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Almaty is located in Kazakhstan
Location in Kazakhstan
Coordinates: 43°16′39″N 76°53′45″E / 43.2775°N 76.89583°E / 43.2775; 76.89583Coordinates: 43°16′39″N 76°53′45″E / 43.2775°N 76.89583°E / 43.2775; 76.89583
Country  Kazakhstan
First settled 10–9th century BC
Founded 1854
Incorporated (city) 1867
 - Akim (mayor) Akhmetzhan Yesimov
 - Total 324.8 km2 (125.4 sq mi)
Elevation 500–1,700 m (1,640–5,577 ft)
Population (2009)
 - Total 1,420,747
 Density 4,152/km2 (10,753.6/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+6 (UTC+6)
Postal code 050000–050063
Area code(s) +7 727[1]
ISO 3166-2 ALA
License plate A

Almaty (Kazakh: Алматы / Almatı / الماتى), formerly known as Alma-Ata (Russian: Алма-Ата, until 1992) and Verny (Russian: Верный, until 1921), is the largest city in Kazakhstan, with a population of 1,348,500 (as of 1 September 2008),[2] which represents 9% of the population of the country.

It was the capital of Kazakhstan (and its predecessor, the Kazakh SSR) from 1929 to 1997. Despite losing its status as the capital to Astana, Almaty remains the major commercial center of Kazakhstan.



The name "Almaty" derives from the Kazakh word for "apple" (алма), and thus is often translated as "full of apples". The older Soviet-era Russian version of its name, Alma-Ata, originates from the saint's tomb, buried in an apple orchard, whence the name, "Saint of the Apple (orchard)" or "Father of Apples".[citation needed] "Ata" standing for father in Kazakh and many other Turkic languages, also stands for a saint or a priest, as the term "padre" in the Romance languages. The old name for the new capital of Kazakhstan, Astana was Akmolinsk/Akmola--, "White Shrine/Mausoleum", a reference to another saint's burial ground.

In fact, in the region surrounding Almaty, there is a great genetic diversity among the wild apples; the region is thought to be the ancestral home of the apple, and the wild Malus sieversii, is considered a likely candidate for the ancestor of the modern domestic apple. The area is often visited by researchers and scientists from around the world in order to learn more about the complex systems of genetics, and also to discover the true beginnings of the domestic apple.



Prehistoric Almaty

During 1000–900 BCE in the Bronze Age the first farmers and cattle-breeders established settlements on the territory of Almaty.

During the Saka’s period (from 700 BCE to the beginning of the Common Era), these lands were chosen for residence by Saka tribes and later Uisun tribes inhabiting the territory north of the Tian Shan mountain range. The evidences of these times are numerous burial tumuli and ancient settlements, especially giant burial mounds of Saka tsars. The most famous archaeological finds are the Golden man from the Issyk Kurgan, Zhalauly treasure, Kargaly diadem, Zhetysu arts bronze (boilers, lamps and altars). During the period of Saka and uisun governance, Almaty became the early education center.[3]

Silver dirham coin minted in Almaty in 684 CE

Middle Ages

The next stage of Almaty evolution is attributed to the Middle Ages (8–10th centuries) and is characterized by city culture development, transfer to a settled way of living, farming and handicraft development, and the emergence of a number of towns and cities in the territory of Zhetysu.

In 10–14th centuries, settlements in the territory of the so called "Big Almaty" became part of the trade routes of the Silk Road. At that time, Almaty became one of the trade, craft and agricultural centers on the Silk Road and possessed an official mint. The city was first mentioned as Almatu in books from the 13th century.

15–18th centuries

In 15–18th centuries, the city was on the way to degradation as trade activities were decreasing on this part of the Silk Road. Notwithstanding, this period was saturated with very important political events that had significant impact on the history of Almaty and Kazakhstan as a whole. It was a period of crucial ethnic and political transformations. The Kazakh state and nation were founded here, close to Almaty.

These lands also witnessed the tragic developments related to the Dzungar intervention and rigorous efforts of the Kazakh to protect their land and preserve independence. In 1730 the Kazakh defeated the Dzungar in the Anyrakay mountains, 70 km to north-west from Almaty. It was a critical moment of the Patriotic War between Kazakhs and Dzungars.

Foundation of Verniy

Zenkov Cathedral, a 19th-century Russian Orthodox cathedral located in Panfilov Park, is the second tallest wooden building in the world.[4]

On 4 February 1854 the modern history of the city began with the strengthening of the Russian piedmont Fort Verniy nearby the Zailiysky Alatau mountain range between Bolshaya and Malaya Almatinka rivers. The construction of the Verniy Fort was almost finished by autumn 1854. It was a fenced pentagon and one of its sides was built along the Malaya Almatinka. Later, wood fence was replaced with the wall of brick with embrasures. Main facilities were erected around the big square for training and parading.[5]

In 1855 the first displaced Kazakh appeared in Verniy. Since 1856, Verniy started accepting Russian peasants. They founded the Bolshaya Almatinskaya Stanitsa (Cossack village) nearby the fortification. The inflow of migrants was increasing and led to construction of the Malaya Almatinskaya Stanitsa and Tatarskaya (Tashkentskaya) sloboda. It was the place of settlement for Tatar mechants and craftsmen.

In 1867 the Verniy Fort was transformed into the town and called Almatinsk. However, the population did not like the new name of the town and soon the town was re-named as Verniy.

According to the First City Plan, the city perimeters were 2 km on the south along Almatinka river, and 3 km on the west. The new city area was divided into residential parts, and the latter — into districts. Three categories of the city buildings were distinguished. Buildings of the first and second categories were two-storied or, at least, one-storied constructions with the high semi-basement. Buildings of categories I and II were erected around and in the center of the city, others — on the outskirts.

On 28 May 1887, at 4 a.m., an earthquake almost totally destroyed Verniy in 11–12 minutes. Brick buildings were mostly damaged. As a result, people were inclined to build up one-storied construction made of wood or adobe.

20th century Almaty

Holiday Inn

Almaty from the Revolution of 1917 to World War II


In 1921, the joint solemn sitting was summoned for the participation of the representative of government regional and sub-regional institutions, professional trades, the Muslim people to make a decision to assign a new name to Verniy — Alma-Ata.

In 1926, the Council of Labour and Defence approved the construction of the Turkestan-Siberia Railway railway that was a crucial element of the republic reconstruction, specifically on the east and southeast of the republic. The Turkestan-Siberia Railway construction was also a decisive economic aspect that foreordained the destiny of Alma-Ata as a capital of Kazakh ASSR. In 1930 the construction of the highway and railway to the Alma-Ata station was completed.

On 2 March 1927, It was the initiative of the Central Executive Committee of the Kazakh Republic to transfer the capital from Kyzyl-Orda to Alma-Ata. The VI Kazakhstani Congress approved this initiative.[6]

On 29 April 1927, it was officially decided on the sitting of the Russian SFSR Committee to transfer the capital of the Kazakh Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic from Kyzyl-Orda to Alma-Ata.

Besides, the Alma-Ata airport was opened in 1930 and people from the capital of Kazakhstan could fly now from Alma-Ata to Moscow. Alma-Ata became the air gate to Kazakhstan. Transformation of the small town into the capital of the Republic was supplied by the large-scaled construction of new administrative and government facilities and housing.

The Central Mosque of Almaty.

Given the transfer of the capital of Kazakhstan to Alma-Ata, in 1936 the Architecture and Planning Bureau elaborated the General Plan aimed at re-creating Alma-Ata as the new cultural and comfortable capital of Kazakhstan. The Plan was based on the existing rectangular system of districts that would further be strengthened and reconstructed.

Almaty in World War II

During World War II the city territory was changed to a large extent. To organize the home front and concentrate industrial and material resources, the residential stock was compressed to arrange accommodation for 26,000 persons evacuated. Alma-Ata hosted over 30 industrial facilities from the front areas, 8 evacuated hospitals, 15 institutes, universities and technical schools, around 20 cultural institutions, etc. Motion picture production companies from Leningrad, Kiev and Moscow were also evacuated to Alma-Ata.

Owing to self-denying labour, over 52,000 Alma-Ata residents were awarded. 48 residents were granted the title of Hero of The Soviet Union. Three rifle divisions were raised in Alma-Ata , including the well-known 8th Panfilov’s division, along with 2 rifle battalions and 3 aviation regiments that were raised on the bases of the air club of Alma-Ata.

Almaty from 1945 to 2000

Furmanov street

From 1966 to 1971, 1,400,000 square meters of public and cooperative housing were put into operation. Annually, around 300,000 square meters of dwellings were under construction. It was the period of constructing earthquake-proof multi-storied buildings. Construction unification and type-design practice diversified architectural forms. At that time were constructed lots of schools, hospitals, cultural and entertainment facilities, including the Lenin’s Palace, Kazakhstan Hotel, sport complex “Medeo”, etc.

The Medeu Dam, designed to protect the city of Almaty and the Medeo skating rink from catastrophic mudflows, was built in 1966 and reinforced a number of times in the 1960s and 1970s.

The supersonic transport Tupolev Tu-144 went into service on 26 December 1975, flying mail and freight between Moscow and Alma-Ata in preparation for passenger services, which commenced in November 1977. The Aeroflot flight on 1 June 1978 was the Tu-144's 55th and last scheduled passenger service.

Since 1981, the underground Almaty Metro construction project has been developed.

On 16 December 1986 Jeltoksan riot took place in response to General Secretary Mikhail Gorbachev's dismissal of Dinmukhamed Kunayev.

Hotel Kazakhstan

In 1993 the government made a decision to rename Alma-Ata. The new name of the city is Almaty.

In 1997 the President of the Republic of Kazakhstan Nursultan Nazarbayev approved the Decree to transfer the capital from Almaty to Astana.[7]

Dostyk Hotel

On 1 July 1998 was passed the Law concerning the special status of Almaty as a scientific, cultural, historical, financial and industrial center.

21st century Almaty

The new 2030 General Plan of Almaty was developed in 1998 and aims at forming ecologically safe, secure and socially comfortable living conditions. The main objective is to promote Almaty’s image as a garden-city. One of the components of the General Plan is to continue multi-storied and individual construction, reorganize industrial territories, improve transport infrastructure and launch Almaty Metro.[citation needed]


Almaty features a humid continental climate with very warm summers and cold winters. Its wettest months are April and May, during which about a third of the city’s annual precipitation is received. August and September are the driest months where on average under 30 mm of precipitation is seen.

Climate data for Almaty
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 18.2
Average high °C (°F) -0.2
Daily mean °C (°F) -4.9
Average low °C (°F) -9.6
Record low °C (°F) -30.1
Precipitation mm (inches) 33
Source: [1] 2009-08-14


Ethnic groups (2003)[citation needed]:

According to the USSR Census of 1989, population of Almaty was 1,071,900; Kazakhstan Census of 1999 reported 1,129,400.[8]


Almaty business centre

Almaty is also developing as the regional financial and business centre — RFCA.[citation needed].

Air Astana is headquartered in the Air Astana Centre 1 in Almaty.[9] Prior to their dissolution, Air Kazakhstan[10] and Kazakhstan Airlines[11] were also headquartered in Almaty.


Kök Töbe

Downtown Almaty as seen from Kok Tobe

An aerial tramway line connects downtown Almaty with a popular recreation area the top of Kök Töbe (Kazakh: Көктөбе, which means 'Green Hill'), a mountain just to the southeast. The city television tower, Alma-Ata Tower, is located on the hill, as well as a variety of amusement-park type attractions and touristy restaurants.


A section of the Zodiac Fountain (1979)

According to the city's Department of Natural Resources and Resource Use Management,[12] as of 2007 the city has 125 fountain groups or isolated fountains. Among them is the "Oriental Calendar" Fountain, whose 12 sculpture figures represent the 12 animals of the Kazakh 12-year animal cycle (similar to its Chinese counterpart).

Universities of Almaty

Apple Town

for further details: List of universities in Kazakhstan

Olympic aspirations

Almaty was an official candidate to host the XXII Olympic Winter Games in 2014,[13] but was eliminated from consideration after it failed to be included in the "short list" of candidate cities. Almaty won its bid to host the 2011 Winter Asian Games. The city is exploring possible future bids, such as the 2018 Winter Olympics. However, the city failed to submit a bid as an applicant city for the 2018 games.

See also

Modern Almaty

External links



Landsat satellite photo of Almaty
WiFi cafe — "Coffeedelia"

Children's world — A popular store with a wide variety of goods for children.


  2. ^ "«Almaty population as of September 1, 2008 made 1 million 348.5 thousand people»" (in en). Retrieved 14 November 2008. 
  3. ^ — History of Almaty
  4. ^ Ness, Immanuel. Encyclopedia of World Cities. M E Sharpe Reference, 1999. ISBN 0765680173. Page 19.
  6. ^ Materials of the VI Kazakhstani Congress, Kyzyl-Orda, 1927
  7. ^ "Astana — new capital", official from
  8. ^ О некоторых итогах переписи населения Казахстана (About some results of the Kazakhstan population census) (Russian)
  9. ^ "Head Office." Air Astana. Retrieved on 8 October 2009.
  10. ^ "World Airline Directory." Flight Global. 16–22 March 2004. 66.
  11. ^ "World Airline Directory." Flight Global. 29 March-4 April 1995. 79.
  12. ^ Фонтаны города Алматы (The Fountains of Almaty) (Russian)
  13. ^ 2014 Winter Olympic Games Bids

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Soviet monument to WW2 heroes
Soviet monument to WW2 heroes

Almaty is the former capital of Kazakhstan, located in Almaty Province.


Almaty is the former capital of Kazakhstan, and is still its largest city. Being a financial and cultural center of Central Asia, Almaty boasts large tourist and expatriate communities.

A small mountain range borders the city to the east and in the far south on a clear day you can see the beautifully rugged, snow capped mountains, right at the city's doorstep. The city, in general, slopes from south to north. It means that you are going south, if you are traveling uphill.

Almaty is in top 50 most expensive cities worldwide. Even if Almaty has jumped from 30th place in 2007 to 44th in 2008, it's still more expensive than Toronto, Los Angeles or Hamburg. However, it is a wonderful gateway to the undiscovered and distinctive country. Kazakh people are very kind and welcoming and you will be pleasantly surprised by the hospitality. Almaty hosted the England v. Kazakhstan WC2010 football game on 6 June 2009.

Get in

By air

For people from most countries, the easiest way to get to Kazakhstan is by air. Several airlines have regular flights into Almaty, including the low-cost carrier airBaltic from Riga, Lufthansa, CSA, Etihad Airways, KLM, bmi and Turkish Airlines, to name a few. It's roughly a 7-8 hour flight from Europe. Kazakhstan Airlines is no longer operational, leaving Air Astana [1] the national carrier of the country and operator of most domestic routes. Air Astana, with a fairly modern fleet of Airbuses and Boeings, has direct flights from major European cities such as London, Frankfurt and Amsterdam, and is a comfortable and reasonably priced alternative to the European airlines. Visas must be obtained in advance of arrival, as they are no longer available on arrival at the airport, (unless you are arriving from a country that has no consulate, and that type of plane-side visa usually need to be coordinated with the Ministry of Foreign Affairs at least one week in advance).

Easy connections from Almaty include Moscow, London Heathrow, Amsterdam, Abu Dhabi, Bangkok, Turkey, Seoul, Beijing, Delhi and Dubai with direct flights. Etihad Airways, [], flies 4 times a week to Abu Dhabi, Air Arabia flies to Sharjah twice a week and Air Astana flies to Dubai daily. The airport is small, but getting busier by the day. Sometimes, several flights depart around the same time, meaning shocking queues and waits for no apparent reason. Be early, and expect delays to your flight. Lots of departures from Almaty end up leaving a bit late, but most arrivals are pretty timely. A taxi from the airport to the city costs about $20 - $25.

When leaving by air, you need to fill out a customs declaration form. There is a multilingual computerised kiosk available but don't bother with this - it's quicker and easier to fill one out by hand at the stand immediately opposite the entrance to the check-in area. The forms are available in several languages including English and German. Check-in desks open around 3 hours before flight departure and you are not permitted into the check-in area until the desks for your flight have opened. Your customs form will be examined when entering the check-in area; there may be substantial queues.

There are usually several queues for passport control; experience says that it is best to avoid the right-most queue as air-crew commonly queue-jump this one, leading to delays at the passport kiosk.

By train

From Russia:

There are many rail connections between Russia and Kazakhstan. Train 8 goes from Moscow to Almaty, and departs from Kazanski Station. The trip takes about 82 hours, with stops in Saratov, Uralsk, Aktobe, Turkistan, and Shymkent on the way.

From Ürümqi, China:

The N955 train leaves every Saturday and Monday night (11.58 Beijing time) direct to Almaty. To buy the ticket in Ürümqi the office is in a hotel to the right of the main station. Tickets need to purchased a few days in advance and cost 541 yuan (about USD80). Ticket sale for the Saturday train starts on Monday 10am, for the Monday train it starts Friday 10am. The train on Saturday is very busy, while for the train on Monday it is possible to purchase the ticket on the same day. Organizing the Kazakh visum in Urumqi takes at least 2 working days.

The trip takes 34 hours, six of which are spent clearing Chinese and Kazakh immigration. Taking the bus or flying are better options if you are in a hurry.

If you are leaving Almaty by train remember that there are two main train stations.

By bus

Sleeper buses leave from Urumqi at 6pm every day of the week except Saturday and take approximately 24 hours to arrive in Almaty (November 2008: only buses on Monday, Wednesday and Friday at 7pm). Tickets for a lower bed are Y420, upper beds are Y400, and a berth in the back bed of the bus is Y380. Buses depart from the international branch of the Nianzigou Bus Station (碾子沟客运站), which is located about 50 meters to the left of the main Nianzigou station (if facing the front of the station) on the other side of the Wenshabao (温莎堡) building. Beware that the crossing at Korgas (霍尔果斯) closes on Chinese national holidays (including the first week of October for National Day).

Buses also leave from Yining and it takes about 10 hours to go to Almaty. They cost USD 30 or Y150. These buses leave two or three times in a week, ask the busdrives in Yining when they will go. You could also take a bus to Korgas from Yining (Y30 - Y38) and go to Kazakhstan by foot from Korgas. After being on the other side of the border you could take a taxi which will cost about 3000 Tenge to go to Almaty. The trip from Korgas to Almaty is about 4 to 6 hours. The city of Tacheng city (north of Korgas and south of Yining) also has buses that run several times a week to Almaty and back.

  • OVIR, Corner of Baytursnuly & Karasay Batyr, 8-3272544145. Mon-Wed & Fri: 10:00-13:00 & 15:00-19:00, Passport collection: 17:00-19:00. Enter the side door through the blue porch and go to window No. 3. You need: photocopies of your passport photo-page and your Kazakh visa as well as your accommodation's address. 28/07/2008 Single-entry visa: KZT745.  edit

The new number for the OVIR is 87272-544132

Get around

Remember that the mountains outside of town are critical to direction. When someone tells you to head "up," they are telling you to head towards the mountains. When someone tells you to head "down," they are telling you to head away from the mountains.

  • Public buses and trolleys can take you around much of the city for affordable prices (50 tenge per person).
  • Taxis come in two types, those with "Taxi" painted on the side, and every other privately owned vehicle. If you want to go somewhere, stand on the curb and stick your arm out. Pretty soon someone will stop. Tell him where you want to go and negotiate a price (somewhere between KZT300 and KZT600 (USD2,5 - USD5) is a normal price for a foreigner taking a short trip). These are really efficient, and although it takes a bit of getting used to, it is the perfect solution to getting around. Usually a car will stop within 30 seconds to 3 minutes of having your hand out. If the driver does not wish to drive to your destination, no problem. The next one will stop a minute or two after. You'll need the name of your destination street and the nearest cross street, in Russian, in order to get to where you want to go. Very few people speak or understand even basic English. It is necessary to have small money.
  • Kazakhstan English Language Theater, Ave. Abay 2, [2]. Started in 2001, the Kazakhstan English Language Theater (KELT) is the only English language theater in former Soviet Central Asia. KELT does two shows a year, and runs English language theater classes and workshops periodically throughout the year. Located on the campus of KIMEP Institute in the heart of Almaty. Visit KELT online at  edit
  • Turgen Gorge.In the National preserve Ile-Alatau in 90 km from Almaty a delightful place of the nature – Turgen Gorge - is situated. In the gorge that has a depth of 44 km. you can take pleasure from visiting hot springs, waterfalls and plenty of forests. Gorge is famous with its waterfalls and relic Chim-Turgen moss fir-woods that spread over the ground and create a dense fir-tree carpet
  • Big Almaty Lake. Big Almaty Lake (Bolshoye Almatinskoye Ozero) is one the most admirable mountain lakes of Almaty outskirts, located in Trans-Ili Alatau in the gorge of Bolshaya Almatinka river on the height of 2510 above see level. It lies in the cavity and is like a sparkling mirror, surrounded from all the sides with majestic peaks. Three main peaks tower over the Lake: Peak of Soviet (4317m) – in the South-East, Ozerniy (4110) – in the South, Tourist Peak (3954 m) in the South-West. Depending on the season the Lake changes its color from light-green to turquoise-blue.
  • Alpine park. Outside town, on the road to Chimbulak. Medeu skating rink is on this road too.
  • Presidential Palace. You will not be allowed to go inside. Nonetheless, the scenery and architecture is breathtaking. If the guards are out front, it means the President is there.
  • National Museum. Opposite to Presidential Palace. Blue-roofed. Features displays on Kazakh history, from prehistoric times through the Mongol periods to the present. 45-minute guided tours available (in Russian only).
  • The 28 Panfilov Heroes Memorial Park. Honours the men from Kazakhstan who died on the battlefields of the 2nd World War against Nazi fascism. There is an 'eternal flame' by the war memorial where schoolchildren put flowers on the last day of school, and newlyweds also come to have their photos taken there. In the park is an Orthodox church built in 1870 without a single nail, painted in dollhouse colors with a metallic steeple. You can often hear the beautiful singing coming from inside.
  • Old orchards. The orchards give Almaty its name. Ironically, most have been destroyed in recent, ill-thought out building developments, but a few remain.
  • Republic Square/New Square. Former administrative center. Since the capital was moved to Astana, this square has been renovated. TV stations occupy some buildings. There are flower gardens. There is also a Kazakh memorial, consisting of a tall statue of the golden boy, an early Kazakh figure, whose name is Altyn Adam, and circled by metal bas relief panels recounting the history of Kazakhstan, from the time of the fierce Amazon-like queen, to independence 10 years ago.
  • Arbat. Almaty’s artist row on a tree-lined pedestrian street. "Arbat" - is a nickname of the street. The real name is Zhybek-Zholy (Silk road). On the same street you can visit the big mall - TsUM (in Russian - ЦУМ - Центральный Универсальный Магазин). At the East end of this pedestrian street there is the Silk Way Mall. Here you can find WiFi internet access at cafEmax on the second level (500 tenge for 100 minutes) and a selection of "upscale" shops. Most of these shops are imitations of western chain stores such as Zara. They also imitate western prices.
  • Chocolate factory. Tours possible.
  • Medeu. The highest olympic sized ice stadium. More than 180 world records were made on this ice. Fun to visit in winter. Tipsy teenagers teeter across the ice, coloured lights and loud pop create a slightly surreal but fun ambiance. There is also a large mountain-water swimming pool just below the ice rink, open in summer. The water is extremely invigorating, about 15 degrees celsius!
  • Chimbulak. Ski-resort. Opened from November till April-May. A base for some great hikes. You can hike up to the top to get a great view of the city. Or you can bypass Chimbulak and carry along the road, past the hotel and walk up to the dam and then the glacier. A tough but beautiful walk. Hiking is definitely a highlight here. To go to Chymbulak, take the (only) bus from the corner of Satpayev and Baitursynuly at 8 am every day; don't miss the way back! Every Tuesday is lift out of order!
  • Charyn Canyon. The second largest canyon in the world. Located 200km to the east of Almaty. Recommended for tours more than one day. One of the most remarkable nature wonders, left by world ocean is the canyon of Charyn river in 200 km from Almaty. Charyn Canyon is considered to be a miniature of the Grand Canyon carved by the Colorado River in the U.S. state of Arizona. It is unusual and very diverse in its forms that remind the towers of fairy-tale castle. That is why canyon has another name- the Valley of Castles. On the slopes there could be found the remains of fossil fauna, dated 300 mln years.
Medeu Ice-skating
Medeu Ice-skating
  • Medeo Ice-skating stadium. Outside town, on the road to Chimbulak. Skate rentals are available.

Take bus number 6 in front of Hotel Kazakhstan on Dostyk Ave. to go to the Medeu (50T), every 20 minutes.

  • Ski or snowboard at Chimbulak ski resort.
  • Tao Spar is up in the mountains and is worth a visit summer or winter. Try the plunge pool at -15 degrees!
  • Hike in the mountains, at least when weather is permitting.
  • Go to Barakholka, a large vendor-style market, to find name brands (knock-offs) for cheap.
  • Panfilov Park, a beautiful park in the center of the city, featuring Soviet-era architecture and Cobor Cathedral, built without a single nail.
  • Walk down the hill one block from the main entrance to Panfilov Park and visit the Green Market, an indoor/outdoor labrynth of stalls selling everything from homemade goat cheese or Korean salads to hand-knit woolen mittens and socks and pirated DVDs and CDs. (Wallet in your front pocket, lest the pickpockets relieve you of your hard-earned money.)
  • Ride the cable car up to Koktobe for wonderful views of the mountains, vineyards, and Almaty. The cable car leaves from Satpaeva and Dostyk (still sometimes referred to as Lenin street) and costs 800KZT (about $5) one way. Buy souvenirs and have a cup of hot chocolate at a table under the shadow of the TV tower.
  • Any number of the city's nightclubs of cafes if you're in the mood for dancing. Remember though- do not pay for every drink as you get it, get a table an get a receipt! It is not beneath the bar staff to pull a sly one occasionally.
  • Pack a picnic and drive 2 hours out to the Tamgaly petroglyphs (about 30 kilometers past Copa off the road to Bishkek). The famous "sunman" is worth the drive.
  • Drive 3 hours to the famous Charyn canyon and see the gorgeous red and orange sandstone layers.
  • The "Singing Dunes" are also not too far - a day trip.


As of 26 February 2009, $1 equals about 150 tenge and 1 Euro is 190 tenge. As a comparison: a Snickers bar is 54 tenge; a can of Coke is 55 tenge; a cheese pizza at il Patio is about 800 tenge; a cinema ticket for a movie is about 850 tenge; a small trip about 10 minutes in length in a taxi - 300-400 tenge; cigarettes 50-100 tenge; vodka 350 tenge+, beer 500ml 70 tenge+, a litre of juice is around 135 tenge. Beef is 500-1500 tenge a kilo, pork 400 tenge a kilo, horse meat 1500 tenge a kilo. A loaf of bread is 35 - 50 tenge. A 2 bedroom modern apartment is $2000 a month. Clothing is expensive unless buying knock-offs at Baraholka. Green Market is generally expensive. Ramstor is a large, modern, high profile hypermarket on Furmanov. It is REALLY expensive compared to other stores. Buy in smaller local shops, or Baraholka, to save on costs. If money is not a problem, LOTS of over the top European designers have stores on almost every street throughout Almaty.

  • On the Arbat street you will find 'TsUM' (stands for 'Centralniy Universalniy Magasin'). Every post-Soviet town has this department store. It's filled with hundreds of identical little counters selling electronic goods on the first floor, and souvenirs and clothes can be found on the second. There is a good selection of souvenirs.
  • The green market, or 'Zelyoni Bazaar' in Russian, has fresh vegetables, dairy products, and meat, as well as a number of non-food household items. Fruit and vegetables are on the lower level. On the upper level you will find dried fruits, nuts, spices, honey and plants, as well as cheese and meat. The meat section includes horse sausages and is a bit challenging to the nose, so vegetarians beware.The prices increase seasonally, and unless you come from Tokyo or London, you will find it quite expensive, as opposed to your "usual" Asian market shopping experience.
  • Handmade carpets.
  • Felt goods. Handmade dolls, rugs, and slippers made with boiled lambswool and natural dyes.
  • Handcrafted metal jewelry, including a "tumar", which is a pendant that opens like a locket.
  • Handcrafted leather chess sets in a leather folding case with a board pattern stitched on. In most souvenir shops, and on ground floor of Silkway
  • One Saturday a month, there is an 'ad hoc' market on Ablai Khan across from the Tsum. Craftsmen from all over Kazakhstan come and sell their wares. It's worth checking out.
  • In Almaty there is also a market place called Barakholka, which is 4km long and 10 rows wide and can be seen easily it is a very busy place. You can find virtually anything there, and if the price isn't right, you can easily haggle with the merchants. Want to find a $300 winter coat for about $45? It's possible.
  • As the city continues to modernize, stores and brands such as Levi's, Mango, Diesel, and Adidas continue to establish stores in the city.
  • Korean restaurants. Almaty has a huge diaspora of ethnic Koreans. The ladies sell their salads at the market places around town, and there are several quite good restaurants. One of the more Korean popular restaurants is in the square in front of the entrance to the Exhibition on Temirazova (a few blocks away from the Intercontinental and the new Holiday Inn). You'll often see business men from Samsung and LG here lunching with people from the Korean embassy. Another popular Korean restaurant is a block north of (down from) Aiteki Bi/two blocks east of Park Panfilova in the ground floor of an apartment building. Strange location, but very popular and very clean.
  • Modern International restaurants are not easily found around Almaty, but a new lounge restaurant called "boudoir" has picked up the baton, and offers "contemporary global cuisine" in an intimate underground space. The menu includes kangaroo and crocodile dishes, and specialties of the house are the live mudcrabs cooked in 5 different ways, and the chef's selection of homemade icecreams. In January 2008 boudoir introduced "liquid nitrogen ice cream" to the experience, where the chef comes out to the table with base ingredients and makes ice cream at the table with lots of drama and freezing vapours from the superchilled LN2.

Menus are in English, Russian and Kazakh, and the place has the funkiest cocktail menu in Central Asia. Open till midnight 7 days a week. Boudoir is located on Bogenbai Batyr underneath the Kazpost (near Ablai Khan).

  • Georgian restaurants. Feature khachapuri, cheese filled bread, eggplant stuffed with nuts, spinach with nuts, and various savory kababs. Try Tbilisi on Zheltoksan or Pirosmani on Ablai Khan (two blocks down from TsUM). Georgian restaurants are a great place for vegetarians to dine.
  • Indian restaurants. One of the more popular Indian restaurants is Namaste, on the corner of Kosmonaft and Satpaeva (about mid-way between the Intercontinental and the Hyatt). Service is very slow, but if you have time the food is pretty good. Govindas is a wonderful Indian restaurant that is entirely vegetarian. The food is really quite good and the atmosphere is, for Almaty, remarkable: it is a NON-SMOKING restaurant!!!
  • Restaurant chain il Patio / Planet Sushi. Predictably passable pizza and decent sushi in a clean and efficient atmosphere at decent prices. Almost all the sites have non-smoking sections, which is unusual in this town.
  • Mama Mia's, Gogol between Ablai Khan and Panfilova (across from Dastarkhan grocery store). Another pizza restaurant, but with a large assortment of fresh salads (a good place to go when you tire of carrots and potatoes in the winter time). A small, separate non-smoking section. For a change, stop in and order your dishes to go, then walk across the street to Dastarkhan to buy some sodas and pastries for dessert; then walk two blocks east on Gogol and eat in Park Panfilova.
  • Venezia, On Dostyk (Lenin) between Satpaeva and Abai. Four pages of choices. The pizza has very good thin crust. The restaurant has two rooms that are designated non-smoking.
  • Gakku (7 Nikitina Street, between Nauryzbay Batyr street and Seyfullin avenue) is probably the best restaurant serving Kazakh national food for reasonable prices. One should try "beshparmak" (KZT1,900), "kuyrdak" (KZT1,600) and other traditional Kazakh dishes. Foreigners are increasingly frequenting this new restaurant.
  • Ultra's (formally known as Tinkoff) is a fun restaurant with its own microbrewery on site. It is one of a restaurant chain based in Russia. The Almaty restaurant is on Satpaeva between Kosmonaft and Seifulin, and has an excellent array of beer, even if it's a little costly.
  • Turandot is a very cheap and very tasty Chinese eatery with two locations: one on Abai (between Kosmonaft and Zhandosova) attached to the theater building (within walking distance of the Hyatt/circus/amusement park) and the other on Ablai Khan just below Makataeva. The one at the theater has an outside cafe during the summer months. Servings are huge, so don't go overboard! There are plenty of vegetarian dishes to choose from, including tofu dishes. Our favorites are celery with cashew nuts and chicken crusted in sesame seeds.
  • Tau Dastarkhan. This restaurant is located halfway up to the mountains in a large area made up of "islands" with Kazakh, Russian, Georgian, and Uzbek kitchens. Not to be missed in the summertime. It's as fun to walk around and see the various settings as it is to eat.
  • Sapphire. This is a late night club and restaurant for the young people. Basic Chinese menu and live DJ with a dance floor. the main drawcard here is the shisha, or 'hubbly bubbly' 'nargile' or 'water pipe'. Other places in Almaty have shisha (fruit flavoured tobacco, smoked for an hour or two from a hookah), but this is one of the few to use real charcoal and authentic Al Fakher shisha tobacco from UAE. The bar delivers the vodkas pretty promptly too.
  • the grill on top of the hill at Kok Tobe (take the cable car up, near Hotel kazakhstan on Dostyk) in a picturesque setting overlooking Almaty. You are perched over the city on a wooden verandah (some parts nice & shady) and it is an awesome setting. The beers are a bit pricey, but the shashliks are awesome and a few drinks here is a 'must do' experience
  • Zheti Qazyna, an Uzbek restaurant on Abylay Khan and Makataev. Three rooms, one Uzbek, one Asian (ie Chinese), one air-conditioned European. The Uzbek room has wonderful wood decorations, blue-tiled kitchen you can see into. We had Cheburek (kind of fried pie with different fillings -- lamb, spinach/egg, potato) which were very filling, a fish stew and some Manty which were like large ravioli filled with lamb and pumpkin. We added a bottle of Georgian wine and some mineral water, and the whole lot set us back around $100, but the atmosphere was great.
  • Soho. Well, Run into expat men trolling for local young local women in a smoky atmosphere. Lunch isn't bad - a buffet with a nice assortment of breads, soups, salads, and main dishes called a "business lunch" at a reasonable fixed price. However the evenings are quite pleasant with live music and reasonable drink prices - no entrance fee during the week. Soho is a great place for a single business man to attend during the night. It is not a very classy joint and is usually packed with Almaty's working woman. Never the less they have one of the best bands in Almaty and YES! they sing in English! Some of their covers are better than the originals, it's a must see event. Try making a booking for a table, to avoid having to stand at the bar.
  • Mad Murphy's on Tole Bi, unless you're desperate for an Irish pub. The food is predictably mediocre and the bar is thick with smoke and English-speaking expats. Prices are a little steep but you are getting what your money's worth. Some of the best americanized food in Almaty. Although it is filled with middle/elderly business men mostly from America and The U.K it has recently attracted a younger crowd becuase of its fabulous live band. On fridays and saturdays the crowd at Murphy's is treated to great live english music, by the end of the night the whole bar is rocking to the band.
  • Emporio Armani Bar - recently opened bar with moderate prices and excellent service (Al-Farabi, 100, Shashkina street corner). Life DJ and cosy atmposhere.
  • Jantik Club(138 Bogenbay Batyr Street, Shagabutdinov street corner, Tel.: 293-56-60)- excellent western-style bar. Life music and XX century super hits. Beatles fans will be very placed to visit this bar. Residents include Jeraldine Hunt, Oleg Magomayev and Jantemir. Moderate prices - alcohol drinks start from KZT800, long drinks - KZT1,500.
  • Local food:

"Five fingers", a traditional Kazakh food. "Beshbarmak", a stew with leaves of noodles and pieces of lamb. "Baurzaki", heavy, spongy bread dough cooked in deep fat (similar to a donut, but not sweet). "Plov", a rice dish with meat and carrots or other vegetables. "Shashlik" (Russian: Шашлык) is the most tasty Kazakh food. It is a kebab that is made out of chicken or lamb. Shashlik is not fried, but is grilled over charcoal. Shashlik is popular throughout this part of Central Asia. You can also easily find "doner kebab" or "shaurma" at any number of stands through the city. Just be sure to use the stands with the most customers - it is often the best food, and it is freshly prepared.

  • supermarkets:

Almaty has many modern supermarkets, offering everything from a bakery section to toiletries to vodka. Any food you could possibly want to find is readily available.

There is a chain called "Gros" (really) that has convenient locations around town and a good selection of drinks and snacks. Ramstore also has at least three locations, but is a bit pricier as it caters to expats willing to spend a lot of money on imported food. The favorite stores among locals are Stolichni (super helpful staff and decent fruits/vegetables year 'round, on corner of Ablai Khan and Kabanbai Batyr), but vegetable prices are very expensive, Dasterkhan (excellent baked goods, especially cakes and cookies!!! on Gogol between Ablai Khan and Furmanova), and Silkway City (a few locations).

Of course, if you really want to save money and enjoy an adventure, go to the Green Market and bargain with the old ladies selling Korean salads, apples, eggplants, cheese, honey, and even arucola and rosemary sprigs!

  • Tea is widely available, mostly very good and often quite strong. If you are on a budget this is the thing to order with your food. Tea is culturally important in Kazakhstan - "chai" time is one of the most important things a visitor can engage in to learn about the culture.
  • Coffee Don't! Unless you like Nescafe. Exception: Modern coffee houses and western style cafés are appearing in Almaty. They serve good coffee at western prices. Coffee Delia (Kalinina/Furmanova) is very popular with expats and does ok coffee.
  • Water: The municipal water is more or less drinkable, with no real nasties, but try to boil it if possible. Bottled water is cheap and easily available. When at restaurants, ask specifically for "Tassay" or "Sary-Agash", very good local bottled waters that are a fifth the price you'll pay for your Perrier or Vita if you simply asked for bottled water.
  • Tien Shan, local brew brewed in a modern factory by German brewmasters - pretty good.
  • Russian Baltica, numbered from 0 to 9. There's no alcohol in Baltica 0, a lot of it in Baltica 9. Numbers 3 and 5 are quite good and close to what most people are used to.
  • Be sure to sample Alma-Ata beer, brewed in Almaty.
  • Two other Kazakhstani beers worth trying are Karaganda and Shymkent. There was a time that Shymkent beer (Zhigulovskaya variety) was one of the best in the Soviet Union. It has a unique flavour, brewed in a factory built by Czechs. Quality may have declined in recent years, however.


Try the local variety, a good one can be had for less than $ 4.00 a bottle. Bebigul is perhaps the most consistently good wine, and it comes in a semidry red or semidry white. Foreign wines, even Georgian ones, are very costly. Do not drink wine in restaurants, it's usually sickly sweet and very expensive. Also, many expensive, imported "wines" sold in stores (even reputable stores) are actually well-made counterfeit labels pasted on bottles of red-tinted water, so beware! It i spot luck as to if a bottle of white will be served chilled, so make sure you check before they open it.


Good vodka at 4-5 $ per bottle - an alcoholic's paradise. In restaurants that do not usually cater to foreigners you get 20(!) cl if you order a vodka, smaller servings not available.

Buy a bottle of Kazakhstan Vodka to take back. It is in a pretty bottle with a picture of Kazakh hunting with a falcon seen through a "window".

Try Edil vodka, which is made with the pantacrene of local deer antlers.

You might want to stick to Glavspirttrest vodka imported from Russia. Smooth taste and no hangover.

  • Travel agents can help you find an apartment for a single night for about 4000 tenge. Apartments are located downtown, making them ideal for the tourists wanting to see the city. Apartments also come fully furnished with bedding, a kitchen, television, and a fully operational bathroom.
  • So Young's Happiness Guest House, #5, 53 Aiteke Bi St. Almaty(Aiteke Bi & Flumanova St a Crossed Bank), +7-701-731-6096. checkout: 11:00AM. Run by a woman with a funny name, So Young's Happiness Guest House will ensure your stay in Almaty is memorable. Located in downtown Almaty, close to Green Market, Panfilova Park, Arasan Bath, Coffee Deli and Club Soho etc. Good and safe location. Clean and warm hospitality. With games, movies, laundry service and homemade kimchee. e-mail : Skype : kzsoyoung 30$/Person.  edit
  • Hotel Transit, Zheltoksan 12 (just outside the Almaty II train station), +7 3272 330438. USD 7 for 3 hours.
  • Gostinitsa, (Upstairs from the international hall of Almaty II train station), +7 3237 604213. Almost suffocating levels of cleanliness and tidiness make this a cheap and convenient, if claustrophobic, option. Dorm: 2/4-Bed KZT2000 27/07/2008.  edit
  • Ulytau, Furmanov 176, +7 3272 619697. Quite a run-down place. USD10 with shared bath, USD 30 with private bathroom.
  • Miras, 65 A Baitursynov at Kabanbai batyr, +7 3272 927077. Singles 2900 tenge, doubles 4800 tenge.


*INTERNATIONAL ALATAU HOTEL & BUSINESS CENTER 80 usd single address : Dostyk 105 Almaty /Kazakhstan tel : +7(727)258 11 11 fax: +7(727)258 15 55 e-mail:

  • Hotel Ambassador, 180 usd

121 Zheltoksan Street Almaty-Kazakhstan 050000 Tel: + 7 - 7272 - 50 89 88 Fax: + 7 - 7272 - 72 64 41

  • Hotel Almaty, 85 Kabanbai Batur str, +7 3272 720070. Doubles from USD 180.
  • Hotel Berkana [3], Aiteke bi Str. 83, Almaty, KAZAKHSTAN. Tel: 8 (727) 279-78-33. Mid-size hotel, clean, centrally located. Price range $75 to $150 US with breakfast included.
  • Hotel Kazakhstan, Dostyk ave 52, +7 3272 582270. Almaty's tallest building, a Soviet-style hotel from 1977. Unrenovated singles from 8,400 tenge, doubles from 19800 tenge. Renovated single 21,000 tenge. Breakfast included. Free Wifi in the lobby.
  • Kazzhol[4] Gogol 127/1 (between Nauryzbat Batyr and Seyfullin), +7 3272 508941. Modest hotel that caters to the business traveler and tourists. Customer service is very good and English is spoken. Singles from 7900 tenge, doubles from 9900.
  • Grand Aicer [5], 1 Pozharskogo str, +7 3272 503350. Good-looking hotel. Relatively new and "fresh" (opened in 2003). Singles from 15000 tenge. Doubles around 19000.
  • Almatian Business Hotel 152 Binogradava St. Coner Nurmakzba +7 727 269 9086.

Quiet place in East Center. Clean and Asian style. Singl 100$ Doubles 120$

  • Hotel Dostyk[6], 162 Furmanov Street, +7 3272 582270, Big old and well maintained hotel in the center of the city - a classy if not cheap location. Double rooms 27300 tenge, including an excellent breakfast.
  • Hyatt Regency Almaty, Akademik Satpaev Avenue 29/6, +7 727 250 1234 (), [7]. Top end hotel with a very good health club. Slightly isolated though, you will need a taxi to go downtown. Gorgeous views of the city and mountains! Free continental breakfast, as well as evening cocktails and hors d'oeuvres.  edit
  • InterContinental Almaty[8], 181 Zheltoksan Street, +7 3272 505000. Formerly known as the Regent Almaty, this is a fancy hotel located just west of the Republic Square. It offers most of what you'd expect from a luxury hotel, including free pick-up at the airport for international visitors. Singles/doubles from 46000 tenge.
  • Anastasia Inn
  • Hotel Almarasan[9]
  • Corner of Baytursnuly & Karasay Batyr (Near the OVIR). Eight computers and a telephone service but you can't use USB devices. 28/07/2008 KZT240/hour.
  • In the underpass of Zhibek Zholy & Tolebaev (Near the Silk Way mall). KZT240/hour. 27/07/2008.
  • Corner of Abai & Baytursnuly; Omega Sector BiG internet cafe (Near the Main stadion). KZT200/hour. 27/07/2008.

Stay Safe

In case of emergency, please call "01" (Fire services), "02" (Police), "03" (Ambulance), "04" (Gas Service), "051" (Rescue service in emergency situations). Starting from 15 March 2009, all these phone numbers will be amended as follows: "101" (Fire services), "102" (Police), "103" (Ambulance), "104" (Gas Service), "112" (Rescue service in emergency situations).

As with most major cities, avoid traveling alone at night, and never get into altercations with locals first.

Kazakh driving is wild. Drivers attack their art with an equal mix of aggressiveness and incompetence. Guidelines are lax and rarely followed. As a pedestrian, take great care when crossing the roads.

Kazakh people are extremely friendly and welcoming towards foreigners and nothing should happen to you unless you really want it yourself. If you don't care about them, they don't care about you and nothing should be in your way of having a great holiday!

Always carry a national passport with a valid entry clearance with you. Police officers may request to show an identity document.

Get out

Tamgaly –Temple of Sun.In 170 km from Almaty, in the North-West direction, a unique sanctuary in the open air- Tamgaly is located. In the desert lands, where ancient rocks and gorges tower their crowns, a chain of kurgans-burial grounds lie. This is the very place, where a gallery of rock drawings left by ancient people of Saks and Turks tribes could be found. On the petroglyphs you can see deities, that Kazakh ancient people worshiped, zoomorphic and anthropomorphic creatures, spiritual rites. Nearby Chimbulak is a skiing village. There are a number of ski resorts in the area.

There are the gorgeous Tian-Shan mountains and lakes around Almaty, the most famous of which is the beautiful Big Almaty Lake.

There is a nearby desert park with a giant canyon (Charyn Canyon), although it does not approach the Grand Canyon in size. It also has petroglyphs and waterfalls.

If travelers have several days to spend (and are craving a beach experience), Lake Balkhash, the largest lake in the nation, can be reached by bus within 12 hours or private car within 8 hours. Lake Balkhash is half fresh (the eastern half where the river enters from China) and half salt (the western half). There are a couple of 2-star hotels in the village of Balkhash, which is the half-way point between Almaty and Astana if you want to drive 800 km instead of flying or taking the train.

The Tamgaly petroglyphs, a UNESCO site, are about 2-1/2 hours away by car (on the road to Bishkek). The petroglyphs range from ancient (3,000 years) to "modern" (75 years), and feature pictures of the Sunman and hunting nomad tribes. There are also several grave sites. Not to be missed in the spring, summer, or fall, but watch out for snakes when it's hot!

Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan, is a 3-1/2 hour drive away on the best highway in Kazakhstan (pot holes are rare and you can keep a 100km pace easily after leaving the Almaty oblast, but watch out for crazy oncoming passers). You can catch a taxi to Bishkek at "Sayran" international coach station. Approach a group of cars with Kyrgyz number plates and negotiate the price in advance. As of 19 January 2009, the average fare is KZT2,500-3,000 per person. It is definitely worth the drive if you have a day or so to spend. You'll wind along the foot of the Tien Shan range through incredible landscape created by young volcanoes. Most of the "local" felt goods and rugs sold in Almaty come from tribes in Kyrgyzstan, and can be bought for a quarter of the cost in Kyrgyzstan. Make it into a two-day excursion and stop at Tamgaly petroglyphs on the way from or the return trip to Almaty.

This is a usable article. It has information for getting in as well as some complete entries for restaurants and hotels. An adventurous person could use this article, but please plunge forward and help it grow!


Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

Wikipedia has an article on:





Transliteration from the Kazakh name Алматы, which is an adjective form of Kazakh word for apple (алма).

Proper noun




  1. The largest city in and former (until 1998) capital of Kazakhstan, formerly known as Alma-Ata.


Simple English

File:NewGerb Almaty

Location in Kazakhstan
Coordinates: 43°16′39″N 76°53′45″E / 43.2775°N 76.89583°E / 43.2775; 76.89583
Country  Kazakhstan
Province Almaty Province
First settled 10th-9th century BC
Founded 1854
Incorporated (city) 1867
 - Akim (mayor) Akhmetzhan Yesimov
 - Total 324.8 km2 (125.4 sq mi)
Elevation 500 - 1,700 m (1,640 - 5,577 ft)
Population (2005)
 - Total 1,226,300
 Density 3,776/km2 (9,779.8/sq mi)
Time zone BTT (UTC+6)
Postal code 050000 - 050063
Area code(s) +7 727[1]

Almaty (Kazakh: Алматы; formerly known as Alma-Ata (Алма-Ата), also Verniy, (Верный)) is the largest city in Kazakhstan. It has a population of 1,226,000 people (as of 2005)[2]). Eight percent of the population of the country live in Almaty. It was the capital of Kazakhstan from 1929 to 1998. Although it is not the capital today, Almaty is still the major commercial center of Kazakhstan.


The name "Almaty" comes from the Kazakh word for "apple" (алма). The name is often translated as a city "rich with apples". The older Soviet-era Russian name for the city, Alma-Ata, comes from a mistake (the name literally means "Grandfather of apples"). In the area around Almaty, there are many different species of the wild apples. The region is thought to be the ancestral home of the apple. A local species of apple, the wild Malus sieversii, may be the ancestor of the modern domestic apple.


  2. "«С начала года население Алматы увеличилось на 1,4%»" (in ru). Retrieved 26 July 2007. 


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