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Home rule is where constituent parts of a state are given greater self-government within the administrative purview of the central government.

In the United Kingdom, it has traditionally referred to self-government, or devolution or independence, for constituent nations (namely Scotland, Wales, and Northern Ireland), and at one point Ireland. Home rule also refers analogously to the process and mechanisms of self-government by municipalities and counties in many countries with respect to their immediately-superior level of government (e.g., U.S. states, in which context see special legislation). It can also refer to the similar system by which Greenland and the Faroe Islands are associated to Denmark.

In the British Empire, there were vigorous demands for home rule by activists in India.

Home rule is not, however, comparable with federalism. Whereas states in a federal system of government (e.g., Canada, Federal Republic of Germany, Switzerland and the United States of America) have a guaranteed constitutional existence, a devolved home rule system of government is created by ordinary legislation and can be reformed, or even abolished, by mere repeal or amendment of that ordinary legislation.

A state legislature may, for example, create home rule for a county (or its townships), so that a county commission or board of supervisors may have jurisdiction over its unincorporated areas, including important issues like zoning. (Without this, a U.S. county is simply an extension of state government.) The legislature can also establish or eliminate municipal corporations, which have home rule within town or city limits through the city council. The state government could also abolish counties/townships, or their governments, according to the state constitution and state laws.


Irish home rule

The issue of Irish home rule was the dominant political question of British and Irish politics at the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th centuries.

From the late nineteenth century, Irish leaders of the Home Rule League, the predecessor of the Irish Parliamentary Party, under Isaac Butt, William Shaw, and Charles Stewart Parnell demanded a form of home rule, with the creation of an Irish parliament within the British government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. This demand led to the eventual introduction of four Home Rule Bills, of which two were passed , the Third Home Rule Act won by John Redmond and most notably the Government of Ireland Act 1920 (which created the home rule parliaments of Northern Ireland and Southern Ireland -- the latter state did not in reality function and was replaced by the Irish Free State), which was enacted.

The home rule demands of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century differed from earlier demands for Repeal by Daniel O'Connell in the first half of the nineteenth century. Whereas home rule meant a constitutional movement towards a national All-Ireland parliament in part under Westminster, repeal meant the repeal of the 1801 Act of Union (if need be, by physical force) and the creation of an entirely independent Irish state, separated from the United Kingdom, with only a shared monarch joining them both.

Indian home rule

Several nationalist leaders banded together in 1916 under the leadership of Annie Besant to voice a demand for self-government, and to obtain the status of a Dominion within the British Empire as enjoyed by Australia, Canada, South Africa, New Zealand and Newfoundland at the time.

While enjoying considerable popularity for some years, its growth and activity were stalled by the rise of Mohandas Gandhi and his Satyagraha art of revolution: non-violent, but mass-based civil disobedience, aimed at complete independence.

Scottish Home Rule

In a similar fashion to Ireland, supporters of Home Rule in Scotland have historically desired greater levels of devolved governance within the United Kingdom. Although the term Home Rule has been largely superseded by 'devolution', the Home Rule movement can be seen as the forerunner to the creation of the current devolved Scottish Parliament.

Administrative devolution was granted to Scotland, with the creation of the Scottish Office, in the late 19th century. In the mid-20th century, the Home Rule movement became significant, campaigning for a Scottish Assembly. Between 1947 and 1950, the Scottish Covenant, a petition requesting a Scottish legislature within the UK, received over two million signatures. It was not until 1979 that devolution entered the political sphere - the Scottish devolution referendum, 1979 was held, failing to meet the required threshold. In 1999, due to the success of a second referendum, the Scottish Parliament was created.

District of Columbia home rule

The U.S. Constitution gives jurisdiction over the capital city (District of Columbia or Washington, D.C.) to the United States Congress in "all cases whatsoever". This arrangement is due to the fact that the District is neither a state, nor part of a state. At certain times, and presently since 1973, Congress has provided for D.C. government to be carried out primarily by locally elected officials. However, Congressional oversight of this local government still exists, and locally elected officials' powers could theoretically be revoked at any time.

Greenland home rule

Greenland is a self-governing Danish province. Home rule was granted by Danish parliament in 1979. Denmark's monarch is Greenland's head of state. Greenland is not part of the European Union, even though Denmark is.

See also


Redirecting to Home Rule Movement


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