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Allied war crimes were violations of the laws of war committed by the Allies of World War II against civilian populations or military personnel of the Axis Powers.

At the end of World War II, several trials of Axis war criminals took place, most famously the Nuremberg Trials. However, in Europe, these tribunals were set up under the authority of the London Charter, and could only consider allegations of war crimes committed by persons who acted in the interests of the European Axis countries.

There were a number of war crimes involving Allied personnel that were investigated by the Allied powers and that led in some instances to courts-martial. Other incidents are alleged by historians to have been crimes under the law of war in operation at the time, but that for a variety of reasons were not investigated by the Allied powers during the war, or they were investigated and a decision was taken not to prosecute.





Leonforte, July 1943. According to Mitcham and von Stauffenberg in The Battle of Sicily, The Loyal Edmonton Regiment killed captured German prisoners.[1] The Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders of Canada randomly burned houses in Friesoythe, northwestern Germany in April 1945.[2]



Following the Operation Dragoon landings in southern France and the collapse of the German military occupation in August 1944, large numbers of Germans could not escape from France and surrendered to the French Forces of the Interior. The Resistance killed few of their German military prisoners, but few of their Gestapo or SS prisoners survived.[3]

The Maquis are known to have executed 17 German prisoners of war at Saint-Julien-de-Crempse (in the Dordogne region), 14 of whom have been positively identified, on 10 September 1944. The murders were revenge killings for German murders of 17 local inhabitants of the village of St. Julien on 3 August 1944, which were themselves reprisal killings in response to Resistance activity in the St. Julien region, which was home to an active Maquis cell.[4]

Moroccan Goumiers

French Moroccan troops of the French Expeditionary Corps, known as Goumiers, committed mass rapes and other war crimes in Italy after the Battle of Monte Cassino[5] and in Germany. According to Italian sources, more than 7,000 Italian civilians, children among them, were raped by Goumiers.[6] This is featured in the Italian film La Ciociara with Sophia Loren.

Soviet Union

Katyn memorial.

The Soviet Union had not signed the Geneva Convention (1929) relative to the Treatment of Prisoners of War. This cast doubt on whether the Soviet treatment of Axis POWs was a war crime, although they "were [not] treated even remotely in accordance with the Geneva Convention",[7] causing the deaths of hundreds of thousands.[8] However, The Nuremberg Tribunal rejected this as a general argument, and held that the Hague Conventions (which the 1929 Geneva Convention did not replace but only augmented, and unlike the 1929 convention were ones which the Russian Empire had ratified) and other customary laws of war regarding the treatment of prisoners of war were binding on all nations in a conflict.[9][10][11]

Mass rape and other war crimes by Soviet troops during the occupation of East Prussia (Danzig),[12][13][14][15] parts of Pomerania and Silesia; during the Battle of Berlin[16], and the Battle of Budapest.[citation needed]

United Kingdom

The historian Donald Bloxham states that "The bombing of Dresden on 13-14 February 1945 was a war crime".[17][18] He further argues that there was a strong prima facie for trying Winston Churchill among others and that there is theoretical case that he could have been found guilty. "This should be a sobering thought. If, however it is also a startling one, this is probably less the result of widespread understanding of the nuance of international law and more because in the popular mind 'war criminal', like 'paedophile' or 'terrorist', has developed into a moral rather than a legal categorisation."[17]

The "London Cage", a MI19 prisoner of war facility in the UK during and immediately after WWII, was subject to allegations of torture.[19]

United States

Many SS guards at Dachau concentration camp were executed soon after liberation.
  • Canicattì massacre: killing of Italian civilians by Lieutenant Colonel McCaffrey. A confidential inquiry was made, but McCaffrey was never charged with an offence relating to the incident. He died in 1954. This incident remained virtually unknown until Joseph S. Salemi of New York University, whose father witnessed it, publicised it.[20][21]
  • The Dachau massacre: killing of German prisoners of war and surrendering SS soldiers.[22]
  • In the Biscari massacre, which consist of two instances of mass murders, U.S. troops of the 45th Infantry Division killed roughly 75 prisoners of war, mostly Italian.[23][24]
  • Rheinwiesenlager prison camps for German POWs.[25][citation needed]
  • Operation Teardrop: Eight of the surviving, captured crewmen from the sunk German submarine U-546 are tortured by US military personnel. Historian Philip K. Lundeberg has written that the beating and torture of U-546's survivors was a singular atrocity motivated by the interrogators' need to quickly get information on what the US believed were potential missile attacks on the continental US by German submarines.[26]

Unrestricted submarine warfare

In the Nuremberg Trial, German Admiral Karl Dönitz was tried, among other crimes, for issuing orders to target Allied civilians, a policy known as unrestricted submarine warfare. Dönitz was found guilty, but no sentence was imposed, because of evidence presented to the the Tribunal that the Royal Navy and the United States Navy had issued similar orders. [27]

The US Navy applied the same policy to operations in the Pacific. According to Gary E. Weir of the US Naval Historical Center, because of the way war was waged in the Atlantic, "when Admiral Thomas C. Hart proclaimed unrestricted submarine warfare against Japan on 8 December 1941, it came as no surprise".[28]

Pacific War

Treatment of POWs and civilians

Allied soldiers in Pacific and Asian theatres sometimes killed Japanese soldiers who were attempting to surrender or after they had surrendered. A social historian of the Pacific War, John W. Dower, states that "by the final years of the war against Japan, a truly vicious cycle had developed in which the Japanese reluctance to surrender had meshed horrifically with Allied disinterest in taking prisoners."[29] Dower suggests that most Japanese personnel were told that they would be "killed or tortured" if they fell into Allied hands and, as a consequence, most of those faced with defeat on the battlefield fought to the death or committed suicide.[30] In addition, it was held to be shamefully disgraceful for a Japanese soldier to surrender, leading many to suicide or fight to the death regardless of beliefs concerning their possible treatment as POWs. In fact, the Japanese Field Service Code said that surrender was not permissible.[31] And while it was "not official policy" for Allied personnel to take no prisoners, "over wide reaches of the Asian battleground it was everyday practice."[32] There were also widespread reports at the time of Japanese prisoners killing Allied medical personnel and guards with concealed weapons after surrendering, leading many Allied soldiers to conclude that taking prisoners was too risky.[33]


R. J. Rummel states that there is little information regarding the general treatment of Japanese prisoners taken by Chinese Nationalist forces during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-45).[34] However, Chinese civilians and conscripts, as well as Japanese civilians, were maltreated by Chinese soldiers. Rummel claims that Chinese peasants "often had no less to fear from their own soldiers than they did from the Japanese."[35] He also wrote that, in some intakes of Nationalist conscripts, 90% died from disease, starvation or violence, before they had even commenced training.[36] In “The Birth of Communist China”, C.P. Fitzgerald describes China under the rule of KMT thus: “the Chinese people groaned under a regime Fascist in every quality except efficiency.” [37]

Examples of war crimes committed by Chinese forces include:

  • in 1937 near Shanghai, the killing, torture and assault of Japanese POWs and Chinese civilians accused of collaboration, were recorded in photographs taken by Swiss businessman Tom Simmen.[38] (In 1996, Simmen's son released the pictures, showing Nationalist Chinese soldiers involved in arbitrary executions by decapitation and shooting, as well as public torture.)
  • the Tungchow Mutiny of August 1937; Chinese soldiers recruited by Japan mutinied and switched sides in Tōngzhōu, Beijing, before attacking Japanese civilians and killing 280.[34]
  • Nationalist troops in Hubei Province, during May 1943, ordered whole towns to evacuate and then "plundered" them; any civilians who refused and/or were unable to leave, were killed.[35]

The Pacific

American soldiers in the Pacific often deliberately killed Japanese soldiers who had surrendered. According to Richard Aldrich, who has published a study of the diaries kept by United States and Australian soldiers, they sometimes massacred prisoners of war.[39] Dower states that in "many instances ... Japanese who did become prisoners were killed on the spot or en route to prison compounds."[32] According to Aldrich it was common practice for U.S. troops not to take prisoners.[40] This analysis is supported by British historian Niall Ferguson,[41] who also says that, in 1943, "a secret [U. S.] intelligence report noted that only the promise of ice cream and three days leave would ... induce American troops not to kill surrendering Japanese."[42]

Ferguson states such practices played a role in the ratio of Japanese prisoners to dead being 1:100 in late 1944. That same year, efforts were taken by Allied high commanders to suppress "take no prisoners" attitudes,[42] among their own personnel (as these were affecting intelligence gathering) and to encourage Japanese soldiers to surrender. Ferguson adds that measures by Allied commanders to improve the ratio of Japanese prisoners to Japanese dead, resulted in it reaching 1:7, by mid-1945. Nevertheless, taking no prisoners was still standard practice among U. S. troops at the Battle of Okinawa, in April–June 1945.[43]

Ulrich Straus, a U.S. Japanologist, suggests that frontline troops intensely hated Japanese military personnel and were "not easily persuaded" to take or protect prisoners, as they believed that Allied personnel who surrendered, got "no mercy" from the Japanese.[44] Allied soldiers believed that Japanese soldiers were inclined to feign surrender, in order to make surprise attacks.[44] Therefore, according to Straus, "[s]enior officers opposed the taking of prisoners[,] on the grounds that it needlessly exposed American troops to risks..."[44] When prisoners nevertheless were taken, many times these were shot during transport because "it was too much bother to take [them] in".[44]

Ferguson suggests that "it was not only the fear of disciplinary action or of dishonor that deterred German and Japanese soldiers from surrendering. More important for most soldiers was the perception that prisoners would be killed by the enemy anyway, and so one might as well fight on."[45]

U. S. historian James J. Weingartner attributes the very low number of Japanese in U.S. POW compounds to two important factors, a Japanese reluctance to surrender and a widespread American "conviction that the Japanese were "animals" or "subhuman'" and unworthy of the normal treatment accorded to POWs.[46] The latter reason is supported by Ferguson, who says that "Allied troops often saw the Japanese in the same way that Germans regarded Russians — as Untermenschen."[47]

South-East Asia

Similar observations have been made regarding British Commonwealth personnel in South-East Asia. For instance, historians Christopher Bayly and Tim Harper state that, during the Assam campaign of 1944, "...British, Indian, and African troops methodically and ruthlessly killed all Japanese, [because they were] enraged by cases of atrocities against their own wounded... Lieutenant General William Slim wrote laconically: 'quarter was neither asked nor given.'"[48]

Mutilation of Japanese war dead

Some dead Japanese were desecrated and/or mutilated, for example by urinating on them, shooting corpses, or taking Japanese body parts (such as ears or even skulls) as souvenirs or trophies.[49]

The Allied practice of collecting Japanese body parts occurred on "a scale large enough to concern the Allied military authorities throughout the conflict and was widely reported and commented on in the American and Japanese wartime press."[50]

The collection of Japanese body parts began quite early in the war, prompting a September 1942 order for disciplinary action against such souvenir taking.[51] Harrison concludes that, since this was the first real opportunity to take such items (the Battle of Guadalcanal), "[c]learly, the collection of body parts on a scale large enough to concern the military authorities had started as soon as the first living or dead Japanese bodies were encountered."[52]

When Japanese remains were repatriated from the Mariana Islands after the war, roughly 60 percent were missing their skulls.[53]

In a memorandum dated June 13, 1944, the U.S. Army Judge Advocate General (JAG) asserted that “such atrocious and brutal policies,” in addition to being repugnant, were violations of the laws of war, and recommended the distribution to all commanders of a directive pointing out that "the maltreatment of enemy war dead was a blatant violation of the 1929 Geneva Convention on the sick and wounded, which provided that: After every engagement, the belligerent who remains in possession of the field shall take measures to search for wounded and the dead and to protect them from robbery and ill treatment.”

These practises were in addition also in violation of the unwritten customary rules of land warfare and could lead to the death penalty.[54] The U.S. Navy JAG mirrored that opinion one week later, and also added that “the atrocious conduct of which some US personnel were guilty could lead to retaliation by the Japanese which would be justified under international law”.[54]

Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

In 1963, the Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were the subject of a judicial review in Ryuichi Shimoda et al. v. The State.[55] The District Court of Tokyo declined to rule on the legality of nuclear weapons in general, but found that "the attacks upon Hiroshima and Nagasaki caused such severe and indiscriminate suffering that they did violate the most basic legal principles governing the conduct of war."[56] Francisco Gómez points out in an article published in the International Review of the Red Cross that, with respect to the "anti-city" or "blitz" strategy, that "in examining these events in the light of international humanitarian law, it should be borne in mind that during the Second World War there was no agreement, treaty, convention or any other instrument governing the protection of the civilian population or civilian property." [57] The possibility that attacks like the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings could be considered war crimes is one of the reasons given by John R. Bolton (Undersecretary of State for Arms Control and International Security (2001-2005) and U.S. Permanent Representative to the United Nations (2005)) for the United States not agreeing to be bound by the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court.[58]


It has been claimed that some U.S. soldiers raped Okinawan women during the Battle of Okinawa in 1945. There were 4,336 reported rapes during the first 10 days of the occupation of Kanagawa prefecture.[59]

Okinawan historian Oshiro Masayasu (former director of the Okinawa Prefectural Historical Archives) writes based on several years of research:

Soon after the U.S. marines landed, all the women of a village on Motobu Peninsula fell into the hands of American soldiers. At the time, there were only women, children and old people in the village, as all the young men had been mobilized for the war. Soon after landing, the marines "mopped up" the entire village, but found no signs of Japanese forces. Taking advantage of the situation, they started "hunting for women" in broad daylight and those who were hiding in the village or nearby air raid shelters were dragged out one after another.[60]

However, despite being told by the Japanese military that they would suffer rape, torture and murder at the hands of the Americans, Japanese civilians "were often surprised at the comparatively humane treatment they received from the American enemy."[61][62] According to Islands of Discontent: Okinawan Responses to Japanese and American Power by Mark Selden, the Americans "did not pursue a policy of torture, rape, and murder of civilians as Japanese military officials had warned."[63]

Comparative death rates of POWs

According to James D. Morrow, "Death rates of POWs held is one measure of adherence to the standards of the treaties because substandard treatment leads to death of prisoners." The "democratic states generally provide good treatment of POWs".[64]

Death rates of POWs held by Axis powers

  • Chinese POWs held by Japan: > 99%[citation needed] (only 56 survivors at the end of the war)[65]
  • U.S. and British Commonwealth POWs held by Germany: ~4% [64]
  • Soviet POWs held by Germany: 57.5% [66]
  • Western Allied POWs held by Japan: 27% [67]

Death rates of POWs held by the Allies

  • German POWs in East European (not including the Soviet Union) hands 32.9%[66]
  • German soldiers held by Soviet Union: 15-33% (14.7% in The Dictators by Richard Overy, 35.8% in Ferguson[66])
  • Japanese POWs held by Soviet Union: 10%
  • German POWs in British hands 0.03%[66]
  • German POWs in American hands 0.15%[66]
  • German POWs in French hands 2.58%[66]
  • Japanese POWs held by U.S.: relatively low, mainly suicides according to James D. Morrow[68] or according to Ulrich Straus high as many prisoners were shot by front line troops.[44]
  • Japanese POWs in Chinese hands. 24%

Summary table

in hands of  USSR  US &  UK  ROC Western Allied  Nazi Germany  Japan
 United Kingdom - - - - 0.03%
 France - - - - 2.58%
East European - - - - 32.9%
 Soviet Union - - - - 14.7-35.8% 10%
 United States - - - - 0.15% varying
 Japan >99% 27% - -
 Nazi Germany 57.5% 4% - -

See also


  1. ^ Mithcham, Samuel and Friedrich von Stauffenberg The Battle of Sicily
  2. ^ The official historian of the Canadian Army, C.P. Stacey, noted in his autobiography that it was the only incident he was aware of that could be considered a war crime associated with Canadian soldiers in World War II. see: Stacey, C.P. A Date With History
  3. ^ Beevor, Antony, D-Day, Viking, 2009 p 447
  4. ^ After the Battle Magazine, Issue 143
  5. ^ Italian women win cash for wartime rapes
  6. ^ "1952: Il caso delle “marocchinate” al Parlamento". Retrieved 2008-11-22. 
  7. ^ Study: Soviet Prisoners-of-War (POWs), 1941-42 website of Gendercide Watch
  8. ^ Matthew White Source List and Detailed Death Tolls for the Twentieth Century Hemoclysm: Stalin
  9. ^ POWs and the laws of war: World War II legacy © 2003 Educational Broadcasting Corporation
  10. ^ Jennifer K. Elsea (Legislative Attorney American Law Division) Federation of American Scientists CRS Report for Congress Lawfulness of Interrogation Techniques under the Geneva Conventions (PDF) September 8, 2004. Page 24 first paragraph see also footnotes 93 and 87
  11. ^ German High Command Trial 30 December 1947 – 28 October 1948, PartVIII
  12. ^ Remembering Rape: Divided Social Memory and the Red Army in Hungary 1944–1945, James Mark, Past & Present 188 (2005) 133-161
  13. ^ Excerpt, Chapter one The Struggle for Europe: The Turbulent History of a Divided Continent 1945-2002 - William I. Hitchcock - 2003 - ISBN 0-385-49798-9
  14. ^ A Terrible Revenge: The Ethnic Cleansing of the East European Germans, 1944-1950 - Alfred-Maurice de Zayas - 1994 - ISBN 0-312-12159-8
  15. ^ Barefoot in the Rubble - Elizabeth B. Walter - 1997 - ISBN 0-9657793-0-0
  16. ^ Antony Beevor "They raped every German female from eight to 80" in The Guardian May 1, 2002
  17. ^ a b Addison, Paul & Crang, Jeremy A. (eds.). Firestorm: The Bombing of Dresden. Pimlico, 2006. ISBN 1-8441-3928-X. Chapter 9 p. 180
  18. ^ Donald Bloxham, University of Edinburgh, The School of History, Classics and Archaeology
  19. ^ Cobain, Ian (2005-11-12). "The secrets of the London Cage". The Guardian. Retrieved 2009-07-17. 
  20. ^ Giovanni Bartolone, Le altre stragi: Le stragi alleate e tedesche nella Sicilia del 1943-1944
  21. ^ George Duncan, Massacres and Atrocities of World War II in the Axis Countries
  22. ^ Albert Panebianco (ed). Dachau its liberation 57th Infantry Association, Felix L. Sparks, Secretary 15 June 1989. (backup site)
  23. ^ Weingartner, James J. A Peculiar Crusadee: Willis M. Everett and the Malmedy massacre, NYU Press, 2000, p. 118. ISBN 0814793665
  24. ^ James J. Weingartner, "Massacre at Biscari: Patton and an American War Crime", Historian, Volume 52 Issue 1, Pages 24 - 39, 23 Aug 2007
  25. ^ U.S. (and French) abuse of German PoWs, 1945-1948
  26. ^ Lundeberg, Philip K. (1994). "Operation Teardrop Revisited". in Runyan, Timothy J. and Copes, Jan M. To Die Gallantly : The Battle of the Atlantic. Boulder: Westview Press. ISBN 0813388155. , pp. 221-226; Blair, Clay (1998). Hitler's U-Boat War. The Hunted, 1942 – 1945 (Modern Library ed.). New York: Random House. ISBN 0679640339. , p. 687.
  27. ^ Judgement: Doenitz the Avalon Project at the Yale Law School
  28. ^ Gary E. Weir Silent Defense One Hundred Years of the American Submarine Force, US Naval Historical Center, Section "Shaping an Identity". Accessed 25 April 2008.
  29. ^ John W. Dower, 1986, War Without Mercy: Race and Power in the Pacific War (Pantheon: New York. ISBN 0-394-75172-8), p.35.
  30. ^ John W. Dower, 1986, War Without Mercy, p.68.
  31. ^ Ulrich Strauss, 2003, The Anguish of Surrender: Japanese POWs of World War II
  32. ^ a b John W. Dower, 1986, War Without Mercy, p.69.
  33. ^ Edgar Rice Burroughs, 1947, Tarzan and "The Foreign Legion"
  34. ^ a b Rummel 1991, p. 112
  35. ^ a b Rummel 1991, p. 113
  36. ^ Rudolph J. Rummel, 1991, China's Bloody Century: Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1900 (ISBN 0-88738-417X) Transaction Publishers), p.115.
  37. ^ C.P. Fitzgerald, The Birth of Communist China, Penguin Books, 1964, pp.106. (ISBN 0140206949 / ISBN 9780140206944)
  38. ^ Tom Mintier, "Photos document brutality in Shanghai" (CNN, September 23, 1996. Access date: August 25, 2007.
  39. ^ Ben Fenton, "American troops 'murdered Japanese PoWs'" (Daily Telegraph (UK), 06/08/2005), accessed 26/05/2007. (Adrich is a Professor of History at Nottingham University.)
  40. ^ Ben Fenton, "American troops 'murdered Japanese PoWs'" (Daily Telegraph (UK), 06/08/2005), accessed 26/05/2007
  41. ^ Niall Ferguson, "Prisoner Taking and Prisoner Killing in the Age of Total War: Towards a Political Economy of Military Defeat", War in History, 2004, 11 (2): 148–192
  42. ^ a b Niall Ferguson, "Prisoner Taking and Prisoner Killing in the Age of Total War: Towards a Political Economy of Military Defeat", War in History, 2004, 11 (2): p.150
  43. ^ Ferguson 2004, p.181
  44. ^ a b c d e Ulrich Straus, The Anguish Of Surrender: Japanese POWs of World War II (excerpts) (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2003 ISBN 978-0-295-98336-3, p.116
  45. ^ Niall Ferguson, "Prisoner Taking and Prisoner Killing in the Age of Total War: Towards a Political Economy of Military Defeat", War in History, 2004, 11 (2): p.176.
  46. ^ James J. Weingartner “Trophies of War: U.S. Troops and the Mutilation of Japanese War Dead, 1941–1945” Pacific Historical Review (1992) p. 55
  47. ^ Niall Ferguson, "Prisoner Taking and Prisoner Killing in the Age of Total War: Towards a Political Economy of Military Defeat", War in History, 2004, 11 (2): p.182
  48. ^ Bayly, Christopher; Harper, Tim Harper (2004). Forgotten Armies: The Fall of British Asia, 1941-1945. London: Allen Lane. p. 388. ISBN 0-713-99463-0. 
  49. '^ Xavier Guillaume, "A Heterology of American GIs during World War II". H-US-Japan (July, 2003). Access date: January 4, 2008.
  50. ^ Simon Harrison “Skull Trophies of the Pacific War: transgressive objects of remembrance” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute (N.S) 12, 817-836 (2006) p.818
  51. ^ Simon Harrison “Skull Trophies of the Pacific War: transgressive objects of remembrance” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute (N.S) 12, 817-836 (2006)p. 827
  52. ^ Simon Harrison “Skull Trophies of the Pacific War: transgressive objects of remembrance” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute (N.S) 12, 817-836 (2006) p.827
  53. ^ Simon Harrison “Skull Trophies of the Pacific War: transgressive objects of remembrance” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute (N.S) 12, 817-836 (2006) p.828
  54. ^ a b James J. Weingartner “Trophies of War: U.S. Troops and the Mutilation of Japanese War Dead, 1941 – 1945” Pacific Historical Review (1992) p.59
  55. ^ Shimoda et al. v. The State, Tokyo District Court, 7 December 1963
  56. ^ Falk, Richard A. (1965-02-15). "The Claimants of Hiroshima". The Nation.  reprinted in Richard A. Falk, Saul H. Mendlovitz eds., ed (1966). "The Shimoda Case: Challenge and Response". The Strategy of World Order. Volume: 1. New York: World Law Fund. pp. 307–13. 
  57. ^ International Review of the Red Cross no 323, p.347-363 The Law of Air Warfare (1998)
  58. ^ John Bolton The Risks and Weaknesses of the International Criminal Court from America's Perspective, (page 4) Law and Contemporary Problems January 2001, while he was Undersecretary of State for Arms Control and International Security.
  59. ^ Schrijvers, Peter (2002). The GI War Against Japan. New York City: New York University Press. p. 212. ISBN 0814798160. 
  60. ^ Tanaka, Toshiyuki. Japan's Comfort Women: Sexual Slavery and Prostitution During World War II, Routledge, 2003, p.111. ISBN 0203302753
  61. ^ Molasky, Michael S., The American Occupation of Japan and Okinawa: Literature and Memory, p. 16,,M1 
  62. ^ Molasky, Michael S.; Rabson, Steve, Southern Exposure: Modern Japanese Literature from Okinawa, p. 22,,M1 
  63. ^ Sheehan, Susan D; Elizabeth, Laura; Selden, Hein Mark, Islands of Discontent: Okinawan Responses to Japanese and American Power, p. 18 
  64. ^ a b James D. Morrow. The Institutional Features of the Prisoners of War Treaties, Center for Political Studies at The University of Michigan
  65. ^ Herbert Bix, 2000,Hirohito and the Making of Modern Japan HarperCollins. (ISBN 0-06-019314-X) p. 360
  66. ^ a b c d e f Niall Ferguson, "Prisoner Taking and Prisoner Killing in the Age of Total War: Towards a Political Economy of Military Defeat" War in History 2004 11 (2) 148–192 pg. 186 (Table 4)
  67. ^ Yuki Tanaka, 1996,Hidden Horrors (Westview Press) (ISBN 0-81-332718-0) pp. 2-3.
  68. ^ James D. Morrow The Institutional Features of the Prisoners of War Treaties, Center for Political Studies at The University of Michigan, p. 22

Further reading



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