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Alice's Adventures in Wonderland  
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland
Title page of the original edition (1865)
Author Lewis Carroll
Illustrator John Tenniel
Country England
Language English
Genre(s) Children's fiction
Publisher Macmillan
Publication date 26 November 1865
Followed by Through the Looking-Glass

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (commonly shortened to Alice in Wonderland) is an 1865 novel written by English author Charles Lutwidge Dodgson under the pseudonym Lewis Carroll .[1] It tells the story of a girl named Alice who falls down a rabbit hole into a fantasy world populated by peculiar and anthropomorphic creatures. The tale is filled with allusions to Dodgson's friends. The tale plays with logic in ways that have given the story lasting popularity with adults as well as children.[2] It is considered to be one of the best examples of the "literary nonsense" genre,[2][3] and its narrative course and structure have been enormously influential,[3] especially in the fantasy genre.

Contents

History

Facsimile page from Alice's Adventures Under Ground

Alice was written in 1865, exactly three years after the Reverend Charles Lutwidge Dodgson and the Reverend Robinson Duckworth rowed in a boat up the River Thames with three young girls:[4]

  • Lorina Charlotte Liddell (aged 13, born 1849) ("Prima" in the book's prefatory verse)
  • Alice Pleasance Liddell (aged 10, born 1852) ("Secunda" in the prefatory verse)
  • Edith Mary Liddell (aged 8, born 1853) ("Tertia" in the prefatory verse).

The three girls were the daughters of Henry George Liddell, the Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University and Dean of Christ Church as well as headmaster of Westminster School. Most of the book's adventures were based on and influenced by people, situations and buildings in Oxford and at Christ Church, e.g., the "Rabbit Hole" which symbolized the actual stairs in the back of the main hall in Christ Church. It is believed that a carving of a griffon and rabbit, as seen in Ripon Cathedral, where Carroll's father was a canon, provided inspiration for the tale.[5]

The journey had started at Folly Bridge near Oxford and ended five miles away in the village of Godstow. To while away time the Reverend Dodgson told the girls a story that, not so coincidentally, featured a bored little girl named Alice who goes looking for an adventure.

The girls loved it, and Alice Liddell asked Dodgson to write it down for her. After a lengthy delay — over two years — he eventually did so and on 26 November 1864 gave Alice the handwritten manuscript of Alice's Adventures Under Ground, with illustrations by Dodgson himself. Some, including Martin Gardner, speculate there was an earlier version that was destroyed later by Dodgson himself when he printed a more elaborate copy by hand[6], but there is no known prima facie evidence to support this.

But before Alice received her copy, Dodgson was already preparing it for publication and expanding the 15,500-word original to 27,500 words, most notably adding the episodes about the Cheshire Cat and the Mad Tea-Party. In 1865, Dodgson's tale was published as Alice's Adventures in Wonderland by "Lewis Carroll" with illustrations by John Tenniel. The first print run of 2,000 was held back because Tenniel objected to the print quality.[7] A new edition, released in December of the same year, but carrying an 1866 date, was quickly printed. As it turned out, the original edition was sold with Dodgson's permission to the New York publishing house of Appleton. The binding for the Appleton Alice was virtually identical to the 1866 Macmillan Alice, except for the publisher's name at the foot of the spine. The title page of the Appleton Alice was an insert cancelling the original Macmillan title page of 1865, and bearing the New York publisher's imprint and the date 1866.

The entire print run sold out quickly. Alice was a publishing sensation, beloved by children and adults alike. Among its first avid readers were Queen Victoria and the young Oscar Wilde. The book has never been out of print. Alice's Adventures in Wonderland has been translated into 125 languages. There have now been over a hundred editions of the book, as well as countless adaptations in other media, especially theatre and film.

The book is commonly referred to by the abbreviated title Alice in Wonderland, an alternative title popularized by the numerous stage, film and television adaptations of the story produced over the years. Some printings of this title contain both Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and its sequel Through the Looking-Glass, and, What Alice Found There.

Publishing highlights

cover of the 1898 edition
  • 1865: First UK edition (the suppressed edition).
  • 1865: Alice has its first American printing.[8]
  • 1869: Alice's Abenteuer im Wunderland is published in German translation by Antonie Zimmermann.
  • 1869: Aventures d'Alice au pays des merveilles is published in French translation by Henri Bué.
  • 1870: Alice's Äfventyr i Sagolandet is published in Swedish translation by Emily Nonnen.
  • 1871: Dodgson meets another Alice during his time in London, Alice Raikes, and talks with her about her reflection in a mirror, leading to another book Through the Looking-Glass and What Alice Found There, which sells even better.
  • 1886: Carroll publishes a facsimile of the earlier Alice's Adventures Under Ground manuscript.
  • 1890: Carroll publishes The Nursery "Alice", a special edition "to be read by Children aged from Nought to Five".
  • 1905: Mrs J. C. Gorham publishes Alice's Adventures in Wonderland retold in words of one syllable in a series of such books published by A. L. Burt Company, aimed at young readers.
  • 1908: Alice has its first translation into Japanese.
  • 1910: La Aventuroj de Alicio en Mirlando is published in Esperanto translation by Elfric Leofwine Kearney.
  • 1916: Publication of the first edition of the Windermere Series, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. Illustrated by Milo Winter.
  • 1960: American writer Martin Gardner publishes a special edition, The Annotated Alice, incorporating the text of both Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass. It has extensive annotations explaining the hidden allusions in the books, and includes full texts of the Victorian era poems parodied in them. Later editions expand on these annotations.
  • 1961: The Folio Society publication with 42 illustrations by John Tenniel.
  • 1964: Alicia in Terra Mirabili is published in Latin translation by Clive Harcourt Carruthers.
  • 1998: Lewis Carroll's own copy of Alice, one of only six surviving copies of the 1865 first edition, is sold at an auction for US$1.54 million to an anonymous American buyer, becoming the most expensive children's book (or 19th-century work of literature) ever traded.[9] (The former record was later eclipsed in 2007 when a limited-edition Harry Potter book by J.K. Rowling, The Tales of Beedle the Bard, was sold at auction for £1.95 million ($3.9 million).[10]
  • 2003: Eachtraí Eilíse i dTír na nIontas is published in Irish translation by Nicholas Williams.
  • 2008: Folio Alice's Adventures Under Ground facsimile edition (limited to 3,750 copies, boxed with The Original Alice pamphlet).
  • 2009: Alys in Pow an Anethow is published in Cornish translation by Nicholas Williams.
  • 2009: Children’s book collector and former American football player Pat McInally reportedly sold Alice Liddell’s own copy at auction for $115,000. [11]

Synopsis

The White Rabbit in a hurry

Chapter 1-Down the Rabbit Hole: Alice is bored sitting on the riverbank with her sister, when she sees a talking, clothed White Rabbit with a watch run past. She follows it down a rabbit hole to a curious hall with many locked doors of all sizes. She finds a small key to a door too small for her to fit, but through which she sees an attractive garden. She then discovers a bottle labelled "DRINK ME", the contents of which cause her to shrink too small to reach the key. A cake with "EAT ME" on it causes her to grow to such a tremendous size her head hits the ceiling.

Chapter 2-The Pool of Tears: Alice is unhappy and cries and her tears flood the hallway. Alice swims through her own tears and meets a Mouse, who is swimming as well. She tries to make small talk with him but all she can think of talking about is her cat, which offends the mouse.

Chapter 3-The Caucus Race and a Long Tale: The sea of tears becomes crowded with other animals and birds that have been swept away. Alice and the other animals convene on the bank and the question among them is how to get dry again. The mouse gives them a very dry lecture on William the Conqueror. A Dodo decides that the best thing to dry them off would be a Caucus-Race which consists of everyone running in a circle with no clear winner. Alice eventually frightens all the animals away, unwittingly, by talking about her cat.

Chapter 4-The Rabbit Sends a Little Bill: The White Rabbit appears again in search of the Duchess's gloves and fan. He orders Alice to go into the house and retrieve them, but once she gets inside she starts growing. The horrified Rabbit orders his gardener, Bill the Lizard, to climb on the roof and go down the chimney. Outside, Alice hears the voices of animals that have gathered to gawk at her giant arm. The crowd hurls pebbles at her, which turn into little cakes which when Alice eats them reduce her once again in size.

Chapter 5-Advice from a Caterpillar: Alice comes upon a mushroom and sitting on it is a Caterpillar smoking a hookah. The Caterpillar questions Alice and she admits to her current identity crisis, compounded by her inability to remember a poem. Before crawling away, the caterpillar tells Alice that one side of the mushroom will make her taller and the other side will make her shorter. She breaks off two pieces from the mushroom. One side makes her shrink smaller than ever, while another causes her neck to grow high into the trees, where a pigeon mistakes her for a serpent. With some effort, Alice brings herself back to her usual height. She stumbles upon a small estate and uses the mushroom to reach a more appropriate height.

Chapter 6-Pig and Pepper: A Fish-Footman has an invitation for the Duchess of the house, which he delivers to a Frog-Footman. Alice observes this transaction and, after a perplexing conversation with the frog, lets herself into the house. The Duchess's Cook is throwing dishes and making a soup which has too much pepper, which causes Alice, the Duchess and her baby (but not the cook or her grinning Cheshire Cat) to sneeze violently. Alice is given the baby by the Duchess and to her surprise, the baby turns into a pig.

Chapter 7-A Mad Tea Party: The Cheshire Cat appears in a tree, directing her to the March Hare's house. He disappears but his grin remains behind to float on its own in the air prompting Alice to remark that she has often seen a cat without a grin but never a grin without a cat. Alice becomes a guest at a "mad" tea party along with the Hatter (now more commonly known as the Mad Hatter), the March Hare, and a sleeping Dormouse who remains asleep for most of the chapter. The other characters give Alice many riddles and stories. The Mad Hatter reveals that they have tea all day because time has punished him by eternally standing still at 6 pm (tea time). Alice becomes insulted and tired of being bombarded with riddles and she leaves claiming that it was the stupidest tea party that she had ever been to.

Alice trying to play croquet with a flamingo
The grinning Cheshire Cat

Chapter 8-The Queen's Croquet Ground: Alice leaves the tea party and enters the garden where she comes upon three living playing cards painting the white roses on a rose tree red because the Queen of Hearts hates white roses. A procession of more cards, kings and queens and even the White Rabbit enters the garden. Alice then meets the King and Queen. The Queen, a figure difficult to please, introduces her trademark phrase "Off with his head!" which she utters at the slightest dissatisfaction with a subject.

Alice is invited (or some might say ordered) to play a game of croquet with the Queen and the rest of her subjects but the game quickly descends into chaos. Live flamingos are used as mallets and hedgehogs as balls and Alice once again meets the Cheshire Cat. The Queen of Hearts then orders the Cat to be beheaded, only to have her executioner complain that this is impossible since the head is all that can be seen of him. Because the cat belongs to the Duchess, the Queen is prompted to release the Duchess from prison to resolve the matter.

Chapter 9-The Mock Turtle's Story: The Duchess is brought to the croquet ground at Alice's request. She ruminates on finding morals in everything around her. The Queen of Hearts dismisses her on the threat of execution and introduces Alice to the Gryphon, who takes her to the Mock Turtle. The Mock Turtle is very sad, even though he has no sorrow. He tries to tell his story about how he used to be a real turtle in school, which The Gryphon interrupts so they can play a game.

Chapter 10-Lobster Quadrille: The Mock Turtle and the Gryphon dance to the Lobster Quadrille, while Alice recites (rather incorrectly) "'Tis the Voice of the Lobster". The Mock Turtle sings them "Beautiful Soup" during which the Gryphon drags Alice away for an impending trial.

Chapter 11-Who Stole the Tarts?: Alice attends a trial whereby the Knave of Hearts is accused of stealing the Queen's tarts. The jury is composed of various animals, including Bill the Lizard, the White Rabbit is the court's trumpeter, and the judge is the King of Hearts. During the proceedings, Alice finds that she is steadily growing larger. The dormouse scolds Alice and tells her she has no right to grow at such a rapid pace and take up all the air. Alice scoffs and calls the dormouse's accusation ridiculous because everyone grows and she can't help it. Meanwhile witnesses at the trial include the Mad Hatter, who displeases and frustrates the King through his indirect answers to the questioning, and the Duchess's cook.

Chapter 12-Alice's Evidence: Alice is then called up as a witness. She accidentally knocks over the jury box with the animals inside them and the King orders the animals be placed back into their seats before the trial continues. The King and Queen order Alice to be gone, citing Rule 42 ("All persons more than a mile high to leave the court"), but Alice disputes their judgement and refuses to leave. She argues with the King and Queen of Hearts over the ridiculous proceedings, eventually refusing to hold her tongue. The Queen shouts her familiar "Off with her head!" but Alice is unafraid, calling them out as just a pack of cards. Alice's sister wakes her up for tea, brushing what turns out to be some leaves and not a shower of playing cards from Alice's face. Alice leaves her sister on the bank to imagine all the curious happenings for herself.

Characters

Peter Newell's illustration of Alice surrounded by the characters of Wonderland. (1890)

Misconceptions about characters

Although the Jabberwock is often thought to be a character in Alice's Adventures in Wonderland, it actually only appears in the sequel, Through the Looking-Glass. It is, however, often included in film versions, which are usually simply called "Alice in Wonderland", causing the confusion. The Queen of Hearts is commonly mistaken for the Red Queen who appears in the story's sequel, Through the Looking-Glass, but shares none of her characteristics other than being a queen. The Queen of Hearts is part of the deck of card imagery which is present in the first book while the Red Queen is representative of a red chess piece, as chess is the theme present in the sequel. Many adaptations have mixed the characters, causing much confusion.

Character allusions

The members of the boating party that first heard Carroll's tale all show up in Chapter 3 ("A Caucus-Race and a Long Tale") in one form or another. There is, of course, Alice Liddell herself, while Carroll, or Charles Dodgson, is caricatured as the Dodo. Carroll is known as the Dodo because Dodgson stuttered when he spoke, thus if he spoke his last name it would be Do-Do-Dodgson. The Duck refers to Canon Duckworth, the Lory to Lorina Liddell, and the Eaglet to Edith Liddell (Alice Liddell's sisters).

Bill the Lizard may be a play on the name of Benjamin Disraeli. One of Tenniel's illustrations in Through the Looking-Glass depicts the character referred to as the "Man in White Paper" (whom Alice meets as a fellow passenger riding on the train with her), as a caricature of Disraeli, wearing a paper hat. The illustrations of the Lion and the Unicorn also bear a striking resemblance to Tenniel's Punch illustrations of Gladstone and Disraeli.

The Hatter is most likely a reference to Theophilus Carter, a furniture dealer known in Oxford for his unorthodox inventions. Tenniel apparently drew the Hatter to resemble Carter, on a suggestion of Carroll's. The Dormouse tells a story about three little sisters named Elsie, Lacie, and Tillie. These are the Liddell sisters: Elsie is L.C. (Lorina Charlotte), Tillie is Edith (her family nickname is Matilda), and Lacie is an anagram of Alice.

The Mock Turtle speaks of a Drawling-master, "an old conger eel", that used to come once a week to teach "Drawling, Stretching, and Fainting in Coils". This is a reference to the art critic John Ruskin, who came once a week to the Liddell house to teach the children drawing, sketching, and painting in oils. (The children did, in fact, learn well; Alice Liddell, for one, produced a number of skilled watercolours.)

The Mock Turtle also sings "Beautiful Soup". This is a parody of a song called "Star of the Evening, Beautiful Star", which was performed as a trio by Lorina, Alice and Edith Liddell for Lewis Carroll in the Liddell home during the same summer in which he first told the story of Alice's Adventures Under Ground.[12]

Contents

Poems and songs

Tenniel's illustrations

John Tenniel's illustrations of Alice do not portray the real Alice Liddell, who had dark hair and a short fringe. There is a persistent legend that Carroll sent Tenniel a photograph of Mary Hilton Babcock, another child-friend, but no evidence for this has yet come to light, and whether Tenniel actually used Babcock as his model is open to dispute.

Famous lines and expressions

The term "Wonderland", from the title, has entered the language and refers to a marvellous imaginary place, or else a real-world place that one perceives to have dream-like qualities. It, like much of the Alice work, is widely referred to in popular culture.

Illustration of Alice with the White Rabbit by Arthur Rackham

"Down the Rabbit-Hole", the Chapter 1 title, has become a popular term for going on an adventure into the unknown. In drug culture, "going down the rabbit hole" is a metaphor for taking hallucinogenic drugs, as Carroll's novel appears similar in form to a drug trip.

In Chapter 6, the Cheshire Cat's disappearance prompts Alice to say one of her most memorable lines: "...a grin without a cat! It's the most curious thing I ever saw in all my life!"

In Chapter 7, the Hatter gives his famous riddle without an answer: "Why is a raven like a writing desk?" Although Carroll intended the riddle to have no solution, in a new preface to the 1896 edition of Alice, he proposes several answers: "Because it can produce a few notes, though… they are very flat; and it is nevar put with the wrong end in front!" (Note the spelling of "never" as "nevar"—turning it into "raven" when inverted. This spelling, however, was "corrected" in later editions to "never" and Carroll's pun was lost.) Puzzle expert Sam Loyd offered the following solutions:

  • Because the notes for which they are noted are not noted for being musical notes
  • Poe wrote on both
  • They both have inky quills ("inkwells")
  • Bills and tales ("tails") are among their characteristics
  • Because they both stand on their legs, conceal their steels ("steals"), and ought to be made to shut up

Many other answers are listed in The Annotated Alice. In Frank Beddor's novel Seeing Redd, the main antagonist, Queen Redd (a megalomaniac parody of the Queen of Hearts) meets Lewis Carroll and declares that the answer to the riddle is "Because I say so". Carroll is too terrified to contradict her.

Arguably the most famous quote is used when the Queen of Hearts screams "Off with her head!" at Alice (and everyone else she feels slightly annoyed with). Possibly Carroll here was echoing a scene in Shakespeare's Richard III (III, iv, 76) where Richard demands the execution of Lord Hastings, crying "Off with his head!"

When Alice is growing taller after eating the cake labelled "Eat me" she says, "curiouser and curiouser", a famous line that is still used today to describe an event with extraordinary wonder. The Cheshire Cat confirms to Alice "We're all mad here", a line that has been repeated for years as a result.

Symbolism in the text

Mathematics

Since Carroll was a mathematician at Christ Church, it has been suggested[13][14] that there are many references and mathematical concepts in both this story and also in Through the Looking-Glass; examples include:

  • In chapter 1, "Down the Rabbit-Hole", in the midst of shrinking, Alice waxes philosophic concerning what final size she will end up as, perhaps "going out altogether, like a candle."; this pondering reflects the concept of a limit.
  • In chapter 2, "The Pool of Tears", Alice tries to perform multiplication but produces some odd results: "Let me see: four times five is twelve, and four times six is thirteen, and four times seven is—oh dear! I shall never get to twenty at that rate!" This explores the representation of numbers using different bases and positional numeral systems (4 x 5 = 12 in base 18 notation; 4 x 6 = 13 in base 21 notation. 4 x 7 could be 14 in base 24 notation, following the sequence).
  • In chapter 5, "Advice from a Caterpillar", the Pigeon asserts that little girls are some kind of serpent, for both little girls and serpents eat eggs. This general concept of abstraction occurs widely in many fields of science; an example in mathematics of employing this reasoning would be in the substitution of variables.
  • In chapter 7, "A Mad Tea-Party", the March Hare, the Mad Hatter, and the Dormouse give several examples in which the semantic value of a sentence A is not the same value of the converse of A (for example, "Why, you might just as well say that 'I see what I eat' is the same thing as 'I eat what I see'!"); in logic and mathematics, this is discussing an inverse relationship.
  • Also in chapter 7, Alice ponders what it means when the changing of seats around the circular table places them back at the beginning. This is an observation of addition on a ring of the integers modulo N.
  • The Cheshire cat fades until it disappears entirely, leaving only its wide grin, suspended in the air, leading Alice to marvel and note that she has seen a cat without a grin, but never a grin without a cat. Deep abstraction of concepts (non-Euclidean geometry, abstract algebra, the beginnings of mathematical logic...) was taking over mathematics at the time Dodgson was writing. Dodgson's delineation of the relationship between cat and grin can be taken to represent the very concept of mathematics and number itself. For example, instead of considering two or three apples, one may easily consider the concept of 'apple,' upon which the concepts of 'two' and 'three' may seem to depend. However, a far more sophisticated jump is to consider the concepts of 'two' and 'three' by themselves, just like a grin, originally seemingly dependent on the cat, separated conceptually from its physical object.

The French language

It has been suggested by several people, including Martin Gardner and Selwyn Goodacre,[13] that Dodgson had an interest in the French language, choosing to make references and puns about it in the story. It is most likely that these are references to French lessons which would have been a common feature of a Victorian middle-class girl's upbringing. For example, in the second chapter, Alice posits that the mouse may be French and chooses to speak the first sentence of her French lesson-book to it: "Où est ma chatte?" ("Where is my cat?"). In Henri Bué's French translation, Alice posits that the mouse may be Italian and speaks Italian to it.

Classical languages

In the second chapter, Alice initially addresses the mouse as "O Mouse", based on her vague memory of the noun declensions in her brother's textbook: "A mouse (nominative)— of a mouse (genitive)— to a mouse (dative)— a mouse (accusative)— O mouse! (vocative)." This corresponds to the traditional order that was established by Byzantine grammarians (and is still in standard use, except in the United Kingdom and some countries in Western Europe) for the five cases of Classical Greek; because of the absence of the ablative case, which Greek does not have but is found in Latin, the reference is apparently not to the latter as some have supposed.

Historical references

In the eighth chapter, three cards are painting the roses on a rose tree red, because they had accidentally planted a white-rose tree which the Queen of Hearts hates. Red roses symbolized the English House of Lancaster, while white roses were the symbol for their rival House of York. Therefore, this scene may contain a hidden allusion to the Wars of the Roses.[15]

Cinematic and television adaptations

Alice, the March Hare, and the Mad Hatter at the "Mad Tea-Party" in the first film adaptation directed by Cecil Hepworth in 1903.

The book has inspired numerous film and television adaptations. This list comprises only direct and complete adaptations of the original books. Sequels and works otherwise inspired by – but not actually based on – those books (such as Tim Burton's 2010 film Alice in Wonderland), appear in Works influenced by Alice in Wonderland.

Comic Books Adaptations

The book has inspired numerous comic book adaptations.

  • Walt Disney's Alice in Wonderland (Dell Comics, 1951)
  • Walt Disney's Alice in Wonderland (Gold Key Comics, 1965)
  • Walt Disney's Alice in Wonderland (Whitman, 1984)
  • Alice in Wonderland (Antarctic Press, 2006, four issues)
  • Wonderland (Slave Labor Graphics, 2006, six issues)
  • Heart no Kuni no Alice (manga series, 2008, Hoshino Soumei)
  • Pandora Hearts (manga series, 2009, Jun Mochizuki)
  • Alice in Verse: The Lost Rhymes of Wonderland (Candleshoe Books, 2010, J.T. Holden)
  • Are You Alice? a gothic manga retelling of Alice in Wonderland.

Live performance

With the immediate popularity of the book, it didn't take long for live performances to begin. One early example is Alice in Wonderland, a musical play by H. Saville Clark (book) and Walter Slaughter (music), which played in 1886 at the Prince of Wales Theatre in London.

As the book and its sequel are Carroll's most widely recognized works, they have also inspired numerous live performances, including plays, operas, ballets, and traditional English pantomimes. These works range from adaptations which are fairly faithful to the original book to those which use the story as a basis for new works. A good example of the latter is The Eighth Square, a murder mystery set in Wonderland, written by Matthew Fleming and music and lyrics by Ben J. Macpherson. This goth-toned rock musical premiered in 2006 at the New Theatre Royal in Portsmouth, England. The TA Fantastika, a popular Black light theatre in Prague performs "Aspects of Alice"; written and directed by Petr Kratochvíl. This adaptation is not faithful to the books, but rather explores Alice's journey into adulthood while incorporating allusions to the history of Czech Republic.

Over the years, many notable people in the performing arts have been involved in Alice productions. Actress Eva Le Gallienne famously adapted both Alice books for the stage in 1932; this production has been revived in New York in 1947 and 1982. One of the most well-known American productions was Joseph Papp's 1980 staging of Alice in Concert at the Public Theater in New York City. Elizabeth Swados wrote the book, lyrics, and music. Based on both Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking-Glass, Papp and Swados had previously produced a version of it at the New York Shakespeare Festival. Meryl Streep played Alice, the White Queen, and Humpty Dumpty. The cast also included Debbie Allen, Michael Jeter, and Mark Linn-Baker. Performed on a bare stage with the actors in modern dress, the play is a loose adaptation, with song styles ranging the globe. This production can be found on DVD.

Similarly, the 1992 operatic production Alice used both Alice books as its inspiration. However, it also employs scenes with Charles Dodgson, a young Alice Liddell, and an adult Alice Liddell, to frame the story. Paul Schmidt wrote the play, with Tom Waits and Kathleen Brennan writing the music. Although the original production in Hamburg, Germany, received only a small audience, Tom Waits released the songs as the album Alice in 2002, to much acclaim.

In addition to professional performances, school productions abound. Both high schools and colleges have staged numerous versions of Alice-inspired performances. The imaginative story and large number of characters are well-suited to such productions.

A large-scale operatic adaptation of the story by the Korean composer Unsuk Chin to an English language libretto by David Henry Hwang received its world premiere at the Bavarian State Opera on 30 June 2007.

A new musical titled "Wonderland" made its premiere in Tampa, Florida in December of 2009

The Philadelphia composer, Joseph Hallman has written an Alice ballet and dramaturgy for Actor, flute (doubling melodica), alto saxophone, harp, percussion, and string trio with seven dancers. It was commissioned by the San Diego chamber music organization, Art of Elan, and the Colette Harding Dance Company. [17]

Criticism

The book was generally received in a positive light, but has also caught a large amount of derision for its strange and unpredictable tone.[citation needed]

In 1931, the book was banned in Hunan, China, because "animals should not use human language" and it "puts animals and human beings on the same level". In Woodsville High School in Haverhill, New Hampshire, the story also was banned, because it had "expletives, references to masturbation and sexual fantasies, and derogatory characterizations of teachers and of religious ceremonies". [18]

Works influenced

Alice in Central Park

Alice and the rest of Wonderland continue to inspire or influence many other works of art to this day, sometimes indirectly via the Disney movie, for example. The character of the plucky, yet proper, Alice has proven immensely popular and inspired similar heroines in literature and pop culture, many also named Alice in homage.

References

  1. ^ BBC's Greatest English Books list
  2. ^ a b Lecercle, Jean-Jacques (1994) Philosophy of nonsense: the intuitions of Victorian nonsense literature Routledge, New York, page 1 and following, ISBN 0-415-07652-8
  3. ^ a b Schwab, Gabriele (1996) "Chapter 2: Nonsense and Metacommunication: Alice in Wonderland" The mirror and the killer-queen: otherness in literary language Indiana University Press, Bloomington, Indiana, pp. 49-102, ISBN 0-253-33037-8
  4. ^ The Background & History of Alice In Wonderland. Bedtime-Story Classics. Retrieved 29 January 2007.
  5. ^ "Ripon Tourist Information". Hello-Yorkshire.co.uk. http://www.hello-yorkshire.co.uk/ripon/tourist-information. Retrieved 2009-12-01. 
  6. ^ (Gardner, 1965)
  7. ^ Only 23 copies of this first printing are known to have survived; 18 are owned by major archives or libraries, such as the Harry Ransom Humanities Research Center, while the other five are held in private hands.
  8. ^ Carroll, Lewis (1995). The Complete, Fully Illustrated Works. New York: Gramercy Books. ISBN 0-517-10027-4. 
  9. ^ "Auction Record for an Original 'Alice'", The New York Times: B30, 11 December 1998, http://www.nytimes.com/1998/12/11/nyregion/auction-record-for-an-original-alice.html 
  10. ^ "JK Rowling book fetches £1.9m at auction", The Telegraph, 13 December 2007, http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/film/3669880/JK-Rowling-book-fetches-1.9m-at-auction.html 
  11. ^ Real Alice in Wonderland book sells for $115,000 in USA http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/england/oxfordshire/8416127.stm
  12. ^ The diary of Lewis Carroll, 1 August 1862 entry
  13. ^ a b Gardner, Martin (1990). More Annotated Alice. New York: Random House. pp. 363. ISBN 0-394-58571-2. 
  14. ^ Bayley, Melanie (2010-03-06). "Algebra in Wonderland". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/07/opinion/07bayley.html. Retrieved 2010-03-13. 
  15. ^ Other explanations | Lenny's Alice in Wonderland site
  16. ^ "Alisa v Strane Chudes" (in Russian). Animator.ru. http://www.animator.ru/db/?p=show_film&fid=5750. Retrieved 3 March 2010. 
  17. ^ http://www.artofelan.org/
  18. ^ "Why was 'Alice's Adventures in Wonderland' banned?" The original reference (http://sshl.ucsd.edu/banned/books.html "Banned Books Week: 25 September–2 October) does not exist anymore (31. January 2010).

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikiquote

Curiouser and curiouser!

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland is a novel by Lewis Carroll (Charles Lutwidge Dodgson), published on 4 July 1865, three years after the first telling of the tale to the three Liddell sisters, Ina, Alice and Edith, and promising to write it down at the request of Alice.

Contents

Alice in Wonderland

Thus grew the tale of Wonderland...
  • All in the golden afternoon
    Full leisurely we glide;

    For both our oars, with little skill,
    By little arms are plied,
    While little hands make vain pretense
    Our wanderings to guide.
    • Opening poem, first stanza.
  • Thus grew the tale of Wonderland:
    Thus slowly, one by one,
    Its quaint events were hammered out —
    And now our tale is done
    And home we steer, a merry crew,
    Beneath the setting sun.
    • Opening poem, stanza six.
  • Alice! a childish story take,
    And with a gentle hand
    Lay it where Childhood's dreams are twined
    In Memory's mystic band,
    Like pilgrim's withered wreath of flowers
    Plucked in a far-off land.
    • Opening poem, stanza seven.

Ch. 1 - Down the Rabbit-Hole

Oh dear! Oh dear! I shall be too late!
  • Alice was beginning to get very tired of sitting by her sister on the bank, and having nothing to do: once or twice she had peeped into the book her sister was reading, but it had no pictures or conversations in it, 'and what is the use of a book,' thought Alice, 'without pictures or conversations?'
    • Opening paragraph.
  • There was nothing so very remarkable in that; nor did Alice think it so very much out of the ordinary to hear the Rabbit say to itself 'Oh dear! Oh dear! I shall be too late!' ...but when the Rabbit actually took a watch out its waistcoat pocket, and looked at it, and then hurried on, Alice startled to her feet.
So many out-of-the-way things had happened lately, that Alice had begun to think that very few things indeed were really impossible.
  • After a fall such as this, I shall think nothing of tumbling downstairs!
    • Alice
  • So many out-of-the-way things had happened lately, that Alice had begun to think that very few things indeed were really impossible.
    There seemed to be no use in waiting by the little door, so she went back to the table, half hoping she might find another key on it, or at any rate a book of rules for shutting people up like telescopes: this time she found a little bottle on it, ('which certainly was not here before,' said Alice,) and round the neck of the bottle was a paper label, with the words 'DRINK ME' beautifully printed on it in large letters.
  • If you drink much from a bottle marked 'poison' it is almost certain to disagree with you, sooner or later.
    • Alice
  • 'Well, I'll eat it,' said Alice, 'and if it makes me grow larger, I can reach the key; and if it makes me grow smaller, I can creep under the door; so either way I'll get into the garden, and I don't care which happens!'

Ch. 2 - The Pool of Tears

  • Curiouser and curiouser!
    • Alice
  • How doth the little crocodile
    Improve his shining tail,
    And pour the waters of the Nile
    On every golden scale!
    • Alice; this is a parody of "Against Idleness and Mischief" by Isaac Watts:
How doth the little busy bee
Improve each shining hour,
And gather honey all the day
From every opening flower!
  • 'Would it be of any use, now,' thought Alice, 'to speak to this mouse? Everything is so out-of-the-way down here, that I should think very likely it can talk: at any rate, there's no harm in trying.'

Ch. 3 - A Caucus-Race and a Long Tale

Alice thought the whole thing very absurd, but they all looked so grave that she did not dare to laugh...
  • 'Stigand, the patriotic archbishop of Canterbury, found it advisable — "'
    'Found what?' said the Duck.
    'Found it,' the Mouse replied rather crossly: 'of course you know what "it" means.'
    'I know what "it" means well enough, when I find a thing,' said the Duck: 'it's generally a frog or a worm. The question is, what did the archbishop find?'
  • At last the Dodo said, 'everybody has won, and all must have prizes.'
  • Alice thought the whole thing very absurd, but they all looked so grave that she did not dare to laugh; and, as she could not think of anything to say, she simply bowed, and took the thimble, looking as solemn as she could.

Ch. 4 - The Rabbit Sends in a Little Bill

  • Oh my fur and whiskers!
    • The White Rabbit
  • 'It was much pleasanter at home,' thought poor Alice, 'when one wasn't always growing larger and smaller, and being ordered about by mice and rabbits. I almost wish I hadn't gone down that rabbit-hole--and yet--and yet--it's rather curious, you know, this sort of life! I do wonder what CAN have happened to me! When I used to read fairy-tales, I fancied that kind of thing never happened, and now here I am in the middle of one! There ought to be a book written about me, that there ought! And when I grow up, I'll write one.'

Ch. 5 - Advice from a Caterpillar

Who are you?
  • The Caterpillar and Alice looked at each other for some time in silence: at last the Caterpillar took the hookah out of its mouth, and addressed her in a languid, sleepy voice.
    'Who are you?' said the Caterpillar.
    This was not an encouraging opening for a conversation. Alice replied, rather shyly, 'I — I hardly know, sir, just at present — at least I know who I was when I got up this morning, but I think I must have been changed several times since then.'
    'What do you mean by that?' said the Caterpillar sternly. 'Explain yourself!'
    'I can't explain myself, I'm afraid, sir' said Alice, 'because I'm not myself, you see.'
    'I don't see,' said the Caterpillar.
    'I'm afraid I can't put it more clearly,' Alice replied very politely, 'for I can't understand it myself to begin with; and being so many different sizes in a day is very confusing.'
  • 'You are old Father William,' the young man said,
    'And your hair has become very white;
    And yet you incessantly stand on your head —
    Do you think at your age it is right?'

    In my youth,' Father William replied to his son,
    `I feared it might injure the brain;
    But, now that I'm perfectly sure I have none,
    Why, I do it again and again.'

Ch. 6 - Pig and Pepper

'But I don't want to go among mad people,' Alice remarked.
'Oh, you can't help that,' said the Cat: 'we're all mad here. I'm mad. You're mad.'
  • 'You don't know much,' said the Duchess, 'And that's a fact.'
  • Speak roughly to your little boy,
    And beat him when he sneezes:
    He only does it to annoy,
    Because he knows it teases.
    • The Duchess
  • 'If everybody minded their own business,' the Duchess said in a hoarse growl, 'the world would go round a deal faster than it does.'
  • I speak severely to my boy,
    I beat him when he sneezes;
    For he can then thoroughly enjoy
    The pepper when he pleases!
    • The Duchess
  • 'Would you tell me, please, which way I ought to go from here?'
    'That depends a good deal on where you want to get to,' said the Cat.
    `I don't much care where--' said Alice.
    `Then it doesn't matter which way you go,' said the Cat
  • 'But I don't want to go among mad people,' Alice remarked.
    `Oh, you can't help that,' said the Cat: 'we're all mad here. I'm mad. You're mad.'
    'How do you know I'm mad?' said Alice.
    `You must be,' said the Cat, 'or you wouldn't have come here.'
    Alice didn't think that proved it at all; however, she went on 'And how do you know that you're mad?'
    'To begin with,' said the Cat, 'a dog's not mad. You grant that?'
    'I suppose so,' said Alice.
    'Well, then,' the Cat went on, 'you see, a dog growls when it's angry, and wags its tail when it's pleased. Now I growl when I'm pleased, and wag my tail when I'm angry. Therefore I'm mad.'
  • 'Well! I've often seen a cat without a grin,' thought Alice; 'but a grin without a cat! It's the most curious thing I ever say in my life!'

Ch. 7 - A Mad Tea-Party

'You might just as well say that "I see what I eat" is the same thing as "I eat what I see"!'
  • 'You should learn not to make personal remarks,' Alice said with some severity; 'it's very rude.'
    The Hatter opened his eyes very wide on hearing this; but all he said was, 'Why is a raven like a writing-desk?'
    'Come, we shall have some fun now!' thought Alice. 'I'm glad they've begun asking riddles. — I believe I can guess that,' she added aloud.
    'Do you mean that you think you can find out the answer to it?' said the March Hare.
    'Exactly so,' said Alice.
    'Then you should say what you mean,' the March Hare went on.
    'I do,' Alice hastily replied; 'at least — at least I mean what I say — that's the same thing, you know.'
    'Not the same thing a bit!' said the Hatter. 'You might just as well say that "I see what I eat" is the same thing as "I eat what I see"!'

    'You might just as well say,' added the March Hare, 'that "I like what I get" is the same thing as "I get what I like"!'
    'You might just as well say,' added the Dormouse, who seemed to be talking in his sleep, 'that "I breathe when I sleep" is the same thing as "I sleep when I breathe"!'
    'It is the same thing with you,' said the Hatter, and here the conversation dropped, and the party sat silent for a minute, while Alice thought over all she could remember about ravens and writing-desks, which wasn't much.
  • The Hatter was the first to break the silence. 'What day of the month is it?' he said, turning to Alice: he had taken his watch out of his pocket, and was looking at it uneasily, shaking it every now and then, and holding it to his ear.
    Alice considered a little, and then said 'The fourth.'
    'Two days wrong!' sighed the Hatter. 'I told you butter wouldn’t suit the works!' he added looking angrily at the March Hare.
    'It was the best butter,' the March Hare meekly replied.
    'Yes, but some crumbs must have got in as well,' the Hatter grumbled: 'you shouldn’t have put it in with the bread-knife.'
    The March Hare took the watch and looked at it gloomily: then he dipped it into his cup of tea, and looked at it again: but he could think of nothing better to say than his first remark, 'It was the best butter, you know.'
  • 'Have you guessed the riddle yet?' the Hatter said, turning to Alice again.
    'No, I give it up,' Alice replied: 'what's the answer?'
    'I haven't the slightest idea,' said the Hatter.
    'Nor I,' said the March Hare.
    Alice sighed wearily. 'I think you might do something better with the time,' she said, 'than waste it in asking riddles that have no answers.'
  • Twinkle twinkle little bat!
    How I wonder what you're at!...
    Up above the world you fly
    like a tea tray in the sky
    • The Mad Hatter
  • 'Take some more tea,' the March Hare said to Alice, very earnestly.
    `I've had nothing yet,' Alice replied in an offended tone, `so I can't take more.'
    'You mean you can't take LESS,' said the Hatter: `it's very easy to take MORE than nothing.'
  • You know you say that things are 'much of a muchness' — did you ever see a drawing of a muchness?
    • The Dormouse
  • 'Really, now you ask me,' said Alice, very much confused, 'I don't think--'
    `Then you shouldn't talk,' said the Hatter.

Ch. 8 - The Queen's Croquet-Ground

Off with her head!
  • The Queen turned crimson with fury, and, after glaring at her for a moment like a wild beast, screamed 'Off with her head! Off—'
    'Nonsense!' said Alice, very loudly and decidedly, and the Queen was silent.
The chief difficulty Alice found at first was in managing her flamingo...
  • The chief difficulty Alice found at first was in managing her flamingo: she succeeded in getting its body tucked away, comfortably enough, under her arm, with its legs hanging down, but generally, just as she had got its neck nicely straightened out, and was going to give the hedgehog a blow with its head, it would twist itself round and look up in her face, with such a puzzled expression that she could not help bursting out laughing: and when she had got its head down, and was going to begin again, it was very provoking to find that the hedgehog had unrolled itself, and was in the act of crawling away: besides all this, there was generally a ridge or furrow in the way wherever she wanted to send the hedgehog to, and, as the doubled-up soldiers were always getting up and walking off to other parts of the ground, Alice soon came to the conclusion that it was a very difficult game indeed.
  • They're dreadfully fond of beheading people here; the great wonder is, that there's any one left alive!
    • Alice
  • She was looking about for some way of escape, and wondering whether she could get away without being seen, when she noticed a curious appearance in the air: it puzzled her very much at first, but, after watching it a minute or two, she made it out to be a grin, and she said to herself 'It's the Cheshire Cat: now I shall have somebody to talk to.'
    'How are you getting on?' said the Cat, as soon as there was mouth enough for it to speak with.
    Alice waited till the eyes appeared, and then nodded. 'It's no use speaking to it,' she thought, 'till its ears have come, or at least one of them.'
  • 'I don't think they play at all fairly,' Alice began, in rather a complaining tone, 'and they all quarrel so dreadfully one can't hear oneself speak--and they don't seem to have any rules in particular; at least, if there are, nobody attends to them.'
  • 'A cat may look at a king,' said Alice. 'I've read that in some book, but I don't remember where.'
  • The Queen had only one way of settling all difficulties, great or small. `Off with his head!' she said, without even looking round.

Ch. 9 - The Mock Turtle's Story

  • Everything's got a moral, if only you can find it.
    • The Duchess
  • 'Never imagine yourself not to be otherwise than what it might appear to others that what you were or might have been was not otherwise than what you had been would have appeared to them to be otherwise.'
    `I think I should understand that better,' Alice said very politely, `if I had it written down: but I can't quite follow it as you say it.'
  • 'Thinking again?' the Duchess asked, with another dig of her sharp little chin.
    'I've a right to think,' said Alice sharply, for she was beginning to feel a little worried.
    'Just about as much right,' said the Duchess, 'as pigs have to fly.'
  • 'Now, I give you fair warning,' shouted the Queen, stamping on the ground as she spoke; 'either you or your head must be off, and that in about half no time! Take your choice!'
  • 'When we were little,' the Mock Turtle went on at last, more calmly, though still sobbing a little now and then, 'we went to school in the sea. The master was an old Turtle--we used to call him Tortoise--'
    'Why did you call him Tortoise, if he wasn't one?' Alice asked.
    'We called him Tortoise because he taught us,' said the Mock Turtle angrily: 'really you are very dull!'
    'You ought to be ashamed of yourself for asking such a simple question,' added the Gryphon.
  • 'I only took the regular course.'
    'What was that?' inquired Alice.
    'Reeling and Writhing, of course, to begin with,' the Mock Turtle replied; `and then the different branches of Arithmetic-- Ambition, Distraction, Uglification, and Derision.'
  • 'And how many hours a day did you do lessons?' said Alice, in a hurry to change the subject.
    'Ten hours the first day,' said the Mock Turtle: `nine the next, and so on.'
    'What a curious plan!' exclaimed Alice.
    'That's the reason they're called lessons,' the Gryphon remarked: `because they lessen from day to day.'

Ch. 10 - The Lobster Quadrille

Explanations take such a dreadful time.
  • "Will you walk a little faster?" said a whiting to a snail.
    "There's a porpoise close behind us, and he's treading on my tail.
    See how eagerly the lobsters and the turtles all advance!
    They are waiting on the shingle — will you come and join the dance?

    Will you, won't you, will you, won't you, will you join the dance?

  • 'I could tell you my adventures — beginning from this morning,' said Alice a little timidly: 'but it's no use going back to yesterday, because I was a different person then.'
    'Explain all that,' said the Mock Turtle.
    'No, no! The adventures first,' said the Gryphon in an impatient tone: 'explanations take such a dreadful time.'

Ch. 11 - Who Stole the Tarts?

  • 'Give your evidence,' said the King; 'and don't be nervous, or I'll have you executed on the spot.'
    This did not seem to encourage the witness at all: he kept shifting from one foot to the other, looking uneasily at the Queen, and in his confusion he bit a large piece out of his teacup instead of the bread-and-butter.
    Just at this moment Alice felt a very curious sensation, which puzzled her a good deal until she made out what it was: she was beginning to grow larger again, and she thought at first she would get up and leave the court; but on second thoughts she decided to remain where she was as long as there was room for her.
  • 'But what did the Dormouse say?' one of the jury asked.
    'That I can't remember,' said the Hatter.

    'You MUST remember,' remarked the King, 'or I'll have you executed.'
  • Here one of the guinea-pigs cheered, and was immediately suppressed by the officers of the court. (As that is rather a hard word, I will just explain to you how it was done. They had a large canvas bag, which tied up at the mouth with strings: into this they slipped the guinea-pig, head first, and then sat upon it.)
    'I'm glad I've seen that done,' thought Alice. 'I've so often read in the newspapers, at the end of trials, "There was some attempts at applause, which was immediately suppressed by the officers of the court," and I never understood what it meant till now.'

Ch. 12 - Alice's Evidence

You're nothing but a pack of cards!
  • The White Rabbit put on his spectacles. 'Where shall I begin, please your Majesty?' he asked.
    'Begin at the beginning,' the King said gravely, 'and go on till you come to the end: then stop.'
  • He sent them word I had not gone
    (We know it to be true):
    If she should push the matter on,
    What would become of you?
  • My notion was that you had been
    (Before she had this fit)
    An obstacle that came between
    Him, and ourselves, and it.

    Don't let him know she liked them best,
    For this must ever be
    A secret, kept from all the rest,
    Between yourself and me.

  • Sentence first, verdict afterwards.
    • The Queen of Hearts
  • 'Who cares for you?' said Alice, (she had grown to her full size by this time.) 'You're nothing but a pack of cards!'

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Up to date as of January 22, 2010

From Wikisource

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland
by Lewis Carroll
Alice's Adventures in Wonderland is a children's book written in 1865 by English mathematician Charles Lutwidge Dodgson under the pseudonym Lewis Carroll. It tells the story of a girl named Alice who falls down a rabbit-hole into a fantasy realm populated by talking playing cards and anthropomorphic creatures.

The tale is fraught with satirical allusions to Dodgson's friends and to the lessons that British schoolchildren were expected to memorize. — Excerpted from Alice's Adventures in Wonderland on Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
Speaker Icon.svg one or more chapters are available in a spoken word format.

Contents

PD-icon.svg This work published before January 1, 1923 is in the public domain worldwide because the author died at least 100 years ago.

Simple English

Alice's Adventures in Wonderland is a 1865 book written by English author and mathematics professor, Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, better known as Lewis Carroll. The story was started out as an entertainment on a summer outing, three years before the story was written and published. Dodgson told these tales to three little girls, (whom one of them was named Alice), and one day, Alice asked Dodgson to write the 'Alice' tales down as a storybook. Dodgson accepted the task, but the manuscript of story, (originally entitled 'Alice's Adventures Under Ground'), took two years, (with many delays), to complete. Finally, Dodgson prepared the 'Alice' story for publication, adding more events, such as the Mad Tea Party chapter, more characters, such as the Cheshire Cat, and changing the title as 'Alice's Adventures in Wonderland'. The story was so popular, that Dodgson, (under the pen name Lewis Carroll), wrote a sequel called 'Through the Looking Glass', and through out the years, the classic story, (often shortening the title as 'Alice in Wonderland'), is popularized in music, movies and plays.

Story

It begins with Alice being bored while sitting with her sister at a riverbank on a sleepy, sunny afternoon. Suddenly, the White Rabbit rushes by Alice in a great hurry and looking at his watch. Burning with curiosity, Alice follows the White Rabbit down the rabbit-hole to Wonderland, a place where everyone is wacky, trials and tea parties are improper, and solving peculiar riddles without any answers. Through out the story, Alice changes sizes and encounter several Wonderland residents, like the Cheshire Cat, the Mad Hatter, the March Hare, and many more to get to the beautiful garden. In the end, Alice's adventures turned out to be a dream as Alice wakes up to go home for tea.

Characters

  • Alice- Alice is the main character of the story. She is an English seven-year-old girl with a good imagination, manners and behavior. In many movie versions of the book, Alice usually appears as a blonde girl, wearing a blue dress, white apron over top, stockings, and black 'Mary Jane' shoes.
  • The White Rabbit- The Rabbit is responsible of Alice following him and into Wonderland. He is the first Wonderland Resident Alice meets. In the book and movie versions, the Rabbit wears a waistcoat where he pockets his watch. And at the end of the story, it is revealed that he serves as herald to the King and Queen of Hearts.
  • The Mouse- A peculiar mouse whom Alice befriends, and has a strong hatred of cats and dogs. After Alice stops crying a big pool of tears, he teaches her how to get dry by attending a never ending Caucus Race, which no one loses or wins, and tries to tell her a story of how he hates cats and dogs, but leaves for the Mouse thought Alice was offending him.
  • Pat- The White Rabbit's bumbling servant and gardener, who is an Irish guinea pig.
  • Bill- A lizard who serves as the White Rabbit's chimney sweep. At one time when Alice was stuck at the White Rabbit's house, Bill was sent to get her out, but he was kicked out of the chimney by the might of Alice's giant foot.
  • The Caterpillar- A wise, but rude old bug who gives Alice advice about how to change sizes correctly by eating the mushroom.
  • The Duchess- An angry, ugly, and abusive noblewoman who is a mother to a baby that would later turn to a pig. But later on in the book, she is nicer, which assumes the fact that the pepper makes her angry.
  • The Cheshire Cat- A peculiar feline that always grins and turns invisible at will. He belongs to the Duchess, and is responsible of guiding Alice to the Mad Tea Party. The Cat is the closest friend Alice meets in Wonderland.
  • The Mad Hatter- A wacky man and leader of the Mad Tea Party. He is known to be very rude towards Alice and giving her stupid riddles without any answers. He is also the first witness of the Knave of Hearts' trial.
  • The March Hare- The Mad Hatter's crazed sidekick who is also rude and obnoxious towards Alice. The March Hare is always mad, and maybe slightly stupid and confused ever since the Mad Hatter didn't have the chance to finish his performance at the Queen of Hearts' concert.
  • The Dormouse- The third and sleepy member of the Mad Tea Party Trio. He often sleeps through the party, but the Mad Hatter and the March Hare have ways to rudely wake him up.
  • The Queen of Hearts- A stubborn, violent and cruel tyrant who enjoys beheading people, (which never happens due to the King secretly pardoning those who are to be executed). She has a massive army of playing cards, and they simply do what the Queen says. She is noted to be the villain of the story, and Alice's arch-nemesis.
  • The King of Hearts- The Queen of Hearts' foolish, but caring husband, who pardons those who are about to be beheaded under the wrath of the Queen. He also serves as judge of the Knave of Hearts' trial.
  • The Gryphon- A part-eagle, part-lion creature that leads Alice to his old friend, the Mock Turtle, so she could learn about his childhood.
  • The Mock Turtle- A cow-headed turtle who is an old friend of the Gryphon and told about his childhood and school days to Alice. He also showed her the 'Lobster Quadrille' a funny, but confusing dance.
  • The Knave of Hearts- A noble servant to the King and Queen of Hearts, who was sent to a trial as the accused for stealing the tarts. The Queen often thinks of him as an 'idiot'.
  • Alice's Sister- A minor character of the story. She is Alice's older sister who understands Alice's dream at the end of the book. After Alice went home for tea, her sister dreamt the same dream Alice did, and knew Alice is growing up.
  • Dinah- Alice's pet cat. She did not appear in the book, but was mentioned by Alice several times. She does appear, however in the sequel 'Through the looking Glass', and many movies based on the book.








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