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Allotransplantation (allo- from the Greek meaning "other") is the transplantation of cells, tissues, or organs, sourced from a genetically non-identical member of the same species as the recipient.[1]. The transplant is called an allograft or allogeneic transplant or homograft. Most human tissue and organ transplants are allografts.

In contrast, a transplant from another species is called a xenograft. A transplanted organ or tissue from a genetically identical donor, i.e., an identical twin, is termed an isograft. Finally, when a tissue is transplanted from one site to another on the same patient, it is termed an autograft. In bone marrow transplantation, the term for a genetically identical graft is syngeneic[2], whereas the equivalent of an autograft is termed autologous[3] transplantation.

When a host mounts an immune response against an allograft or xenograft, the process is termed rejection. An allogenic bone marrow transplant can result in an immune attack against recipient, termed Graft-versus-host disease.

Contents

Procedure

For any number of reasons, before death, a person may have decided to donate tissue from his or her body for the purpose of transplant to another who is in need. Additionally, consent for donation may also be given by the donor's family if the donor did not specify his or her wishes before death.

After consent is obtained, potential donors are thoroughly screened for risk factors and medical conditions that would rule out donation. This screening includes interviews with family members, evaluation of medical and hospital records, and a physical assessment of the donor. Recovery of the tissue is performed with respect for the donor using surgical techniques.

Personnel from tissue recovery agencies remove the tissue from the donor. These agencies are under the regulation of the Food and Drug Administration and must abide by the Current Good Tissue Practices rule. Once the tissue is removed, it is sent to tissue banks for processing and distribution. Each year, AATB-accredited tissue banks distribute 1.5 million bone and tissue allografts. These banks are also regulated by the Food and Drug Administration to ensure the quality of the tissue being distributed.

Examples of organs and tissues

A variety of transplantable organs and tissues can be used for allografts. These include:

Bone and tissue allografts have many uses for patients, but overall they save lives, repair limbs, and enhance the quality of a patient’s life. Allografts may be used to replace damaged heart valves and skin; however, they are more frequently used in orthopedic surgery to replace tendons or bones as necessary.

Laws & Regulations

Since 1993, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has regulated human tissue intended for transplants. As of May 2005, there are three new regulations that address the manufacturing activities associated with human cells, tissues, and cellular and tissue-based products (HCT/Ps). The first regulation requires companies to register with the FDA if they intend to produce and distribute HCT/Ps. The second regulation, called the “Donor Eligibility” rule, concerns the donor’s ability to meet certain criteria in order to be eligible to donate tissue. Finally, the third rule, referred to as the “Current Good Tissue Practices” rule, oversees the overall processing and distribution practices of each company. As a whole, these rules are implemented to ensure the quality of the tissue and reduce the risk of contamination or disease transmission.

Other options

Allografts are a natural alternative to synthetic and metal implants. However, unlike synthetic or metal implants, allografts incorporate into your body.

Another choice surgeons have is an autograft, which takes tissue from one part of your body for transplantation to another part. Using an allograft eliminates the need for a second surgery site — avoiding additional pain, risk and possible longer hospital stay.

Further options may include a transplant from another species (a xenograft), or a transplanted organ or tissue from a genetically identical donor, i.e., an identical twin (an isograft).

See also

External links

References

  1. ^ Surgery For ACL Tears
  2. ^ Hood AF, Vogelsang GB, Black LP, Farmer ER, Santos GW, (June 1987). "Acute Graft-vs-Host Disease: Development Following Autologous and Syngeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation". Arch Dermatol 123 (6): 745–50. http://archderm.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/abstract/123/6/745.  
  3. ^ Zittoun RA, Mandelli F, Willemze R, de Witte T, Labar B, Resegotti L, Leoni F, Damasio E, Visani G,Papa G, Caronia F, Hayat M, Stryckmans P, Rotoli B, Leoni P, Peetermans ME, Dardenne M, Vegna ML, Petti MC, Solbu G, Suciu S (January 1995). "Autologous or Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplantation Compared with Intensive Chemotherapy in Acute Myelogenous Leukemia". NEJM 332 (4): 217–23. http://nejm.highwire.org/cgi/content/abstract/332/4/217.  
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An allograft (allo- from the Greek meaning "other") is tissue taken from one person for transplantation into another. This can include bone, tendons, ligaments, skin and heart valves. Allografts have been used successfully in various medical procedures for more than 150 years. About one million allografts are transplanted each year in the United States.

Contents

Source of graft material

Before death, a person may have decided to donate their tissue to enhance the quality of life for others. Consent for donation can also be given by the donor's family. Donation is always voluntary.

After consent is obtained, potential donors are thoroughly screened for risk factors and medical conditions that would rule out donation. This screening includes interviews with family members, evaluation of medical and hospital records, and a physical assessment of the donor. Recovery of the tissue is performed with respect for the donor using surgical techniques.

Personnel from tissue recovery agencies remove the tissue from the donor. These agencies are under the regulation of the Food and Drug Administration and must abide by the Current Good Tissue Practices rule. Once the tissue is removed, it is sent to tissue banks for processing and distribution. Each year, AATB-accredited tissue banks distribute 1.5 million bone and tissue allografts. These banks are also regulated by the Food and Drug Administration to ensure the quality of the tissue being distributed.

Examples of use

Allografts are used in various procedures such as:

Bone and tissue allografts have many uses for patients, but overall they save lives, repair limbs, and enhance the quality of a patient’s life. Allografts may be used to replace damaged heart valves and skin; however, they are more frequently used in orthopedic surgery to replace tendons or bones as necessary.

Laws & Regulations

Since 1993, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has regulated human tissue intended for transplants. As of May 2005, there are three new regulations that address the manufacturing activities associated with human cells, tissues, and cellular and tissue-based products (HCT/Ps). The first regulation requires companies to register with the FDA if they intend to produce and distribute HCT/Ps. The second regulation, called the “Donor Eligibility” rule, concerns the donor’s ability to meet certain criteria in order to be eligible to donate tissue. Finally, the third rule, referred to as the “Current Good Tissue Practices” rule, oversees the overall processing and distribution practices of each company. As a whole, these rules are implemented to ensure the quality of the tissue and reduce the risk of contamination or disease transmission.

Other options

Allografts are a natural alternative to synthetic and metal implants. However, unlike synthetic or metal implants, allografts incorporate into your body.

Another choice surgeons have is an autograft, which takes tissue from one part of your body for transplantation to another part. Using an allograft eliminates the need for a second surgery site—avoiding additional pain, risk and possible longer hospital stay.

In contrast, a transplant from another species is called a xenograft. A transplanted organ or tissue from a genetically identical donor, i.e., an identical twin, is termed an isograft.

See also

References

http://www.aatb.org/files/safetyoftissuetransplants.pdf
http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dhqp/tissueTransplantsFAQ.html#top
http://www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/TissueTissueProducts/default.htm



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