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Glycoprotein hormones, alpha polypeptide

PDB rendering based on 1dz7.
Available structures
1dz7, 1e9j, 1fl7, 1hcn, 1hd4, 1hrp, 1qfw, 1xwd
External IDs OMIM118850 MGI88390 HomoloGene587 GeneCards: CGA Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE CGA 204637 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 1081 12640
Ensembl ENSG00000135346 ENSMUSG00000028298
UniProt P01215 P01216
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_000735 NM_009889
RefSeq (protein) NP_000726 NP_034019
Location (UCSC) Chr 6:
87.85 - 87.86 Mb
Chr 4:
35.08 - 35.1 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Glycoprotein hormones alpha chain is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CGA gene.[1]

The four human glycoprotein hormones chorionic gonadotropin (CG), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) are dimers consisting of alpha and beta subunits that are associated noncovalently. The alpha subunits of these hormones are identical, however, their beta chains are unique and confer biological specificity. The protein encoded by this gene is the alpha subunit and belongs to the glycoprotein hormones alpha chain family.[2]


  1. ^ Fiddes JC, Goodman HM (Oct 1982). "The gene encoding the common alpha subunit of the four human glycoprotein hormones". J Mol Appl Genet 1 (1): 3-18. PMID 6286817.  
  2. ^ "Entrez Gene: CGA glycoprotein hormones, alpha polypeptide".  

Further reading

  • Roger M, Lahlou N, Couzinet B, et al. (1990). "[Free alpha-subunit glycoprotein hormones: physiological and pathological data]". J. Steroid Biochem. 33 (4B): 763–9. doi:10.1016/0022-4731(89)90489-5. PMID 2481154.  
  • Pierce JG (1972). "Eli Lilly lecture. The subunits of pituitary thyrotropin--their relationship to other glycoprotein hormones.". Endocrinology 89 (6): 1331–44. PMID 5002675.  
  • Kourides IA, Gurr JA, Wolf O (1984). "The regulation and organization of thyroid stimulating hormone genes.". Recent Prog. Horm. Res. 40: 79–120. PMID 6207569.  
  • Miyoshi I, Kasai N, Hayashizaki Y (1994). "[Structure and regulation of human thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) gene]". Nippon Rinsho 52 (4): 940–7. PMID 8196184.  
  • Barrios-De-Tomasi J, Timossi C, Merchant H, et al. (2002). "Assessment of the in vitro and in vivo biological activities of the human follicle-stimulating isohormones.". Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 186 (2): 189–98. doi:10.1016/S0303-7207(01)00657-8. PMID 11900895.  
  • Moyle WR, Bahl OP, März L (1976). "Role of carbohydrate of human chorionic gonadotropin in the mechanism of hormone action.". J. Biol. Chem. 250 (23): 9163–9. PMID 172504.  
  • Fiddes JC, Goodman HM (1979). "Isolation, cloning and sequence analysis of the cDNA for the alpha-subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin.". Nature 281 (5730): 351–6. doi:10.1038/281351a0. PMID 481597.  
  • Sairam MR, Li CH (1977). "Human pituitary thyrotropin. The primary structure of the alpha and beta subunits.". Can. J. Biochem. 55 (7): 755–60. PMID 890569.  
  • Morgan FJ, Birken S, Canfield RE (1975). "The amino acid sequence of human chorionic gonadotropin. The alpha subunit and beta subunit.". J. Biol. Chem. 250 (13): 5247–58. PMID 1150658.  
  • Rathnam P, Saxena BB (1975). "Primary amino acid sequence of follicle-stimulating hormone from human pituitary glands. I. alpha subunit.". J. Biol. Chem. 250 (17): 6735–46. PMID 1158880.  
  • Weisshaar G, Hiyama J, Renwick AG, Nimtz M (1991). "NMR investigations of the N-linked oligosaccharides at individual glycosylation sites of human lutropin.". Eur. J. Biochem. 195 (1): 257–68. doi:10.1111/j.1432-1033.1991.tb15702.x. PMID 1991473.  
  • Sakakibara R, Yokoo Y, Yoshikoshi K, et al. (1988). "Subcellular localization of intracellular forms of human chorionic gonadotropin in first trimester placenta.". J. Biochem. 102 (5): 993–1001. PMID 2449427.  
  • Matzuk MM, Keene JL, Boime I (1989). "Site specificity of the chorionic gonadotropin N-linked oligosaccharides in signal transduction.". J. Biol. Chem. 264 (5): 2409–14. PMID 2536708.  
  • Lustbader JW, Birken S, Pileggi NF, et al. (1990). "Crystallization and characterization of human chorionic gonadotropin in chemically deglycosylated and enzymatically desialylated states.". Biochemistry 28 (24): 9239–43. doi:10.1021/bi00450a001. PMID 2611225.  
  • Harris DC, Machin KJ, Evin GM, et al. (1989). "Preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of human chorionic gonadotropin.". J. Biol. Chem. 264 (12): 6705–6. PMID 2708337.  
  • Hayashizaki Y, Miyai K, Kato K, Matsubara K (1985). "Molecular cloning of the human thyrotropin-beta subunit gene.". FEBS Lett. 188 (2): 394–400. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(85)80409-9. PMID 3839756.  
  • Bellisario R, Carlsen RB, Bahl OP (1973). "Human chorionic gonadotropin. Linear amino acid sequence of the alpha subunit.". J. Biol. Chem. 248 (19): 6796–809. PMID 4745444.  
  • Shome B, Parlow AF (1974). "Human follicle stimulating hormone (hFSH): first proposal for the amino acid sequence of the alpha-subunit (hFSHa) and first demonstration of its identity with the alpha-subunit of human luteinizing hormone (hLHa).". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 39 (1): 199–202. PMID 4835135.  

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.



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