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Siege of Tripoli
Part of the Ottoman-Habsburg wars
Siege of Algiers 1541.jpg
Siege of Algiers in 1541. Engraving of 1555.
Date 1541
Location Algiers
Result Habsburgs fail to capture Algiers
Belligerents
Charles V Arms-personal.svg Empire of Charles V:

Flag of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta.svg Knights of Malta
Flag of Genoa.svg Republic of Genoa
Emblem of the Papacy SE.svg Papal States
Flag of the Kingdom of Naples.svg Kingdom of Naples
Bandiera del Regno di Sicilia.svg Kingdom of Sicily

Flag of the Ottoman Empire (1453-1844).svg Ottoman Empire
Commanders
Charles V
Navy: Andrea Doria
Army: Duke of Alva[1]
Including:
Flag of Genoa.svg Gianettino Doria
Emblem of the Papacy SE.svg Virginio Orsini
Flag of New Spain.svg Bernardino de Mendoza
Flag of the Kingdom of Naples.svg Bandiera del Regno di Sicilia.svg Ferrante Gonzaga
Flag of the Ottoman Empire (1453-1844).svg Hassan Agha
Strength
Total of 80 galleys
Total of 500 ships.[1]
12,000 sailors.[1]
24,000 soldiers.[1]
Including:
Charles V Arms-personal.svg 100 transports.[1]
Flag of New Spain.svg 50 galleys.[1]
Flag of New Spain.svg 100 transports.[1]
Flag of Genoa.svg 14 galleys
Emblem of the Papacy SE.svg 8 galleys
Flag of the Kingdom of Naples.svg Bandiera del Regno di Sicilia.svg 150 transports.[1]
Flag of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta.svg 700 knights.
800 Ottoman soldiers.
5,000 Arabs and Moors.[1]
Casualties and losses
300 officers.[1]
8,000 men.[1]
17 galleys
150 transports.[1]
Minimal

The Algiers expedition of 1541 occurred when Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor attempted to lead a fleet against the Ottoman Empire stronghold of Algiers in modern Algeria. Largely because of stormy weather, the expedition was a disastrous failure.

Contents

Background

Algiers had been under the control of the Ottoman Emperor Suleiman the Magnificent since the Capture of Algiers in 1529 by Barbarossa. Barbarossa had left Algiers in 1535 to be named High Admiral of the Ottoman Empire in Constantinople, and was replaced as Governor by Hassan Agha, a eunuch and Sardinian renegade.[1] On the seas, Hassan had at his service the famous Ottoman commanders Dragut, Sālih Reïs and Sinān.[1]

Charles V made considerable preparations for the expedition, and he wished to obtain revenge for the recent Siege of Buda (1541),[2] but his fleet was severely damaged by a storm, forcing him to abandon the venture.[3][4]

Expedition

Charles V embarked very late in the season, on 28 September 1541, delayed by troubles in Germany and Flanders.[1][5] The fleet was assembled in the Bay of Palma, at Majorca.[1] It had more than 500 sails and 24,000 soldiers.[1]

After enduring difficult weather, the fleet only arrived in front of Algiers on 19 October.[6] The greatest commanders accompanied Charles V on this expedition, including Hernán Cortés, the conqueror of Mexico, though he was never invited to the War Council.[5]

Troops were disembarked on 23 October, and Charles established his headquarters on a land promontory surrounded by German troops.[5] Spanish, German and Italian troops, accompanied by 150 knights of Malta, began to land while repelling Algieran opposition, soon surrounding the city, except for the northern part.[1]

The fate of the city seemed to be sealed, however the following day the weather became terrible, with heavy rains. Many galleys lost their anchors and 15 were wrecked onshore. Another 33 carracks sank, while many more were dispersed.[7] As more troops were attempting to land, the Algerians started to make sorties, slaughtering the newly arrived. Charles V was surrounded, and was only saved by the resistance of the Knights of Malta.[8]

Andrea Doria managed to find a safer harbour for the remainder of the fleet at Cape Matifu, 5 miles east of Algiers. He enjoined Charles V to abandon his position and join him in Matifu, which Charles V did with great difficulty.[9] From there, still oppressed by the weather, the remaining troops sailed to Bougie, still a Spanish harbour at that time. Charles could only depart for the high seas on 23 November.[10] He finally reached Cartagena, in southeast Spain, on 3 December.[11]

The losses were terrible, with 17 galleys and 130 carracks lost, and countless numbers of sailors and soldiers.[12]

Notes

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r The Story of the Barbary Corsairs by Stanley Lane-Poole p.114ff [1]
  2. ^ Garnier, p.201
  3. ^ European warfare, 1494-1660 by Jeremy Black p.177
  4. ^ E.J. Brill's first encyclopaedia of Islam, 1913-1936 by Martijn Theodoor Houtsma p.258 [2]
  5. ^ a b c Garnier, p.202
  6. ^ Garnier, p.203
  7. ^ Garnier, p.204ff
  8. ^ Garnier, p.204
  9. ^ Garnier, p.205
  10. ^ Garnier, p.207
  11. ^ Garnier, p.206
  12. ^ Garnier, p.208

References

  • Garnier, Edith L'Alliance Impie Editions du Felin, 2008, Paris ISBN 9782866456788 Interview
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