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All My Children
AMCOpen5.png
Alternate titles AMC,
All My Children: The Summer of Seduction
(summer title)
Genre Soap opera
Creator(s) Agnes Nixon
Senior cast member(s) Susan Lucci
Julia Barr
David Canary
Darnell Williams
Michael E. Knight
Debbi Morgan
Walt Willey
Jill Larson
Country of origin United States
No. of episodes 10,324 (as of March 5, 2010)[1]
Production
Executive producer(s) Julie Hanan Carruthers
Head writer(s) David Kreizman
Donna Swajeski [2]
Distributor ABC
Running time 30 minutes (1970-1977)
60 minutes (1977-present)
Broadcast
Original channel ABC
Original run January 5, 1970 – present
External links
Official website

All My Children (AMC) is an ABC TV network soap opera that has been broadcast in the U.S., Monday through Friday since January 5, 1970; repeat episodes air weeknights on SOAPnet. Created by Agnes Nixon, the show is set in Pine Valley, Pennsylvania, a fictitious suburb of Philadelphia. Since its inception, the show has featured Susan Lucci as Erica Kane, one of daytime's most popular characters.[3][4] The title of the show refers to the bonds of humanity. The poem, written by Nixon, that appears in the title credits' photo album reads:

The Great and the Least,

The Rich and the Poor,
The Weak and the Strong,
In Sickness and in Health,
In Joy and Sorrow,
In Tragedy and Triumph,
You are ALL MY CHILDREN

The show title is sometimes abbreviated by fans and the press as AMC. The first new network daytime drama to debut in the 1970s, All My Children was originally owned by Creative Horizons, Inc., the company created by Nixon and her husband, Bob. The show was sold to ABC in January 1975.[5] Originally a half-hour in length, the show expanded to an hour in April 1977. Previously, the show had experimented with the hour format for one week starting on June 30, 1975, after which Ryan's Hope premiered.

From 1970 to 1990, All My Children was recorded at ABC's TV18 at 101 West 67th St, now a 50-story apartment tower. From March 1990 to December 2009, it was taped at ABC's television studio TV23 at 320 West 66th Street in Manhattan, New York City. In December 2009, the show relocated to Los Angeles and is now produced in Stages 1 and 2 at the Andrita Studios.[6][7] It was confirmed on August 4, 2009 that All My Children and One Life to Live would go HD. All My Children started filming in High Defintion on January 4, 2010 and began airing in High Defintion on February 3, 2010. All My Children is the third soap opera to be produced and broadcast in High Defintion.[8]

At one time, the program's popularity positioned it as the most widely-recorded television show in the United States. Also, in a departure from societal norms at the time, All My Children, in the mid-1970s, had an audience that was estimated to be 30% male.[9] The show ranked #1 in the daytime Nielsen ratings from 1978-1979. Throughout most of the 1980s and into the early 1990s, All My Children was the #2 daytime soap opera on the air.

Contents

History

With the death of core cast member Ruth Warrick in January 2005, and the retirement of Ray MacDonnell in 2010, Susan Lucci is the only original cast member remaining on the show.

1970s

Susan Lucci as original character Erica Kane (1970)

In the 1960s Agnes Nixon, then head writer for The Guiding Light, tried to sell a property called All My Children to NBC, then CBS, then NBC again through the auspices of sponsor Procter & Gamble. Despite her success and sponsor support, it was not until the start of 1970 that her brainchild finally aired. Rosemary Prinz was signed on to be the "special guest star" for six months, playing the role of liberal Amy Tyler. Prinz was well-known for her role on As the World Turns in the 1950s and 1960s and she was added to the show to give it an initial boost due to her name value.

Nixon strived to create a soap that was topical, and could illustrate social issues to the audience.[10] She wanted this and a combination of regular humor for the series. To keep the action more real, she allowed the audience to locate her fictional "Pine Valley" on a map: situated just outside of Philadelphia, it was a mere hour-long train ride from New York City. However, it is not until the 1980s that it is revealed that Pine Valley is actually in Pennsylvania.

From 1970 and into the 1980s, the show was either written by Nixon herself or by her protégé, Wisner Washam. He was groomed by Nixon to take the reins in the 1980s while she focused on other endeavors, like creating and launching Loving in 1983.

The show's first action takes place around several families and characters. Phoebe Tyler (Ruth Warrick), who fashions herself as "Queen of Pine Valley", is the definition of a rich snob when she is introduced. A single mother, Mona Kane (Frances Heflin), and her prima donna daughter, Erica (Susan Lucci) are also introduced. Contrasting this is the stable Martin Family, headed by patriarch Joe and later (after the death of her husband, Ted Brent) by matriarch Ruth, who becomes a symbolic foundation of All My Children.

With Phoebe as the "Queen of Pine Valley", Erica is the "Princess". Destined to break up the young romance of classmates Tara Martin (Karen Lynn Gorney) and Phil Brent (Richard Hatch), Erica finds out that Phil is not Ruth's son but the son of Ruth's sister, Amy (Rosemary Prinz). In a selfish attempt to break up Phil and Tara, she tells everyone the truth.

All My Children's first success was its telling of young love. ABC wanted a soap opera that would bring in young viewers, and slowly the program was accomplishing that.[10] The show's ratings did not start out strong, however. In its first year on the air, it ranked #17 out of 19 soap operas. Despite this, its audience was building with each passing year.

The show was unique for its use of the Vietnam War. Before All My Children debuted, no show had discussed the war in any depth. There was the character of Phoebe, a conservative, and Amy, a free-spirited liberal, both butting heads over the war, with Amy often leading protests around Pine Valley. When the character of Amy leaves, Ruth takes over as the anti-war voice. Her early 1970s protest speech wins Mary Fickett the first ever Emmy Award given to a soap opera performer back in 1972. Later in the show's run, Phoebe becomes more liberal.

In 1973, Erica Kane makes the decision to have an abortion, which becomes the first abortion aired on television.[11][12][13] What makes the abortion particularly controversial is Erica's reason for doing it; she does not have it because her health is in jeopardy, but rather because she does not want to gain weight and lose her modeling job. The abortion story received much media attention, especially since Roe v. Wade had been decided just a few months before the story began airing.[12][13] Within the story, Erica develops a potentially fatal infection after having the abortion, and the switch-boards at ABC lit up with calls from doctors and nurses, offering their medical opinions on how best to treat the character's case.

Phoebe's husband Charles (Hugh Franklin) gets close to Mona (Erica's mother) and his secretary at the hospital. The two fall in love and Charles divorces Phoebe, even though she tries to blackmail Mona and even fakes paralysis. In the end, Phoebe is left a drunken divorcée and Mona becomes the new Mrs. Tyler. This ordeal starts the long-time Phoebe/Mona rivalry.

When Eileen Letchworth, who portrayed Margo Flax Martin, contemplated a facelift, she talked it over with Nixon. Not only was Letchworth going to need time off, she was going to look significantly different when she returned to the show. Nixon approved and worked the facelift into a storyline. Margo wanted to impress the somewhat younger Paul Martin (William Mooney). Margo’s facelift in 1974 became one of the first major storylines on television discussing cosmetic surgery and its psychological effects.

In June 1976, the character of Brooke English shows up on her Aunt Phoebe's doorstep and soon after clashes with Erica over Tom Cudahy and Mark Dalton. Since then, Brooke ends up with several of Erica's left-over men. In 1976, the show introduces fan favorite Myrtle Lum Fargate (Eileen Herlie).

By the late 1970s, the show had risen to the top of the ratings. One reason for the rise was the arrival of teenage prostitute Donna Beck. Her relationship with the handsome Dr. Chuck Tyler breathed life into the show and captivated fans. Other new additions are the arrivals of aristocratic Palmer Cortlandt (aka Peter Cooney) (James Mitchell), his somewhat creepy housekeeper Myra Murdock, and his overprotected daughter Nina (Taylor Miller), who, to Palmer's chagrin, entrances Dr. Cliff Warner (Peter Bergman). Palmer does everything in his power to break up the couple, including telling Nina she is going blind due to her diabetes. Palmer teams up with Cliff's past flame, nurse Sybil Thorne (Linda Gibboney), who confronts Cliff about fathering her son, but this is temporary; Sybil is accidentally killed by Sean Cudahy (Alan Dysert). During the murder trial, Nina is astonished to learn that her mother, Daisy Cortlandt (Gillian Spencer), whom she believes to be dead, is, in fact, alive and living in Pine Valley as 'Monique Jonville'. To complete everyone's shock, Myra acknowledges that Daisy is her daughter. All My Children also found memorable villains in Billy Clyde Tuggle and Ray Gardner.

1980s

The early '80s is considered to have been a "golden period" for the show and the "Golden Age" for supercouples.[10][14][15] Younger characters, such as Greg Nelson and Jenny Gardner (Laurence Lau and Kim Delaney), Liza Colby (Marcy Walker), Liza's best friend Amanda (Amanda Bearse), Jesse Hubbard and Angie Baxter (Darnell Williams and Debbi Morgan) and a now-grown-up Tad Martin (Michael E. Knight), who was now legally Ruth and Joe's son, enter the scene.

The storyline involving Liza plotting to win Greg back after he leaves her for Jenny became a fan favorite, as was the Greg and Jenny and Jesse and Angie pairings.[10][16] The legend of "Tad the Cad" is born when Tad takes Liza's virginity, then simultaneously begins having sex with her mother, socialite Marian Colby (Jennifer Bassey), who eventually is sent to prison and returns to marry Stuart Chandler (David Canary). Powerful businessman Adam Chandler and his twin brother Stuart become significant Pine Valley residents. This is the first arrival of members of The Chandler family.

Jesse and Jenny's summer in New York City became regarded as one of the greatest storylines in the history of the series.[17] For older appeal, Jenny and Tad's natural mother Opal (Dorothy Lyman) was also added to the canvas, where she opens the Glamorama salon and spa. Opal greatly showcased All My Children’s attempt at humor and satire.

The character of Erica begins to take on a larger-than-life role by the 1980s. This is evident with her writing an autobiography, "Raising Kane", and turning it into a motion picture. When her presumed half-sister Silver (Deborah Goodrich) accuses her of murdering Kent Bogard (Michael Woods, Lee Goodart), her former lover and boss, she goes on the run, fleeing to the Hollywood Hills. She does this all while posing as a nun. Her forest encounter with a grizzly bear after she escapes a kidnapping attempt made by Adam is considered a memorable moment. The character goes on to marry over 10 times (with her most recent wedding taking place in June 2005).

The show made their first attempt at tackling the taboo topic of homosexuality in 1983. Tricia Pursley portrayed the divorced Devon McFadden, who believes she is falling in love with her psychiatrist, Lynn Carson (portrayed by Donna Pescow).[18] Lynn admits to being a lesbian, and Devon admits her crush. No other American soap opera had done a story about homosexuality.[18]

The show intelligently tackled the issue of drug use when Mark La Mura's character, Mark Dalton, becomes addicted to cocaine after years of casual use. His half-sister, Erica, stages an intervention with his friends to have him confront his problems. They practice a "tough love" policy that has Mark admit to the addiction. The informative episode showed how to hold an intervention, and the stages to go through for a successful confrontation.

Controversy was prompted in 1987 with the arrival of Cindy Parker (Ellen Wheeler), who would later fall in love with Stuart. The character was revealed to have AIDS. Through visits by Dr. Angie Hubbard, the show educated the public on how the disease was spread and how to prevent it. Cindy had contracted HIV from her husband, Fred, who contracted it from sharing needles for drug use. Cindy is attacked by a vigilante hate group led by her niece, Skye Chandler. The tragedy of the attack shows the extremes of violence that occur everyday to victims of the disease. Cindy marries Stuart and he adopts her son, Scott. She dies early in 1989 in one of the show's most watched episodes.

By 1989, ABC wanted changes at All My Children. The show was getting about 6.5 million viewers per episode, but there sentiment that the program had lost its unique sense of humor. Nixon and Wisner Washam, who had both written the show since the '70s, were faced with a merry-go-round of executive producers, starting in the mid-'80s when producer Jacqueline Babbin left. Jorn Winther was hired to executive produce the show. Efforts were made to bring the show back to the glory days of the late ‘70s and early ‘80s. This would mean adding a mixture of both social issues and also the intelligent satire that the show had been known for.

Felicia Minei Behr was hired as the new executive producer in early 1989. Having been a producer on Ryan's Hope, Behr was familiar with All My Children, having been an associate producer from 1970 to 1975. Behr welcomed the input of both Nixon and Washam. To Nixon, the show finally had a stable executive producer. Behr worked with Nixon and Washam, crafting a baby storyline involving the characters of Adam, Brooke, Tad, and Dixie (Cady McClain). By this time, the show had also found a "hit couple" in Cecily and Nico (portrayed by Rosa Nevin and Maurice Benard), but Behr was unable to convince either to remain with the show, and the duo left at the end of 1989.

ABC was pleased with Behr; Nixon was as well, and decided her creation was safe in the hands of the new producer. Behr, however, made the unpopular decision to fire Peter Bergman (Cliff Warner) during this time, as well as Ellen Wheeler (Karen) and Robert Gentry (Ross Chandler). Bergman's departure was particularly frustrating to Debbi Morgan (who thought it was a cop-out by ABC on the promising interracial Angie/Cliff pairing; Morgan later defected to the new NBC soap Generations in protest), Taylor Miller (who was misled when Behr approached her to bring back her character Nina; Miller was frustrated to find out she had only been brought back for two weeks to facilitate Bergman's departure: Cliff and Nina reunited, married yet again, and left Pine Valley, leaving Miller to lament to Soap Opera Digest that she felt it was going backward for both characters, and difficult emotionally to play), and Bergman himself (who had just bought a house, and was left without a paycheck, unexpectedly). Behr then brought back fan favorite Opal Gardner, but instead of contacting Emmy winner Dorothy Lyman to reprise the role, Behr hired Jill Larson. Lyman later noted her disappointment in never being contacted about reprising the role. Behr also brought back Billy Clyde Tuggle (the former pimp who first made his big splash in the '70s), only to kill him off for good.

1990s

At the time of Behr's hiring in early 1989, the show usually ranked around #4 in the ratings. By 1990, the show had inched up to the #3 spot. Billy Clyde Tuggle returns to Pine Valley in 1990, after a ten-year absence (in prison). He proceeds to undo the lives of many in Pine Valley. He tells his daughter, Emily Ann Sago, that he is her natural father, devastating her with the truth that she was the product of rape. He dies tumbling over a bridge (with Tad Martin), ending the reign of one of Pine Valley's most evil and entertaining characters ever.

ABC chose Megan McTavish, a former actress who had been on the writing team since 1987, to be its new head writer. She was promoted to head writer in 1992, with Nixon serving as Executive Head Writer. Stories such as Molly's leukemia, Ceara Connor (Genie Frances') incest, Mona’s lung cancer, and Deconstruction (a story about racism), were all praised in soap opera magazines for their social conscience. Other storylines included the 'Who Killed Will?' mystery, Willow Lake Acres (a both humorous and serious tale about the plight of the elderly in a fraudulent nursing home), and a tornado that rocked Pine Valley. Behr also helped craft a story re-exploring Erica's father, Eric Kane. It was revealed he had faked his own death. In a comical twist, Erica finds him working as a clown in a traveling circus. This is yet one of the several re-writes during All My Children post-1990 that frustrated and irritated fans. The audience soon learns that Erica was raped on her 14th birthday, by her father's actor friend Richard Fields. She became pregnant and gave the baby up for adoption to the Harts, a couple from Florida. Years later, the child, Kendall Hart (Sarah Michelle Gellar, Alicia Minshew), emerges and makes her way to Pine Valley after finding out her biological mother is the famous Erica Kane, to wreak havoc on her and assume her glamorous lifestyle, which she feels is her birth right.[19] Erica had thought she had put that whole nightmare behind her, only to have it come back years later with a vengeance and a name. Mother and daughter loath one another during this time within the series. The introduction of Kendall is a major retcon, but still a popular story.[19] The Santos, Dillon, Frye, and Keefer families were introduced during this time as well.

The Tad and Dixie pairing had become especially popular.[20] The show also had other couples with large followings during this time: Dimitri and Erica (Michael Nader),[21] Trevor (James Kiberd) and Natalie (Kate Collins), and Hayley (Kelly Ripa) and Brian (Gregory Gordon, Matt Borlenghi, Brian L. Greene).

By the early-mid-1990s, some of McTavish's storytelling received criticism for being gimmick-driven (i.e. multiple dual roles, bomb plots). Reports soon surfaced that Behr and McTavish were having conflicts about storylines and the direction of the series. After the O.J. Simpson trial preempted daytime television programs throughout late 1994 and into 1995, many soaps saw their ratings decline, and All My Children was no different. When Megan McTavish was fired from her head writing post in the spring, former associate head writer Lorraine Broderick was tapped by Behr as the new head writer.

Broderick's tenure under Behr was popular among critics and fans for returning All My children to its socially relevant, character-driven roots. Her most significant successes were Erica's drug addiction story (with the character receiving treatment at the Betty Ford Center), and also the story of homophobia over a gay high school boy and a history teacher.[18] However, with the ratings still stagnant, ABC fired longtime executive producer Felicia Minei Behr, and brought in Francesca James (who had previously won an Emmy award acting on the show as twins Kitty and Kelly). The storylines now included a voodoo arc with the popular Noah and Julia (Keith Hamilton Cobb and Sydney Penny), a fantasy story for Myrtle featuring the "real" Santa Claus, and finally a baby kidnapping story involving Erica.

Despite winning three consecutive Daytime Emmys for writing during her tenure on All My children, Broderick was replaced in December 1997 by her predecessor, McTavish. The first major story McTavish tackled was, "ironically", one created by Broderick, Bianca Montgomery's anorexia. The character of Bianca, Erica's young daughter, is checked into a facility to treat the disease. Apart from the anorexia story, McTavish's tales were plot-driven[22] and made implausible alterations to the show's history such as the resurrection of Erica's lifetime-love, Mike Roy (Nicholas Surovy). In 1998, the show again got a new executive producer, Jean Dadario Burke, taking over from Francesca James. She would become known to many speculating fans as a weak producer with little vision.

Cady McClain, who had left the show as Dixie in 1996, returned to the delight of her fans, but other storylines — involving ghosts, poison tattoos, Nazi art, and a sperm switch — were all ill-received. By the start of 1999, with All My Children being voted as the "Worst of 1998" by Soap Opera Digest, McTavish was once again fired.

As ratings began to fall in the late 1990s, ABC convinced Nixon to make a brief return. Many long-running actors, such as Michael Nader, James Kiberd, and Robin Mattson, left their roles.

2000s

Nixon decided to write a story that would rejuvenate the show and be socially relevant at the same time. This resulted in the series revealing Erica's daughter Bianca as a lesbian. Within the series, Bianca admits the truth to her mother in December 2000. Though initially controversial, the storyline was praised by fans and critics.[23][24][25] Bianca emerged as a breakout character and lesbian icon.[24][25][26] The show found additional success in the pairing of newcomers Leo and Greenlee (Josh Duhamel and Rebecca Budig).[27][28]

Richard Culliton wrote several of All My Children's early 2000s storylines. He created popular characters Frankie and Maggie Stone, and said Frankie was already intended to be killed in a murder storyline after only three months on the series.[29] Culliton and ABC executives were surprised when viewers became attached to the romance between Bianca and Frankie, developed by Culliton with Frankie's debut.[30] These fans attributed Frankie's death to the show's fear to focus on a lesbian romance.[29][31] Eventually, Culliton introduced the idea to bring back popular actress Elizabeth Hendrickson, who had portrayed Frankie, as Frankie's twin sister Maggie. Culliton continued to write for the show until late 2002.[32]

After more staff turnover in recent years, McTavish again returned as head writer. Her storylines began airing in July 2003, which included the controversial rape of Bianca. Gone upon McTavish's latest return was Jean Dadario Burke as executive producer, being replaced with Julie Hanan Carruthers.

Under McTavish, ratings fluctuated back and forth. To lure back long-time viewers, McTavish created new characters and romances, as well as scripted the return of various characters who had been gone for long periods of time. She introduced star-crossed couple JR Chandler and Babe Carey upon writing JR's return to the series, scripted most of popular pairing Bianca Montgomery and Maggie Stone's love story, and created fellow popular couple Zach Slater and Kendall Hart. Julia Santos (Sydney Penny) and Janet Dillon (Kate Collins, who was originally slated to return for a brief stint) were eventually given contracts.

On July 26, 2006, Tanika Ray, Jonathan Aldridge, and pop star Rihanna appeared on the show.[33] During the Rihanna appearance, a controversial storyline involving Erica's thought-to-be-aborted son having come to Pine Valley under the name Josh Madden intensifies when Josh learns of how he truly came to exist.[33] In August 2006, after months of speculation, it was confirmed that fan favorite Eden Riegel would be reprising her Emmy winning role as Bianca. She was a part of a controversial storyline centered on transgender character Zarf/Zoe.[34] Since departing the show in February 2005, Riegel has continued to return to the series for limited guest appearances.

The most notable return was Cady McClain's return as show heroine Dixie Cooney Martin. The news of her return spread just two weeks before she reappeared on the series. In an unpopular and controversial move by the series, the writers chose to kill off Dixie in January 2007 only a year after her return.[22][35][36][37] The character's death was the result of the Satin Slayer storyline where she is unintentionally murdered in place of character Babe Carey.

Another prominent return to the series occurred on February 9, 2007, when Susan Pratt returned as Barbara Montgomery. Pratt made her last appearance in July of that year. That same month, McTavish was fired as head writer, reportedly due to viewer criticism about her storylines.[22] On May 21, 2007, James Harmon Brown and Barbara Esensten were announced as the new head writers of All My Children.[22] The duo wrote for Days of our Lives, One Life to Live, Dynasty and Port Charles, and created and wrote for The City.

On December 12, 2007, ABC revealed Rebecca Budig would be returning to the series as Greenlee Smythe; the return was one of the most widely reported in daytime television history, attracting mainstream media attention such as the Associated Press and New York Daily News.[38][39][40][41][42][43][44] Budig's return was overshadowed by controversy when news of Sabine Singh's reportedly unfair treatment as a Greenlee recast in order to bring Budig back incited viewer outrage.[45][41][46]

On December 25, 2007, Soap Opera Digest reported the return of fan favorites Debbi Morgan and Darnell Williams as Jesse Hubbard and Angie Baxter. Morgan returned on January 18, 2008, and Williams on January 25, 2008. In April 2008, it was announced that Laurence Lau would briefly reprise the role of Greg Nelson for Jesse and Angie's much anticipated wedding.

On May 21, 2008, Charles Pratt, Jr., former co-head writer for General Hospital, was announced as a replacement for Brown and Esenstein amid record low ratings.

On November 6, 2008, All My Children aired a special episode in which veterans share their stories unscripted.[47]

On November 12, 2008, the show celebrated its 10,000th show with a special appearance by Nixon and a special tribute to Myrtle Fargate (as portrayed by Eileen Herlie).[48][49][50][51] On December 19, 2008, a special episode ran for Herlie, showing clips from the past.

On February 16, 2009, All My Children made daytime history with the nuptials of Reese Williams and Bianca Montgomery,[52] the first legal same-sex marriage in American daytime television.[53]

On November 20, 2009, Pratt was fired as head writer. Daytime Emmy-winning former head writer Lorraine Broderick was brought back to lead the writing team on an interim basis. Reportedly, Broderick returned at the request of show creator Agnes Nixon, but was not interested in remaining permanently as the team's top scribe.

2010s

On January 5, 2010, All My Children celebrated its 40th anniversary with an episode structured like a documentary and hosted by character Hayley Santos. It featured appearances by characters Palmer Cortlandt, Nina Warner, Maria Santos Grey, Brooke English, Greg Nelson, Bianca Montgomery, Mateo Santos, and Lily Montgomery. It was also the final episode for characters Joe and Ruth Martin, who are moving to Florida for retirement, and the final appearance for Palmer, as his portrayer James Mitchell, died just over two weeks after the episode's airing.

On January 13, 2010, ABC Daytime announced the appointment of David Kriezman and Donna Swajeski as the co-head writers of All My Children, replacing interim head writer Lorraine Broderick, who in turn replaced the fan-reviled Charles Pratt, Jr.. Brian Frons, head of ABC daytime, stated, "David and Donna are the perfect team to bring new ideas to All My Children while remaining true to its core by telling stories with a focus on the integrity of the show's history, its characters and families on the canvas."[54] Prior to his appointment on All My Children, Kriezman was the head writer of Guiding Light from 2004 to the show's cancellation in 2009 and the co-head writer of As the World Turns since 2009. Swajeski's prior experience includes a head writing stint on Another World from 1988 to 1992.[55]

With the death of James Mitchell on January 22, 2010, who portrayed the role of Palmer Cortlandt from 1979 to 2010, the show is planning a tribute episode to Mitchell, though no specifics have been given on when the episode will air.[56]

On February 8th, 2010, Walt Willey returned as a contract cast member in the role of Jackson Montgomery, following numerous months away and dispute about his future on the show. On February 23rd, 2010, Julia Barr will reprise the role of Brooke English, rumored to coincide with the intended retirement of David Canary from the role of Adam Chandler, which he has portrayed since October 1983.

Title sequences

All title sequences use a book of the show's title. Ever since the debut in 1970, AMC's opener has included a photo album/scrapbook in some kind of form.


January 5, 1970 - December 29, 1989[1]
The First Two Decades

With the premiere, the sequence was simple: a camera slowly zooms in on a leather-bound photo album as a female hand enters the image to open the album. On the first page of the album, the title is shown in calligraphic type. Until at least June 1970, the hand turned to a second page, crediting Rosemary Prinz as a "Special Guest Star". Prinz, at the time, was the cast member with the most experience in soaps, and crediting her in the sequence was used as a way to coax her fans to tune in. She left after six months on the show, and the second page was eliminated from the sequence.

In June 1970, the sequence was updated, featuring the same hand-turning the book format, only now based on a larger table/credenza, and the book was more centered. The title appeared in the same calligraphic font, but the inside title page now revealed a painted spring of flowers to accompany it. The hand would begin to turn to the next page just as the sequence faded out, to give the effect of someone displaying a full family photo album. However, additional pages would never be seen again during the run of this sequence.

This set ran for nineteen years, making it one of the longest-running packages in soap history. The theme music used with this sequence was written by Dina Dore and her daughter Carlina Paul. It went through two principal arrangements; in the beginning it was a soft lullaby-type tune. Retained from the 1970 sequence, it ran through 1971. Another version debuted in late 1971 and was used until 1976. A new version of the theme, more sweeping and cheery than the two previous versions, and featuring full orchestration, was used from 1976 to 1989. The last and final episode of All My Children with the "title inside page" sequence aired on December 29, 1989.


January 2, 1990 - January 2, 1995[2]
The Falling Photographs

In 1989 executive producer Felicia Minei Behr decided to create a new sequence to bring AMC into the 1990s for the 20th Anniversary. Billy Barber and Bob Israel were hired to record the new theme. By the middle of December 1989 the recording of the theme music was completed. Then, all contract cast members of the show were all called to do a photoshoot and once the filming was completed, animation began. The animation was completed early in the last week of December and by December 29 the sequence was complete. The new sequence debuted during the 20th Anniversary week in January 1990. This new sequence kept the photo album theme, but expanded upon it. It began with the camera panning across a desk featuring framed pictures of longtime cast members.

This dissolved into a series of animations in which still pictures of each cast member hovered into piles on the desk. It ended with a portrait of lead actress Susan Lucci slowly sliding onto a page in the photo album, as it closed to reveal the title in an Old English type on the cover. Occasionally, the title would disappear from the cover and a sponsor's logo would be in its place, with the announcer doing an ad for the sponsor.

As popular as the sequence was, the theme music was even more popular. Written by legendary television composer Billy Barber, it began with a perky melody. A slightly remixed "90s" version of this theme debuted in December 1992 with a quieter, slower arrangement at the beginning and tuned to a much newer pop theme, that lasted until 1995. The theme song was identified with the show's years of the early 1990s. The last episode of AMC with the falling pictures sequence aired on January 2, 1995.


January 3, 1995 - October 4, 2002[3]
The Locket and Pearls

In 1994, Behr decided to come up with another new sequence for the 25th Anniversary. She hired saxophonist David Benoit to record the theme and then decided she wanted heirlooms such as necklaces, chess pieces, and different exteriors. By Christmas Eve 1994, she decided that they would include motion backgrounds, not in color however, to make the opening a tour of Pine Valley and finalized most of the components such as cast pictures. On December 29, 1994, the sequence was completed with motion images. However, they became stills due to budgets. For the 25th Anniversary week, the new sequence made its debut. The first episode of AMC with the locket sequence debuted on January 4, 1995. It featured stills of each cast member fading in and out of a white background while various images, including galloping horses, house exteriors, pearl necklaces, and pink roses, crossfaded throughout the cast images. Susan Lucci was again given a nod as her picture was always first, and was the only one in the sequence to be framed with a silver frame. Finally, Agnes Nixon's hand-written epigram for the show crossfaded in the background just as the photo album did.

On March 8, 1995, a new theme debuted to replace the December 1994 theme; it was shortened at the beginning and lengthened towards the end with a few new instruments. Also, a new quiet piano arrangement debuted on April 4, 1995. In October 1995, the sequence was updated to include posed images of most cast members, but the images were still motionless. In July 1996 the opening was updated and debuted live video images of the former stills. In August 1997, the quiet 1995 piano arrangement became the main title theme. It was re-recorded differently from 1995 format(including a harp) and debuted in September 1997 with a thoroughly updated cast montage which lasted to October 1998 when a new upbeat version that included the ending version would debut. The upbeat theme was re-recorded in January 1999 and debuted later that month. In 2000 it was modified music with a series of a few additional instruments included and used Digital Surround Sound. All of the music that accompanied these sequences were composed by David Benoit. AMC retired this sequence on October 4, 2002.


October 7, 2002 - May 28, 2004[4]
The Srapbook

On October 7, 2002, after nearly eight years of the previous sequence, a new one made its debut. The first AMC episode with the Scrapbook opening debuted on October 7, 2002. It featured the photo album, but unlike the other sequences, the photo album was constantly seen throughout. It began with a closeup of the album (with the title on the cover) as it opened. The Agnes Nixon epigram is seen on the front page, but the screen fades into the montage of cast member images, all done in live action. The photos were already on their pages in the album and as each face was shown, the name of the character was scrawled on their page in the book, similar to what many people do with their own family scrapbooks. Yet again, Susan Lucci is paid homage by being at the end of both formats of this sequence. This time, however, she shared that honor with David Canary, as he was in both sequences as well, as Adam Chandler in one and Stuart in the other. The theme that accompanied this sequence was a much-loved update of the 1990-1995 theme originally composed by Billy Barber, this time with contributions by Robert Israel. There were two music versions of this sequence, the first of which was a quiet, fast tempo that lasted for two weeks when it was replaced by a more dramatic theme. An alternate theme debuted in 2003 and was used occasionally until 2004.


May 31, 2004–present[5]
The Family Album

After barely a year and a half of the previous opening, the show debuted another on May 31, 2004. This opening was styled after the commercial break bumpers that were present on all of ABC's serials at the time. One Life to Live and General Hospital's openings were done in similar ways to the All My Children opening.

The new opening generated mixed opinions from the audience. The pros of it were that many pictures from the show's past, including montages of classic Susan Lucci and Ruth Warrick headshots and a wedding portrait from Edmund and Maria's 1994 wedding, was seen at the beginning. Also in favor was the updated version of the classic early 1990s theme song. Cons were Ryan's image was after Erica's, which many felt that place belonged to Alicia Minshew's Kendall. The All My Children book letter font was in Monotype Corsiva rather than the traditional Old English Text and the book was in a different red hue. This was also the first time that the show's name was written on a single line, as opposed to the usual three lines. In December 2006, a slightly modified version of the theme debuted and is still in use.


Closing Credits[6]

For the first 12 years of All My Children, the closing credits used the format of a single mimed scene of one or more characters engaging in an activity or interacting with each other, usually only on a single set. Credits would always scroll over the scene, and would feature the full cast list after production principals on some days, while a full crew list would appear on others. Occasionally, as is still the case to this very day, full cast & crew would run if enough time allotted. As with most soaps, this entire credit list was known for running especially on holiday episodes.

During the entire time All My Children used mimed scenes for the closings, thin, regular Craw Clarendon font, in white, was used. In the era in which the show debuted, this font was commonly used on two other ABC soaps, General Hospital and One Life to Live. OLTL was also an Agnes Nixon production, under her Creative Horizons company, which explains the similar cosmetic look between that soap and All My Children. GH, however, had been completely purchased by ABC come the early 1970s, but had always used Craw Clarendon Condensed font as opposed to the regular variant of the type utilized on OLTL and AMC. Both programs saw their closing sequence formats go unchanged even after Ms. Nixon sold them to ABC entirely, in 1975. By 1978, the Craw Clarendon used on AMC became smaller and thinly embossed, but by that same year the program was the only one still using the font, as OLTL's credit setup changed at that time. It should also be noted that beginning in the late 1970s, the scrolling cast list went from being completely centered to displaying character names on the left side of the screen, while actors' names were positioned on the right. Copyright notice first appeared on AMC in 1980; it appeared in small Arial font under the "Videotaped at ABC Television Center in New York" credit until 1982.

Sometime in 1982, AMC experienced its first major credits overhaul. The single scenes minus dialogue were replaced with a series of different live action scenes from the episode just aired. The credit font changed at this time to Brittanica Bold for actors and crew members, and small Arial for character names and production titles. Subsequently, the cast list now scrolled completely on the left hand side, and a closing display of the show's title now appeared above the copyright notice. The Arial-type copyright notice continued until no later than April 1983, when All My Children became the first ABC daytime program to implement a network-mandated copyright, set in a variation of italicized Century Gothic font. This copyright had been introduced on all ABC News programs, daytime and nighttime, a couple of years earlier. With the introduction of this notice format, "All Rights Reserved" was added to the copyright for the first time, and it originally contained the word "Copyright" before the symbol; it would be removed by early 1984. This mandate subsequently made its way to all other ABC daytime programs over the next year (with the exception of General Hospital, which has traditionally been allowed different credit and branding practices by ABC).

Thereafter, AMC's credits continued to see periodic alterations, especially as Agnes Nixon began handing over the show to new executive producers for the first time (all of which she hired herself, starting with Jacqueline Babbin). By 1985, the credits became super-embossed with black shadowing, whereas previously it had been minimal. In early 1987, the cast list reverted to running centered on the screen, for the first time since the late 1970s. At this point, the credit portions running in Arial type disappeared, leaving the entire setup in Brittanica font. Not long after Felicia Minei Behr became the new executive producer in early 1989, black embossment on the credits was toned down, and the credit setup now once again only displayed Brittanica font for the title, actors' names and crew names; the production titles and character names were now set in thin Helvetica. These latest changes would remain until the last month of Ms. Behr's seven-year tenure at AMC, in early 1996.

In March 1996, standard closing credit sequences that ran daily came to an end on AMC for the most part, as they did on all other ABC soaps. Credits now ran in a quick, condensed form, carded over stills from that day's episode. The font was switched from the long-running Brittanica/Helvetica combo to Windsor type, especially for this change.

Cast and characters

Ratings

For historical ratings information, see List of US daytime soap opera ratings

1970s ratings

1978-1979 Season (HH Ratings)

1980s ratings

1979-1980 Season (HH Ratings) (Nielsen)

1981-1982 Season (HH Ratings)

  • 1. General Hospital 11.2
  • 2. All My Children 9.4

Highest rated week in daytime history
(Week of November 16-November 20, 1981) (HH ratings)

  • 1. General Hospital 16.0 (3-4pm)
  • 2. All My Children 10.2 (1-2pm) (#2 in viewers)
  • 2. One Life to Live 10.2 (2-3pm) (#3 in viewers)
  • 4. Guiding Light 7.4 (3-4pm)
  • 5. The Young And The Restless 7.0 (12:30-1:30pm)
 

1982-1983 Season

  • 1. General Hospital 9.8
  • 2. All My Children 9.4

1983-1984 Season

  • 1. General Hospital 10.0
  • 2. All My Children 9.1

1984-1985 Season

  • 1. General Hospital 9.1
  • 2. All My Children 8.2

1985-1986 Season (HH Ratings)

  • 1. General Hospital 9.2
  • 3. All My Children 8.0
 

1986-1987 Season

  • 1. General Hospital 8.3
  • 4. All My Children 7.0

1987-1988 Season

  • 1. General Hospital 8.1 (#1 in viewers)
  • 1. The Young and the Restless 8.1 (#2 in viewers)
  • 3. One Life to Live 7.7
  • 4. All My Children 7.7 (#3 in viewers)

1988-1989 Season (HH Ratings)

  • 1. The Young and the Restless 8.1
  • 4. All My Children 6.7

1990s ratings

1989-1990 Season (HH Ratings) (1 = 921,000 Homes)

  • 1. The Young and the Restless 8.0
  • 3. All My Children 6.5

1990-1991 Season (HH Ratings)

  • 1. The Young and the Restless 8.1
  • 3. All My Children 6.6

1991-1992 Season (HH Ratings)

  • 1. The Young and the Restless 8.2
  • 2. All My Children 6.8

1992-1993 Season (HH Ratings)

  • 1. The Young and the Restless 8.4
  • 2. All My Children 7.3

1993-1994 Season (HH Ratings) (1 = 942,000 Homes)

  • 1. The Young and the Restless 8.6
  • 2. All My Children 6.6
 

1994-1995 Season (HH Ratings)

  • 1. The Young and the Restless 7.5
  • 2. All My Children 6.1

1995 Ratings (Millions of Viewers)

1995-1996 Season (HH Ratings)

  • 1. The Young and the Restless 7.7
  • 4. All My Children 5.3

1996-1997 Season

  • 1. The Young and the Restless 7.1
  • 5. All My Children 4.7
 

1997-1998 Season

  • 1. The Young and the Restless 7.0
  • 5. All My Children 4.2

1998-1999 Season (HH Ratings)

  • 1. The Young and the Restless 6.9
  • 5. All My Children 3.9

2000s ratings

1999-2000 Season (HH Ratings) (Nielsen)

2000-2001 Season

2001-2002 Season

2002-2003 Season

 

2003-2004 Season

2004-2005 Season

2005-2006 Season (HH Ratings)

2006-2007 Season (HH Ratings)

2007-2008 Season (HH Ratings)

2008-2009 Season

  • 1. Young & The Restless 3.7
  • 2. Bold & Beautiful 2.6
  • 3. Days of our Lives 2.2
  • 4. General Hospital 2.1
  • 5. All My Children 2.0
  • 5. One Life To Live 2.0
  • 7. As The World Turns 1.9
  • 8. Guiding Light 1.6

Record lows

The show reached a record low of 1,931,000 viewers on Friday, August 22, 2008. Its previous low was 2,080,000 viewers on Tuesday, September 30, 2008 and 2,144,000 viewers on Friday, November 2, 2007. (Nielsen Media Research)

Scheduling history

All My Children currently airs Monday through Friday at 1 p.m. eastern (12 p.m. central) on ABC. Encores are aired on SOAPnet in primetime at 8 p.m. (7 p.m.), late nights at 1 a.m. (12 a.m.), and early mornings at 7 a.m. (6 a.m.). The week's episodes air in a marathon on Sunday nights at 12 a.m. (11 p.m.).

From January 1970 to July 1975, the show aired for thirty minutes at 1 p.m. (12 p.m.), but when the new Ryan's Hope premiered, All My Children was bumped up a half-hour to 12:30 p.m. (11:30 a.m.). It returned to its original timeslot in January 1977 and has been there since, expanding to sixty minute episodes on Monday, April 25, 1977.

International broadcasting

In Australia, All My Children airs on free to air channel 7Two at 1pm weekdays. 7Two are currently airing episodes from 2007.

In Italy, All My Children, under the title La valle dei pini (Pine Valley), started to air on Canale 5 in september 1985 at 2.30 A.M. , with episodes four years behind the U.S. In january 1987 it was moved to another channel, Rete 4, always at 2.30 A.M. . At the end of the decade, La valle dei pini began airing in late afternoon (and from september 1990 with only half U.S. episode each evening), after a bunch of latin american telenovelas and before General Hospital. Then, in september 1991 the show was moved to 9.00 A.M. . All my children was cancelled in may 1992, with episodes at that time six years behind the U.S..

All My Children is broadcast in South Africa every weekday at 3:00 pm CAT, after previously being aired at 10:30 am. Episodes are currently four years behind.

All My Children currently airs on A 12 PM PT,1 PM ET in Canada. AMC was also previously seen on Citytv stations in Calgary CKAL-TV,Edmonton CKEM-TV,and Winnipeg CHMI-TV. Prior to 1998 All My Children aired on the CBC Television network.

In Solomon Islands was aired on Solomon Islands Broadcasting Corporation Mondays to Friday at 1:00pm.

Awards and nominations

Here is the list of the winners at the Daytime Emmy Awards; the show and its performers have been nominated in excess of 250 times.

Show

  • 1981 "Outstanding Drama Series Writing Team"
  • 1988 "Outstanding Drama Series Writing Team"
  • 1992 "Outstanding Drama Series"
  • 1994 "Outstanding Drama Series"
  • 1995 "Outstanding Drama Series Directing Team"
  • 1995 "Outstanding Technical Direction/Electronic Camera/Video Control"
  • 1995 "Outstanding Live and Tape Sound Mixing and Sound Effects"
  • 1996 "Outstanding Drama Series Writing Team"
  • 1997 "Outstanding Drama Series Writing Team"
  • 1998 "Outstanding Drama Series"
  • 1998 "Outstanding Drama Series Writing Team"
  • 1998 "Outstanding Makeup"
  • 1998 "Outstanding Multiple Camera Editing"
  • 1998 "Outstanding Live and Direct To Tape Sound Mixing"
  • 1999 "Outstanding Music Direction And Composition"
  • 2001 "Outstanding Achievement in Multiple Camera Editing"
  • 2001 "Outstanding Achievement in Hairstyling"
  • 2002 "Outstanding Achievement in Casting"
  • 2002 "Outstanding Achievement in Costume Design"
  • 2002 "Outstanding Achievement in Technical Direction/Electronic Camera/Video Control"
  • 2002 "Outstanding Achievement in Music Direction and Composition"
  • 2003 "Outstanding Drama Series Directing Team"
  • 2005 "Outstanding Achievement in Music Direction and Composition for a Drama Series" (tied with One Life to Live)
  • 2007 "Outstanding Achievement In Technical Direction/Electronic Camera/Video Control"
  • 2008 "Outstanding Achievement in Technical Direction/ Electronic Camera/ Video Control"
  • 2009 "Outstanding Art Direction/Set Decoration/Scenic Design"
  • 2009 "Outstanding Lighting Direction"
  • 2009 "Outstanding Live & Direct To Tape Sound Mixing"
  • 2009 "Outstanding Technical Direction/Electronic Camera/Video Control" (tied with The Young and the Restless)

Individuals

In 2010, All My Children was nominated for a GLAAD Media Award for "Outstanding Daily Drama" during the 21st GLAAD Media Awards.[57]

Executive producers and head writers

Executive producers

Duration Name
January 5, 1970 to 1978 Agnes Nixon
and Bud Kloss
1978 to 1982 Agnes Nixon
and Jorn Winther
1982 to January 1986 Jacqueline Babbin [7]
January 1986 to March 1986 Jorn Winther
March 1986 to January 1989 Stephen Schenkel
January 1989 to April 1996 Felicia Minei Behr
April 1996 to April 1998 Francesca James
April 1998 to September 2003 Jean Dadario Burke
September 19, 2003 to October 24, 2003 Casey Childs
October 25, 2003 to present Julie Hanan Carruthers

Head writers

Duration Name
1970 to 1983 Agnes Nixon
1983 to 1986 Wisner Washam
1986 to 1987 Wisner Washam & Lorraine Broderick
1987 to 1989 Lorraine Broderick
January 1989 to March 1989 Lorraine Broderick & Victor Miller
March 1989 to December 1989 Margaret DePriest
December 1989 to May 1992 Agnes Nixon
May 1992 to April 1995 Megan McTavish and Agnes Nixon
April 1995 to June 1995 Agnes Nixon
June 1995 to December 1997 Lorraine Broderick
December 1997 to February 1999 Megan McTavish
February 1999 to June 1999 Agnes Nixon
June 1999 to November 1999 Elizabeth Page, Agnes Nixon and Jean Passanante
November 1999 to January 2001 Agnes Nixon and Jean Passanante
January 2001-May 2001 Jean Passanante
May 2001-May 2001 Jean Passanante and Michael Conforti
May 2001-August 2001 Jean Passanante
August 2001-September 2001 No Headwriter was credited at this time
September 2001 to December 2002 Richard Culliton
December 2002 to March 2003 Gordon Rayfield
March 2003 to June 2003 Gordon Rayfield and Anna Cascio
July 2003 to February 2007 Megan McTavish
May 2007 to July 25, 2007 No Head Writer Credited
July 26, 2007 to January 14, 2008 James Harmon Brown and Barbara Esensten
January 15, 2008 to January 30, 2008 Julie Hanan Carruthers and Brian Frons (WGA strike)
January 31, 2008 to August 26, 2008 James Harmon Brown and Barbara Esensten
August 27, 2008 to November 20, 2009 Charles Pratt, Jr.
November 22, 2009 to March 12, 2010 Lorraine Broderick (interim)
March 15, 2010 - Present David Kreizman and Donna Swajeski

Directors

Jill Ackles, Larry Auerbach, James A. Baffico, Jack Coffey, Jean Dadario Burke, Christopher Goutman, Sherrell Hoffman, Del Hughes, Henry Kaplan, Andrew Lee, Robert Scinto, Susan Simon, Diana B. Wenman

Producers

Felicia Minei Behr, Jean Dadario Burke, Michael Laibson, Heidi Adam, Terry Cacavio,Thomas DeVilliers, Lisa Connor, Linda Laundra, Stephen Schenkel, Nancy Horwich

Writers

Neal Bell, Clarice Blackburn, Bettina F. Bradbury, Craig Carlson, Cathy Chicos, Hal Corley, Christina Covino, Carolyn Culliton, William Delligan, Judith Donato, Caroline Franz, Sharon Epstein, Charlotte Gibson, David Hiltrand, Janet Iacobuzio, Anita Jaffe, Frederick Johnson, Susan Kirshenbaum, Kathleen Klein, N. Gail Lawrence, Mimi Leahy, Kathleen Klein, Karen Lewis, Taylor Miller, Victor Miller, Jane Owen Murphy, Juliet Law Packer, Michelle Patrick, John PiRoman, Pete T. Rich, John Saffron, Courtney Simon, Peggy Sloan, Elizabeth Smith, Gillian Spencer, Millee Taggart, Ralph Wakefield, Elizabeth Wallace, Addie Walsh, Mary K. Wells, Jack Wood, Rodney Christopher, Laura Siggia, Moses Thomas Greene, Wisner Washam

Current crew

Writers Producers/Consultants Directors
Lorraine Broderick, Tara Walsh, Chip Hayes, Kate Hall, Joanna Cohen, Rebecca Taylor, Jeff Beldner, Addie Walsh, Tracey Thomson Julie Hanan Carruthers (Executive Producer), Karen Johnson, Nadine Aronson, Barry Gingold, Joann Busiglio, Enza Dolce, Brian Frons Casey Childs, Steven Williford, Conal O'Brien, Angela Tessinari, Barbara M. Simmons, Jill Ackles, Michael V. Pomarico, Francesca James, Shelley Curtis, Judy Blye Wilson

Merchandising

The game company TSR, Inc. introduced the All My Children game in 1985, based on the daytime drama. The game sold more than 150,000 copies.[58]

DVD

A DVD was released on January 24, 2004 titled Daytime's Greatest Weddings which contained All My Children and other daytime soaps' weddings.[59]

References

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  2. ^ http://www.soaps.com/allmychildren/news/id/6548/
  3. ^ H.W. Wilson Company (1986). Current Biography. H.W. Wilson Company. pp. 128 (specific page). 
  4. ^ HARRISON, NANCY (1991-06-23). "Susan Lucci, 11 Times a Nominee, 8 Times a Bride, Up for Emmy Again". The New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9D0CE0DE123BF930A15755C0A967958260. Retrieved 2007-10-27. 
  5. ^ Wakefield, D: "All Her Children", page 115. Doubleday & Company, 1976
  6. ^ [http: http://www.soapcentral.com/amc/news/2009/0803-moving_02.php "Rumor no more: All My Children relocating to Los Angeles"]. Soapcentral.com. August 4, 2009. http: http://www.soapcentral.com/amc/news/2009/0803-moving_02.php. Retrieved August 4, 2009. 
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  8. ^ http://daytimeconfidential.com/2009/08/04/all-my-children-and-one-life-to-live-to-go-hd-and-get-more-space-as-part-of-relocation/
  9. ^ Sex and Suffering in the Afternoon - TIME
  10. ^ a b c d "NIXON, AGNES. U.S. Writer-Producer". museum.tv. http://www.museum.tv/archives/etv/N/htmlN/nixonagnes/nixonagnes.htm. Retrieved 2007-07-06. 
  11. ^ Lenhart, Jennifer. "The Last Taboo". Soap Opera Digest. http://www.soapoperadigest.com/features/special/lasttaboo/. Retrieved 2007-07-04. 
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  15. ^ Di Lauro, Janet. "Supercouples: A Relic From the '80s or Still Alive and Kissing?". soapoperadigest.com. http://soapoperadigest.com/features/supercouples/. Retrieved 2007-09-06. 
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