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Alonei Abba
PikiWiki Israel 5083 Alonei Aba-Waldheim.JPG
Protestant church in Alonei Aba
Hebrew אַלּוֹנֵי אַבָּא
Founded 1948
Founded by Austrian and Romanian immigrants
Council Jezreel Valley
Region Lower Galilee
District North
Affiliation HaOved HaTzioni
Coordinates 32°43′46.2″N 35°10′18.47″E / 32.7295°N 35.1717972°E / 32.7295; 35.1717972Coordinates: 32°43′46.2″N 35°10′18.47″E / 32.7295°N 35.1717972°E / 32.7295; 35.1717972
Alonei Abba is located in Israel
Alonei Abba
Website aloney-aba.org.il

Alonei Abba (Hebrew: אַלּוֹנֵי אַבָּא‎, lit. Abba's Oaks) is a moshav shitufi, or semi-cooperative village, in northern Israel. It is located in the Lower Galilee near Bethlehem of Galilee and Alonim, in the hills east of Kiryat Tivon.[1] Alonei Abba falls under the jurisdiction of Jezreel Valley Regional Council. In 2006 it had a population of 387.

Contents

History

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Waldheim

Alonei Abba was formerly known as Waldheim (German: "Forest Home"), a colony founded in 1907 by German Christians affiliated with the Prussian evangelical church on land purchased from the fellaheen village of Umm al-Amed. The purchase price of 170,000 francs was financed by a Haifa-based bank Darlehenskasse der deutschen evangelischen Gemeinde Haifa GmbH (Loan Bank of the Haifa Evangelical Congregation Ltd.) and completely refinanced by the Stuttgarter Gesellschaft zur Förderung der deutschen Ansiedlungen in Palästina (Stuttgart-based Company for the promotion of the German colonies in Palestine). The colony comprised 7,200,000 square meters (7,200 dunams).[2]

Most of the colonists came from the German Colony (Haifa), which was founded by the Templers. In 1874 the Temple Society underwent a schism and envoys of the Evangelical State Church of Prussia's older Provinces successfully proselytised among the schismatics. Thus the Haifa German Colony became home to two Christian denominations and their congregations.[3] While in Germany the Templers were regarded sectarians, the Evangelical proselytes gained major financial and ideological support from German Lutheran and United church bodies. This created an atmosphere of mistrust and envy among the German colonists in Haifa.[4] Due to population increase and the on-going urbanisation of Haifa, they searched for land to found new monodenominational colonies. Thus the Evangelical Protestants founded Waldheim, while Templers settled in the neighbouring Bethlehem of Galilee.

The settlement was inaugurated on the occasion of Harvest Festival (German: Erntedankfest) on October 6, 1907. At this time the new Waldheimers still lived in the simple clay huts bought from the previous owners. The Haifa engineer Ernst August Voigt presented the plan of the streets and the 16 sites around a central site, reserved for a church. In 1909 the Jerusalemsverein (English: Association of Jerusalem), a Berlin-based organisation supportive of Protestant activities in the Holy Land, contributed money for the development of a water supply. By 1914, the Waldheimers planted vineyards of 5,000 square meters and more than 500 olive trees.[5] In December 1913 the farmers of Waldheim and Bethlehem keeping dairy cattle founded a common dairy cooperative, to pasteurise milk and deliver it to Haifa.

Most of the residents bore German citizenship. In 1932 the Nazi party won the first two members in Palestine, Karl Ruff and Walter Aberle from the German Colony in Haifa.[6] In the course of the 1930s also Waldheimers joined the Nazi party, indicating the fading affinity to the Evangelical ideals. Until August 1939 17% of all Gentile Germans in Palestine were enrolled as members of the Nazi party.[7]

After the Nazi takeover in Germany the new Reich government adapted foreign policy to Nazi ideals, based on the idea that Germany and Germanness were equal to Nazism. International schools of German language subsidised or fully financed with government funds were asked to redraw their educational programs and employ teachers aligned to the Nazi party. The teachers in Waldheim were financed by the Reich, so that also here Nazi teachers took over. In 1933 Germans Gentiles living in Palestine appealed to Paul von Hindenburg and the Foreign Office not to use Swastika symbols for German institutions, without success. Some German Gentiles pleaded the Reich's government to drop its announced plan to boycott shops of Jewish Germans on April 1, 1933.[8] Later the opposition of Gentile Germans in Palestine acquiesed. A Palestinian branch of the Hitler youth was built up by the help of German government subsidies. By 1935 the Nazis had succeeded to streamline the municipal bodies of the settlements of Gentile Germans in Palestine. On August 20, 1939 the German government ordered the Gentile German men for recruitment in the Wehrmacht. 350 followed the call.

After Germany had started the Second World War all Germans in Palestine turned into enemy aliens. The British authorities decided to intern most of the enemy aliens. Sarona, Bethlehem of Galilee, Waldheim, and Wilhelma were converted into internment camps. Most enemy aliens living elsewhere in Palestine - comprising Gentile Germans,[9] Hungarians and Italians - were interned in one of the settlements, while the inhabitants of the settlements simply stayed where they were. In summer 1941, 665 interned Templers, almost all young families with children, were released to Australia, where they could settle again. Many of the remaining Germans were either too old or too sick, to leave for Australia, while a second group, mostly Evangelical Germans, did not want to go there. With the help of the interned Italians and Hungarians the internees could maintain the agricultural production, to feed themselves and supply surplus to the general markets in return for supplies not available within the camps. In December 1941 and in the course of 1942 another 400 Evangelical and Templer internees, mostly wives and children of men, who had followed the calls for recruitment, were released - via Turkey - to Germany on the purpose of Family reunification.[10]

In 1945 the Italian and Hungarian internees were released from Waldheim and the other camps. But the Britons refused to repatriate the remaining German internees to the British zone in Germany, because the British zone was flooded with millions of war refugees and more millions of post-war expellees from Poland, Czechoslovakia etc. Also most of the internees did not want to go to Germany, because there was no chance to gain untilled land in Germany to settle again as farmers. In 1947 the British authorities and Australia agreed to allow the remaining interned Templers to emigrate to the fifth continent.

On April 17, 1948 armed Jewish Palestinians conquered Waldheim, killing two colonists and severely wounding a woman.[11] This incident and the end of the Mandate forced the Britons to hurry the resettlement, thus all the internees were first transferred to Cyprus, to a camp of simple tents near Famagusta. By May 14, 1948, when Israel became independent, only about 50 Gentile Germans, mostly elderly and sick persons, were living in the new state. They voluntarily left the country or were successively expelled by the government.[12]

Alonei Abba

On May 12, 1948, a group of young Zionist pioneers from Czechoslavakia, Austria and Rumania, members of Hanoar Hatzioni, established Kibbutz HaMa'avak (lit. The Struggle) in the abandoned colony, after four years of agricultural training in Herzliya. Three years later, the kibbutz became a moshav shitufi and the name was changed to Alonei Abba in memory of Abba Berdichev, who was parachuted into Czechoslovakia in 1943 to assist clandestine British forces, but was captured and executed in 1945.[13]

Landmarks

Hans Martin Kuno Moderow, pastor of the Haifa Evangelical Congregation, also provided services in Waldheim, at the beginning in the living room of the new house of Waldheim's then mayor Gottlob Weinmann. The Waldheimers saved funds for a church of their own and could thus lay the cornerstone for the church in early 1914. The Haifa-based architect Otto Lutz led the construction works. In 1921, the Evangelical church at Alonei Abba, which still stands today, was inaugurated.[14] The Alon winery, surrounded by a grove of oak trees, is located in the former dairy cooperative (est. 1913).[15]

Notable residents

Shlomo Artzi

References

  1. ^ http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/pages/ShArt.jhtml?itemNo=789914&contrassID=2&subContrassID=20
  2. ^ Ejal Jakob Eisler "«Kirchler» im Heiligen Land: Die evangelischen Gemeinden in den württembergischen Siedlungen Palästinas (1886-1914)", In: Dem Erlöser der Welt zur Ehre: Festschrift zum hundertjährigen Jubiläum der Einweihung der evangelischen Erlöserkirche in Jerusalem, Karl-Heinz Ronecker (ed.) on behalf of the 'Jerusalem-Stiftung' and 'Jerusalemsverein', Leipzig: Evangelische Verlags-Anstalt, 1998, pp. 81-100, here p. 97. ISBN 3-374-01706-1.
  3. ^ Ejal Jakob Eisler, "«Kirchler» im Heiligen Land: Die evangelischen Gemeinden in den württembergischen Siedlungen Palästinas (1886-1914)", In: Dem Erlöser der Welt zur Ehre: Festschrift zum hundertjährigen Jubiläum der Einweihung der evangelischen Erlöserkirche in Jerusalem, Karl-Heinz Ronecker (ed.) on behalf of the 'Jerusalem-Stiftung' and 'Jerusalemsverein', Leipzig: Evangelische Verlags-Anstalt, 1998, pp. 81-100, here p. 84. ISBN 3-374-01706-1.
  4. ^ Ejal Jakob Eisler, "«Kirchler» im Heiligen Land: Die evangelischen Gemeinden in den württembergischen Siedlungen Palästinas (1886-1914)", In: Dem Erlöser der Welt zur Ehre: Festschrift zum hundertjährigen Jubiläum der Einweihung der evangelischen Erlöserkirche in Jerusalem, Karl-Heinz Ronecker (ed.) on behalf of the 'Jerusalem-Stiftung' and 'Jerusalemsverein', Leipzig: Evangelische Verlags-Anstalt, 1998, pp. 81-100, here pp. 99seq. ISBN 3-374-01706-1.
  5. ^ Ejal Jakob Eisler, "«Kirchler» im Heiligen Land: Die evangelischen Gemeinden in den württembergischen Siedlungen Palästinas (1886-1914)", In: Dem Erlöser der Welt zur Ehre: Festschrift zum hundertjährigen Jubiläum der Einweihung der evangelischen Erlöserkirche in Jerusalem, Karl-Heinz Ronecker (ed.) on behalf of the 'Jerusalem-Stiftung' and 'Jerusalemsverein', Leipzig: Evangelische Verlags-Anstalt, 1998, pp. 81-100, here p. 98. ISBN 3-374-01706-1.
  6. ^ Ralf Balke, Hakenkreuz im Heiligen Land: Die NSDAP-Landesgruppe Palästina, Erfurt: Sutton, 2001, p. 41. ISBN 3-89702-304-0
  7. ^ Paul Sauer,Vom Land um den Asperg im Namen Gottes nach Palästina und Australien: Die wechselvolle Geschichte der Tempelgesellschaft, lecture held on 20 October 1995 in Burgstetten on the occasion of the 750th anniversary of Kirschenhardthof, printed as Schriftenreihe TG, No. 1 (1996), p. 17
  8. ^ Ralf Balke, Hakenkreuz im Heiligen Land: Die NSDAP-Landesgruppe Palästina, Erfurt: Sutton, 2001, p. 81. ISBN 3-89702-304-0
  9. ^ Jewish Germans living in Palestine had mostly given up their German citizenship or were successively denaturalised by the Nazi government. Anyway, even if they were still German citizens, the Britons did of course not regard them as potential supporters of Nazi Germany. All Jewish Germans living outside the extended Greater German Reich, still holding the German citizenship, were automatically denaturalised by an ordinance (Elfte Verordnung zum Reichsbürgergesetz), decreed on 25 November 1941.
  10. ^ Paul Sauer,Vom Land um den Asperg im Namen Gottes nach Palästina und Australien: Die wechselvolle Geschichte der Tempelgesellschaft, lecture held on 20 October 1995 in Burgstetten on the occasion of the 750th anniversary of Kirschenhardthof, printed as Schriftenreihe TG, No. 1 (1996), pp. 18seqq.
  11. ^ Paul Sauer,Vom Land um den Asperg im Namen Gottes nach Palästina und Australien: Die wechselvolle Geschichte der Tempelgesellschaft, lecture held on 20 October 1995 in Burgstetten on the occasion of the 750th anniversary of Kirschenhardthof, printed as Schriftenreihe TG, No. 1 (1996), p. 19.
  12. ^ Paul Sauer,Vom Land um den Asperg im Namen Gottes nach Palästina und Australien: Die wechselvolle Geschichte der Tempelgesellschaft, lecture held on 20 October 1995 in Burgstetten on the occasion of the 750th anniversary of Kirschenhardthof, printed as Schriftenreihe TG, No. 1 (1996), p. 20.
  13. ^ http://www.zionism-israel.com/dic/Parachutists.htm
  14. ^ http://www.jpost.com/servlet/Satellite?cid=1180450953667&pagename=JPost%2FJPArticle%2FPrinter
  15. ^ http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3075596,00.html

Bibliography

  • Alex Carmel (אלכס כרמל), Die Siedlungen der württembergischen Templer in Palästina (1868–1918) (11973), [התיישבות הגרמנים בארץ ישראל בשלהי השלטון הטורקי: בעיותיה המדיניות, המקומיות והבינלאומיות, ירושלים :חמו"ל, תש"ל; גרמנית], Stuttgart: Kohlhammer, 32000, (Veröffentlichungen der Kommission für geschichtliche Landeskunde in Baden-Württemberg: Reihe B, Forschungen; vol. 77). ISBN 3-17-016788-X.
  • Ejal Jakob Eisler (איל יעקב איזלר), "«Kirchler» im Heiligen Land: Die evangelischen Gemeinden in den württembergischen Siedlungen Palästinas (1886-1914)", In: Dem Erlöser der Welt zur Ehre: Festschrift zum hundertjährigen Jubiläum der Einweihung der evangelischen Erlöserkirche in Jerusalem, Karl-Heinz Ronecker (ed.) on behalf of the 'Jerusalem-Stiftung' and 'Jerusalemsverein', Leipzig: Evangelische Verlags-Anstalt, 1998, pp. 81-100. ISBN 3-374-01706-1.

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