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Bismillahir Rahmanir Rahim
‘Alī ar-Ridhā, Reza
Imams of Twelver Shi'a Islam
A depiction by a Muslim artist.
A modern depiction by a Shi'a artist
Rank Eighth Twelver Imām
Name ‘Alī ibn Mūsā ibn Ja‘far
Kunya Abū al-Hasan[1]
Birth 11th Dhul Qi‘dah 148 AH
29 December 765 C.E.
Death 17th Safar 203 AH
23 August 818 C.E.
Birthplace Madīnah[1]
Buried Imām Ridhā Mosque, Mashhad
Life Duration Before Imamate: 35 years
(148 - 183 AH)
Imamate: 20 years
(183 - 203 AH)
- 17 years in Madīnah
- 3 years in Khorasan
Titles *ar-Ridhā[1]
(Arabic for Pleasing)
*Imām al-Dhāmin[2]
(Arabic for Imām of Surety)
*Sekizinci Ali
(Turkish for Eighth Ali)
Spouse(s) Sabīkah a.k.a. Khayzurān[1]
Father Mūsā al-Kādhim
Mother Ummul Banīn Najmah[1]
Children Muhammad at-Taqī (successor)
Almahdi.png
Ali · Hasan · Husayn

al-Sajjad · al-Baqir · al-Sadiq
al-Kadhim · al-Rida · al-Taqi
al-Hadi · al-Askari · al-Mahdi

‘Alī ibn Mūsā al-Riḍā (Arabic: علي بن موسى الرضا‎) (commonly known as, ‘Alī ar-Ridhā, Ali Reza) (ca. December 29, 765 - August 23, 818)[1] was the seventh descendant of the Islamic prophet Muhammad and the eighth of the Twelve Imams. His given name was ‘Alī ibn Mūsā ibn Ja‘far.

Contents

Birth and family life

Shrine of Imam Ali Ridha in Mashhad, Iran

On the eleventh of Dhu al-Qi'dah, 148 AH, a son was born in the house of Imam Musa al-Kadhim (the seventh Imam of Islam) in Medina, who took over the position of the Imamate, after his father. He was named Ali and titled al-Ridha. He was born one month after the death of his grandfather, Ja'far as-Sādiq. Like his father and grandfather, his education came at the hands of his father. The mother of Ali al-Ridha was Bibi Najmah, who was considered to be the most notable and distinguished lady in the realm of wisdom and faith. Najmah was a former slave purchased and freed by Bibi Hamidah Khatun, wife of Imam Ja'far al-Sadiq, and like Bibi Hamidah was also a notable Islamic scholar.

Right from his childhood, Hazrat Imam Ali al-Ridha accompanied his father, Hazrat Imam Musa al-Kadhim, who repeatedly used to tell his friends, "Ali al-Ridha shall be the Imam after me." As such, Makhzumi says one day Musa al-Kadhim summoned and gathered us and said, "I invited you to be witnesses that this child (Ali al-Ridha) is my executor and successor."

Since an extreme choking atmosphere and pressure prevailed in the period of Musa al-Kadhim, he added, "What I said must remain (restricted) up to you and do not reproduce it to anybody unless you know he is one of our friends and companions."

Ali al-Ridha’s father was martyred in 799, when Ali al-Ridha was 35, and he was given the responsibility of the Imamate. Ali al-Ridha was not looked upon favorably by Hārūn Rashīd, and the people of Medina were disallowed from visiting Ali al-Ridha and learning from him. Harun attempted to kill him but was unsuccessful.

His prayers

The shi'a views of Ali al-Ridha's morality

According to Shi'a tradition, the first Imams of Islam were infallible and became the practical example for others during their lives. They taught the lesson of life to the people. They did not segregate and separate themselves from them and did not lead their lives on the style and pattern of tyrants and oppressors. They did not overlook or show heedlessness and disrespect to anyone.

Sheikh Saduk narrates through the words of Ibrahim ibn Abbas that, "I never saw Imam Ali al-Ridha committing excess over anyone in talking and interrupting anybody's speech before its coming to the end. He did not stretch his legs in the presence of others. When the meal table was laid he invited the servants to it, and took his meals with them. After taking rest in the nights he got up and made himself busy with the prayers to Allah. Similar to his fore fathers he carried food to the houses of the afflicted ones at the mid of nights."

Muhammad ibn Abi Ibad says about Imam Ali al-Ridha, "He used mats of palm date leaves, straws and marsh reed in the summer season, and woolen carpets in the winter."

He led a simple life in his home, but when he went out he used to decorate himself and put on new and clean dress. He respected and honored the guests to the extent that one night a lamp of the house went out of order, the guest got to his feet to put it right. Ali al-Ridha made him sit and he set the lamp right, and said, "We do not employ our guests (exploit) upon work."

Yasir, the servant of Ali al-Ridha says, Imam Ali Ridha said to us, "Whenever you are busy taking your meal, if I call you, do not get up till you have finished up eating." Another friend of Ali al-Ridha says, "One day a stranger came Ali al-Ridha's house and said, I am one of your friends and I am also not a poor man but my money has finished up and I do not have the expanses to return. You give me an amount and when I return to my city I will give it out as alms on your behalf." Imam Ali al-Rida got up and went to another room, brought an amount of two hundred dirhams and gave it to him from upside the door and said, "Take this and go and it is not necessary to give it away as alms on my behalf."

They asked the Imam Ali al-Ridha, "Why did you do it this way that he may not see you."

He said, "So that he does not catch my sight and get ashamed (embarrassed)."

Sulaiman, one of the friends of Ali al-Ridha says, "I went along with the Imam Ali Ridha to the house. The labors were busy at work. There was a stranger among them whom the Imam Ali al-Ridha did not recognize." He said, "Who is this man?" They said we have brought him from outside, so that he may help us. He said, "Have you concluded an agreement with him and fixed his wages?" They said, "No, he is a good man, whatever we pay him he accepts it and does not utter a word."

Ali al-Ridha was angry and annoyed and said, "I have always told you that when you employ someone for a job first of all fix his wages. Because, when his wages are fixed and you give more than that to him, he will become happy. But if you do not fix his wages and give him three times the amount, he thinks you have not given him the correct wages."

Ali al-Ridha admonishes his brother

Imam Ali Ridha's Shrine, Iran

Once Ali al-Ridha was summoned to Khurasan and he forcibly accepted the special conditions of the succession of al-Ma'mun, al-Ma'mun summoned his brother, Zayd, who had revolted and brought about a riot in Medina to his court in Khurasan. Al-Ma'mun kept him free as a regard and honor to Ali al-Ridha and overlooked his punishment.

One day, when Ali al-Ridha was delivering a speech in a grand assembly. He heard Zayd praising himself before the people, saying I am so and so. Ali al-Ridha shouted at him saying, "Oh Zayd, have you trusted upon the words of the grocers of Kufa and are conveying them to the people? What kind of things are you talking about? The sons of Ali ibn Abi Talib and Fatimah Zahra are worthy and outstanding only when they obey the command of Allah, and keep themselves away from sin and blunder. You think you are like Musa al-Kadhim, Ali ibn Husayn, and other Imams? Whereas, they took pains and bore hardships on the way to Allah and prayed to Allah day and night. Do you think you will gain without pain? Be aware, that if a person out of us the Ahl al-Bayt performs a good deed, he gets twice the reward. Because not only he performed good deeds like others but also that he has maintained the honor of Muhammad. If he practices something bad and does a sin, he has performed two sins. One is that he performed a bad act like the rest of the people and the other one is that he has negated the honor of Muhammad."

Oh brother! The one who obeys Allah is from us the Ahl al-Bayt and the one who is a sinner is not ours. Allah said about the son of Noah who cut the spiritual bondage with his father, "He is not out of your lineage; if he was out of your lineage, I would have (saved) and granted him salvation."

Connection to Sufism

Maruf Karkhi who was converted to Islam through Ali ar-Ridha is one of the foremost figures in the golden chain of most Sufi orders. He was a devoted student of Ali ar-Ridha and is an important figure for Sufism and Shi'ism.

Death

Ali al-Ridha did not outlive al-Ma'mun, martyred on May 26, 818, in Persia while accompanying al-Ma'mun at Tus. Most scholars agree he was poisoned by al-Ma'mun who poisoned Imam using grapes. Ali al-Ridha is buried within Imam Ridha Mosque, in Mashhad, Iran.

After the death of Hārūn Rashīd, Hārūn's two sons began fighting for control of the Abbāsid Empire. One son, Al-Amin, had an Arab mother and thus had the support of Arabs, while his half-brother Al-Ma'mun had a Persian mother and the support of Persia. Al-Ma'mun believed that Persia was sympathetic to the Hashemites and asked for Ali al-Rida to meet him in Persia. Ali al-Ridha left his only son, Muħammad at-Taqī, and his wife and set out for Merv.

Imam Ridha Mosque, which is visited by 12 to 15 million pilgrims every year.

After defeating his brother, al-Ma'mun named Ali al-Ridha his successor. He hoped to win Shī'a support through this move, but the passage of caliphate would occur only if Ali al-Rida outlived al-Ma'mun (as with all promises of succession). Al-Ma'mun even changed the black Abbāsid flags to green, the traditional color of the house of Alī ibn Abī-Tālib, the first Shī'a imam.

On the night of his death Ali al-Ridha saw his grandfather Muhammad in the dream saying, "Come to us tomorrow, what we have for you is better than the condition you are in."

Harthama says, Ali al-Ridha got up in the mid of the night and called me so that I be present before him. I put on my dress and went to Ali al-Ridha. He said to me, "al-Ma'mun has decided to poison me through grapes tomorrow. Be aware, after my martyrdom he wishes to give me a bath. Tell him to refrain from it. If you do that Allah will not give you chance and respite (any-longer). At that time my son will arrive from Medina and give me a bath and coffin, without anyone seeing it or getting informed.

Then, they will carry me to the tomb of Hārūn al-Rashīd. Al-Ma'mun wants to bury me behind him. But howsoever they work on the earth the pickaxe; they will fail to dig the soil. At that time tell al-Ma'mun to dig the earth in front of the grave so that a ready-made grave will appear. At that instance a white water boils out of the head-side (grave) and rises up. Small fish appear in that. Then a big fish appears which eats up the small fish. Thereafter, the water will settle down. After that lay me in the grave. Do not put the soil on my grave since; it will be filled up by itself. Oh Harthama, do what I have said and do not allow things to happen against what I told you, otherwise, Allah will torment you (people)."

At last al-Ma'mun poisoned Ali al-Ridha through grapes in Tus, on the way back from Merv to Baghdad. Ali al-Ridha came to the house and said to his old friend Aba Salat, "Collect the carpets of the house and do not allow anyone to enter the house, as this is the time when my soul departs (dying) I want to die on the earth like my grandfather Husayn ibn Ali."

Before the death of Ali ar-Ridha, al-Ma’mun stood next to his pillow (head side). Ali Rida opened his eyes and said to him, "have a good conduct with my son Muhammad al-Taqi for his death and yours are close to each other and do not have much distance in between."

The body of Ali al-Ridha was buried in Mashhad. This occurred when Ali Ridha was 55 years of age.

Following the death of Ali al-Ridha a revolt took place in Khorasan. Al-Ma’mun wept and beat upon his head to show that he was a mourner. But a large number of people knew that al-Ma’mun himself was the killer of Ali al-Ridha. A wave of despises and noise awn against al-Ma’mun. So that he did not allow the funeral to be carried out for a day and a night. Because, he was afraid that the disturbance may expand and the angry hostile and flared up masses may annihilate all the set ups and organizations. This is the reason why he sent a few men among the people to exhibit and shows the death of Ali al-Ridha as a natural one and tells them that al-Ma’mun did not have a hand in it. But for all he did, he could not get himself acquitted off and prove his innocence. At last, day-by-day he became more and more worthless and despicable in the eyes of the people, until he died in a very bad shape.

Imam Ridha Mosque

Today the Imam Ridha Mosque in Mashhad occupies a total area of 598,657 m2 (6,443,890 sq ft) - the shrine area occupies 267,079m2 while the seven courtyards which surround it cover an area of 331,578m2.[3] Thus making it the largest mosque in the world, having an area greater than Masjid al-Haram and Masjid al-Nabawi (which have area's of 356,800 m2[4] and 400,500 m2 respectively).

The courtyards also contain a total of 14 minarets, and 3 fountains. From the courtyards, external hallways named after scholars lead to the inner areas of the mosque. They are referred to as Bast (Sanctuary), since they were meant to be a safeguard for the shrine areas.

The Bast hallways lead towards a total of 21 internal halls (Riwaq) which surround the burial chamber of Ali al-Ridha. Adjacent to the burial chamber is also a mosque dating back to the 10th century known as, Bala-e-Sar mosque.

Timeline

Ali ar-Ridha
of the Ahl al-Bayt
Panjetan.jpg
Clan of the Banu Quraish
Born: 11th Dhul Qi‘dah 148 AH 29th December 765 CE Died: 17th Safar 203 AH 23rd August 818 CE
Shī‘a Islam titles
Preceded by
Musa al-Kadhim
8th Imam of Twelver Shi'a Islam
799 – 818
Succeeded by
Muhammad at-Taqī

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f A Brief History of The Fourteen Infallibles. Qum: Ansariyan Publications. 2004. pp. 137.  
  2. ^ al-Qummi, Shaykh Abbas (1998). "2". The Last Journey, Translation of Manazile Akherah. Aejazali Turabhusain Bhujwala. Qum: Imam Ali Foundation. pp. 62–64.  
  3. ^ "The Glory of the Islamic World". Imam Reza (A.S.) Network. http://www.imamreza.net/eng/imamreza.php?id=1073. Retrieved 2009-05-25.  
  4. ^ Great Mosque of al-Haram at ArchNet

External links

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Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

‘Alī ar-Ridhā is buried within the Imām Ridhā Mosque in Mashhad, Iran.

‘Alī ibn Mūsā ar-Ridhā (765 - 818 AD) (Arabic: علي بن موسى الرضا‎ ) was the eighth Twelver Shī‘ah Imām. He was the son of Mūsā al-Kādhim and was the sixth generation grandson of Muhammad.

Contents

General Quotes

  • The rank of the eldest brother is like that of father.
    • Majlisi, Bihārul Anwār, vol.78, p.335
  • Every curiosity is in need of the curiosity of speech.
    • Majlisi, Bihārul Anwār, vol.78, p.335
  • Time will come when one's safety lies in ten things: nine of which are in staying aloof from men, and the tenth in staying silent.
    • Ibn Shu’ba al-Harrani, Tuhaf al-'Uqul, p.446-450
  • The best wealth is the one by which the honour of man is protected.
    • Majlisi, Bihārul Anwār, vol.78, p.352
  • The miserly one is never restful; the envious is never pleased; the grumbler is never loyal; the liar has no conscience.
    • Ibn Shu’ba al-Harrani, Tuhaf al-'Uqul, p.446-450
  • A trustworthy person does not betray you, but you consider the betrayer to be trustworthy.
    • Majlisi, Bihārul Anwār, vol.78, p.335

Regarding Knowledge & Wisdom

General

  • The most valuable stage of wisdom is the stage of self-consciousness.
    • Majlisi, Bihārul Anwār, vol.78, p.352
  • Wisdom and intellect is every man's friend, ignorance and illiteracy are his enemies.
    • Ibn Shu’ba al-Harrani, Tuhaf al-'Uqul, p.467
  • Everyone's friend is his reason; his enemy is his ignorance.
    • Muhammad Kulayni, Usūl al-Kāfī, vol.1, p.11 ; Wasā'il al-Shī‘ah, vol.1, p.161
  • Knowledge and science are the coffers and caches to the treasures of Perfection; and the only access to them is to ask and question.
    • ‘Uyūn al-Akbar, vol.2, p.28
  • Silence is a door among the doors of wisdom - indeed, silence begets and attracts love, it is the proof of all the beneficiences.
    • Majlisi, Bihārul Anwār, vol.78, p.355
  • Some signs of understanding are: clemency, knowledge, and silence. Silence is one of the doors to wisdom. It brings about love and is evidence for all good.
    • Muhammad Kulayni, Usūl al-Kāfī, vol.2, p.124
  • Silence is one of the gates to wisdom.
    • Ibn Shu’ba al-Harrani, Tuhaf al-'Uqul, p.523

Religious

  • For the Devil, the presence of learned one is by far more painful than a thousand worshipers.
    • Majlisi, Bihārul Anwār, vol.2, p.16
  • A Muslim will never get tired and bored of educating himself throughout his life.
    • Ibn Shu’ba al-Harrani, Tuhaf al-'Uqul, p.467
  • One who offers (suggests) what he doesn't know, will be under the curse of the angels of the heavens and the earth.
    • Majlisi, Bihārul Anwār, vol.2, p.116

Religious Wisdom

  • Assisting the weak is better for you than your act of charity.
    • Ibn Shu’ba al-Harrani, Tuhaf al-'Uqul, p.446-450
  • The worst of men is he who stops his contributions to charity, eats by himself, and whips his slave.
    • Majlisi, Bihārul Anwār, vol.78, p.335
  • Worship is not the abundance of prayer and fasting; rather it is the abundance of reflecting on the affairs of God, the Great and Almighty.
    • Tabatabaei, Al-Mīzān, vol.8, p.369 ; Muhammad al-Hur al-Aamili, Wasā'il al-Shī‘ah vol.11, p.16
  • Man is not worshipful unless he is clement.
    • Muhammad Kulayni, Usūl al-Kāfī, vol.2, p.113
  • He who reckons his own soul is successful; he who is heedless of it is unsuccessful.
    • Muhammad Kulayni, Usūl al-Kāfī, vol.2, p.111
  • Reason is a free gift from God and politeness is acquisition. He who undertakes politeness has power over it. He who undertakes reason increases (himself) through that nothing but ignorance.
    • Muhammad Kulayni, Usūl al-Kāfī, vol.1, p.23
  • He who takes himself to account gets benefitted, and the one who gets negligent and careless about himself bears loss. The one who fears (Allah) becomes peaceful, and the one who takes lesson becomes most clear sighted and discerning. He who becomes most clear sighted, understands; and he who understands and comprehends becomes knowledgeable and informed.
    • Majlisi, Bihārul Anwār, vol.78, p.352
  • The one for whom the day of ‘Āshūrā is a day of tragedy, grief and weeping, Allah The Mighty, The Glorious, shall make the Day of Judgment, a day of joy and happiness for him.
    • Majlisi, Bihārul Anwār, vol.44, p.284

See Also

External links

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