|Mayor||Mr Jitendr Nath Singh|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+05:30)|
• 98 m (322 ft)
Allahabad (Hindi: इलाहाबाद, Urdu: اللہآباد), or City of God, also known as Prayag (Hindi: प्रयाग, Urdu: پریاگ), is a city in the North Indian state of Uttar Pradesh and administrative headquarters of Allahabad District. The ancient name of the city is Aggra (Sanskrit for "place of sacrifice") and is believed to be the spot where Brahma offered his first sacrifice after creating the world. It is one of four sites of the mass Hindu pilgrimage Kumbh Mela, the others being Haridwar, Ujjain and Nashik. It has a position of importance in Hindu scriptures for it is situated at the confluence, known as Triveni Sangam, of the holy rivers Ganges and Yamuna, and Hindu belief says that the invisible Sarasvati River also joins here.
Many government offices are present in the city such as the Allahabad High Court, the Principal Accountant General Office (AG office), the Uttar Pradesh Public Service Commission Office, Uttar Pradesh Police Head Quarters (PHQ), headquarters of the North Central Railway, the Regional Office of the Central Board of Secondary Education and the Uttar Pradesh Board of High School and Intermediate Education.
Allahabad is associated with 7 out of 14 Prime Ministers of India. Jawaharlal Nehru, Lal Bahadur Shastri, Indira Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi, Gulzarilal Nanda, Vishwanath Pratap Singh and Chandra Shekhar were all either born in Allahabad, were alumni of Allahabad University or got elected from a constituency in Allahabad.
The Government of India has selected Allahabad as one of the mission cities for the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission(JNNURM), with the goals of improving urban infrastructure, efficient governance and basic services to urban citizens.
The name is derived from the one given to the city by the Mughal Emperor Akbar in 1583. The name in Indian languages generally is Ilāhābād; ilah being Arabic for "(a) god" (in this context from Din-i-Ilahi, the religion founded by Akbar), and "-ābād" is Persian for "to construct or to create", which explains the meaning of the name Illahabad as "God's creation" or "City of God".
For natives of India, Prayag and the district of Kaushambi were important parts of their territory. The area became a part of the Mauryan and Gupta empires of the east and the Kushan empire of the west before becoming part of the Kannauj empire.
Allahabad became a part of the Mughal Empire after their invasion of India in 1526. The Mughal emperor Akbar built a magnificent fort in Allahabad. The city was the scene of Maratha incursions before colonial rule was imposed over India.
In 1931, at Alfred Park in Allahabad, the revolutionary Chandrashekhar Azad killed himself when surrounded by the British Police. In the years of the struggle for Indian independence, the Nehru family homes of Anand Bhavan and Swaraj Bhavan, both in Allahabad, were at the center of the political activities of the Indian National Congress. Thousands of satyagrahis (nonviolent resistors) went to jail. The first Prime Minister of India, Jawaharlal Nehru, was a native of Allahabad.
Allahabad is located at Uttar Pradesh at an elevation of 98 metres (322 ft) and stands at the confluence of the Ganges and Yamuna rivers. The region was known in antiquity as the Vats country. To its southwest is the Bundelkhand region, to its east and southeast is the Bagelkhand region, to its north and northeast is the Awadh region and to its west is the lower Doab region.in the southern part of the
Allahabad stands at a strategic point both geographically and culturally. An important part of the Ganges-Yamuna Doab region, it is the last point of the Yamuna River and is the last frontier of the Indian west.
The land of the Allahabad district that falls between the Ganges and Yamuna is just like the rest of Doab, fertile but not too moist, and is especially suitable for the cultivation of wheat. The non-doabi parts of the district, which are the southern and eastern part of the district, are somewhat similar to those of adjoining Bundelkhand and Bagelkhand regions - dry and rocky.
The Indian longitude that is associated with Jabalpur also passes through Allahabad, which is 343 km (213 mi) north of Jabalpur on the same longitude.
The Allahabad division and the district underwent a major reorganisation in the year 2000. The Etawah and Farrukhabad districts of the Allahabad division were merged with the Agra division, while Kanpur dehat was carved out from the Kanpur district and a separate Kanpur division was created.
Allahabad City has a population of 1,042,229 as per the 2001 census. It lists as the 32nd most populous city in India. Allahabad has an area of about 70 km2 (27 sq mi) and is 98 m (322 ft) above sea level.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Allahabad experiences three seasons: hot dry summer, cool dry winter and warm humid monsoon. The summer season lasts from April to June with the maximum temperatures ranging from 40 °C (104 °F) to 45 °C (113 °F). Monsoon begins in early July and lasts till September. The winter season lasts from December to February. Temperatures rarely drop to the freezing point. Maximum temperatures are around 22 °C (72 °F) and minimum around 10 °C (50 °F). Allahabad also witnesses severe fog in January resulting in massive traffic and travel delays. It does not snow in Allahabad.
Lowest temperature recorded, −2 °C (28.4 °F) −2 °C; highest 48 °C (118 °F) 48 °C.
Municipal Corporation of Allahabad (also called Allahabad Nagar Nigam), is one of the old municipalities of the state. The corporation came into existence in 1864, when Lucknow Municipal Act was passed by Government of India. City municipal area is divided in total 80 wards and a member (the Corporator) from each ward is elected to form the Municipal Committee. The Corporators elect the Mayor of city. The chief executive is the Commissioner of Allahabad who is appointed by the state government.
Allahabad is situated at the confluence of the Ganges and Yamuna rivers. It encompasses a large area and is an inland peninsula surrounded by rivers on three sides with only one side connected to the mainland. Because of this fact, to handle growing traffic and connectivity demands, Allahabad has many bridges crossing rivers the Ganges and Yamuna.
The urban area of city can be classified into three categories. The Old City is economic center of city. This is a high density area where major roads are used as transport corridors as well as market streets. The newer city around Civil Lines area, was conceived during British rule. This area is well planned on gridiron road pattern with additional diagonal roads, making it an efficient city. It is a low density area with wide tree-lined avenues. It houses major educational institutions, the High Court, Uttar Pradesh public service commission, offices, gardens and cantonment areas. It also has shopping malls and multiplexes, namely, Atlantis Mall, SALASAR mall, and Vinayak City Centre Mall. The outer growth areas include satellite towns along major highways passing through cities. It also includes city areas trans Ganges and Yamuna. Many real estate developers are investing in Allahabad, prominent being Omaxe Ltd. A hi-tech city with an area of 1535 acres is being built in the satellite city of Naini.
There are several sports complexes that can be used by both amateurs and professionals. These include the Madan Mohan Malaviya Cricket stadium, Mayo Hall Sports Complex and the Boys' High School & College Gymnasium. There is an international level swimming complex at georgetown .There is a famous national sports academy at jhalwa[allahabad west] which produces world class gymnasts,the academy has been chosen as the flagbearer of indian gymnastic in forthcoming commonwealth games.
Some places of interests in Allahabad are:
All Saints Cathedral, designed by great English architect William Emerson who also designed Victoria Memorial of Calcutta. This cathedral is the most beautiful building in city. Styled in 13th Century Gothic architecture, building's interior is more beautiful than its exterior with high ceilings and stone Gothic arches.
Muir College (1874), designed by William Emerson, in Indo-Saracenic architecture, an excellent mix of Gothic and Indian architectural elements. Its foundation was laid in 1874 and opened in 1886. It has an arcade quadrangle, which is dominated, by a 200 feet minaret tower in cream coloured sandstone from Mirzapur with marble and mosaic floors. The domes of the Indo-Saracenic structure are clad in Multan glazed tiles.
University Science Faculty buildings have classical architectural designs and have strong Victorian and Islamic style architectural influences.
Allahabad High Court (1916) - Chief Justice, Sir John Staley laid the foundation in 1911. It was finally completed in 1916 and opened by Viceroy Lord Chelmsford. Designed by Frank Lishman. this structure is subtly adapted to the climate as is evident from the double roofing with tiles from Allahabad on top to beat the summer heat. Conceived in a grand fashion, it has a domed pediment centre, arcade wings, stone balustrades and engrained arches. It reflects a beautiful synthesis of Eastern and Western architectural styles.
Public Library (1864)- Standing at Alfred Park it is a beautiful building designed by R.Roskell Rayne. This public library is another remarkable example of Gothic Style. The memorial has a lofty tower and accorded cloisters.
The Old High Court and Public Offices - They are four-storied block. Made of sandstone and ashore these were built by Colonel Pile in I 870 in the classical style. The Minto Park to the west of the ton has a Memorial Pillar enriched with Royal medallions and four lions carrying the Imperial coronet. This was a memorial pillar to the Royal Proclamation of the assumption of rule by the British crown in 1858. The Municipal Museum adjoining the library is yet another colonial structure that is a treasure-trove of archaeological artifacts.
The new Yamuna bridge built jointly by Hindustan Construction Company and Hyundai Engineering and Construction, is India's first cable stayed four lane road bridge in India, representing modern design structure. This large bridge has two pylons made of concrete, which support a large part of bridge deck with the help of attached steel cables.
Allahabad is served by the Allahabad Airport (Bamrauli Air Force Base) (IXD) and is linked to Delhi and Kolkata (Calcutta) by JetLite and Air India Regional. Other larger airports in the vicinity are at Varanasi (Varanasi Airport 142 km (88 mi)) and Lucknow (Amausi International Airport 210 km (130 mi)).
National Highway 2, one of the Golden Quadrilateral routes, runs through middle of the city. Allahabad is located in between Delhi and Kolkata on this highway. National Highway 96 connects to NH 28 at Faizabad. Another is National Highway 27 which is 93 km (58 mi) long and starts from Allahabad and ends at Mangawan in Madhya Pradesh connecting to National Highway 7. A four lane access controlled bypass road of 84.7 km aided by World Bank is nearing its completion. This will not only reduce transport constraints but will also de-congest heavy transport traffic passing through middle of city. There are other state highways that link Allahabad to all other parts of the country. Allahabad has two bus stations catering to different routes - at Leader Road and Civil Lines. A number of road bridges on rivers Ganges and Yamuna have been built to connect Allahabad with its suburb towns like Naini, Jhusi etc. A new eight lane access controlled expressway - Ganga Expressway is also proposed to pass through Allahabad. A 8 laned outer ring road is proposed in the allahabad district.city buses Tourist taxis, auto rickshaws (or tempos) are available for local transport. There is also a local bus service that connects various parts of the city. But the most convenient method of local transport is the cycle rickshaw.
Served by Indian Railways, Allahabad is the headquarters of the North Central Railway Zone, and is well connected by trains with all major cities, namely, Kolkata, Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Hyderabad, Indore, Lucknow, Bhopal, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Bangalore and Jaipur. Allahabad has eight railway stations with in its city limits namely Prayag , Allahabad City (Rambagh), Daraganj, Allahabad Junction, Naini Jn, Prayag Ghat, Subedar Ganj & Bamrauli.
Allahabad attracts students and learners from all over country. Allahabad has one central university, three deemed universities, research and technical institutions and colleges known for providing higher education in vast range of disciplines. Few of the reputed ones can be listed as following.
There are many government aided and private schools and colleges in Allahabad which are affiliated with either the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE), the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE), or the UP Board of High School and Intermediate Education. Allahabad is one of the regional divisions of CBSE and head office of UP Board of High School and Intermediate Education. English is the medium of instructions in most private schools while government aided schools and colleges offer both Hindi and English medium education. Bishop Johnson School & College, St Joseph's College, Boys' High School and College, Maharshi Patanjali Vidya Mandir, Delhi Public School, St Mary's Convent School, Girls' High School, Government Intermediate College and Colonelganj Intermediate College, Bethany Convent School are some of the reputed schools in city.
To cater needs of vocational, technical and professional education in rural areas of Allahabad and nearby districts, the Ministry of HRD, Government of India has recently started another university named at Dubawal village of Allahabad. The university currently offers academic programs at graduate and post graduate levels in various disciplines including Arts, Commerce, Science, Education (as subject), Law, Management, Rural Development, Master of Social Works, Computer Applications, Journalism etc.
Allahabad has glass and wire related industries. The main industrial area of Allahabad is Naini and phoolpur,where several public and private sector companies have their units, offices and factories. These include Areva T&D India (a division of multinational Areva Group), Indian Telephone Industry (ITI), Bharat Pumps and Compressors Limited (BPCL), Reliance Industries - Allahabad Manufacturing Division, Hindustan Cables, Triveni Structurals Limited (TSL, a subsidiary of Bharat Yantra Nigam), Glass Factory etc.Baidyanath has its factory in naini .There is also production of cements in allahabad.
Indian Farmers Fertilizer Co-Operative IFFCO is situated in the Phulpur area. IFFCO's Phulpur complex has two production units and is the world’s largest fertilser complex based on naphtha as feed stock.
Noorani Oil is a pain and massage oil manufactured by Rahat Industries in Naini.
Allahabad has a prominent place in Indian gymnastics. It is the leading team in SAARC and Asian countries. Khelgaon Public School at Jhalwa, Allahabad provides training in gymnastics; its gymnasts won two gold and three silver medals at 33rd Tulit Peter Memorial Cup-2007 held in Hungary. The hockey player Dhyan Chand was born on August 29, 1906, in Allahabad; he won gold medals in three successive Olympic games: Amsterdam (1928), Los Angeles (1932) and Berlin (1936). Mohammed Kaif, the Indian cricket player, is from Allahabad. Another prominent sporting personality is Abhinn Shyam Gupta who won the national title of badminton in 2002.
Swarn Bhushan Singh (POET)
Allahabad is among the largest cities in Uttar Pradesh. Hindu mythology has it that for the Prakrishta Yaina, Lord Brahma, the creator God of the Trinity, chose a land on earth, on which the three rivers would flow in to a quiet confluence. Brahma also referred to it as Tirth Raj or the King of all pilgrimage centres. Recorded evidence also exists in the revered scriptures (the Vedas and the grand epics, the Ramayana and the Mahabharata, as also in the Puranas) of this holy place formerly called Prayag. Allahabad stands at the confluence of two of India's holiest rivers, the Ganga and the Yamuna. Sangam, as the confluence is called, is the venue of many sacred fairs and rituals, and attracts thousands of pilgrims throughout the year. This number swells to millions during the world-famous Kumbh Mela. An annual Magh Mela is also held in Allahabad around the Sangam areas in the month of January (Magh is the name of month in Hindu calendar). A third mythical Saraswati river, believed to flow underground towards the Sangam, gives the confluence its other name, Triveni.
Emperor Akbar founded this city in 1575 and called it by name of Illahabas, which has now become modern Allahabad. The monarch realized its strategic importance as a waterway landmark in North India and also built a magnificent fort on the banks of the holy Sangam.
Over the centuries that followed, Allahabad remained on the forefront of national importance, more so during the days of the Indian independence struggle. The chequered history of Allahabad with its religious, cultural and historical ethos also gave rise to several renowned scholars (M. N. Saha, Harishchandra, Ravindra Khattree, Amar Nath Jha), poets (Suryakant Tripathi Nirala, Mahadevi Verma, Harivansh Rai Bachchan, Sumitra Nandan Panth), writers (Mahadevi Verma, Ramkumar Verma, Jagdish Gupta), thinkers (Purusottam Das Tandon), statesmen and leaders (Motilal Nehru, Jawaharlala Nehru, Murli Manohar Joshi, Amitabh Bachchan).
The city being an important cantonment during the British Raj has some beautiful remnants of colonial architecture. In the early 20th century, Allahabad University was the foremost center of learning in the country. Allahabad, today is an important city where history, culture and religion create a confluence, much like the sacred rivers that caress this God-graced land.
Allahabad used to have a thriving industrial suburb (Naini) till the 1980s, but then those public sector units started closing down one by one, forcing entire generations of young educated Allahabadis to migrate out of the city in search of work. Today, Allahabad is slowly inching along in its dream to be an IT hub. And the government adminsitrative offices remain alive and kicking.
In Allahabad, you can enjoy
Best way to reach Allahabad, if you are coming from outside India, is to take a direct flight to Delhi and then take one of the numerous connecting trains from Delhi to Allahabad. The Kolkata Rajdhani express, though a better train, lands at a very odd hour in Allahabad (2343 hrs IST) from Delhi which can be inconvenient for Allahabad being a really quiet place at night. Best train from Delhi to Allahabad is the PrayagRaj Express (Train No. 2418) which leaves from New Delhi Railway Station at 2130 hrs IST and arrives in Allahabad at 0630 hrs IST next day. The train runs every day.
There is a direct flight to Allahabad offered by Jetlite (fomerly Air Sahara) and Indian Airlines from Delhi. The nearest better-connected airport is Varanasi, 120 kms away (2.5 hours by road on NH-2).
Allahabad is situated on the trunk train route from Delhi to Kolkata and from Mumbai to Kolkata, so it is well-connected by trains. Innumerable trains stop at Allahabad. The city has four railway stations, Daragang (near the confluence of the rivers Ganga and Yamuna), Prayag (near the University), Rambagh (city centre), and Allahabad Junction (the main station). In addition, another temparary railway station known as Prayagraj (to be distinguished from Prayag) is used during important religious festivals for the better management and control of extra pilgrim traffic on those occasions.
Allahabad is on NH2 and NH27 and is, therefore, well connected by road. Several buses ply to and from nearby cities and towns.
Hire a cyclerickshaw. It is the cheapest, best and most widely available means of transport. You will have to haggle for the prices, though.
Auto Rickshaws(3-Wheelers) are also a cheap modes of travel inside the city.
City buses are available on certain routes but their arrivals and deaprtures are unpredictable.
A dip in the holy Sangam of the Ganga, Yamuna and the mythical Saraswati is a must for the spiritually inclined. Sangam is a Sanskrit word for confluence. It is a sacred holy site for Hindus. According to Vedic literature and myths it is called Triveni Sangam because three rivers meet up here namely the holy Ganga, Yamuna and mythical Saraswati which is believed to be flowing beneath the surface. At the time of churning of sea (Samudra Manthan) by Gods (Suras) and the Demons (Asuras) few drops of amrita (holy nectar that makes a mortal immortal) fell at four different parts of the subcontinent during a fight between Gods and Demons over it. That places are Hardwar, Nasik, Prayag and Ujjain and are considered holy and MahaKumbha Mela is organised once in 12 years. Billions of pilgrims, tourists, ascetics, sadhu/sant (holy men) visit Prayag at the time of month long Kumbha for taking holy dip at sangam and perform religious rituals and ceremonies. Also Magh Mela is organised annually on January-February(Magh month of Hindu Calendar) and millions visit to take holy dip at Sangam.
Lok Nath is a good place for delicious food items of Pure Desi Ghee.
Budget options include:
Pubs are non-existent. A place that comes closest to being a pub is on the top floor of the Kanha Shyam hotel in Civil Lines. Some restaurants, like Hasty Tasty restaurant, Hotel Milan, Hotel Regency, and the Tourist Bungalow, all situated in Civil Lines, offer chilled beer and liquor. However, most other restaurants do not have liquor on their menu. Drinking in public is frowned upon, drinking in family restaurants is not allowed at all.
Women need to dress conservatively else be prepared for lewd comments and stares. Other than that, the basic rules of common sense apply - do not accept food from strangers, do not flash your money etc.
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ALLAHABAD, a city of British India, the capital of the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh, giving its name to a district and a division. The city is situated at the confluence of the Ganges and the Jumna in 25°26' N. lat. and 81°50' E. long., 564 Ir. from Calcutta by rail. Its most conspicuous feature is the fort, which rises directly from. the banks of the confluent rivers aid completely commands the navigation of both streams. Within the fort are the remains of a splendid palace, erected by the Emperor Akbar, and once a favourite residence of his. A great portion of it has been destroyed, and its hall is converted into an arsenal. Outside the fort the places of most importance are the sarai and gardens of Khasru, the son of the Emperor Jehangir, and the Jama Masjid or Great Mosque. When the town first came into the hands of the English this mosque was used as a residence by the military officer commanding the station, and afterwards as an assembly room. Ultimately it was returned to its former owners, but the Mahommedans considered it desecrated, and it has never since been used as a place of worship. Allahabad (Illahabad) was the name given to the city when Akbar built the great fort. To the Hindus it is still known by its ancient name of Prag or Prayag ("place of sacrifice"), and it remains one of the most noted resorts of Hindu pilgrimage. It owes its sanctity to its being the reputed confluence of three sacred streams - the Ganges, the Jumna and the Saraswati. This last stream, however, actually loses itself in the sands of Sirhind, 400 m. north-west of Allahabad. The Hindus assert that the stream joins the other two rivers underground, and in a subterraneous temple below the fort a little moisture trickling from the rocky walls is pointed out as the waters of the Saraswati. An annual fair is held at Allahabad at the confluence of the streams on the occasion of the great bathing festival at the full moon of the Hindu month of Magh. It is known as the Magh-mela, lasts for a whole month, and is attended by as many as 250,000 persons in ordinary years, either for religious or commercial purposes. Every twelfth year there is a special occasion called the Kumbh-mela, which is attended by a million of devotees at one time. Allahabad was taken by the British in 1765 from the wazir of Oudh, and assigned as a residence to Shah Alam, the titular emperor of Delhi. Upon that prince throwing himself into the hands of the Mahrattas, the place was resumed by the British in 1771 and again transferred to the nawab of Oudh, by whom it was finally ceded together with the district to the British in 1801, in commutation of the subsidy which the wazir had agreed to pay for British protection. During the Mutiny of 1857, Allahabad became the scene of one of the most serious outbreaks and massacres which occurred in the North-Western Provinces. The fort was held by a little garrison of Europeans and loyal Sikhs, until it was relieved by General Neill on June 11th of that year.
The modern buildings of Allahabad include Government House, the High Court, the Mayo memorial and town hall, the Muir central college, the Thornhill and Mayne memorial library and museum, the Naini central jail, and the Anglican and Roman Catholic cathedrals. The Jumna is crossed by a railway bridge and there are two bridges of boats over the Ganges. The military cantonments contain accommodation for all three arms and are the headquarters of a brigade in the 8th division of the eastern army corps. At Allahabad is published the Pioneer, perhaps the best known English paper in India. There is an American mission college. Here is the junction of the great railway system which unites Bengal with Central India and Bombay, and is developing into a great centre of inland and export trade. The population in 1901 was 172,032.
The District Of Allahabad has an area of 2811 sq. m. In shape it is an irregular oblong, and it is very difficult to define its boundaries, as at one extremity it wanders into Oudh, while on the south the villages of the state of Rewa and those of this district are hopelessly intermingled. The Jumna and the Ganges enclose within their angle a fertile tract well irrigated with tanks and wells. The East Indian railway and the Grand Trunk road afford the principal means of land communication. In 1901 the population was 1,489,358, showing a decrease of 4% in the decade due to famine.
The Division of Allahabad has an area of 17,270 sq. m. The population in 1901 was 5,540,702, showing a decrease of 4% in the decade due to the famine of 1896-1897, which was severely felt throughout the division. It comprises the seven districts of Cawnpore, Fatehpur, Banda, Hamirpur, Allahabad, Jhansi and Jalaun.