the inter-relationships of the marked alternation of generations which of genera- b' dominates the life-history of the higher plants.

^ As is well known, the dividing nuclei of the cells of the sporophyte generation of the higher plants exhibit a double number of chromosomes, while the dividing nuclei of the cells of the gametophyte generation exhibit the single number.

.It is by means of the cytological evidence, however, that this problem will finally be solved.^ It is by means of the cytological evidence, however, that this problem will finally be solved.

.As is well known, the dividing nuclei of the cells of the sporophyte generation of the higher plants exhibit a double number of chromosomes, while the dividing nuclei of the cells of the gametophyte generation exhibit the single number.^ As is well known, the dividing nuclei of the cells of the sporophyte generation of the higher plants exhibit a double number of chromosomes, while the dividing nuclei of the cells of the gametophyte generation exhibit the single number.

^ In a fern -plant, for example, which is a sporophyte, every karyokinesis divulges the double number, while in the prothallium, which is the gametophyte generation, the single number appears.

^ The following table is an adaptation of a scheme devised by Klebs, and indicates the inter-relationships of the marked alternation of generations which of genera- b' dominates the life-history of the higher plants.

.In a fern-plant, for example, which is a sporophyte, every karyokinesis divulges the double number, while in the prothallium, which is the gametophyte generation, the single number appears.^ In a fern -plant, for example, which is a sporophyte, every karyokinesis divulges the double number, while in the prothallium, which is the gametophyte generation, the single number appears.

^ As is well known, the dividing nuclei of the cells of the sporophyte generation of the higher plants exhibit a double number of chromosomes, while the dividing nuclei of the cells of the gametophyte generation exhibit the single number.

^ If the sporophyte generation is confined to the cystocarp, is the tetrasporiferous plant, as has been suggested, merely a potential gametophyte reproducing by a process analogous to the budformation of the Bryophyta?

.The doubling process is provided by the act of fertilization, where an antherozoid with the single number of chromosomes fuses with an oosphere also with the single number to provide a fertilized egg with the double number.^ The doubling process is provided by the act of fertilization, where an antherozoid with the single number of chromosomes fuses with an oosphere also with the single number to provide a fertilized egg with the double number.

^ In a fern -plant, for example, which is a sporophyte, every karyokinesis divulges the double number, while in the prothallium, which is the gametophyte generation, the single number appears.

^ The oosphere is in all cases fertilized while still within the oogonium, the antherozoids being admitted by means of a pore.

.The reduction stage, on the other hand, is the first division of the mother-cell of the spore.^ The reduction stage, on the other hand, is the first division of the mother-cell of the spore.

^ From egg to spore-mother-cell is sporophyte; from spore-mother-cell to egg is gametophyte.

^ Mottier first observed that a reduction in the number takes place in the mother-cells of the tetraspore.

.From egg to spore-mother-cell is sporophyte; from spore-mother-cell to egg is gametophyte.^ From egg to spore-mother-cell is sporophyte; from spore-mother-cell to egg is gametophyte.

^ As is well known, the dividing nuclei of the cells of the sporophyte generation of the higher plants exhibit a double number of chromosomes, while the dividing nuclei of the cells of the gametophyte generation exhibit the single number.

^ The reduction stage, on the other hand, is the first division of the mother-cell of the spore.

.And since this rule has been found to hold good for all the archegoniate series and also for the flowering plants where, however, the gametophyte generation has become so extremely reduced as to be only with difficulty discerned, it is natural that when alternation of generation is stated to occur in any group of Thallophyta it should be required that the cytological evidence should support the view.^ And since this rule has been found to hold good for all the archegoniate series and also for the flowering plants where, however, the gametophyte generation has become so extremely reduced as to be only with difficulty discerned, it is natural that when alternation of generation is stated to occur in any group of Thallophyta it should be required that the cytological evidence should support the view.

^ Considering, however, that it is generally believed that Bryophyta and vascular plants are descended from an algal ancestry, it is natural to suppose that, prior to the luxuriant vegetable growths of the Carboniferous period, there must have existed an age of algae.

^ In comparing algae with the great archegoniate series which has doubtless sprung from them, it is natural to inquire to what extent, if any, they present evidence of the existence Peridiniaceae Diatomaceae Cryptomonadaceae - Hydruraceae - EuPHAEOPHYnEAE Protozoa Flagellata protomastigina...

.The genus Nemalion has been recently investigated by Wolfe with the object of examining the cytological evidence.^ The genus Nemalion has been recently investigated by Wolfe with the object of examining the cytological evidence.

^ (Berlin, 1894); J. J. Wolfe, " Cytological Studies on Nemalion," Annals of Botany (vol.

.He finds that eight chromosomes appear in karyokinesis in the ordinary thallus cells, but sixteen in the gonimoblast filaments derived from the fertilized carpogonium.^ He finds that eight chromosomes appear in karyokinesis in the ordinary thallus cells, but sixteen in the gonimoblast filaments derived from the fertilized carpogonium.

^ Eight chromosomes appear again in the ultimate divisions which give rise to the carpospores.

^ In Naccaria, one of the Gelidiaceae, it is observable that the ooblastema filament, as the tube arising from the fertilized carpogonium has been called, fuses completely with a cell contiguous to the carpogonium before giving rise to the foraging filaments already refered to.

.Eight chromosomes appear again in the ultimate divisions which give rise to the carpospores.^ Eight chromosomes appear again in the ultimate divisions which give rise to the carpospores.

^ While the spore of Bryophyta on germination gives rise to the sexual plant, the carpospore of the alga may give rise on germination to a plant bearing a second sort of asexual cells, viz.

^ In all these cases, however, the end-cells of the filaments each give rise to a carpospore, and the aggregate of such sporiferous filaments is a cystocarp.

.Upon the evidence it would seem therefore that so far as Nemalion is concerned an alternation occurs comparable with that existing in the lower Bryophyta where the sporophyte is relatively small, being attached to and to some extent parasitic upon the gametophyte.^ Upon the evidence it would seem therefore that so far as Nemalion is concerned an alternation occurs comparable with that existing in the lower Bryophyta where the sporophyte is relatively small, being attached to and to some extent parasitic upon the gametophyte.

^ From this it would seem that in this plant reduction takes place in the tetraspore mothercell, and that the tetrasporiferous plants are sporophytes which alternate with sexual plants.

^ If the sporophyte generation is confined to the cystocarp, is the tetrasporiferous plant, as has been suggested, merely a potential gametophyte reproducing by a process analogous to the budformation of the Bryophyta?

.Nemalion is, however, one of those Florideae in which tetraspores do not occur.^ Nemalion is, however, one of those Florideae in which tetraspores do not occur.

.What is the case with those Florideae which have been described as trioecious?^ What is the case with those Florideae which have been described as trioecious?
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