Allies of World War I: Wikis

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Map of the World showing the Triple Entente participants in World War I. Those fighting on the Entente's side (at one point or another) are depicted in green, the Central Powers in orange, and neutral countries in gray.
European military alliances prior to the war.

Entente Powers were the countries at war with the Central Powers during World War I. The key members of the Triple Entente were the United Kingdom, France, and the Russian Empire. Many other countries later joined the Entente side in the war: Belgium, Serbia, Italy, Japan, Greece, Romania, and Portugal, which were also drawn into the war.[citation needed]

The United States declared war on Germany on the grounds that Germany violated American neutrality by attacking international shipping and because of the Zimmermann Telegram that was sent to Mexico.[1] The U.S. entered the war as an "associated power", rather than a formal ally of France and Great Britain, because it had not declared war on the Ottoman Empire like those two countries. Although Turkey severed relations with the United States, it did not declare war.[citation needed]

Although the Dominions and Crown Colonies of the British Empire made significant contributions to the Allied war effort, they did not have independent foreign policies during World War I. Operational control of British Empire forces was in the hands of the five-member British War Cabinet (BWC). However, the Dominion governments controlled recruiting, and did remove personnel from front-line duties as they saw fit. From early 1917 the BWC was superseded by the Imperial War Cabinet, which had Dominion representation. The Australian Corps and Canadian Corps were placed for the first time under the command of Australian and Canadian Lieutenant Generals John Monash and Arthur Currie, who reported in turn to British generals.[citation needed]

In April 1918, operational control of all Entente forces on the Western Front passed to the new supreme commander, Ferdinand Foch.

Contents

History

Russian poster depicting the Triple Entente

The original alliance opposed to the Central Powers was the Triple Entente, which was formed by three Great European Powers:

The war began with the Austrian attack invasion of Serbia on July 28, 1914, in response to the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand. The Austrian Empire followed with an attack on Serbian allies Montenegro on August 8.[citation needed] On the Western Front, the two neutral States of Belgium and Luxembourg were immediately occupied by German troops as part of the German Schliefen Plan. Of the two Low Countries, Luxembourg chose to capitulate, and was viewed as a collaborationist State by the Entente Powers: Luxembourg never became part of the Allies, and only nearly avoided Belgian efforts of annexation, at the conclusion of hostilities in 1919. On August 23, Japan joined the Entente, which then counted seven members.[citation needed]

On May 23, 1915, Italy entered the war on the Entente side and declared war on Austria; previously, Italy had been a member of the Triple Alliance but had remained neutral since the beginning of the conflict. In 1916, two more nations joined the Entente, Portugal and Romania.[citation needed]

The direction of the war changed on April 6, 1917, with the entrance of the United States and its American allies.[citation needed] Liberia, China, Siam and Greece also became allies. After the October Revolution, Russia left the alliance and ended formal involvement in the war, by the signing of the treaty of Brest Litovsk in November effectively creating a separate peace with the Central Powers. This was followed by Romanian cessation of hostilities, however the Balkan State declared war on Central Powers again on November 10, 1918. The Russian withdrawal allowed for the final structure of the alliance, which was based on five Great Powers:

Statistics of the Allied Powers[2]
Population Land GDP
Russian Empire (plus Finland), 1914 173.2m (176.4m) 21.7m km2 (22.1m km2) $257.7b ($264.3b)
French Third Republic (plus colonies), 1914 39.8m (88.1m) 0.5m km2 (11.2m km2) $138.7b (170.2b)
United Kingdom (plus colonies), 1914 46.0m (426.2m) 0.3m km2 (13.8m km2) $226.4b ($483.4b)
Empire of Japan (plus colonies), 1914 55.1m (74.2m) 0.4m km2 (0.7m km2) $76.5b ($92.8b)
Kingdom of Italy (plus colonies), 1915 35.6m (37.6m) 0.3m km2 (2.3m 2 ) $91.3b ($92.6b)
United States (plus overseas dependencies),[3] 1917 96.5m (106.3m) 7.8m km2 (9.6m km2) $511.6b ($522.2b)
Allied Total in 1914 793.3m 67.5m km2 $1,096.5b

When war finished in November 1918, many new States were formed over the ruins of the Central Powers. The Great Powers recognized these national movements and their help to the common goal, accepting their claims of sovereignty between the signatories of the peace treaties.[citation needed]

Leaders

United Kingdom United Kingdom/British Empire

Australia Dominion of Australia
Canada Dominion of Canada
India Indian Empire
South Africa Union of South Africa

Russian Empire Russia

France France

Kingdom of Serbia Serbia

Belgium Belgium

Kingdom of Italy (1861–1946) Italy

Romania Romania

United States United States

Empire of Japan Japan

Portugal Portugal

Personnel and casualties

Pie chart showing military deaths of the Allied Powers.

These are estimates of the cumulative number of different personnel in uniform 1914-1918, including army, navy and auxiliary forces. At any one time, the various forces were much smaller. Only a fraction of them were frontline combat troops. The numbers do not reflect the length of time each country was involved. (See also: World War I casualties.)

Allied powers Mobilized personnel Killed in action Wounded in action Total casualties Casualties as % of total mobilized
Australia 412,953

‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [1]||61,928[5] ||152,171||214,099||52%

Belgium 267,000

‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [3]||38,172[6] ||44,686||82,858||31%

Canada 628,964

‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [1]||64,944[7]||149,732||214,676||34%

France 8,410,000

‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [3]||1,397,800[8] ||4,266,000||5,663,800||67%

Greece 230,000

‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [3]||26,000[9]||21,000||47,000||20%

India 1,440,437

‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [1]||74,187[10]||69,214||143,401||10%

Italy 5,615,000

‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [3]||651,010[11]||953,886||1,604,896||29%

Japan 800,000

‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [3]||415[12]||907||1,322||<1%

Montenegro 50,000

‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [3]||3,000||10,000||13,000||26%

New Zealand 128,525

‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [1]||18,050[13]||41,317||59,367||46%

Portugal 100,000

‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [3]||7,222[14]||13,751||20,973||21%

Romania 750,000

‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [3]||250,000[15]||120,000||370,000||49%

Russia 12,000,000

‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [3]||1,811,000[16]||4,950,000 ||6,761,000||56%

Serbia 707,343

‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [3]||275,000[17]||133,148||408,148||58%

South Africa 136,070

‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [1]||9,463[18]||12,029||21,492||16%

United Kingdom 6,211,922

‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [2]||886,342[19]||1,665,749||2,552,091||41%

United States 4,355,000

‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [3]||116,708[20]||205,690||322,398||7%

Total 42,243,214 5,691,241 12,809,280 18,500,521 44%

Summary of Allied declarations of war on Central Powers

List of the 23 member States of the Entente:

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After the Assassination of Franz Ferdinand

After the Miracle of the Marne

After the Russian Revolution

Special case: British Empire

Five Dominions of the British Empire, which were subordinate to London under international law, were admitted to the Conference of Versailles as reward for their huge military involvement:

Special case: Nominal allies

Four States of South America severed relationships with Germany, but did not declare war and had no military involvement:

Special case: Insurgent nationalities

Four insurgent nationalities, which voluntarily fought with the Allies and seceded from the constituent states of the Central Powers at the end of the war, were allowed to participate as winning nations to the peace treaties:

See also

Footnotes

  1. ^ US Declaration of War
  2. ^ S.N. Broadberry, Mark Harrison. The Economics of World War I. illustrated ed. Cambridge University Press, 2005, pgs. 7-8.
  3. ^ As Hawaii and Alaska were not yet U.S. states, they are included in the parenthetical figures.
  4. ^ first Canadian to attain the rank of full general
  5. ^ Australia casualties
    Included in total are 55,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [6,85]-.
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead. ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [4]-
    Totals include 2,005 military deaths during 1919-21 ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [5]-. The 1922 War Office report listed 59,330 Army war dead ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [1,237].
  6. ^ Belgium casualties
    Included in total are 35,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [6,85] Figures include 13,716 killed and 24,456 missing up until Nov.11, 1918. "These figures are approximate only, the records being incomplete." ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [1,352].
  7. ^ Canada casualties
    Included in total are 53,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds. ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [6,85]
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead. ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [4]
    Totals include 3,789 military deaths during 1919-21 and 150 Merchant Navy deaths ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [5]-. The losses of Newfoundland are listed separately on this table. The 1922 War Office report listed 56,639 Army war dead ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [1,237].
  8. ^ France casualties
    Included in total are 1,186,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [6,85]. Totals include the deaths of 71,100 French colonial troops. ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [7,414]-Figures include war related military deaths of 28,600 from 11/11/1918 to 6/1/1919. ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [7,414]
  9. ^ Greece casualties
    Jean Bujac in a campaign history of the Greek Army in World War One listed 8,365 combat related deaths and 3,255 missing ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [8,339], The Soviet researcher Boris Urlanis estimated total dead of 26,000 including 15,000 military deaths due disease ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [6,160]
  10. ^ India casualties
    British India included present-day India, Pakistan and Bangladesh.
    Included in total are 27,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [6,85].
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead. ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [4]
    Totals include 15,069 military deaths during 1919-21 and 1,841 Canadian Merchant Navy dead ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [5]. The 1922 War Office report listed 64,454 Army war dead ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [1,237]
  11. ^ Italy casualties
    Included in total are 433,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [6,85]
    Figures of total military dead are from a 1925 Italian report using official data ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [9].
  12. ^ War dead figure is from a 1991 history of the Japanese Army ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [10,111].
  13. ^ New Zealand casualties
    Included in total are 14,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [6,85].
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead. ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [4]
    Totals include 702 military deaths during 1919-21 ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [5]. The 1922 War Office report listed 16,711 Army war dead ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [1,237].
  14. ^ Portugal casualties
    Figures include the following killed and died of other causes up until Jan.1, 1920; 1,689 in France and 5,332 in Africa. Figures do not include an additional 12,318 listed as missing and POW ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [1,354].
  15. ^ Romania casualties
    Military dead is "The figure reported by the Rumanian Government in reply to a questionnaire from the International Labour Office" ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [6,64]. Included in total are 177,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [6,85].
  16. ^ Russia casualties
    Included in total are 1,451,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [6,85]. The estimate of total Russian military losses was made by the Soviet researcher Boris Urlanis. ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [6,46-57]
  17. ^ Serbia casualties
    Included in total are 165,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [6,85].The estimate of total combined Serbian and Montenegrin military losses of 278,000 was made by the Soviet researcher Boris Urlanis ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [6,62-64]
  18. ^ South Africa casualties
    Included in total are 5,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [6,85]
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead. ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [4]
    Totals include 380 military deaths during 1919-21 ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [15]. The 1922 War Office report listed 7,121 Army war dead ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [1,237].
  19. ^ UK and Crown Colonies casualties
    Included in total are 624,000 killed or missing in action and died of wounds ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [6,85].
    The Commonwealth War Graves Commission Annual Report 2005-2006 is the source of total military dead. ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [4]
    Military dead total includes 34,663 deaths during 1919-21 and 13,632 British Merchant Navy deaths ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [5]. The 1922 War Office report listed 702,410 war dead for the UK ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [1,237], 507 from "Other colonies" ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [1,237] and the Royal Navy (32,287) ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [1,339].
    The British Merchant Navy losses of 14,661 were listed separately ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [1,339]; The 1922 War Office report detailed the deaths of 310 military personnel due to air and sea bombardment of the UK ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [1,674-678].
  20. ^ United States casualties
    Official military war deaths listed by the US Dept. of Defense for the period ending Dec. 31, 1918 are 116,516; which includes 53,402 battle deaths and 63,114 other deaths.[1], The US Coast Guard lost an additional 192 dead ‹The template Mn is being considered for deletion.›  [11,481].

References

‹The template Mnb is being considered for deletion.›  1. ^ The War Office (2006). Statistics of the military effort of the British Empire during the Great War 1914—1920. Uckfield, East Sussex: Military and Naval Press. ISBN 1847346812. OCLC 137236769. 

‹The template Mnb is being considered for deletion.›  2. ^ Gilbert Martin (1994). Atlas of World War I. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195210778. OCLC 233987354. 

‹The template Mnb is being considered for deletion.›  3. ^ Tucker Spencer C (1999). The European Powers in the First World War: An Encyclopedia. New York: Garland. ISBN 081533351X. 

‹The template Mnb is being considered for deletion.›  4. ^ The Commonwealth War Graves Commission. "Annual Report 2005-2006" (PDF). http://www.cwgc.org/admin/files/6%20Statistics.pdf. 

‹The template Mnb is being considered for deletion.›  5. ^ The Commonwealth War Graves Commission. "Debt of Honour Register". http://www.cwgc.org/debt_of_honour.asp?menuid=14. 

‹The template Mnb is being considered for deletion.›  6. ^ Urlanis Boris (2003). Wars and Population. Honolulu: University Press of the Pacific. OCLC 123124938. 

‹The template Mnb is being considered for deletion.›  7. ^ Huber Michel (1931) (in French). La population de la France pendant la guerre, avec un appendice sur Les revenus avant et après la guerre. Paris. OCLC 4226464. 

‹The template Mnb is being considered for deletion.›  8. ^ Bujac Jean Léopold Emile (1930) (in French). Les campagnes de l'armèe Hellènique 1918-1922. Paris: Charles-Lavauzelle. OCLC 10808602. 

‹The template Mnb is being considered for deletion.›  9. ^ Mortara Giorgio (1925) (in Italian). La Salute pubblica in Italia durante e dopo la Guerra. New Haven, Connecticut: Yale University Press. OCLC 2099099. 

‹The template Mnb is being considered for deletion.›  10. ^ Harries Merion, Harries Susie (1991). Soldiers of the Sun - The Rise and Fall of the Imperial Japanese Army. Random House. ISBN 0679753036. OCLC 32615324. 

‹The template Mnb is being considered for deletion.›  11. ^ Clodfelter Michael (2002). Warfare and Armed Conflicts : A Statistical Reference to Casualty and Other Figures, 1500-2000 (2nd ed.). London: McFarland. ISBN 0786412046. OCLC 48066096. 

Sources

See List of World War I books

  • Ellis, John and Mike Cox. The World War I Databook: The Essential Facts and Figures for All the Combatants (2002)
  • Esposito, Vincent J. The West Point Atlas of American Wars: 1900-1918 (1997) despite the title covers entire war; online maps from this atlas
  • Falls, Cyril. The Great War (1960), general military history
  • Higham, Robin and Dennis E. Showalter, eds. Researching World War I: A Handbook (2003), historiography, stressing military themes
  • Pope, Stephen and Wheal, Elizabeth-Anne, eds. The Macmillan Dictionary of the First World War (1995)
  • Strachan, Hew. The First World War: Volume I: To Arms (2004)
  • Trask, David F. The United States in the Supreme War Council: American War Aims and Inter-Allied Strategy, 1917-1918 (1961)
  • Tucker, Spencer, ed. The Encyclopedia of World War I: A Political, Social, and Military History (5 volumes) (2005), online at eBook.com
  • Tucker, Spencer, ed. European Powers in the First World War: An Encyclopedia (1999)

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