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Allied-administered Austria
Military occupation

1945–1955
Flag Coat of arms
Occupation zones in Austria (1945).
Capital Vienna
Political structure Military occupation
Governors (1945)
 - UK zone Gen. McCreery
 - French zone Lt. Gen. Béthouart
 - US zone Gen. Clark
 - Soviet zone Marshal Konev
President
 - 1945 - 1950 Karl Renner
 - 1951 - 1957 Theodor Körner
Chancellor
 - 1945 Karl Renner
 - 1945 - 1953 Leopold Figl
 - 1953 - 1961 Julius Raab
Historical era Cold War
 - Capture of Vienna 13 April 1945
 - Established 27 April 1945
 - Austrian State Treaty 27 July 1955
 - Declaration of Neutrality 26 October 1955

In 1938 the First Austrian Republic had become part of Nazi Germany through an enforced annexation, the Anschluss. The Moscow Declaration of 1943 declared the Anschluss null and void and so set the restoration of an independent Austrian state as one of aims of the Allies. Karl Renner had formed a Provisional Government in late April 1945 and it had, by declaration, separated Austria from Germany. Following the end of hostilities, this government was very quickly recognised. However, like Germany, Austria was divided into four zones of occupation by the Allies, and Vienna (which was enclosed by the Soviet Zone) was further divided into four, with an additional International Zone at its heart.

The Allied occupation of Austria ended in 1955 and sovereignty was restored via the Austrian State Treaty.

History

The Vienna Offensive ended on 13 April 1945 with the Soviet capture of Vienna. Western Allied forces reached Austria a couple of weeks later. On 27 April 1945 — almost two weeks before the Nazi surrender on 8 May — Austria was declared independent from the Greater German Empire and the Second Austrian Republic was established.

At the end of the war, Austria and Vienna were divided into 4 zones of occupation, following the terms of the Potsdam Conference. With the permission of the Soviet forces, a provisional government was established in Vienna on 29 April and the first post-war legislative election took place on 25 November 1945. Karl Renner, the first Chancellor of post-World War One Austria, was appointed as Austria's first Chancellor, this appointment lasted until the end of 1945, when Renner became the first President of the Second Republic.

Vienna was divided among the four Allies – France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States. Outside Vienna, Vorarlberg and North Tyrol belonged to the French Zone; Salzburg and most of Upper Austria belonged to the American Zone; East Tyrol, Carinthia, and Styria belonged to the British Zone; and Burgenland, Lower Austria, and the Mühlviertel area of Upper Austria belonged to the Soviet Zone. The occupation zones were assigned in such a way so that the French and American zones bordered those countries' respective zones in Germany and the Soviet zone bordered future Warsaw Pact states. Britain's occupation zone in Germany was in the northwest and thus did not border Austria.

On 15 May 1955, the Austrian State Treaty was signed, officially establishing Austrian independence and sovereignty. The treaty was enacted on 27 July and the last Allied troops left the country on 25 October. On the following day, 26 October, the Declaration of Neutrality was enacted, establishing Austria as a permanently neutral country. For this reason, 26 October is Austria's national holiday.

See also

The four sectors of occupation in Vienna.

External links

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