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Alphonse Mucha
Alphonse Mucha
Birth name Alfons Maria Mucha
Born 24 July 1860(1860-07-24)
Ivanńćice, Moravia, Austrian Empire (today's Czech Republic)
Died 14 July 1939 (aged 78)
Prague, Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia
Nationality Czechoslovakia
Field Painting, Illustration, Decorative art
Training Munich Academy of Fine Arts
Académie Julian
Académie Colarossi
Movement Art Nouveau
Works The Slav Epic (Slovansk√° epopej)
Patrons Count Karl Khuen of Mikulov
Influenced by Neoclassicism
Influenced Paul Harvey
Kevin Wasden

Alphonse Maria Mucha,[1] first name from the Czech Alfons[2] (24 July 1860 ‚Äď 14 July 1939) was a Czech Art Nouveau painter and decorative artist,[3] best known for his distinct style and his images of women. He produced many paintings, illustrations, advertisements, and designs.

Contents

Early years

Alphonse Maria Mucha was born in the town of Ivanńćice, Moravia (today's region of Czech Republic). Although his singing abilities allowed him to continue his education through high school in the Moravian capital of Br√ľnn (today Brno), drawing had been his first love since childhood. He worked at decorative painting jobs in Moravia, mostly painting theatrical scenery. In 1879 he moved to Vienna to work for a leading Viennese theatrical design company, while informally furthering his artistic education. When a fire destroyed his employer's business in 1881 he returned to Moravia, to do freelance decorative and portrait painting. Count Karl Khuen of Mikulov hired Mucha to decorate HruŇ°ovany Emmahof Castle with murals, and was impressed enough that he agreed to sponsor Mucha's formal training at the Munich Academy of Fine Arts.

Poster of Maude Adams as Joan of Arc, 1909

Mucha moved to Paris in 1887, and continued his studies at Acad√©mie Julian and Acad√©mie Colarossi. In addition to his studies, he worked at producing magazine and advertising illustrations. Around Christmas 1894, Mucha happened to drop into a print shop where there was a sudden and unexpected need for a new advertising poster for a play starring Sarah Bernhardt, the most famous actress in Paris, at the Th√©√Ętre de la Renaissance on the Boulevard Saint-Martin. Mucha volunteered to produce a lithographed poster within two weeks, and on 1 January 1895, the advertisement for the play Gismonda by Victorien Sardou appeared on the streets of the city. It was an overnight sensation and announced the new artistic style and its creator to the citizens of Paris.[4] Bernhardt was so satisfied with the success of this first poster that she entered into a 6 year contract with Mucha.

Mucha produced a flurry of paintings, posters, advertisements, and book illustrations, as well as designs for jewellery, carpets, wallpaper, and theatre sets in what was initially called the Mucha Style but became known as Art Nouveau (French for 'new art'). Mucha's works frequently featured beautiful, robust young women in flowing vaguely Neoclassical looking robes, often surrounded by lush flowers which sometimes formed haloes behind the women's heads. In contrast with contemporary poster makers he used pale pastel colors.[5] The 1900 Universal Exhibition in Paris spread the "Mucha style" internationally, of which Mucha said "I think [the Exposition Universelle] made some contribution toward bringing aesthetic values into arts and crafts."[6] He decorated the Bosnia and Herzegovina Pavilion and collaborated in the Austrian Pavilion. His Art Nouveau style was often imitated. The Art Nouveau style however, was one that Mucha attempted to distance himself from throughout his life; he always insisted that rather than adhering to any fashionable stylistic form, his paintings came purely from within and Czech art.[4] He declared that art existed only to communicate a spiritual message, and nothing more; hence his frustration at the fame he gained through commercial art, when he most wanted to concentrate on more lofty projects that would ennoble art and his birthplace.

Marriage

Mucha married MaruŇ°ka (Marie/Maria) Chytilov√° on June 10, 1906, in Prague. The couple visited the U.S. from 1906 to 1910, during which time their daughter, Jaroslava, was born in New York City. They also had a son, Jiri, (born March 12, 1915 in Prague; died April 5, 1991 in Prague) who later became a well known journalist, writer, screenwriter, author of autobiographical novels and studies of the works of his father. In the U.S. Alphonse expected to earn money to fund his nationalistic projects to demonstrate to Czechs that he had not "sold out".[4] He was supported by millionaire Charles R. Crane, who used his fortune to help promote revolutions, and after meeting Thomas Masaryk, Slavic nationalism. Alphonse and his family returned to the Czech lands and settled in Prague, where he decorated the Theater of Fine Arts, contributed his time and talent to create the murals in the Mayor's Office at the Municipal House, and other landmarks around the city. When Czechoslovakia won its independence after World War I, Mucha designed the new postage stamps, banknotes, and other government documents for the new state.

Le Pater

Mucha considered Le Pater his printed masterpiece, and referred to it in the January 5, 1900 issue of The Sun Newspaper (New York) as the thing he had "put [his] soul into". Printed on December 20, 1899, Le Pater was Mucha's occult examination of the themes of The Lord's Prayer and only 510 copies were produced.

The Slav Epic

The Mucha window in Prague's St. Vitus Cathedral was designed in the early 1930s

Mucha spent many years working on what he considered his life's fine art masterpiece, The Slav Epic (Slovansk√° epopej), a series of twenty huge paintings depicting the history of the Czech and the Slavic peoples in general, bestowed to the city of Prague in 1928. He had dreamt of completing a series such as this, a celebration of Slavic history, since he was young. Since 1963 the series has been on display in the chateau in Moravsk√Ĺ Krumlov the South Moravian Region in the Czech Republic.

Much consideration was given to the idea of relocating The Slav Epic from Moravsk√Ĺ Krumlov, (where it has been displayed for about 45 years), to Prague. It was thought that Prague, a city frequented by countless thousands of tourists, would be able to attract increased attention to and interest in the series of paintings. However, there is no suitable space for the work in Prague's galleries. Therefore, the government found it preferable to keep the paintings in their existing location since there have been few problems with the space at which they are currently displayed. [7][8]

Death

The rising tide of fascism in the late 1930s led to Mucha's works, as well as his Slavic nationalism, being denounced in the press as 'reactionary'. When German troops marched into Czechoslovakia in the spring of 1939, Mucha was among the first persons to be arrested by the Gestapo. During the course of his interrogation, the aging artist fell ill with pneumonia. Though eventually released, he never recovered from the strain of this event, or from seeing his homeland invaded and overcome. He died in Prague on July 14, 1939, of a lung infection, and was interred there in the VyŇ°ehrad cemetery.[3]

Legacy

At the time of his death, Mucha's style was considered outdated. However, his son, author JiŇô√≠ Mucha, devoted much of his life to writing about him and bringing attention to his art. Interest in Mucha's distinctive style experienced a strong revival in the 1960s (with a general interest in Art Nouveau)[9] and is particularly evident in the psychedelic posters of Hapshash and the Coloured Coat, the collective name for two British artists, Michael English and Nigel Waymouth, who designed posters for groups such as Pink Floyd and The Incredible String Band.

Back in his own country, the new authorities were not interested in Mucha. His Slav Epic was rolled and stored for twenty-five years before being shown in Moravsky Krumlov and only recently has a Mucha museum appeared in Prague, run by his grandson, John Mucha.[4]

Mucha's work has continued to experience periodic revivals of interest for illustrators and artists. It is a strongly acknowledged influence for Stuckist painter Paul Harvey whose subjects have included Madonna and whose work was used to promote The Stuckists Punk Victorian show at the Walker Art Gallery during the 2004 Liverpool Biennial.[10] the Japanese manga artist Naoko Takeuchi released a series of official posters depicting five of the main characters from her manga series Sailor Moon mimicking Mucha's style. Another manga artist, the 1962 born Masakazu Katsura has also mimicked Mucha's style several times. Comic book artist and current Marvel Comics Editor in Chief Joe Quesada also borrowed heavily from Mucha's techniques for a series of covers, posters, and prints. Grindcore and sludge metal band Soilent Green used a picture by Mucha for the cover of their album Sewn Mouth Secrets.[11]

One of Mucha's paintings, Quo Vadis or alternately Petronius and Eunice, was the subject of a legal dispute in 1986. The judgment handed down by Richard Posner describes parts of Mucha's life and work biographically.[12]

Among his many other accomplishments, Mucha was also the restorer of Czech Freemasonry.[13]

See also

Notes and references

  1. ^ "Mucha, Alphonse", Grove Dictionary of Art Online. Retrieved 3 October 2009.
  2. ^ "New Town", Frommers Eastern Europe, p. 244. Retrieved 8 October 2009.
  3. ^ a b "Mucha, Noted Artist, Dropped First Name; Death Due To Shock Caused By Germans' Seizure Of Prague.". New York Times. 18 July 1939. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F50713FE3954107A93CAA8178CD85F4D8385F9&scp=14&sq=Mucha+died&st=p. Retrieved 2008-04-20. "The artist Mucha‚ÄĒhe always signed his work without his given name, which he preferred to ignore‚ÄĒdied here ..." 
  4. ^ a b c d An Introduction to the Work of Alphonse Mucha and Art Nouveau, lecture by Ian Johnston of Malaspina University-College, Nanaimo, BC. This document is in the public domain and may be used by anyone, in whole or in part, without permission and without charge, provided the source is acknowledged
  5. ^ Anna Dvorak. ‚ÄúIllustrations for Books and Periodicals.‚ÄĚ, page 134 in Alphonse Mucha: The Complete Graphic Works. Ed. Anne Bridges. NY: Harmony, 1980.
  6. ^ Alphonse Mucha;Documents Decoratifs 1902
  7. ^ Article about delay of relocating The Slav Epic to Prague; T√Ĺden.cz (in Czech)
  8. ^ Article about issues with placing The Slav Epic to Prague; Idnes.cz (in Czech)
  9. ^ Fraser, Julie. H. "Recycling art" style2000.com.
  10. ^ Milner, Frank ed. The Stuckists Punk Victorian, p.74, National Museums Liverpool, 2004. ISBN 1-902700-27-9
  11. ^ "Soilent Green". Metal Blade Records. http://www.metalblade.com/english/artists/soilentgreen/bio.php. Retrieved 2008-03-03. 
  12. ^ Project Posner
  13. ^ http://www.ct24.cz/textove-prepisy/76675-tajne-spolecenstvi-v-cechach-zednari/

External links

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Simple English

Alphonse Mucha,[1][2] (24 July 1860 ‚Äď 14 July 1939), was a Czech Art Nouveau painter and decorative artist,[3] best known for his distinct style and his images of women. He produced many paintings, illustrations, advertisements, and designs.

File:Mucha-Maud Adams as Joan of
Poster of Maude Adams as Joan of Arc, 1909

Mucha moved to Paris in 1887, continued his studies, and worked at producing magazine and advertising illustrations.

Around Christmas 1894, Mucha happened to drop into a print shop where there was a sudden and unexpected need for a new advertising poster for a play starring Sarah Bernhardt, the most famous actress in Paris. Mucha volunteered to produce a lithographed poster within two weeks, and on 1 January 1895, the advertisement for the play Gismonda by Victorien Sardou appeared on the streets of the city. It was an overnight sensation and announced the new artistic style and its creator to the citizens of Paris.[4] Bernhardt was so satisfied with the success of this first poster that she entered into a 6 year contract with Mucha.

Mucha produced a flurry of paintings, posters, advertisements, and book illustrations, as well as designs for jewellery, carpets, wallpaper, and theatre sets in what was initially called the Mucha Style but became known as Art Nouveau (French for 'new art'). Mucha's works frequently featured beautiful, strong young women in flowing vaguely Neoclassical looking robes, often surrounded by lush flowers which sometimes formed halos behind the women's heads. In contrast with contemporary poster makers he used pale pastel colours.[5]

File:Alfons Mucha - F. Champenois Imprimeur-√Č
F. Champenois Imprimeur-√Čditeur, lithograph, 1897.

The 1900 Paris Exhibition spread the "Mucha style" abroad, of which Mucha said "I think [the Exposition Universelle] made some contribution toward bringing aesthetic values into arts and crafts."[6] He decorated the Bosnia and Herzegovina Pavilion and collaborated in the Austrian Pavilion.

Mucha's Art Nouveau style was often imitated. The Art Nouveau style however, was one that Mucha attempted to distance himself from. He always insisted that his paintings came purely from within and from Czech art.[4] He declared that art existed only to communicate a spiritual message, and nothing more. He was frustrated at the fame he gained through commercial art, when he most wanted to concentrate on more lofty projects that would ennoble art and his birthplace.

References

  1. ‚ÜĎ "Mucha, Alphonse", Grove Dictionary of Art Online. Retrieved 3 October 2009.
  2. ‚ÜĎ "New Town", Frommers Eastern Europe, p. 244. Retrieved 8 October 2009.
  3. ‚ÜĎ "Mucha, Noted Artist, Dropped First Name; Death Due To Shock Caused By Germans' Seizure Of Prague.". New York Times. 18 July 1939. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F50713FE3954107A93CAA8178CD85F4D8385F9&scp=14&sq=Mucha+died&st=p. Retrieved 2008-04-20. "The artist Mucha‚ÄĒhe always signed his work without his given name, which he preferred to ignore‚ÄĒdied here ..." 
  4. ‚ÜĎ 4.0 4.1 An Introduction to the Work of Alphonse Mucha and Art Nouveau, lecture by Ian Johnston of Malaspina University-College, Nanaimo, BC.
  5. ‚ÜĎ Anna Dvorak. ‚ÄúIllustrations for Books and Periodicals.‚ÄĚ, page 134 in Alphonse Mucha: The Complete Graphic Works. Ed. Anne Bridges. NY: Harmony, 1980.
  6. ‚ÜĎ Alphonse Mucha;Documents Decoratifs 1902


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