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Almond
Almond tree with ripening fruit. Majorca, Spain.
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Prunus
Subgenus: Amygdalus
Species: P. dulcis
Binomial name
Prunus dulcis
(Mill.) D.A.Webb
Almond, nut, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 2,418 kJ (578 kcal)
Carbohydrates 20 g
Sugars 5 g
Dietary fibre 12 g
Fat 51 g
saturated 4 g
monounsaturated 32 g
polyunsaturated 12 g
Protein 22 g
Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0.24 mg (18%)
Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0.8 mg (53%)
Niacin (Vit. B3) 4 mg (27%)
Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.3 mg (6%)
Vitamin B6 0.13 mg (10%)
Folate (Vit. B9) 29 μg (7%)
Vitamin C 0.0 mg (0%)
Vitamin E 26.22 mg (175%)
Calcium 248 mg (25%)
Iron 4 mg (32%)
Magnesium 275 mg (74%)
Phosphorus 474 mg (68%)
Potassium 728 mg (15%)
Zinc 3 mg (30%)
Percentages are relative to US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient database

The Almond (Prunus dulcis, syn. Prunus amygdalus Batsch., Amygdalus communis L., Amygdalus dulcis Mill.) is a species of tree native to the Middle East. Almond is also the name of the edible and widely cultivated seed of this tree. Within the genus Prunus, it is classified with Peach in the subgenus Amygdalus, distinguished from the other subgenera by the corrugated shell (endocarp) surrounding the seed.

The fruit of the almond is not a true nut, but a drupe, which consists of an outer hull and a hard shell with the seed (nut) inside. Shelling almonds refers to removing the shell to reveal the seed. Almonds are commonly sold shelled, i.e. after the shells are removed, or unshelled, i.e. with the shells still attached. Blanched almonds are shelled almonds that have been treated with hot water to soften the seedcoat, which is then removed to reveal the white embryo.

Contents

Description

The almond is a small deciduous tree, growing to between 4 and 10 meters in height, with a trunk of up to 30 centimetres in diameter. The young twigs are green at first, becoming purplish where exposed to sunlight, then grey in their second year. The leaves are 3–5 inches long[1], with a serrated margin and a 2.5 cm (1 in) petiole. The flowers are white or pale pink, 3–5 cm diameter with five petals, produced singly or in pairs before the leaves in early spring.[2][3]

Almond trees become productive and begin bearing fruit after five years. The fruit is mature in the autumn, 7–8 months after flowering.[2][3]

In botanical terms, the almond fruit is not a nut, but a drupe 3.5–6 cm long. The outer covering or exocarp, fleshy in other members of Prunus such as the plum and cherry, is instead a thick leathery grey-green coat (with a downy exterior), called the hull. Inside the hull is a reticulated hard woody shell (like the outside of a peach pit) called the endocarp. Inside the shell is the edible seed, commonly called a nut. Generally, one seed is present, but occasionally there are two.

Origin and history

The almond is a native to the Mediterranean climate region of the Middle East, eastward as far as Pakistan[4]. It was spread by humans in ancient times along the shores of the Mediterranean into northern Africa and southern Europe and more recently transported to other parts of the world, notably California.[4]

A grove of almond trees in southern California

The wild form of domesticated almond grows in parts of the Levant; almonds must first have been taken into cultivation in this region. The fruit of the wild forms contains the glycoside amygdalin, "which becomes transformed into deadly prussic acid (hydrogen cyanide) after crushing, chewing, or any other injury to the seed."[5]

However, domesticated almonds are not toxic; Jared Diamond argues that a common genetic mutation causes an absence of glycoside amygdalin, and this mutant was grown by early farmers, "at first unintentionally in the garbage heaps, and later intentionally in their orchards".[6] Zohary and Hopf believe that almonds were one of the earliest domesticated fruit trees due to "the ability of the grower to raise attractive almonds from seed. Thus, in spite of the fact that this plant does not lend itself to propagation from suckers or from cuttings, it could have been domesticated even before the introduction of grafting".[5] Domesticated almonds appear in the Early Bronze Age (3000–2000 BC) of the Near East, or possibly a little earlier. A well-known archaeological example of the almond is the fruit found in Tutankhamun's tomb in Egypt (c. 1325 BC), probably imported from the Levant.[5] The domesticated form can be found as far north as Iceland[7] although the official distribution of the plant in Europe shows the most northerly country to be Germany.[8]

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Etymology and names

The word "almond" comes from Old French almande or alemande, Late Latin amandola, derived through a form amingdola from the Greek αμυγδαλη (cf amygdala), an almond. The al- for a- may be due to a confusion with the Arabic article al, the word having first dropped the a- as in the Italian form mandorla; the British pronunciation ah-mond and the modern Catalan ametlla and modern French amande show a form of the word closer to the original.

The adjective "amygdaloid" (literally "like an almond") is used for things which are roughly almond-shaped, particularly a shape which is partway between a rectangle and an ellipse.

Almond is called لوز lawz in Arabic and baadaam in Persian, Hindi, Punjabi, Tamil, Bengali, Telugu, Malayalam, Kannada, Marathi, Gujarati, Turkish, Urdu and Kashmiri. In German almond is called "Mandel", as well as "Almond". In Hebrew almond is called שקד shaqed, which has its roots in an ancient Semitic term, as seen in the Akkadian šiqdu and Ugaritic thaqid, as well as in old Ethiopic terms.

Production

An almond shaker before and during a harvest of a tree

Global production of almonds is around 1.7 million tonnes, with a low of 1 million tonnes in 1995 and a peak of 1.85 million tonnes in 2002 according to Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) figures.[9] According to the FAO, world production of almonds was 1.76 million tonnes in 2006.

Major producers are the USA (715623 t, 41%), Spain (220000 t, 13%), Syria (119648 t, 7%), Italy (112796 t, 6%), Iran (108677 t, 6%) and Morocco (83000 t, 5%). Algeria, Tunisia and Greece each account for 3%, Turkey, Lebanon and China each account for 2%.[10] In Turkey, most of the production comes from the Datça Peninsula. In Spain, numerous commercial cultivars of sweet almond are produced, most notably the Jordan almond (imported from Málaga) and the Valencia almond.

In the United States, production is concentrated in California, with almonds being California's third leading agricultural product and its top agricultural export in 2008. California produces 80% of the world’s almonds[11] and 100% of the U.S. commercial supply. California exported almonds valued at 1.08 billion dollars in 2003, about 70% of total California almond crop.

Importing over 94 percent of its consumption, India is the largest global and U.S. market for in-shell almonds.[2]

Almond output in 2005 (circles may not be centered on growing areas within the countries)


Pollination

The pollination of California's almonds is the largest annual managed pollination event in the world, with close to one million hives (nearly half of all beehives in the USA) being trucked in February to the almond groves. Much of the pollination is managed by pollination brokers, who contract with migratory beekeepers from at least 49 states for the event. This business has been heavily impacted by colony collapse disorder.

Diseases

Sweet and bitter almonds

Flowering (sweet) almond tree
Blossom on bitter almond tree

There are two forms of the plant, one (often with white flowers) producing sweet almonds, and the other (often with pink flowers) producing bitter almonds. The kernel of the former contains a fixed oil and emulsion. As late as the early 20th century the oil was used internally in medicine, with the stipulation that it must not be adulterated with that of the bitter almond; it remains fairly popular in alternative medicine, particularly as a carrier oil in aromatherapy, but has fallen out of prescription among doctors.

The bitter almond is rather broader and shorter than the sweet almond, and contains about 50% of the fixed oil which also occurs in sweet almonds. It also contains the enzyme emulsin which, in the presence of water, acts on a soluble glucoside, amygdalin, yielding glucose, cyanide and the essential oil of bitter almonds, which is nearly pure benzaldehyde. Bitter almonds may yield from 4–9 mg of hydrogen cyanide per almond.[12][13] Extract of bitter almond was once used medicinally, but even in small doses effects are severe and in larger doses can be deadly; the cyanide must be removed before consumption.[14]

Culinary uses

Smoked and salted almonds

While the almond is often eaten on its own, raw or toasted, it is also a component of various dishes. It, along with other nuts, is often sprinkled over desserts, particularly sundaes and other ice cream based dishes. Sweet almonds are used in marzipan, nougat, many pastries and cookies (including French macarons, macaroons, financiers), noghl and other sweets and desserts. They are also used to make almond butter, a spread similar to peanut butter, popular with peanut allergy sufferers and for its less salty taste. The young, developing fruit of the almond tree can be eaten whole ("green almonds") when they are still green and fleshy on the outside and the inner shell has not yet hardened. The fruit is somewhat sour, but is a popular snack in parts of the Middle East, eaten dipped in salt to balance the sour taste. Available only from mid April to mid June (northern hemisphere), pickling or brining extends the fruit's shelf life.

In Italy, sweet almonds are the base for amaretti (almond macaroons), a common dessert. Traditionally, a low percentage of bitter almonds (10-20%) is added to the ingredients, which gives the cookies their bitter taste (commercially, apricot kernels are used as a substitute for bitter almonds). Almonds are also a common choice as the nuts to include in torrone. In Puglia and Sicily, "pasta di mandorle" (almond paste) is used to make small soft cakes, often decorated with jam, pistacchio or chocolate.

In Greece, ground blanched almonds are used as the base material in a great variety of desserts, usually called amygdalota (αμυγδαλωτά). Because of their white colour, most are traditionally considered "wedding sweets" and are served at wedding banquets (also in Turkey).

In China, almonds are used in a popular dessert where they are mixed with milk and then served hot.

In Pakistan and India, almonds are the base ingredients of pasanda-style curries. Badam halva is a sweet made from almonds with added coloring. Almond flakes are added to many sweets (such as sohan barfi), and are usually visible sticking to the outer surface.

Almonds can be processed into a milk substitute called almond milk; the nut's soft texture, mild flavour, and light colouring (when skinned) make for an efficient analog to dairy, and a soy-free choice, for lactose intolerant people and vegans. Raw, blanched, and lightly toasted almonds all work well for different production techniques, some of which are very similar to that of soymilk and some of which actually use no heat, resulting in "raw milk" (see raw foodism).

The Marcona variety of almond, which is shorter, rounder, sweeter, and more delicate in texture than other varieties, originated in Spain and is becoming popular in North America and other parts of the world.[15] Marcona almonds are traditionally served after being lightly fried in oil, and are also used by Spanish chefs to prepare a dessert called turrón.

Almond syrup

Historically, almond syrup was an emulsion of sweet and bitter almonds, usually made with barley syrup (orgeat syrup) or in a syrup of orange-flower water and sugar.

The Grocer's Encyclopedia (1911) notes that "Ten parts of sweet almonds are generally employed to three parts of bitter almonds"; however, due to the cyanide found in bitter almonds, modern syrups generally consist of only sweet almonds.

Oils

Almonds contain approximately 54% oil[16], of which 78% is monounsaturated oleic acid, an omega-9 fat, and 17% is omega-6 polyunsaturated essential fatty acid. Superunsaturated omega-3 fats are negligible in almonds. The oil is good for application to the skin as an emollient, because it is more stable (does not become rancid) than those oils that have a higher content of essential fatty acids, and because it has a pleasant aroma. It is a mild, lightweight oil that can be used as a substitute for olive oil.

"Oleum Amygdalae", the fixed oil, is prepared from either variety of almond and is a glyceryl oleate, with a slight odour and a nutty taste. It is almost insoluble in alcohol but readily soluble in chloroform or ether. Sweet almond oil is obtained from the dried kernel of sweet almonds. This oil has been traditionally used by massage therapists to lubricate the skin during a massage session.

Almond oil is also used as a wood conditioner of certain woodwind instruments, such as the oboe and clarinet.

Nutrition and health

Almond flowers

The sweet almond contains about 26% carbohydrates (12% dietary fiber, 6.3% sugars, 0.7% starch and the rest miscellaneous carbohydrates), and may therefore be made into flour for cakes and cookies (biscuits) for low-carbohydrate diets or for patients suffering from diabetes mellitus or any other form of glycosuria. Almond flour is gluten-free and therefore a popular ingredient in cookery in place of wheat flour for gluten-sensitive people and people with wheat allergies and coeliac disease. A standard serving of almond flour, 1 cup, contains 20 grams of carbohydrates, of which 10 g is dietary fibre, for a net of 10 g of carbohydrate per cup. This makes almond flour very desirable for use in cake and bread recipes by people on carbohydrate-restricted diets.

Almonds are a rich source of vitamin E, containing 24 mg per 100 g.[17] They are also rich in monounsaturated fat, one of the two "good" fats responsible for lowering LDL cholesterol.

Claimed health benefits of almonds include improved complexion, improved movement of food through the colon (feces) and the prevention of cancer.[18] Recent research associates the inclusion of almonds in the diet with elevating the blood levels of high density lipoproteins and of lowering the levels of low density lipoproteins.[19][20]

A controlled trial showed that 73g of almonds in the daily diet reduced LDL cholesterol by as much as 9.4%, reduced the LDL:HDL ratio by 12.0%, and increased HDL-cholesterol (i.e., the good cholesterol) by 4.6%.[21]

In Ayurveda, an ancient system of health care that is native to the Indian subcontinent, almond is considered a nutritive for the brain and nervous system. It is said to induce high intellectual level and longevity. Almond oil is called Roghan Badam in Tibb Yunani طب يوناني (the Greco-Persian system of medicine). It is extracted by cold process, and is considered a nutritive aphrodisiac both for massage and internal consumption. Recent studies have shown that the constituents of almond have anti-inflammatory, immunity boosting, and anti-hepatotoxicity effects.[22]

In a study printed in the Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, experts discovered that almonds contain phenolics and flavonoids (a combination of flavonols, flavan-3-ols, hydroxybenzoic acids and flavanones) in their skins[23] analogous to those of certain fruits and vegetables. For instance, a one-ounce helping of almonds holds a similar quantity of total polyphenol as ½ cup of cooked broccoli.

Almonds may cause allergy or intolerance. Cross-reactivity is common with peach allergens (lipid transfer proteins) and tree nut allergens. Symptoms range from local symptoms (e.g. oral allergy syndrome, contact urticaria) to systemic symptoms including anaphylaxis (e.g. urticaria, angioedema, gastrointestinal and respiratory symptoms).[24]

Mandatory pasteurization in California

Because of two cases of Salmonella traced to almonds in 2001 and 2004, in 2006 the Almond Board of California proposed rules regarding pasteurization of almonds available to the public, and the USDA approved them.[25] Since 1 September 2007, raw untreated California almonds have technically not been available in the United States. Controversially, California almonds labeled as "raw" are required to be steam-pasteurized or chemically treated with propylene oxide. This does not apply to imported almonds,[26] or to almonds sold from the grower directly to the consumer in small quantities.[27] Nor is the treatment required for raw almonds sold as exports to countries outside of North America.

This USDA-approved marketing order has been challenged in court by organic farmers organized by The Cornucopia Institute, a Wisconsin-based farm policy research group. According to the Cornucopia Institute, this almond marketing order has imposed significant financial burdens on small-scale and organic growers and damaged domestic almond markets. The federal judge dismissed the lawsuit in the spring of 2009 on procedural grounds, but farmers are appealing this decision in August 2009, seeking to have the merits of their arguments heard in court. [28]

Cultural aspects

Almonds starting to growing while flowering in the background

The almond is highly revered in some cultures. In northern Indian state, Jammu and Kashmir, it is designated as the State tree of Kashmir.[29]

The tree grows in Syria, Palestine and Israel,[30] and is mentioned numerous times in the Bible.

In the Old Testament, the almond was a symbol of watchfulness and promise due to its early flowering, symbolizing God's sudden and rapid punishment of His people; in Jeremiah 1:11-12, for instance. In the Bible the almond is mentioned ten times, beginning with Book of Genesis 43:11, where it is described as "among the best of fruits". In Numbers 17 Levi is chosen from the other tribes of Israel by Aaron's rod, which brought forth almond flowers. According to tradition, the rod of Aaron bore sweet almonds on one side and bitter on the other; if the Israelites followed the Lord, the sweet almonds would be ripe and edible, but if they were to forsake the path of the Lord, the bitter almonds would predominate. The almond blossom supplied a model for the menorah which stood in the Holy Temple, "Three cups, shaped like almond blossoms, were on one branch, with a knob and a flower; and three cups, shaped like almond blossoms, were on the other...on the candlestick itself were four cups, shaped like almond blossoms, with its knobs and flowers" (Exodus 25:33-34; 37:19-20). Similarly, Christian symbolism often uses almond branches as a symbol of the Virgin Birth of Jesus; paintings often include almonds encircling the baby Jesus and as a symbol of Mary. The word "Luz", which appears in Genesis 30:37, is sometimes translated as "hazel", may actually be derived from the Aramaic name for almond (Luz), and is translated as such in some Bible versions such as the NIV. [3]

In India, consumption of almonds is believed to be good for the brain, while the Chinese consider it a symbol of enduring sadness and female beauty.

See also

References

  1. ^ Bailey, L.H.; Bailey, E.Z.; the staff of the Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium. 1976. Hortus third: A concise dictionary of plants cultivated in the United States and Canada. Macmillan, New York.
  2. ^ a b Rushforth, Keith (1999). Collins wildlife trust guide trees: a photographic guide to the trees of Britain and Europe. London: Harper Collins. ISBN 0-00-220013-9. 
  3. ^ a b Griffiths, Mark D.; Anthony Julian Huxley (1992). The New Royal Horticultural Society dictionary of gardening. London: Macmillan Press. ISBN 0-333-47494-5. 
  4. ^ a b Introduction to Fruit Crops, p. 38, Mark Rieger, 2006
  5. ^ a b c Zohary, Daniel; Maria Hopf (2000). Domestication of plants in the old world: the origin and spread of cultivated plants in West Asia, Europe, and the Nile Valley. Oxford University Press. pp. 186. ISBN 0-19-850356-3. 
  6. ^ Diamond, Jared M. (1997). Guns, germs, and steel: the fates of human societies. New York: W.W. Norton. pp. 118. ISBN 0-393-03891-2. 
  7. ^ "Prunus dulcis". Plants for a Future. http://www.ibiblio.org/pfaf/cgi-bin/arr_html?Prunus+dulcis. Retrieved 2008-07-17. 
  8. ^ "Flora Europaea Search Results". Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh. http://193.62.154.38/cgi-bin/nph-readbtree.pl/feout?FAMILY_XREF=&GENUS_XREF=Prunus&SPECIES_XREF=dulcis&TAXON_NAME_XREF=&RANK=. Retrieved 2008-07-17. 
  9. ^ United States Department of Agriculture
  10. ^ Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations
  11. ^ USDA Foreign Agricultural Service 2009/2010 Almond Forecast Overview
  12. ^ Karkocha I (January 1973). "[Semiquantitative method of hydrogen cyanide and sweet almonds]" (in Polish). Roczniki Państwowego Zakładu Higieny 24 (6): 703–5. PMID 4775628. 
  13. ^ Shragg TA, Albertson TE, Fisher CJ (January 1982). "Cyanide poisoning after bitter almond ingestion". West. J. Med. 136 (1): 65–9. PMID 7072244. 
  14. ^ Cantor, D., Fleischer, J., Green, J., & Israel, D. L. (2006). The Fruit of the Matter. mental floss 5 (4): 12.
  15. ^ Marcona almonds
  16. ^ Erasmus, Udo. Fats That Heal, Fats That Kill. 3rd ed. Burnaby (BC): Alive Books; 1993.
  17. ^ White, G. Vitamin E and Minerals: Nutrition from Nuts. AllAboutVision.com. Retrieved August 20, 2006.
  18. ^ Davis PA, Iwahashi CK (April 2001). "Whole almonds and almond fractions reduce aberrant crypt foci in a rat model of colon carcinogenesis". Cancer Lett. 165 (1): 27–33. doi:10.1016/S0304-3835(01)00425-6. PMID 11248415. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0304383501004256. Retrieved 2008-07-17. 
  19. ^ Porter Novelli (September 2002). "Almonds: Cholesterol lowering, heart-healthy snack". Press release. http://www.scienceblog.com/community/older/2002/D/20024677.html. Retrieved 2008-07-17. 
  20. ^ Spiller GA, Jenkins DA, Bosello O, Gates JE, Cragen LN, Bruce B (June 1998). "Nuts and plasma lipids: an almond-based diet lowers LDL-C while preserving HDL-C". J Am Coll Nutr 17 (3): 285–90. PMID 9627917. http://www.jacn.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=9627917. Retrieved 2008-07-17. 
  21. ^ Jenkins DJ, Kendall CW, Marchie A, et al. (September 2002). "Dose response of almonds on coronary heart disease risk factors: blood lipids, oxidized low-density lipoproteins, lipoprotein(a), homocysteine, and pulmonary nitric oxide: a randomized, controlled, crossover trial". Circulation 106 (11): 1327–32. doi:10.1161/01.CIR.0000028421.91733.20. PMID 12221048. http://circ.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/106/11/1327. Retrieved 2008-07-17. 
  22. ^ Puri, Har Sharnjit Singh (2002). "Badam (Prunus amygdalus)". Rasayana: Ayurvedic Herbs for Longevity and Rejuvenation (Traditional Herbal Medicines for Modern Times, 2). Boca Raton: CRC. pp. 59–63. ISBN 0-415-28489-9. 
  23. ^ Characterization of polyphenols, lipids and dietary fibre from almond skins (Amygdalus communis L.). G. Mandalaria, b, , , A. Tomainob, T. Arcoracib, M. Martoranab, V. Lo Turcoc, F. Cacciolad, G.T. Richa, C. Bisignanob, A. Saijab, P. Dugoc, K.L. Crosse, M.L. Parkere, K.W. Waldronf and M.S. J. Wickhama, Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, Corrected Proof, doi:10.1016/j.jfca.2009.08.015
  24. ^ http://www.food-info.net/uk/intol/almond.htm Almond allergy on Food info
  25. ^ Almond Board of California (2007-03-30). "Action Plan and Pasteurization". Press release. http://www.almondboard.com/Programs/content.cfm?ItemNumber=890. Retrieved 2008-06-18. 
  26. ^ Agricultural Marketing Service (2006-11-08) "Almonds Grown in California: Changes to Incoming Quality Control Requirements" (71 F.R. 65373, 71 F.R. 65374, 71 F.R. 65375 and 71 F.R. 65376)
  27. ^ Burke, Garance (June 29, 2007). "Almond pasteurization rubs some feelings raw". Associated Press. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4176/is_/ai_n19343563. Retrieved 23 January 2009. 
  28. ^ {{The Cornucopia Institute. [1]}}
  29. ^ Katzer, Gernot (2005-09-11). "Almond (Prunus dulcis)". http://www.uni-graz.at/~katzer/engl/Prun_dul.html. Retrieved 2008-07-18. 
  30. ^ Tubeileh A, Bruggeman A, Turkelboom F (2004). Growing Olives and Other Tree Species in Marginal Arid Environments. ICARDA. http://www.icarda.org/publications/price_list/book3/Book3.html. 
This article incorporates text from the public domain 1911 edition of The Grocer's Encyclopedia.

External links


Bible wiki

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(Redirected to Almond article)

From BibleWiki

A native of Syria and Palestine. In form, blossoms, and fruit it resembles the peach tree. Its blossoms are of a very pale pink colour, and appear before its leaves. Its Hebrew name, shaked, signifying "wakeful, hastening," is given to it on account of its putting forth its blossoms so early, generally in February, and sometimes even in January. In Eccl 12:5, it is referred to as illustrative, probably, of the haste with which old age comes. There are others, however, who still contend for the old interpretation here. "The almond tree bears its blossoms in the midst of winter, on a naked, leafless stem, and these blossoms (reddish or flesh-coloured in the beginning) seem at the time of their fall exactly like white snow-flakes. In this way the almond blossom is a very fitting symbol of old age, with its silvery hair and its wintry, dry, barren, unfruitful condition." In Jer 1:11 "I see a rod of an almond tree [shaked]...for I will hasten [shaked] my word to perform it" the word is used as an emblem of promptitude. Jacob desired his sons (Gen 43:11) to take with them into Egypt of the best fruits of the land, almonds, etc., as a present to Joseph, probably because this tree was not a native of Egypt. Aaron's rod yielded almonds (Num 17:8; Heb 9:4). Moses was directed to make certain parts of the candlestick for the ark of carved work "like unto almonds" (Ex 25:33f).

The Hebrew word luz, translated "hazel" in the Authorized Version (Gen 30:37), is rendered in the Revised Version "almond." It is probable that luz denotes the wild almond, while shaked denotes the cultivated variety.

This article needs to be merged with Almond (Hastings).
This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.

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