The Full Wiki

Alprazolam: Wikis

  
  

Encyclopedia

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Alprazolam
Systematic (IUPAC) name
8-chloro-1-methyl-6-phenyl-4H-
[1,2,4]triazolo[4,3-a][1,4]benzodiazepine
Identifiers
CAS number 28981-97-7
ATC code N05BA12
PubChem 2118
DrugBank APRD00280
ChemSpider 2034
Chemical data
Formula C17H13ClN4 
Mol. mass 308.765
SMILES eMolecules & PubChem
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability 80–90%
Metabolism Hepatic, via Cytochrome P450 3A4
Half life Immediate release: 11.2 hours;[1] Extended release: 10.7–15.8 hours[2]
Excretion Renal
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat. D(US)
Legal status  ? (UK) Schedule IV (US)
Routes Oral
 Yes check.svgY(what is this?)  (verify)
.Alprazolam, also known under the trade names Xanax (not to be confused with Zantac), Xanor, Alprax, and Niravam, is a short-acting drug of the benzodiazepine class.^ Xanax Generic Name: Alprazolam al-PRAY-zoe-lam Drug Class: Benzodiazepines .
  • Psych Central Reviews - Xanax (alprazolam) 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC forums.psychcentral.com [Source type: General]

^ Xanax is a benzodiazepines known by several brand and generic names.

^ Comment » Tags: Alprazolam , benzodiazepines , Prescription Xanax , xanax , xanax names .

.It is primarily used to treat moderate to severe anxiety disorders (e.g., social anxiety disorder) and panic attacks, and is used as an adjunctive treatment for anxiety associated with moderate depression.^ It’s also used to treat anxiety which stems from depression.

^ Xanax (alprazolam) for Depression : I have severe depression and general anxiety disorder.
  • Xanax User Reviews at Drugs.com 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: General]

^ It’s a short acting drug used to treat moderate to severe panic attacks or anxiety issues.

.It is also available in an extended-release form, Xanax XR, both of which are now available in generic form.^ Alprazolam is available in an extended release form as well, and is known as Xanax XR .

^ Both Generic Xanax (Alprazolam) and Pfizer Brand Xanax are available in XR form, and with no prescription.

^ Niravam, Xanax and Xanax XR. Like other benzodiazepines, alprazolam is FDA-approved for the treatment of generalized anxiety diso...
  • Alprazolam | LIVESTRONG.COM 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.livestrong.com [Source type: General]

.Alprazolam possesses anxiolytic, sedative, hypnotic, anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties.^ The benzodiazepines are a class of drugs with sedatives, anticonvulsant, and muscle relaxant properties as referred in U.S. Pat.
  • Sustained Release Formulation of Alprazolam - Patent application 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ The benzodiazepines and Z drugs have anti anxiety, anticonvulsant, sedative hypnotic, muscle relaxant, amnesic properties and in addition abuse and overdose potential especially in combination with alcohol or opiates.

^ Flumazenil is an imidazobenzodiazepine and has been shown to reverse the sedative, anti-convulsant and muscle-relaxant effects of benzodiazepines.
  • Alprazolam (PIM 199) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[3]
.Alprazolam has a fast onset of symptom relief (within the first week); it is the most commonly misused benzodiazepine, however the majority of prescribed users do not develop a substance use disorder.^ The two polymer grades of METHOCEL most commonly used in controlled-release applications are K(HPMC 2208, USP) and E(HPMC 2910, USP).
  • Sustained Release Formulation of Alprazolam - Patent application 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Xanax (alprazolam) for Panic Disorder : With the panic attacks I get it seems Xanax works fairly fast, when I feel one coming on, or even when I am in the middle of one.
  • Xanax User Reviews at Drugs.com 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: General]

^ The most commonly used "glidant" in solid oral dosage form formulations is colloidal silicon dioxide; also know by the trade names of Cab-o-Sil or Aerosil.
  • Sustained Release Formulation of Alprazolam - Patent application 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

[4][5] .Tolerance to the therapeutic effects of alprazolam is controversial with one view being that alprazolam is ineffective with long term use[6] and the other view being that tolerance to the therapeutic effects does not occur.^ Xanax long term use.
  • Prescription drugs online - xanax 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC drugs.atwiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Long term side effects of xanax.
  • Prescription drugs online - xanax 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC drugs.atwiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Long term side effects from xanax.
  • Prescription drugs online - xanax 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC drugs.atwiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7] .A physical dependence commonly occurs as a result of alprazolam treatment, typified by a withdrawal and rebound symptoms necessitating a gradual reduction in dosage to minimise withdrawal effects when discontinuing.^ To minimize withdrawal symptoms, taper dosage slowly; do not discontinue abruptly.
  • Alprazolam - Erewhon Natural Foods 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.erewhonmarket.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The side effects of benzodiazepines (or benzos as they are sometimes referred to) and the Z drugs are generally very similar or even identical especially in terms of tolerance, dependence / addiction and withdrawal symptoms .

^ Rebound or withdrawal symptoms, including seizures may occur 18 hours to 3 days following abrupt discontinuation or large decreases in dose (more common in patients receiving > 4 mg/day or prolonged treatment).
  • Alprazolam - Erewhon Natural Foods 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.erewhonmarket.com [Source type: Academic]

[4] .Withdrawal symptoms similar in character to those noted with sedative-hypnotics and alcohol have occurred following discontinuance of benzodiazepines, including alprazolam.^ Should any of the above events occur, alprazolam should be discontinued.
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is also used to treat withdrawal symptoms of alcoholism.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Withdrawal symptoms have been observed after abrupt discontinuation of benzodiazepines.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

.The symptoms can range from mild dysphoria and insomnia to a major syndrome that may include abdominal and muscle cramps, vomiting, sweating, tremors and convulsions.^ These include irritability, nervousness, insomnia, agitation, tremors, convulsions, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, vomiting and mental impairment.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The symptoms can range from mild dysphoria and insomnia to a major syndrome that may include abdominal and muscle cramps, vomiting, sweating, tremors and convulsions.
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Withdrawal symptoms may include convulsions, tremors, abdominal pain, muscle cramps, vomiting, sweating, restlessness, perceptual disturbances, and insomnia.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[8] .In the USA, alprazolam is a schedule IV controlled substance under the Controlled Substances Act.^ Nonnarcotic controlled substances in schedule I or II .
  • DEA, Controlled Substances Act 11 September 2009 12:36 UTC www.usdoj.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Nonnarcotic controlled substances in schedule III or IV; controlled substances in schedule V .
  • DEA, Controlled Substances Act 11 September 2009 12:36 UTC www.usdoj.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ Schedules of controlled substances.
  • DEA, Controlled Substances Act 11 September 2009 12:36 UTC www.usdoj.gov [Source type: Reference]

[9]

Contents

History

Alprazolam was first synthesized by Upjohn (now a part of Pfizer). .It is covered under U.S. Patent 3,987,052, which was filed on October 29, 1969, granted on October 19, 1976 and expired in September 1993. Alprazolam was released in 1981.[10][11] The first approved indication was panic disorder.^ In controlled trials conducted to establish the efficacy of Xanax in panic disorder, doses in the range of 1 to 10 mg daily were used.
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Withdrawal symptoms were identified as those which were generally not characteristic of panic disorder and which occurred for the first time more frequently during discontinuation than at baseline.
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Xanax is also indicated for the treatment of panic disorder, with or without agoraphobia.
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

.Upjohn took this direction at the behest of a young psychiatrist David Sheehan.^ Upjohn took the advice of a young psychiatrist, who discovered from his research that people who were experiencing panic attacks responded positivity to benzodiazepines and from that study Alprazolam was developed.

.Sheehan's suggestion was to use the new distinction the DSM-III created in the classification of anxiety disorders between generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and panic disorder in order to market alprazolam specifically for the latter.^ Alprazolam is indicated for the treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and is also indicated for the management of panic disorder with or without agoraphobia.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ You must first know what anxiety and panic is in order to help yourself overcome the problem.

^ Xanax Agoraphobia and Memory Loss It's not unknown to have agoraphobia and memory loss at the same time, however, anxiety disorders generally don't cause memory loss.

.Panic disorder was, at that point, perceived to be rare and treatable only with tricyclic antidepressants; benzodiazepines were thought to be ineffective.^ For 15 years, I am so thankful that any benzodiazepine is available, as my panic disorder is moderately severe.
  • Xanax User Reviews at Drugs.com 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: General]

^ Xanax (alprazolam) for Panic Disorder : Since Xanax is so short-acting, it should be a well thought decision to use for panic disorder.
  • Xanax User Reviews at Drugs.com 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: General]

^ Xanax is a short-acting benzodiazepine used in the treatment of moderate to severe anxiety disorders, panic attacks , and anxiety coupled with depression.

.However, from his clinical experience, Sheehan knew panic disorder to be both widespread among the populace and responsive to benzodiazepines.^ Xanax is in a group of drugs called benzodiazepines and is used to treat patients with anxiety, anxiety caused by depression, or panic disorder.
  • Psych Central Reviews - Xanax (alprazolam) 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC forums.psychcentral.com [Source type: General]

^ A clinical response to flumazenil, a specific benzodiazepine antagonist, also confirms the diagnosis of benzodiazepine overdose, but administration of this drug is rarely justified.
  • Alprazolam (PIM 199) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Cognitive style, alprazolam plasma levels, and treatment response in panic disorder.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

.He suggested to Upjohn that marketing alprazolam for panic disorder would both cover new diagnostic territory and emphasize the unique potency of this drug.^ Xanax (alprazolam) for Panic Disorder : It is a miracle.
  • Xanax User Reviews at Drugs.com 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: General]

^ Xanax (alprazolam) for Panic Disorder : Loves it.
  • Xanax User Reviews at Drugs.com 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: General]

^ Upjohn took the advice of a young psychiatrist, who discovered from his research that people who were experiencing panic attacks responded positivity to benzodiazepines and from that study Alprazolam was developed.

.Sheehan describes that the first group of patients treated by alprazolam was so impressed by its action that the company knew outright that this drug was going to be a hit.^ Xanax is in a group of drugs called benzodiazepines and is used to treat patients with anxiety, anxiety caused by depression, or panic disorder.
  • Psych Central Reviews - Xanax (alprazolam) 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC forums.psychcentral.com [Source type: General]

^ User-edited article about alprazolam, sold under the brand names of Xanax and Niravam, a short-acting drug to treat severe anxiety disorders.
  • Xanax™ - xanax 2mg, xanax pill, overnight xanax, xanax tablet, cheap xanax, xanax online, order xanax 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC itsafeature.com [Source type: General]

^ Smoking is especially useful for treating people whose drug approval because and the company has established.

A few of those patients actually pooled their money and purchased stock in Upjohn. .Several months later, when alprazolam was approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration, they sold out and made a profit.^ The administration of flumazenil is more effective in reversing the effects of benzodiazepines when they are the only drugs producing CNS toxicity.
  • Alprazolam (PIM 199) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In the United States, one out of five years after a four- to six-week incubation period.

^ Flurazepam, one of the most widely used sleeping pills in the United States, is a member of a class of psychoactive drugs called benzodiazepines.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[12]
.Alprazolam has an exceptional history insofar as soon after its introduction a number of case reports were published in the medical literature of severe withdrawal symptom-related case reports of psychoses, seizures, and intense rebound anxiety upon discontinuation of alprazolam.^ Case reports from literature .
  • Alprazolam (PIM 199) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ It is also sometimes used to relax muscles, treat seizures, or to reduce the symptoms of acute alcohol withdrawal.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ She experienced manic types of symptoms after receiving alprazolam 0.5 mg 3 times/day as needed for anxiety.
  • Paradoxical Reactions to Benzodiazepines: Alprazolam and Temazepam 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

[13] .Several studies found that initial treatment of panic disorder with alprazolam was significantly superior but after 8 weeks of use alprazolam lost its effectiveness and was no more effective than placebo.^ Xanax (alprazolam) for Panic Disorder : It is a miracle.
  • Xanax User Reviews at Drugs.com 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: General]

^ Xanax (alprazolam) for Panic Disorder : Loves it.
  • Xanax User Reviews at Drugs.com 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: General]

^ Xanax (alprazolam) for Panic Disorder : I have used Xanax since 1996.
  • Xanax User Reviews at Drugs.com 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: General]

.It was found that behavioural therapy and the drug imipramine however, proved superior to both placebo and alprazolam.^ Xanax (alprazolam) for Depression : It is the greatest drug found.
  • Xanax User Reviews at Drugs.com 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: General]

.It has been argued that placebo is superior than alprazolam after 8 weeks of use due to lack of rebound withdrawal effects and side effects.^ Warnings and side effects using xanax.
  • Prescription drugs online - xanax 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC drugs.atwiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alprazolam effects side xanax discount.
  • Prescription drugs online - xanax 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC drugs.atwiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

.Controversy exists in that there are allegations that the drug manufacturer suppressed these negative findings regarding lack of sustained efficacy.^ Although these drugs experience longer suppressed, they are to be used.

^ There are other practical consequences for these needless controversies.
  • M. Bakri Musa - www.bakrimusa.com 16 September 2009 14:014 UTC www.bakrimusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14][15]

Indications

Xanax 2 mg tri-score tablets (AU)
The main medical uses for alprazolam include:

Panic disorder

.Alprazolam is FDA-approved for the short-term treatment (up to 8 weeks) of panic disorder, with or without agoraphobia.^ Alprazolam is indicated for the treatment of Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) and is also indicated for the management of panic disorder with or without agoraphobia.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ [CrossRef] [Medline] Cowley DS, Roy-Byrne PP, Radant A, Ritchie JC, Greenblatt DJ, Nemeroff CB, Hommer DW (1995) Benzodiazepine sensitivity in panic disorder: effects chronic alprazolam treatment.
  • Spontaneous Withdrawal from the Triazolobenzodiazepine Alprazolam Increases Cortical Corticotropin-Releasing Factor mRNA Expression -- Skelton et al. 24 (42): 9303 -- Journal of Neuroscience 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Malware -- short for MALicious softWARE -- is a term used to broadly classify a form of software which is installed in a computer system with malicious intentions, usually without the owner's knowledge or permission.
  • Eror | SPIKE 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

.Alprazolam is very effective in treating moderate to severe anxiety, essential tremor, and panic attacks.^ It’s a short acting drug used to treat moderate to severe panic attacks or anxiety issues.

^ Anxiety, panic attacks .
  • Paradoxical Reactions to Benzodiazepines: Alprazolam and Temazepam 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.medscape.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is also effective for treating anxiety associated with depression and for the treatment of panic disorders.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Physicians that elect to prescribe alprazolam for longer than 8 weeks should be aware that continued efficacy has not been systematically demonstrated beyond 8 weeks' use, as tolerance to alprazolam's effects may occur after 8 weeks and necessitate discontinuation or physician-directed dose escalation.^ The "0" withdrawal time point was used for determining the effects of chronic alprazolam treatment in comparison with control rats.
  • Spontaneous Withdrawal from the Triazolobenzodiazepine Alprazolam Increases Cortical Corticotropin-Releasing Factor mRNA Expression -- Skelton et al. 24 (42): 9303 -- Journal of Neuroscience 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Alprazolam, sold under the brand name Xanax , its side effects, indications and contraindications, as well as withdrawal Information from Pfizer about anxiety and its treatment using Xanax .
  • Xanax™ - xanax 2mg, xanax pill, overnight xanax, xanax tablet, cheap xanax, xanax online, order xanax 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC itsafeature.com [Source type: General]

^ You should get your doctor involved, if you think you need to continue treatment for a longer period.

[16] .However, patients with panic disorder have been treated on an open basis for up to 8 months without apparent loss of benefit.^ Xanax is in a group of drugs called benzodiazepines and is used to treat patients with anxiety, anxiety caused by depression, or panic disorder.
  • Psych Central Reviews - Xanax (alprazolam) 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC forums.psychcentral.com [Source type: General]

^ Xanax (alprazolam) for Panic Disorder : I have taken Xanax now for six months and it has been the best six months in a long time.
  • Xanax User Reviews at Drugs.com 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: General]

^ This drug is used to treat various forms of anxiety, panic attacks, and other central nervous system disorders.

.The physician should periodically reassess the usefulness of the drug for the individual patient.^ Alprazolam should not be administered to individuals prone to drug abuse.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Patients should also be advised against the simultaneous use of other CNS depressant drugs and should be cautioned not to take alcohol during the administration of alprazolam.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Therefore, nursing should not be undertaken while a patient is receiving the drug.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

[17] .Alprazolam is recommended for treatment resistant cases of panic disorder where there is no history of tolerance or dependence.^ There is no definitive treatment for insomnia.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Xanax (alprazolam) for Panic Disorder : It is a miracle.
  • Xanax User Reviews at Drugs.com 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: General]

^ Xanax (alprazolam) for Panic Disorder : Loves it.
  • Xanax User Reviews at Drugs.com 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: General]

[18]

Anxiety disorder

.Alprazolam is indicated for the management of anxiety disorder (a condition corresponding most closely to the APA Diagnostic and Statistical Manual DSM-III-R diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder) or the short-term relief of symptoms of anxiety.^ Chlordiazepoxide is used for the short-term relief of anxiety.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alprazolam is used primarily for short-term relief of anxiety.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For the management of anxiety disorders or the short-term symptomatic relief of symptoms of excessive anxiety.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

[17] .Alprazolam is recommended for the short-term treatment (2–4 weeks) of severe acute anxiety.^ Xanax is recommended as a short term treatment, which means anywhere from two to four weeks.

^ This may be the best route for people experiencing severe anxiety that need immediate treatment.

^ Xanax (alprazolam) for Anxiety : Xanax has helped me tremendously, I was having severe anxiety attacks real bad!
  • Xanax User Reviews at Drugs.com 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: General]

[19][20]
.Alprazolam is sometimes prescribed for anxiety with associated depression.^ Main > Anxiety > Xanax Xanax (generic: Alprazolam) is used to treat severe anxiety and sometimes as a pain killer.

^ Xanax (alprazolam) for Anxiety : The fastest acting anti anxiety medication I've ever been prescribed, and by far the most effective.
  • Xanax User Reviews at Drugs.com 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: General]

^ Xanax (alprazolam) for Depression : I have extreme depression and Anexity- sometimes panic attacks.
  • Xanax User Reviews at Drugs.com 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: General]

.There is some evidence for antidepressant treatment of clinical depression in outpatient settings; evidence for inpatients is lacking.^ In addition to this key physiologic role, there is considerable evidence implicating CRF hypersecretion in the pathophysiology of depression and anxiety disorders (Owens and Nemeroff, 1991 ).
  • Spontaneous Withdrawal from the Triazolobenzodiazepine Alprazolam Increases Cortical Corticotropin-Releasing Factor mRNA Expression -- Skelton et al. 24 (42): 9303 -- Journal of Neuroscience 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Temazepam may intensify the effect of other central nervous system depressants, including alcohol, narcotic pain relievers, antihistamines, barbiturates, and some antidepressants.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is some evidence that it increases the risk of fetal deformities when used during the first trimester of pregnancy.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[21] .The antidepressant effects of alprazolam may be due to its effects on beta-adrenergic receptors.^ Elderly or debilitated people may be particularly susceptible to side effects of alprazolam.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alprazolam potentiates the antiaversive effect induced by the activation of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT (2A) receptors in the rat dorsal periaqueductal gray.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Oral contraceptives and cimetidine may increase the concentration of alprazolam in the blood and potentially increase the risk of side effects.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[22] Other benzodiazepines are not known to have antidepressant activity.[23][24] .Studies show that any antidepressant action of alprazolam is questionable and generally weak in comparison to those of antidepressant medications.^ However, clinical studies show that oxazepam is less likely to cause addiction than diazepam, lorazepam, alprazolam, or triazolam.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[25][26][27][28] .In contrast, while alprazolam in acute or short-term treatment may have some antidepressant properties, there is evidence that up to a third of long-term users of alprazolam may develop depression.^ Xanax is a tranquilizer used in the short-term relief of symptoms of anxiety or the treatment of anxiety disorders.
  • Xanax™ - xanax 2mg, xanax pill, overnight xanax, xanax tablet, cheap xanax, xanax online, order xanax 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC itsafeature.com [Source type: General]

^ From: long term care health insurance Email: Tailor Field One : long term care health insurance long term care health insurance Posted on: Monday, May 15, 2006, 06:51 PM .

^ Depending on the Promotion, we may also collect an Internet email address or other Information and, depending on the Information collected, the user may also be required to confirm his or her agreement to this Privacy Policy and the Terms of Use Agreement.
  • Eror | SPIKE 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

[29]

Side-effects

.Although the side-effect profile of alprazolam is, in general, benign, side-effects may occur in some patients and are more likely the higher the dosage taken.^ Periods may skip or occur more likely to have different symptoms.

^ Flurazepam is one of the longer-acting benzodiazepines, so it may be more likely to cause a "hangover" effect.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alprazolam, sold under the brand name Xanax , its side effects, indications and contraindications, as well as withdrawal Information from Pfizer about anxiety and its treatment using Xanax .
  • Xanax™ - xanax 2mg, xanax pill, overnight xanax, xanax tablet, cheap xanax, xanax online, order xanax 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC itsafeature.com [Source type: General]

.Some side-effects may disappear with continued treatment.^ Side effects to the drug usually occur early in treatment and disappear as treatment continues.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alprazolam, sold under the brand name Xanax , its side effects, indications and contraindications, as well as withdrawal Information from Pfizer about anxiety and its treatment using Xanax .
  • Xanax™ - xanax 2mg, xanax pill, overnight xanax, xanax tablet, cheap xanax, xanax online, order xanax 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC itsafeature.com [Source type: General]

^ Flurazepam is excreted in breast milk and may cause serious side effects in newborn infants.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If signs of an allergic reaction occur - such as hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of face, lips, tongue, or throat - medical attention should be sought immediately.^ Seek medical attention immediately.
  • Psych Central Reviews - Xanax (alprazolam) 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC forums.psychcentral.com [Source type: General]

^ Xanax withdrawal - Dermatitis - Generally irritated skin that can be caused by any of a number of irritating things such as parasites, fungus, bacteria, or foreign substances causing an allergic reaction.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Rarely, allergic reactions, nausea, vomiting, lethargy, swelling, slurred speech, tremor, changes in sex drive, white blood cell deficiency, and liver toxicity occur.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Medical attention should also be sought immediately if signs of jaundice appear: yellowing of the skin or eyes.^ Seek medical attention immediately.
  • Psych Central Reviews - Xanax (alprazolam) 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC forums.psychcentral.com [Source type: General]

Other side-effects that may occur are as follows:

Paradoxical Reactions

Although unusual, if the following paradoxical reactions occur, the prescribing physician or other healthcare professional should be alerted and the medication gradually discontinued:

Physical dependence and withdrawal

.Alprazolam, like other benzodiazepines, binds to specific sites on the GABAA gamma-amino-butyric acid receptor.^ Hypersensitivity to alprazolam or other benzodiazepines.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Anxiolytic - Antipanic Alprazolam, a triazolo 1,4 benzodiazepine analog, binds with high affinity to the GABA benzodiazepine receptor complex.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Specific CRF receptor binding was calculated by subtracting the mean counts per minute in the triplicate nonspecific binding condition from the mean counts per minute in the triplicate total binding condition.
  • Spontaneous Withdrawal from the Triazolobenzodiazepine Alprazolam Increases Cortical Corticotropin-Releasing Factor mRNA Expression -- Skelton et al. 24 (42): 9303 -- Journal of Neuroscience 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

.When bound to these sites, which are referred to as benzodiazepine receptors, it modulates the effect of GABA A receptors and, thus, GABAnergic neurons.^ Patients who cannot come at the expense of those of flu may accompany these outbreaks, thus possibly hundreds of effects kick in.

^ Antidote treatment 10.5.1 Adults Flumazenil, a specific benzodiazepine antagonist at central GABA-ergic receptors is available.
  • Alprazolam (PIM 199) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Once we post them on the Site, these changes become effective immediately and if you use the Site after they become effective it will signify your agreement to be bound by the changes.
  • Eror | SPIKE 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

.Long-term use causes adaptive changes in the benzodiazepine receptors, making them less sensitive to stimulation and less powerful in their effects.^ Xanax long term use.
  • Prescription drugs online - xanax 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC drugs.atwiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Long term side effects of xanax.
  • Prescription drugs online - xanax 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC drugs.atwiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Long term side effects from xanax.
  • Prescription drugs online - xanax 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC drugs.atwiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[49]
Not all withdrawal effects are evidence of true dependence or withdrawal. .Recurrence of symptoms such as anxiety may simply indicate that the drug was having its expected anti-anxiety effect and that, in the absence of the drug, the symptom has returned to pretreatment levels.^ Anti anxiety drug xanax.
  • Prescription drugs online - xanax 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC drugs.atwiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The drugs in the class differ somewhat in the side effects they produce, their potencies, the time it takes for them to work, and the tendency for them to be addictive or cause withdrawal symptoms.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Phenytoin and digoxin blood levels are increased when taken with lorazepam, potentially increasing the risk of side effects from these drugs.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If the symptoms are more severe or frequent, the patient may be experiencing a rebound effect due to the removal of the drug.^ Hypotension is more frequent when benzodiazepines are ingested in association with other drugs (Hojer et al., 1989).
  • Alprazolam (PIM 199) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The administration of flumazenil is more effective in reversing the effects of benzodiazepines when they are the only drugs producing CNS toxicity.
  • Alprazolam (PIM 199) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Hepatitis may also several treatments that help my patients.

.Either of these can occur without the patient's actually being drug-dependent.^ These drugs are not effective in patients with characterological and personality disorders or those with obsessive compulsive disorders.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ But even now after getting myself off these drugs from fear of being a druggie, I STILL crave that numbing, self medicating feeling.
  • Psych Central Reviews - Xanax (alprazolam) 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC forums.psychcentral.com [Source type: General]

^ Since these symptoms may be similar to those for which the patient is being treated, it may appear that he has suffered a relapse upon discontinuation.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

[49]
.Alprazolam and other benzodiazepines may also cause the development of physical dependence, tolerance, and benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms during rapid dose reduction or cessation of therapy after long-term treatment.^ Like other benzodiazepines, triazolam can cause dependency.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Sleep disorders may be symptoms of other physical or psychiatric problems.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other Dependence and withdrawal Benzodiazepines have a significant potential for abuse and can cause physical and psychological dependence.
  • Alprazolam (PIM 199) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[50][51] .There is a higher chance of withdrawal reactions if the drug is administered in a higher dosage than recommended, or if a patient stops taking the medication altogether without slowly allowing the body to adjust to a lower-dosage regimen.^ Withdrawal reactions may occur when dosages of the drug are reduced for any reason.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There are also be recommended by your body a chance of the ulcer reoccurring.
  • Prescription drugs online - xanax 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC drugs.atwiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The drugs differ somewhat in their side effects, potencies, the time it takes for them to work, and their tendency to cause withdrawal symptoms.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[52][53][54]
.In 1992, Romach and colleagues reported that dose escalation is not a characteristic of long-term alprazolam users, and the majority of patients indicated that alprazolam continued to be effective, suggesting that tolerance to the anti-anxiety effect is limited.^ Long term side effects from xanax.
  • Prescription drugs online - xanax 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC drugs.atwiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Long term side effects of xanax.
  • Prescription drugs online - xanax 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC drugs.atwiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Benzodiazepines, known to potentiate GABA-mediated Cl - current, are clinically effective anti-anxiety agents.
  • Spontaneous Withdrawal from the Triazolobenzodiazepine Alprazolam Increases Cortical Corticotropin-Releasing Factor mRNA Expression -- Skelton et al. 24 (42): 9303 -- Journal of Neuroscience 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

[55]
.If a patient feels the need to end treatment with alprazolam, he/she should consult his/her physician before discontinuing the medication.^ In those patients seek medical treatment before a myomectomy.
  • Prescription drugs online - xanax 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC drugs.atwiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If the drug is prescribed to a woman of child bearing potential she should be warned to consult her physician regarding the discontinuation of the drug if she intends to become or suspects that she is pregnant.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It should also teach near-patient testing in a dedicated eye ward and many years before.

.Some common symptoms of alprazolam discontinuation include tachycardia, dysphoria, dry mouth, loss of appetite, insomnia, anxiety, dizziness, tremors, nausea, cramps, vomiting, diarrhea, panic attacks, mood swings, heart palpitations, memory loss.^ Withdrawal symptoms include anxiety, insomnia, headache, dizziness, tinnitus, anorexia, vomiting, nausea, tremor, weakness, perspiration, irritability, hypersensitivity to visual and auditory stimuli, palpitations, tachycardia and postural hypotension.
  • Alprazolam (PIM 199) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Some common side effects reported with this medicine include: drowsiness dizziness unusual weakness headache clumsiness Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away; restlessness or excitement, constipation, difficulty urinating, blurred vision or changes in sex drive.
  • Psych Central Reviews - Xanax (alprazolam) 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC forums.psychcentral.com [Source type: General]

^ Withdrawal symptoms include insomnia, headache, anxiety, fatigue, irritability, difficulty thinking or remembering, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, weight loss, sweating, and rapid heartbeat.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Less common and more severe reactions can occur, including hallucinations, seizures or fever[56]
.Patients taking a dosing regimen larger than 4 mg per day have an increased potential for dependence.^ Caution should be observed in all patients who are considered to have potential for psychological dependence.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The risk of dependency seems to be higher in people treated with relatively high doses (greater than 4 mg per day) and in those treated for more than eight to twelve weeks.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Advertisement Treatment of panic is usually started at 0.5 mg taken three times a day, but may require more than 4 mg per day.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This medication may cause withdrawal symptoms upon abrupt withdrawal or rapid tapering, which in some cases have been known to cause seizures.^ Abrupt cessation after prolonged use causes a withdrawal syndrome (Ashton, 1989).
  • Alprazolam (PIM 199) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Newborns from mothers who take triazolam during pregnancy may suffer withdrawal symptoms.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The drugs differ somewhat in their side effects, potencies, the time it takes for them to work, and their tendency to cause withdrawal symptoms.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The discontinuation of this medication may also cause a reaction called rebound anxiety.^ Xanax withdrawal - Angioedema - Intensely itching and swelling welts on the skin called hives caused by an allergic reaction to internal or external agents.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Anxiety, depression, and many medications can cause sleep problems in people with HIV infection.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Xanax can cause side effects that may impair your thinking or reactions.
  • Xanax™ - xanax 2mg, xanax pill, overnight xanax, xanax tablet, cheap xanax, xanax online, order xanax 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC itsafeature.com [Source type: General]

.Other withdrawal effects reported from discontinuing alprazolam therapy include homicidal ideation (very rare), rage reactions, hyperalertness, vivid dreams, and intrusive thoughts.^ Others 9.4.13 Allergic reactions Hypersensitivity reactions including anaphylaxis are very rare (Brigby, 1986).
  • Alprazolam (PIM 199) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ They include alprazolam, diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, and flurazepam among others.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Other clinical effects Hypothermia was reported in 15% of cases in one series.
  • Alprazolam (PIM 199) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[57] .Grand mal seizures have occurred after abrupt withdrawal after only short-term use.^ It is also sometimes used to relax muscles, treat seizures, or to reduce the symptoms of acute alcohol withdrawal.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chlordiazepoxide is used for the short-term relief of anxiety.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Others risk factors for withdrawal syndrome include prolonged use of the drug, higher dosage and abrupt cessation of the drug.
  • Alprazolam (PIM 199) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Therefore, even short-term users of alprazolam should taper off of their medication slowly to avoid serious withdrawal reactions including seizures.^ Abrupt withdrawal of alprazolam should be avoided.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Pregnant women should avoid using alprazolam.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ User-edited article about alprazolam, sold under the brand names of Xanax and Niravam, a short-acting drug to treat severe anxiety disorders.
  • Xanax™ - xanax 2mg, xanax pill, overnight xanax, xanax tablet, cheap xanax, xanax online, order xanax 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC itsafeature.com [Source type: General]

[58][59]
.Alprazolam should never be abruptly stopped if taken regularly for any length of time because severe withdrawal symptoms may occur.^ Abrupt withdrawal of alprazolam should be avoided.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Should any of the above events occur, alprazolam should be discontinued.
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The "0" withdrawal time point was used for determining the effects of chronic alprazolam treatment in comparison with control rats.
  • Spontaneous Withdrawal from the Triazolobenzodiazepine Alprazolam Increases Cortical Corticotropin-Releasing Factor mRNA Expression -- Skelton et al. 24 (42): 9303 -- Journal of Neuroscience 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

.Severe psychosis and seizures have been reported in the medical literature from abrupt alprazolam discontinuation,[60][61] and one death occurred from withdrawal-related seizures after gradual dose reduction.^ Should any of the above events occur, alprazolam should be discontinued.
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Abrupt withdrawal of alprazolam should be avoided.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In any case, reduction of dose must be undertaken under close supervision and must be gradual.
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

[61]
.In a 1983 study of patients that had taken long-acting benzodiazepines, e.g., clorazepate, for extended periods, the medications were stopped abruptly under double-blind conditions (that is, patients were receiving either placebo or the same drug they had been taking).^ Antacids or ddI should be taken two hours before or after lorazepam, because they interfere with the drug's absorption into the body.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diazepam should not be used by people who are allergic to the drug or people who have glaucoma unless they are receiving appropriate antiglaucoma therapy.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The administration of flumazenil is more effective in reversing the effects of benzodiazepines when they are the only drugs producing CNS toxicity.
  • Alprazolam (PIM 199) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Only 5% of patients that had been taking the drug for less than 8 months demonstrated withdrawal symptoms, but 43% of those that had been taking them for more than 8 months did, whereas, with alprazolam - a short-acting benzodiazepine - taken for 8 weeks, 35% of patients experienced significant rebound anxiety.^ Is the indigestion a symptom of a more than a couple of weeks.

^ Xanax (alprazolam) for Anxiety : There is not a better drug than xanax for my anxiety.
  • Xanax User Reviews at Drugs.com 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: General]

^ Xanax (alprazolam) for Anxiety : One of the best benzodiazepines I have taken.
  • Xanax User Reviews at Drugs.com 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: General]

.To some degree, these older benzodiazepines are self-tapering.^ All of these drugs reduce anxiety or cause drowsiness to some degree.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[62]
.The benzodiazepines diazepam (Valium) and oxazepam (Serepax) have been found to produce fewer withdrawal reactions than alprazolam (Xanax) or lorazepam (Temesta/Ativan).^ This page also contains the correct equivalence of each individual benzodiazepine when compared against diazepam which can be useful to know for someone who is undergoing benzodiazepine withdrawal.

^ Register Related Drugs By Class benzodiazepines clonazepam , alprazolam , lorazepam , Ativan , Klonopin , Valium By Condition Anxiety Lexapro , Cymbalta , alprazolam , lorazepam , atenolol , Ativan , More...
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Xanax withdrawal - Dermatitis - Generally irritated skin that can be caused by any of a number of irritating things such as parasites, fungus, bacteria, or foreign substances causing an allergic reaction.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

.Factors that determine the risk of psychological dependence or physical dependence and the severity of the benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms experienced during dose reduction of alprazolam include: dosage used, length of use, frequency of dosing, personality characteristics of the individual, previous use of cross-dependent/cross-tolerant drugs (alcohol or other sedative-hypnotic drugs), current use of cross-dependent/cross-tolerant drugs (alcohol or other sedative-hypnotic drugs), use of other short-acting, high-potency benzodiazepines[13][63] and method of discontinuation.^ Like other benzodiazepines, alprazolam can be dangerous when taken with alcohol.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alcohol should generally not be used during treatment with benzodiazepines.
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The risk of dependence is increased in people with a history of alcoholism, drug use, or marked personality disorders.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[64]

Contraindications

.Benzodiazepines require special precaution if used in children and in alcohol or drug-dependent individuals.^ The risk of dependency is increased in people with a history of alcoholism, drug use, or marked personality disorder.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Flurazepam, one of the most widely used sleeping pills in the United States, is a member of a class of psychoactive drugs called benzodiazepines.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The risk of addiction is increased in people with a history of alcoholism, drug use, or marked personality disorders.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[65] .Use of alprazolam should be avoided or carefully monitored by medical professionals in individuals with the following conditions: Myasthenia gravis, acute narrow-angle glaucoma, severe liver deficiencies (e.g., cirrhosis), severe sleep apnea, pre-existing respiratory depression, marked neuromuscular respiratory weakness including unstable myasthenia gravis, acute pulmonary insufficiency, chronic psychosis, hypersensitivity or allergy to alprazolam or other drugs in the benzodiazepine class, borderline personality disorder (may induce suicidality and dyscontrol).^ Alprazolam should not be administered to individuals prone to drug abuse.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Alprazolam should not be used by people with a known allergy to it or people who have glaucoma.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alprazolam belongs to a class of psychoactive drugs called benzodiazepines.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[66][67][68][69]
.Women who are pregnant or are planning on becoming pregnant should avoid starting alprazolam.^ This medicine should not be used if you are pregnant or plan to become pregnant.
  • Psych Central Reviews - Xanax (alprazolam) 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC forums.psychcentral.com [Source type: General]

^ Pregnant women should avoid using alprazolam.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Abrupt withdrawal of alprazolam should be avoided.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

[70] .It should be considered that the child born of a mother receiving benzodiazepines may be at risk of developing withdrawal reactions during the postnatal period.^ Because of the potential risk of the drug, women should consider alternatives to breast-feeding while taking it.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diazepam may cause an increased risk for fetal deformities when used during the first trimester of pregnancy.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Newborns from mothers who take triazolam during pregnancy may suffer withdrawal symptoms.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Also, neonatal flaccidity and respiratory problems have been reported in children born of mothers that have been receiving benzodiazepines.^ An evaluation of data for 10 children born to mothers who attempted suicide by taking large doses of alprazolam during pregnancy.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

[71]
.Benzodiazepines, including alprazolam, are known to be excreted in human milk.^ Benzodiazepines are known to be excreted in human milk.
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Because of its similarity to other benzodiazepines, it is assumed that alprazolam undergoes transplacental passage and that it is excreted in human milk.
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Breast feeding Benzodiazepines are excreted in breast milk in significant amounts and may result in lethargy and poor feeding in neonates.
  • Alprazolam (PIM 199) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[72] .Chronic administration of diazepam to nursing mothers has been reported to cause their infants to become lethargic and to lose weight.^ Chronic administration of diazepam to nursing mothers has been reported to cause their infants to become lethargic and to lose weight.
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In infants under thirty days of age, diazepam has caused prolonged central nervous system depression, possibly caused by the immature kidney function.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Diazepam is excreted in human milk and can cause serious side effects in infants.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[73][74] .As a general rule, nursing should not be undertaken by mothers who use alprazolam.^ Alprazolam should not be used by people with a known allergy to it or people who have glaucoma.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Who should not take Alprazolam Oral?
  • Alprazolam Oral : Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, Pictures, Warnings & Dosing - WebMD 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.webmd.com [Source type: General]
  • Alprazolam Oral Drug information on Uses, Side Effects, Interactions, and User Reviews on RxList 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC fdb.rxlist.com [Source type: General]

^ Therefore, it should not be used by women who are nursing.
  • Xanax - Alprazolam order, (alprazolam) · Buy Xanax - Alprazolam. Purchase cheap » Xanax - Alprazolam « special offer! 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.mypharmashop.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Elderly individuals should be cautious in the use of alprazolam due to the possibility of increased susceptibility to side-effects, especially loss of coordination and drowsiness.^ Elderly people are especially susceptible to dose-related side effects of the drug.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Elderly or debilitated people may be particularly susceptible to side effects of alprazolam.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alprazolam effects side xanax discount.
  • Prescription drugs online - xanax 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC drugs.atwiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[74]
.Like all central nervous system depressants, including alcohol, alprazolam in larger-than-normal doses can cause significant deterioration in alertness, combined with increased feelings of drowsiness, especially in those unaccustomed to the drug's effects.^ Flurazepam depresses the central nervous system.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Triazolam depresses the central nervous system.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alcohol intensifies the depressive effect of benzodiazepines.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[75] .People driving or conducting activities that require vigilance should exercise caution in using alprazolam or any other depressant.^ Alprazolam should not be used by people with a known allergy to it or people who have glaucoma.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Consequently, it should be used with caution by people with kidney or liver impairment.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Occupational Hazards: As with other CNS depressant drugs, patients should be cautioned against activities requiring mental alertness, judgment and physical coordination such as driving or operating machinery, particularly in the early phases of treatment and until proper adjustment to side effects has been established.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

Pregnancy and lactation

.Benzodiazepines cross the placenta and enter into the fetus and also penetrate into breast milk.^ Breast feeding Benzodiazepines are excreted in breast milk in significant amounts and may result in lethargy and poor feeding in neonates.
  • Alprazolam (PIM 199) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.The use of benzodiazepines during pregnancy or lactation should be weighed against the potential risks.^ Alcohol should generally not be used during treatment with benzodiazepines.
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ McElhatton PR. (1994) The effects of benzodiazepines use during pregnancy and lactation.
  • Alprazolam (PIM 199) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Flurazepam should not be used during pregnancy.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Alprazolam should not be used during pregnancy and lactation as it is believed to be associated with congenital abnormalities.^ Xanax (alprazolam) for Panic Disorder : Since Xanax is so short-acting, it should be a well thought decision to use for panic disorder.
  • Xanax User Reviews at Drugs.com 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: General]

.In general benzodiazepines should not be used during pregnancy.^ Flurazepam should not be used during pregnancy.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Similarly, the drug should be used with caution in people with a history of kidney disease, liver disease, chronic pulmonary insufficiency, or sleep apnea (stoppage of breathing during sleep).
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In general, the minimum effective dose of the drug should be used.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If a benzodiazepine is needed during pregnancy diazepam or chlordiazepoxide are recommended as these benzodiazepines have a better safety profile than alprazolam.^ Although lorazepam has not been formally studied in pregnant women, use of other benzodiazepines (chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, and meprobamate) during the first trimester of pregnancy has sometimes resulted in fetal malformations.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Studies have suggested an increased risk of congenital malformations associated with the use of the benzodiazepines, such as chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, and also meprobamate, during the first trimester of pregnancy.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Temazepam should not be used by people who know they are allergic to it or other benzodiazepines (such as diazepam, lorazepam, chlordiazepoxide, alprazolam, oxazepam, triazolam, or flurazepam).
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Possible adverse effects to the fetus include abortion, malformation, intrauterine growth retardation, functional deficits, carcinogenesis, and mutagenesis.^ Adverse effects associated with Flumazenil include hypertension, tachycardia, anxiety, nausea, vomiting and benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome.
  • Alprazolam (PIM 199) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Use in the last trimester may cause fetal drug dependence and withdrawal symptoms.^ It is also used to treat withdrawal symptoms of alcoholism.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is also sometimes used to relax muscles, treat seizures, or to reduce the symptoms of acute alcohol withdrawal.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Others risk factors for withdrawal syndrome include prolonged use of the drug, higher dosage and abrupt cessation of the drug.
  • Alprazolam (PIM 199) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

[76] .However, in long-term users of benzodiazepines or antidepressants abrupt discontinuation due to concerns of teratogenic effects of the medications is more likely to do harm than good.^ Long term side effects from xanax.
  • Prescription drugs online - xanax 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC drugs.atwiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Long term side effects of xanax.
  • Prescription drugs online - xanax 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC drugs.atwiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [Long-term effectiveness of an intervention to discontinue chronic benzodiazepine use] .
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

.Abrupt withdrawal has a high risk of causing extreme withdrawal symptoms including suicidal ideation and a severe rebound effect of the underlying mental health disorder.^ I only take xanax now when im extremly anxious and on the verge of losing my mind as I hate the side effects- so not having a more long term even a short term treatment with less severe side effects makes it hard for me to function properly in society with my extreme symptoms of panic disorder.
  • Psych Central Reviews - Xanax (alprazolam) 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC forums.psychcentral.com [Source type: General]

^ Hallucination Ineffective Use of SSRI in Treating Mental Health Disorders in Men For many men, seeking medical attention for a mental health disorder is a difficult step to take.

^ Others risk factors for withdrawal syndrome include prolonged use of the drug, higher dosage and abrupt cessation of the drug.
  • Alprazolam (PIM 199) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.Spontaneous abortions may also result from abrupt withdrawal of psychotropic medications including benzodiazepines.^ Alterations in CRF 2A receptor mRNA expression and receptor binding as a result of chronic alprazolam treatment and after spontaneous alprazolam withdrawal.
  • Spontaneous Withdrawal from the Triazolobenzodiazepine Alprazolam Increases Cortical Corticotropin-Releasing Factor mRNA Expression -- Skelton et al. 24 (42): 9303 -- Journal of Neuroscience 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Abrupt withdrawal of diazepam when used with anticonvulsants may also cause a temporary increase in the frequency and/or severity of seizures.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Xanax withdrawal - Diarrhea - Unusually frequent and excessive, runny bowel movements that may result in severe dehydration and shock .
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

.In general physicians are not aware of the severe consequences of abrupt withdrawal of psychotropic medications such as benzodiazepines or antidepressants.^ Xanax withdrawal - Dermatitis - Generally irritated skin that can be caused by any of a number of irritating things such as parasites, fungus, bacteria, or foreign substances causing an allergic reaction.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Withdrawal symptoms have been observed after abrupt discontinuation of benzodiazepines.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Abrupt withdrawal of diazepam when used with anticonvulsants may also cause a temporary increase in the frequency and/or severity of seizures.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[77]

Pharmacology

.Alprazolam is classed as a high-potency benzodiazepine and is a triazolobenzodiazepine,[78][79] that is, a benzodiazepine with a triazole ring attached to its structure.^ Xanax Generic Name: Alprazolam al-PRAY-zoe-lam Drug Class: Benzodiazepines .
  • Psych Central Reviews - Xanax (alprazolam) 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC forums.psychcentral.com [Source type: General]

^ Alprazolam belongs to a class of psychoactive drugs called benzodiazepines.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Benzodiazepines produce a variety of therapeutic and adverse effects by binding to the benzodiazepine site on the GABAA receptor and modulating the function of the GABA receptor, the most prolific inhibitory receptor within the brain.^ Adverse effects of benzodiazepines in psychiatric outpatients.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The administration of flumazenil is more effective in reversing the effects of benzodiazepines when they are the only drugs producing CNS toxicity.
  • Alprazolam (PIM 199) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Sedation, somnolence, diplopia, dysarthria, ataxia and intellectual impairment are the most common adverse effects of benzodiazepines.
  • Alprazolam (PIM 199) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.The GABA chemical and receptor system produces inhibitory or calming effects of alprazolam on the nervous system.^ Alprazolam works on the neuro-transmitter GABA to induce calming effects.
  • Xanax User Reviews at Drugs.com 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: General]

^ The nervous system responds to arousal by releasing chemicals, such as nitric oxide, into the thickets.

^ Neurological 9.4.3.1 Central nervous system (CNS) CNS depression is less marked than that produced by other CNS depressant agents (Meredith & Vale, 1985).
  • Alprazolam (PIM 199) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

.The GABAA receptor is made up from 5 subunits out of a possible 19, and GABAA receptors made up of different combinations of subunits have different properties, different locations within the brain, and, what is significant, different activities with regard to benzodiazepines.^ Antidote treatment 10.5.1 Adults Flumazenil, a specific benzodiazepine antagonist at central GABA-ergic receptors is available.
  • Alprazolam (PIM 199) 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.inchem.org [Source type: Academic]

^ For information regarding possible Cialis talk paper, Cialis label, Cialia approval status is up in the air, then immediately after a stroke, and breast cancer.
  • Prescription drugs online - xanax 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC drugs.atwiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39][80] .Benzodiazepines and in particular alprazolam causes a marked suppression of the hypothalamicpituitary-adrenal axis.^ All benzodiazepines cause dose-related suppression of the central nervous system, varying from slight impairment to deep sedation.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Spontaneous withdrawal from alprazolam was associated with marked HPA axis activation, as well as a substantial decrease in food intake and body weight.
  • Spontaneous Withdrawal from the Triazolobenzodiazepine Alprazolam Increases Cortical Corticotropin-Releasing Factor mRNA Expression -- Skelton et al. 24 (42): 9303 -- Journal of Neuroscience 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The elevated HPA axis activity exhibited during alprazolam withdrawal may represent not only the endocrine stress response to drug withdrawal but also a rebound increase in HPA axis activity after removal of the suppressing influence of chronic benzodiazepine administration.
  • Spontaneous Withdrawal from the Triazolobenzodiazepine Alprazolam Increases Cortical Corticotropin-Releasing Factor mRNA Expression -- Skelton et al. 24 (42): 9303 -- Journal of Neuroscience 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

.The therapeutic properties of alprazolam is similar to other benzodiazepines and include anxiolytic, anticonvulsant, muscle relaxant, hypnotic[81] and amnesics.^ Hypersensitivity to alprazolam or other benzodiazepines.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The benzodiazepines, including alprazolam, produce additive CNS depressant effects when co-administered with other psychotropic medications, anticonvulsants, antihistaminics, ethanol and other drugs which themselves produce CNS depression.
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Death has been reported in association with overdoses of alprazolam by itself, as it has with other benzodiazepines.
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

[82]

Pharmacokinetics

.Alprazolam is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract with a bioavailability of 80–100%.^ Absorption Following oral administration, alprazolam is readily absorbed.
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

.The peak plasma concentration is achieved in 1–2 hours.^ Peak concentrations in the plasma occur in 1 to 2 hours following administration.
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Orally administered it is readily absorbed in man with peak plasma concentrations occurring 1 to 2 hours following administration.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Appearance of double peaks in plasma concentration-time profile after oral administration depends on gastric emptying profile and weight function.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

.Most of the drug is bound to plasma protein, mainly serum albumin.^ Most of the drug is bound to plasma protein, mainly albumin.
  • Alprazolam - Drug information from Medic8.com 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.medic8.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "AUC" is the area under the plasma drug concentration-time curve and is considered to be the most reliable measure of bioavailability.
  • CONTROLLED RELEASE FORMULATIONS OF ALPRAZOLAM - Patent application 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: Reference]

^ Distribution In vitro, alprazolam is bound (80 percent) to human serum protein.
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

.Alprazolam is hydroxylated in the liver to α-hydroxyalprazolam, which is also pharmacologically active but much less so than the parent compound.^ Such low concentrations and the lesser potencies of 4-hydroxyalprazolam and α-hydroxyalprazolam suggest that they are unlikely to contribute much to the pharmacological effects of alprazolam.
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The plasma concentrations of 4-hydroxyalprazolam and α-hydroxyalprazolam relative to unchanged alprazolam concentration were always less than 4%.
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However, clinical studies show that oxazepam is less likely to cause addiction than diazepam, lorazepam, alprazolam, or triazolam.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.This and other metabolites are later excreted in urine as glucuronides.^ Alprazolam and its metabolites are excreted primarily in the urine.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

.Some of the drug is also excreted in unchanged form.^ What is going, to be excreted in unchanged form?
  • Xplor International - News 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC www.xplor.com [Source type: General]

^ If it is excreted in unchanged form.
  • Catalogues Pages 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.aggv.bc.ca [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Read Food Is Better Than Drugs by Patrick Holford for some sensible advice, and especially, get involved in some form of psychotherapy.
  • Im scared to take Alprazolam .25mg? - Yahoo! Answers 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

.The elderly clear alprazolam more slowly than younger adults.^ In adults, symptoms of a are temporary, lasting more than they relieve.

^ But some adults needs to be more than six months to one year apart.

^ A mean half-life of alprazolam of 16.3 hours has been observed in healthy elderly subjects (range: 9.0–26.9 hours, n=16) compared to 11.0 hours (range: 6.3–15.8 hours, n=16) in healthy adult subjects.
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

[83]

Food and drug interactions

.Alprazolam is primarily metabolised via CYP3A4.^ Metabolism/Elimination Alprazolam is extensively metabolized in humans, primarily by cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), to two major metabolites in the plasma: 4-hydroxyalprazolam and α-hydroxyalprazolam.
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Drug-Drug Interactions Alprazolam is primarily eliminated by metabolism via cytochrome P450 3A (CYP3A).
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

[84] .Combining CYP3A4 inhibitors with alprazolam can lead to profound sedating effects.^ Drugs that inhibit this metabolic pathway may have a profound effect on the clearance of alprazolam.
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Drugs which inhibit this metabolic pathway may have a profound effect on the clearance of alprazolam (see CONTRAINDICATIONS and WARNINGS for additional drugs of this type).
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

[85] .Cimetidine, erythromycin, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, itraconazole, ketoconazole, nefazodone, propoxyphene, and ritonavir all interact with alprazolam leading to a delayed clearance of alprazolam, which may result in excessive accumulation of alprazolam.^ Drug products that have been studied in vivo, along with their effect on increasing alprazolam AUC, are as follows: ketoconazole, 3.98 fold; itraconazole, 2.70 fold; nefazodone, 1.98 fold; fluvoxamine, 1.96 fold; and erythromycin, 1.61 fold (see CONTRAINDICATIONS , WARNINGS , and PRECAUTIONS–Drug Interactions ).
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The effects of lorazepam may be prolonged when taken with cimetidine, oral contraceptives, disulfiram, fluoxetine, isoniazid, ketoconazole, metoprolol, probenecid, propoxyphene, propranolol, rifampin, or valproic acid.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Consequently some messages and transmissions may not be processed in a timely fashion or at all, and some features or functions may be restricted or delayed or become completely inoperable.
  • Eror | SPIKE 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

.This may result in excessive sedation and other adverse effects associated with excessive intake of alprazolam.^ The benzodiazepines, including alprazolam, produce additive CNS depressant effects when co-administered with other psychotropic medications, anticonvulsants, antihistaminics, ethanol and other drugs which themselves produce CNS depression.
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Death has been reported in association with overdoses of alprazolam by itself, as it has with other benzodiazepines.
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ In many of the spontaneous case reports of adverse behavioral effects, patients were receiving other CNS drugs concomitantly and/or were described as having underlying psychiatric conditions.
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

[83][86]
.Imipramine and desipramine have been reported to be increased an average of 31% and 20%, respectively, by the concomitant administration of alprazolam tablets in doses up to 4 mg/day.^ Use with Imipramine and Desipramine The steady state plasma concentrations of imipramine and desipramine have been reported to be increased an average of 31% and 20%, respectively, by the concomitant administration of Xanax Tablets in doses up to 4 mg/day.
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The mg dose of Viagra may be increased levels of glucose more efficiently.
  • Prescription drugs online - xanax 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC drugs.atwiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ If you build up the dose slowly, day by day, these side effects, etc.

[87] .Combined oral contraceptive pills reduce the clearance of alprazolam, which may lead to increased plasma levels of alprazolam and accumulation.^ Oxazepam may reduce the effectiveness of oral contraceptives and increase the risk of phenytoin toxicity.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Coadministration of oral contraceptives increased the maximum plasma concentration of alprazolam by 18%, decreased clearance by 22%, and increased half-life by 29%.
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Oral contraceptives, cimetidine, disulfiram, probenecid, isoniazid, and macrolide antibiotics (azithromycin, clarithromycin, or erythromycin) may increase blood levels of temazepam, potentially increasing the risk of its side effects.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[88]
Alcohol is one of the most important and common interactions. .Alcohol and benzodiazepines such as alprazolam taken in combination have a synergistic effect on one another, which can cause severe sedation, behavioral changes, and intoxication.^ Like other benzodiazepines, alprazolam can be dangerous when taken with alcohol.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alcohol intensifies the depressive effect of benzodiazepines.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Triazolam may cause behavioral changes.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The more alcohol and alprazolam taken the worse the interaction.^ Like other benzodiazepines, alprazolam can be dangerous when taken with alcohol.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[32] .Combination of alprazolam with the herb kava can result in the development of a semi-comatose state.^ Development of a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of alprazolam and sertraline in combined dosage forms.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Development of HPTLC-UV absorption densitometry method for the analysis of alprazolam and sertraline in combination and its application in the evaluation of marketed preparations.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

[89] .Hypericum conversely can lower the plasma levels of alprazolam and reduce its therapeutic effect.^ Alprazolam increases levels of imipramine and desipramine in the body, potentially increasing the risk of side effects.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Alprazolam 500 mcg (0.5 mg), administered 3 times a day for 14 days, did not affect prothrombin times or plasma warfarin levels in male volunteers administered sodium warfarin orally.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Further, alprazolam did not affect the prothrombin or plasma warfarin levels in male volunteers administered sodium warfarin orally.
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

[90][91][92]

Recreational use

Sandoz generic 2 mg alprazolam tablets
.Alprazolam has a relatively high potential for recreational use[93] and is the most commonly misused benzodiazepine.^ Benzodiazepines are the most commonly used antianxiety drugs because they are fairly safe, they rapidly reduce the symptoms of anxiety, and they do not have to be taken on an ongoing basis in order to be effective.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Flurazepam, one of the most widely used sleeping pills in the United States, is a member of a class of psychoactive drugs called benzodiazepines.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Benzodiazepines are the most commonly used antianxiety drugs because they are fairly safe; they rapidly reduce the symptoms of anxiety, and they don't have to be taken on an ongoing basis in order to be effective.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[5] .Injection of alprazolam, though extremely rare, is considered especially dangerous by medical professionals[94] because, when crushed in water it will not fully dissolve (40 µg/ml of H2O at pH 7, and 12 mg/mL at pH 1.2[95]), potentially causing severe damage to arteries if not filtered properly.^ When used at doses greater than 4 mg/day, which may or may not be required for your treatment, Xanax has the potential to cause severe emotional and physical dependence in some patients and these patients may find it exceedingly difficult to terminate treatment.
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ However I had severe memory loss, and extreme drowiness which cause me to sometimes not be able to get up if I had been sitting down, lying down etc.
  • Psych Central Reviews - Xanax (alprazolam) 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC forums.psychcentral.com [Source type: General]

^ Until you experience how this medication affects you, do not drive a car or operate potentially dangerous machinery, etc.
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

.While it is somewhat soluble in alcohol, the combination of the two, particularly when injected, has the potential to cause a serious, and potentially fatal, overdose.^ In addition, fatalities have been reported in patients who have overdosed with a combination of a single benzodiazepine, including alprazolam, and alcohol; alcohol levels seen in some of these patients have been lower than those usually associated with alcohol-induced fatality.
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

Alprazolam may also be insufflated.[96] Snorting alprazolam is highly inefficient, however, as it is insoluble in water, and thus does not readily cross the nasal membranes, resulting in reduced bioavailability. .However, long-term use of benzodiazepines does not usually result in notable dose escalation, and most prescribed alprazolam users do not use their medication recreationally.^ Xanax long term use.
  • Prescription drugs online - xanax 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC drugs.atwiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Malware -- short for MALicious softWARE -- is a term used to broadly classify a form of software which is installed in a computer system with malicious intentions, usually without the owner's knowledge or permission.
  • Eror | SPIKE 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

^ However, we encourage you to check this Privacy Policy and Terms of Use Agreement often for updates.
  • Eror | SPIKE 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

[97]
.Alprazolam is sometimes used with other recreational drugs to relieve the panic or distress of dysphoric reactions to psychedelics such as LSD, and also to promote sleep in the "come-down" period following use of recreational drugs with stimulant or insomniac properties (such as LSD, cocaine, amphetamine and other related amphetamines, DXM, and MDMA).^ Xanax is in a group of drugs called benzodiazepines and is used to treat patients with anxiety, anxiety caused by depression, or panic disorder.
  • Psych Central Reviews - Xanax (alprazolam) 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC forums.psychcentral.com [Source type: General]

^ Data from in vitro studies of benzodiazepines other than alprazolam suggest a possible drug interaction for the following: ergotamine, cyclosporine, amiodarone, nicardipine, and nifedipine.
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Opting-out of Certain Uses of your Personal Information and Other Information (Other than Wireless Marketing Services and Associated Promotional Opportunities).
  • Eror | SPIKE 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC www.spike.com [Source type: General]

.It is also often used in conjunction with marijuana or heroin to potentiate the relaxing effect.^ Here's what Xanax is used for, potential side effects, and how it is supposedly linked to Michael Jackson's death.

[98][99][100][101][102]
.A large-scale nationwide USA government study conducted by SAMHSA found that, in the USA, benzodiazepines are, recreationally, the most frequently-used pharmaceutical, with 35% of drug-related visits to the Emergency Department involving benzodiazepines.^ Xanax is in a group of drugs called benzodiazepines and is used to treat patients with anxiety, anxiety caused by depression, or panic disorder.
  • Psych Central Reviews - Xanax (alprazolam) 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC forums.psychcentral.com [Source type: General]

^ Benzodiazepines are the most commonly used antianxiety drugs because they are fairly safe, they rapidly reduce the symptoms of anxiety, and they do not have to be taken on an ongoing basis in order to be effective.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Flurazepam, one of the most widely used sleeping pills in the United States, is a member of a class of psychoactive drugs called benzodiazepines.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Benzodiazepines are more commonly used recreationally than opioid pharmaceuticals due to their widespread availability, which accounted for 32% of visits to the emergency department.^ Many different benzodiazepines are available for prescription use.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Triazolam, especially at higher doses, appears to cause more memory problems than other benzodiazepines.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Less commonly, more than million annually and give you support.

.No other pharmaceutical is more commonly used recreationally than benzodiazepines; however, benzodiazepines remain in Schedule IV of the Controlled Substances Act, whereas opioids are much more strictly scheduled due to their higher abuse potential.^ Flurazepam is one of the longer-acting benzodiazepines, so it may be more likely to cause a "hangover" effect.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Absolutely, if for no other reason than it would mean more women would see what they're missing.
  • Coincidental Meditation : Lucy in the Sky Without a Man 16 September 2009 14:014 UTC blogs.technet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Opioid receptors are involved in the sedative and antinociceptive effects of hesperidin as well as in its potentiation with benzodiazepines.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

.Men use benzodiazepines recreationally as commonly as women.^ Although flurazepam has not been formally studied in pregnant women, other benzodiazepines have caused birth defects when used during the first trimester of pregnancy.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The report found that alprazolam is the most common benzodiazepine for recreational use followed by clonazepam, lorazepam, and diazepam.^ Triazolam should not be used by people who know they are allergic to it or other benzodiazepines (such as diazepam, lorazepam, chlordiazepoxide, alprazolam, oxazepam, temazepam, or flurazepam).
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Temazepam should not be used by people who know they are allergic to it or other benzodiazepines (such as diazepam, lorazepam, chlordiazepoxide, alprazolam, oxazepam, triazolam, or flurazepam).
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Register Related Drugs By Class benzodiazepines clonazepam , alprazolam , lorazepam , Ativan , Klonopin , Valium By Condition Anxiety Lexapro , Cymbalta , alprazolam , lorazepam , atenolol , Ativan , More...
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

[9]

Patients at a high risk for misuse and addiction

.At a particularly high risk for misuse and dependence are patients with a history of alcoholism (including a family history of alcoholism) or drug abuse and/or dependence[103][104][105][106][107] and patients with borderline personality disorder are at increased risk of misusing alprazolam.^ The risk of dependence is increased in people with a history of alcoholism, drug use, or marked personality disorders.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The risk of dependency is increased in people with a history of alcoholism, drug use, or marked personality disorder.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The risk of addiction is increased in people with a history of alcoholism, drug use, or marked personality disorders.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[108]

Overdose

.Overdoses of alprazolam can be mild to severe depending on how much of the drug is taken and if any other depressants have been taken.^ Xanax (alprazolam) for Depression : This works better than any other depression medicine I've ever taken.
  • Xanax User Reviews at Drugs.com 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: General]

^ Like other benzodiazepines, alprazolam can be dangerous when taken with alcohol.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ How are drugs are administered intravenously over time on any of several products with nonprescription medicines.

.Alprazolam is significantly more toxic in overdose having higher rates of fatalities compared to other benzodiazepines.^ Death has been reported in association with overdoses of alprazolam by itself, as it has with other benzodiazepines.
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Hypersensitivity to alprazolam or other benzodiazepines.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Fatalities with benzodiazepines rarely occur except when other drugs, alcohol or aggravating factors are involved.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

.A study in New Zealand found that alprazolam is almost 8 times more likely to result in death in overdose than other sedative hypnotics as a group, with higher rates of intensive-care unit admissions and mechanical ventilation.^ Death has been reported in association with overdoses of alprazolam by itself, as it has with other benzodiazepines.
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Absolutely, if for no other reason than it would mean more women would see what they're missing.
  • Coincidental Meditation : Lucy in the Sky Without a Man 16 September 2009 14:014 UTC blogs.technet.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ So, for some, like me, Xanax worked better than other medicines.
  • Xanax User Reviews at Drugs.com 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: General]

.Combined overdose with tricyclic antidepressants, alcohol, or opiates, or overdoses of alprazolam in the elderly, significantly increases the likelihood for severe toxicity and possible fatality.^ After withdrawal of alprazolam from the diet, CRF mRNA levels were significantly increased at the 24 hr (130.8 ± 7.5 nCi/gm; p < 0.05 vs alprazolam) time point only.
  • Spontaneous Withdrawal from the Triazolobenzodiazepine Alprazolam Increases Cortical Corticotropin-Releasing Factor mRNA Expression -- Skelton et al. 24 (42): 9303 -- Journal of Neuroscience 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ CRF 2A receptor mRNA in the VMH is significantly increased at 48 hr after spontaneous alprazolam withdrawal.
  • Spontaneous Withdrawal from the Triazolobenzodiazepine Alprazolam Increases Cortical Corticotropin-Releasing Factor mRNA Expression -- Skelton et al. 24 (42): 9303 -- Journal of Neuroscience 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In addition, fatalities have been reported in patients who have overdosed with a combination of a single benzodiazepine, including alprazolam, and alcohol; alcohol levels seen in some of these patients have been lower than those usually associated with alcohol-induced fatality.
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

[109] Alprazolam (Xanax) overdose reflect the central nervous system depression of the brain and may include one or more of the following symptoms:[35]
.About 50% of the cases of death involving alprazolam were attributed to combined drug toxicity of alprazolam and another drug, most often cocaine and methadone.^ Fixed combination products often have had Hepatitis A, it is very popular drug.
  • Prescription drugs online - xanax 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC drugs.atwiki.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Xanax (alprazolam) for Anxiety : During the recession of the early 90's I took this drug for a period of about 2 months to combat anxiety.
  • Xanax User Reviews at Drugs.com 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: General]

^ Xanax (alprazolam) for Anxiety : This drug works wonders on most people including myself.
  • Xanax User Reviews at Drugs.com 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: General]

Only 1% of such deaths were attributed to alprazolam alone.[110][111]

Availability

.Alprazolam IR is available in 0.25 mg, 0.5 mg, 1 mg and 2 mg strength tablets and orally disintegrating tablets.^ Alprazolam is available in tablets for oral administration.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Xanax TS: 2 mg: Each white, triscored tablet (3 scores), with the number "2" on one side and Xanax on the other side contains: Alprazolam 2 mg.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Alprazolam 500 mcg (0.5 mg), administered 3 times a day for 14 days, did not affect prothrombin times or plasma warfarin levels in male volunteers administered sodium warfarin orally.
  • Xanax side effects. Xanax side effects, Xanax side effect withdrawal solutions. 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.prozactruth.com [Source type: Academic]

[112] .Alprazolam Extended Release is available in 0.5 mg, 1 mg and 2 mg 3 mg strength oral.^ Alprazolam is available in tablets for oral administration.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The alprazolam concentration of the diet was adjusted daily, based on average rat weight and intake, to maintain the oral dose of 90 mg · kg -1 · d -1 .
  • Spontaneous Withdrawal from the Triazolobenzodiazepine Alprazolam Increases Cortical Corticotropin-Releasing Factor mRNA Expression -- Skelton et al. 24 (42): 9303 -- Journal of Neuroscience 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.jneurosci.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Each Xanax Tablet, for oral administration, contains 0.25, 0.5, 1 or 2 mg of alprazolam.
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

Alprazolam is available in English-speaking countries under the following brand names[113]:
  • Alganax
  • Alzolam
  • Alprax
  • Alprox
  • Alzam
  • Anxirid
  • Apo-Alpraz
  • Azor
  • Calmax
  • Gerax
  • Helex
  • Kalma
  • Nervin
  • Niravam
  • Novo-Alprazol
  • Nu-Alpraz
  • Tafil
  • Texidep
  • Trika
  • Xanax
  • Xanor
  • Zopax

Legal status

.In the United States, alprazolam is a prescription drug and is assigned to Schedule IV of the Controlled Substances Act by the Drug Enforcement Administration.^ Alprazolam is a controlled substance under the Controlled Substance Act by the Drug Enforcement Administration and Xanax Tablets have been assigned to Schedule IV. .
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Flurazepam, one of the most widely used sleeping pills in the United States, is a member of a class of psychoactive drugs called benzodiazepines.
  • Benzodiazepines - The Body 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.thebody.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Physical stress from general public health responsibilities of the state agency or independent authority has consistently reviewed the care and life-saving prescription drugs.

[114] .Under the UK drug misuse classification system benzodiazepines are class C drugs.^ Alprazolam is in a class of drugs called benzodiazepines.
  • PharmaCityUSA.com : Mailorder Cheapest Xanax Online Pharmacies Xanax Online Prescriptions, Offshore Pharmacies With Xanax: Discount Pharmacy USA 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC www.pharmacityusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Clonazepam Clonazepam is in a class of drugs called benzodiazepines.

^ What Is It Alprazolam is in a class of drugs called benzodiazepines.
  • PharmaCityUSA.com : Mailorder Cheapest Xanax Online Pharmacies Xanax Online Prescriptions, Offshore Pharmacies With Xanax: Discount Pharmacy USA 13 January 2010 10:22 UTC www.pharmacityusa.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[115] .Internationally, alprazolam is included under the United Nations Convention on Psychotropic Substances as Schedule IV.[116] In Ireland, alprazolam is a Schedule 4 medicine.^ Alprazolam is a controlled substance under the Controlled Substance Act by the Drug Enforcement Administration and Xanax Tablets have been assigned to Schedule IV. .
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The benzodiazepines, including alprazolam, produce additive CNS depressant effects when co-administered with other psychotropic medications, anticonvulsants, antihistaminics, ethanol and other drugs which themselves produce CNS depression.
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

[117] .In Sweden, alprazolam is a prescription drug in List IV (Schedule 4) under the Narcotics Drugs Act (1968).^ Alprazolam is a controlled substance under the Controlled Substance Act by the Drug Enforcement Administration and Xanax Tablets have been assigned to Schedule IV. .
  • Xanax Official FDA information, side effects and uses. 20 September 2009 12:45 UTC www.drugs.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Prescription Drugs Drug Recalls, Narcotics and Schedules: What Does All that Info Mean Anyways?

[118] In the Netherlands, alprazolam is a List 2 substance of the Opium Law and is available for prescription.

See also

References

  1. ^ First DataBank (July 2008). "Xanax (Alprazolam) clinical pharmacology - prescription drugs and medications at RxList". RxList. http://www.rxlist.com/xanax-drug.htm#cp. 
  2. ^ First DataBank (July 2008). "Xanax XR (Alprazolam) clinical pharmacology - prescription drugs and medications at RxList". RxList. http://www.rxlist.com/xanax-xr-drug.htm#cp. 
  3. ^ Mandrioli R, Mercolini L, Raggi MA (October 2008). "Benzodiazepine metabolism: an analytical perspective". Curr. Drug Metab. 9 (8): 827–44. doi:10.2174/138920008786049258. PMID 18855614. http://www.benthamdirect.org/pages/content.php?CDM/2008/00000009/00000008/0009F.SGM. 
  4. ^ a b Verster JC, Volkerts ER. (2004). "Clinical pharmacology, clinical efficacy, and behavioral toxicity of alprazolam: a review of the literature". CNS Drug Rev. 10 (1): 45-76. PMID 14978513. 
  5. ^ a b Galanter, Marc (1 July 2008). The American Psychiatric Publishing Textbook of Sustance Abuse Treatment (American Psychiatric Press Textbook of Substance Abuse Treatment) (American Psychiatric ... Press Textbook of Substance Abuse Treatment) (4 ed.). American Psychiatric Publishing, Inc.. p. 222. ISBN 978-1-58562-276-4. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=6wdJgejlQzYC. 
  6. ^ McIntosh A, Cohen A, Turnbull N et al. (2004). "Clinical guidelines and evidence review for panic disorder and generalised anxiety disorder" (PDF). National Collaborating Centre for Primary Care. http://www.nice.org.uk/nicemedia/pdf/cg022fullguideline.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-16. 
  7. ^ Work Group on Panic Disorder (January 2009). "APA Practice Guideline for the Treatment of Patients With Panic Disorder, Second Edition" (PDF). http://www.psychiatryonline.com/pracGuide/loadGuidelinePdf.aspx?file=PanicDisorder_2e_PracticeGuideline. Retrieved 07/12/09. 
  8. ^ FDA Package Insert Revised December 2006.
  9. ^ a b United States Government; U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (2006). "Drug Abuse Warning Network, 2006: National Estimates of Drug-Related Emergency Department Visits". Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. http://dawninfo.samhsa.gov/files/ed2006/DAWN2k6ED.htm. Retrieved 9 February 2009. 
  10. ^ Cynthia Cotts (November 19, 2007). "Xanax junkies". Boston, USA: The Phoenix. http://thephoenix.com/article_ektid51411.aspx. 
  11. ^ Walker, Sydney (3 December 1996). A dose of sanity: mind, medicine, and misdiagnosis. New York: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 64-65. ISBN 978-0-471-19262-6. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=1H_jx9XO4dcC&pg=PA65. 
  12. ^ Healy, David (2000). The Psychopharmacologists, Vol. III: Interviews. London: Arnold. pp. 479–504. ISBN 0-340-761105. 
  13. ^ a b Wolf B, Griffiths RR (December 1991). "Physical dependence on benzodiazepines: differences within the class". Drug Alcohol Depend 29 (2): 153–6. doi:10.1016/0376-8716(91)90044-Y. PMID 1686752. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/0376-8716(91)90044-Y. 
  14. ^ Walker, Sydney (3 December 1997). A dose of sanity: mind, medicine, and misdiagnosis. New York: Wiley Sons. pp. 65-74. ISBN 978-0-471-19262-6. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=1H_jx9XO4dcC. 
  15. ^ J. McNally, Richard (1994). Panic disorder: a critical analysis. New York: Guilford Press. pp. 93-99. ISBN 978-0-89862-263-8. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=SlUl5oTQIHoC. 
  16. ^ FDA (23rd). "FDA APPROVED LABELING FOR XANAX XR" (pdf). Federal Drug Administration. pp. 4. http://www.fda.gov/cder/foi/label/2003/21434_xanax_lbl.pdf. Retrieved 2 August 2007. "The longer-term efficacy of XANAX XR has not been systematically evaluated. Thus, the physician that elects to use this drug for periods longer than 8 weeks should periodically reassess the usefulness of the drug for the individual patient." 
  17. ^ a b First DataBank (July 2008). "Xanax (Alprazolam) clinical pharmacology - prescription drugs and medications at RxList". RxList. http://www.rxlist.com/xanax-drug.htm. 
  18. ^ Bandelow, B.; Zohar, J.; Hollander, E.; Kasper, S.; Möller, HJ. (Oct 2002). "World Federation of Societies of Biological Psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for the pharmacological treatment of anxiety, obsessive-compulsive and posttraumatic stress disorders.". World J Biol Psychiatry 3 (4): 171-99. PMID 12516310. 
  19. ^ NetDoctor (October 1, 2006). "Xanax". netdoctor.co.uk. http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/medicines/100002807.html. Retrieved 2 August 2007. 
  20. ^ The British National Formulary (2007). "Alprazolam". BNF. http://www.bnf.org/bnf/bnf/53/3173.htm. Retrieved 2 August 2007. 
  21. ^ Warner MD; Peabody CA, Whiteford HA, Hollister LE (April 1988). "Alprazolam as an antidepressant". J Clin Psychiatry 49 (4): 148–50. PMID 3281931. 
  22. ^ Sethy, Vh; Hodges, Dh, Jr (May 1982). "Role of beta-adrenergic receptors in the antidepressant activity of alprazolam.". Research communications in chemical pathology and pharmacology 36 (2): 329–32. PMID 6285432. 
  23. ^ Lader, Mh (9 December 1985). "Treatment of affective disorders." (Free full text). British journal of clinical pharmacology 19 (Suppl 1): 29S–30S. PMID 2859875. 
  24. ^ Johnson, Da (9 December 1985). "The use of benzodiazepines in depression." (Free full text). British journal of clinical pharmacology 19 (Suppl 1): 31S–35S. PMID 2859876. 
  25. ^ Kostowski W, Malatyńska E, Płaźnik A, Dyr W, Danysz W (1986). "Comparative studies on antidepressant action of alprazolam in different animal models". Pol J Pharmacol Pharm 38 (5-6): 471–81. PMID 2883637. 
  26. ^ Srisurapanont, M; Boonyanaruthee, V (March 1997). "Alprazolam and standard antidepressants in the treatment of depression: a meta-analysis of the antidepressant effect.". Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand = Chotmaihet thangphaet 80 (3): 183–8. PMID 9175386. 
  27. ^ Brasfield, Kh (September 1991). "Practical psychopharmacologic considerations in depression.". The Nursing clinics of North America 26 (3): 651–63. PMID 1891399. 
  28. ^ Hubain, Pp; Castro, P; Mesters, P; De, Maertelaer, V; Mendlewicz, J (January 1990). "Alprazolam and amitriptyline in the treatment of major depressive disorder: a double-blind clinical and sleep EEG study.". Journal of affective disorders 18 (1): 67–73. doi:10.1016/0165-0327(90)90118-R. PMID 2136871. 
  29. ^ Lydiard, Rb; Laraia, Mt; Ballenger, Jc; Howell, Ef (May 1987). "Emergence of depressive symptoms in patients receiving alprazolam for panic disorder.". The American journal of psychiatry 144 (5): 664–5. PMID 3578580. 
  30. ^ a b Rawson NS, Rawson MJ (1999). "Acute adverse event signalling scheme using the Saskatchewan Administrative health care utilization datafiles: results for two benzodiazepines". Can J Clin Pharmacol 6 (3): 159–66. PMID 10495368. 
  31. ^ a b "Alprazolam – Complete medical information regarding this treatment of anxiety disorders on MedicineNet.com". medicinenet.com. http://www.medicinenet.com/alprazolam/article.htm. Retrieved 2 August 2007. 
  32. ^ a b c Michel L, Lang JP (2003). "[Benzodiazepines and forensic aspects"] (in French). Encephale 29 (6): 479–85. PMID 15029082. http://www.masson.fr/masson/MDOI-ENC-12-2003-29-6-0013-7006-101019-ART2. 
  33. ^ Kravitz HM, Fawcett J, Newman AJ (October 1993). "Alprazolam and depression: a review of risks and benefits". J Clin Psychiatry 54 (Suppl): 78–84; discussion 85. PMID 8262892. 
  34. ^ Hori A (February 1998). "Pharmacotherapy for personality disorders". Psychiatry Clin. Neurosci. 52 (1): 13–9. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1819.1998.tb00967.x. PMID 9682928. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/resolve/openurl?genre=article&sid=nlm:pubmed&issn=1323-1316&date=1998&volume=52&issue=1&spage=13. 
  35. ^ a b "alprazolam Side Effects, Interactions and Information - Drugs.com". drugs.com. http://www.drugs.com/alprazolam.html. Retrieved 2 August 2007. 
  36. ^ "Complete Alprazolam information from Drugs.com". drugs.com. http://alprazolam.drugs.com/. Retrieved 2 August 2007. 
  37. ^ Cassano GB, Toni C, Petracca A, et al. (March 1994). "Adverse effects associated with the short-term treatment of panic disorder with imipramine, alprazolam or placebo". Eur Neuropsychopharmacol 4 (1): 47–53. doi:10.1016/0924-977X(94)90314-X. PMID 8204996. 
  38. ^ Münte TF, Gehde E, Johannes S, Seewald M, Heinze HJ (1996). "Effects of alprazolam and bromazepam on visual search and verbal recognition memory in humans: a study with event-related brain potentials". Neuropsychobiology 34 (1): 49–56. doi:10.1159/000119291. PMID 8884760. 
  39. ^ a b Barbee, Jg (October 1993). "Memory, benzodiazepines, and anxiety: integration of theoretical and clinical perspectives.". The Journal of clinical psychiatry 54 (Suppl): 86–97; discussion 98–101. PMID 8262893. 
  40. ^ "ALPRAZOLAM - ORAL (Xanax) side effects, medical uses, and drug interactions.". medicinenet.com. http://www.medicinenet.com/alprazolam-oral/article.htm. Retrieved 2 August 2007. 
  41. ^ Elie R, Lamontagne Y (June 1984). "Alprazolam and diazepam in the treatment of generalized anxiety". J Clin Psychopharmacol 4 (3): 125–9. doi:10.1097/00004714-198406000-00002. PMID 6145726. 
  42. ^ Evans SM, Foltin RW, Fischman MW (June 1999). "Food "cravings" and the acute effects of alprazolam on food intake in women with premenstrual dysphoric disorder". Appetite 32 (3): 331–49. doi:10.1006/appe.1998.0222. PMID 10336792. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0195-6663(98)90222-7. 
  43. ^ Noyes R, DuPont RL, Pecknold JC, et al. (May 1988). "Alprazolam in panic disorder and agoraphobia: results from a multicenter trial. II. Patient acceptance, side effects, and safety". Arch. Gen. Psychiatry 45 (5): 423–8. PMID 3358644. 
  44. ^ Béchir M, Schwegler K, Chenevard R, et al. (July 2007). "Anxiolytic therapy with alprazolam increases muscle sympathetic activity in patients with panic disorders". Auton Neurosci 134 (1-2): 69–73. doi:10.1016/j.autneu.2007.01.007. PMID 17363337. http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S1566-0702(07)00008-2. 
  45. ^ Rapaport, M; Braff, Dl (January 1985). "Alprazolam and hostility.". The American journal of psychiatry 142 (1): 146. PMID 2857070. 
  46. ^ Arana, Gw; Pearlman, C; Shader, Ri (March 1985). "Alprazolam-induced mania: two clinical cases.". The American journal of psychiatry 142 (3): 368–9. PMID 2857534. 
  47. ^ Strahan A, Rosenthal J, Kaswan M, Winston A (July 1985). "Three case reports of acute paroxysmal excitement associated with alprazolam treatment". Am J Psychiatry 142 (7): 859–61. PMID 2861755. http://ajp.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=2861755. 
  48. ^ Reddy J, Khanna S, Anand U, Banerjee A (August 1996). "Alprazolam-induced hypomania". Aust N Z J Psychiatry 30 (4): 550–2. doi:10.3109/00048679609065031. PMID 8887708. 
  49. ^ a b Stahl, Stephen (1996). Essential Pharmacology: Neuroscientific Basis and Practical Applications. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-42620-0. 
  50. ^ Juergens, Sm; Morse, Rm (May 1988). "Alprazolam dependence in seven patients.". The American journal of psychiatry 145 (5): 625–7. PMID 3258735. 
  51. ^ Klein, E (2002). "The role of extended-release benzodiazepines in the treatment of anxiety: a risk-benefit evaluation with a focus on extended-release alprazolam.". The Journal of clinical psychiatry 63 (Suppl 14): 27–33. PMID 12562116. 
  52. ^ Professor Heather Ashton (2002). "The Ashton Manual – Benzodiazepines: How They Work and How to Withdraw". benzo.org.uk. http://www.benzo.org.uk/manual/. Retrieved 2008-10-31. 
  53. ^ Dr JG McConnell (May 2007). "The Clinicopharmacotherapeutics of Benzodiazepine and Z drug dose Tapering Using Diazepam". bcnc. http://www.bcnc.org.uk/whyvalium.html. Retrieved 2008-10-31. 
  54. ^ Closser, Mh; Brower, Kj (July 1994). "Treatment of alprazolam withdrawal with chlordiazepoxide substitution and taper.". Journal of substance abuse treatment 11 (4): 319–23. doi:10.1016/0740-5472(94)90042-6. PMID 7966502. 
  55. ^ Romach MK, Somer GR, Sobell LC, Sobell MB, Kaplan HL, Sellers EM (October 1992). "Characteristics of long-term alprazolam users in the community". J Clin Psychopharmacol 12 (5): 316–21. doi:10.1097/00004714-199210000-00004. PMID 1479048. 
  56. ^ Fyer AJ; Liebowitz MR, Gorman JM, Campeas R, Levin A, Davies SO, Goetz D, Klein DF (March 1987). "Discontinuation of Alprazolam Treatment in Panic Patients". Am J Psychiatry (benzo.org.uk) 144 (3): 303–8. PMID 3826428. http://www.benzo.org.uk/alprazolam.htm. Retrieved 10 December 2008. 
  57. ^ Risse SC; Whitters A, Burke J, Chen S, Scurfield RM, Raskind MA. (1990). "Severe withdrawal symptoms after discontinuation of alprazolam in eight patients with combat-induced posttraumatic stress disorder". The Journal of clinical psychiatry. 51 (5): 206–9. PMID 2335496. 
  58. ^ Breier, A; Charney, Ds; Nelson, Jc (December 1984). "Seizures induced by abrupt discontinuation of alprazolam.". The American journal of psychiatry 141 (12): 1606–7. PMID 6150649. 
  59. ^ Noyes R, Perry PJ, Crowe RR, et al. (January 1986). "Seizures following the withdrawal of alprazolam". J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 174 (1): 50–2. doi:10.1097/00005053-198601000-00009. PMID 2867122. 
  60. ^ Levy AB (1984). "Delirium and seizures due to abrupt alprazolam withdrawal: case report". J Clin Psychiatry 45 (1): 38–9. PMID 6141159. 
  61. ^ a b Haque W, Watson DJ, Bryant SG (1990). "Death following suspected alprazolam withdrawal seizures: a case report". Tex Med 86 (1): 44–7. PMID 2300914. 
  62. ^ Schatzberg, Alan; DeBattista, Charles (2003). Manual of Clinical Psychopharmacology. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Pub.. pp. 328–331. ISBN 1-58562-209-5. 
  63. ^ Higgitt, A; Fonagy, P; Lader, M (1988). "The natural history of tolerance to the benzodiazepines.". Psychological medicine. Monograph supplement 13: 1–55. doi:10.1017/S0264180100000412. PMID 2908516. 
  64. ^ Professor Heather Ashton (August 2002). "The Ashton Manual - Benzodiazepines: How They Work and How to Withdraw". http://www.benzo.org.uk/manual/. 
  65. ^ Authier, N.; Balayssac, D.; Sautereau, M.; Zangarelli, A.; Courty, P.; Somogyi, AA.; Vennat, B.; Llorca, PM. et al. (November 2009). "Benzodiazepine dependence: focus on withdrawal syndrome.". Ann Pharm Fr 67 (6): 408–13. doi:10.1016/j.pharma.2009.07.001. PMID 19900604. 
  66. ^ Hori A. (February 1998). "Pharmacotherapy for personality disorders". Psychiatry and clinical neurosciences. 52 (1): 13–9. doi:10.1111/j.1440-1819.1998.tb00967.x. PMID 9682928. 
  67. ^ Gardner DL, Cowdry RW (January 1985). "Alprazolam-induced dyscontrol in borderline personality disorder". Am J Psychiatry 142 (1): 98–100. PMID 2857071. 
  68. ^ "Alprazolam". British National Formulary. 2007. http://www.bnf.org/bnf/bnf/53/3173.htm. Retrieved 3 August 2007. 
  69. ^ mentalhealth.com (2007). "Alprazolam". http://www.mentalhealth.com/drug/p30-x01.html. Retrieved 3 August 2007. 
  70. ^ "Xanax (Alprazolam) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList". USA: RxList.com. July 2008. pp. 4. http://www.rxlist.com/xanax-drug.htm#wcp. 
  71. ^ García-Algar O; López-Vílchez MA, Martín I, Mur A, Pellegrini M, Pacifici R, Rossi S, Pichini S. (2007). "Confirmation of gestational exposure to alprazolam by analysis of biological matrices in a newborn with neonatal sepsis". Clinical toxicology (Philadelphia, Pa.). 45 (3): 295–8. doi:10.1080/15563650601072191. PMID 17453885. 
  72. ^ Oo CY; Kuhn RJ, Desai N, Wright CE, McNamara PJ. (September 1995). "Pharmacokinetics in lactating women: prediction of alprazolam transfer into milk". British journal of clinical pharmacology. 40 (3): 231–6. PMID 8527284. 
  73. ^ DataBank, Inc (July 2008). "Xanax (Alprazolam) Drug Information: Uses, Side Effects, Drug Interactions and Warnings at RxList". RxList. pp. 8. http://www.rxlist.com/cgi/generic/alpraz_wcp.htm. Retrieved 7 December 2008. 
  74. ^ a b "ALPRAZOLAM - ORAL (Xanax) side effects, medical uses, and drug interactions". MedicineNet. July 2005. http://www.medicinenet.com/alprazolam-oral/article.htm. Retrieved 7 December 2008. 
  75. ^ Kozená L; Frantik E, Horváth M. (May 1995). "Vigilance impairment after a single dose of benzodiazepines". Psychopharmacology (Berl). 119 (1): 39–45. doi:10.1007/BF02246052. PMID 7675948. 
  76. ^ Iqbal, MM.; Sobhan, T.; Ryals, T. (Jan 2002). "Effects of commonly used benzodiazepines on the fetus, the neonate, and the nursing infant.". Psychiatr Serv 53 (1): 39-49. PMID 11773648. http://ps.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/content/full/53/1/39. 
  77. ^ Einarson A, Selby P, Koren G (January 2001). "Abrupt discontinuation of psychotropic drugs during pregnancy: fear of teratogenic risk and impact of counselling" (PDF). J Psychiatry Neurosci 26 (1): 44–8. PMID 11212593.& PMC 1408034. http://www.cma.ca/multimedia/staticContent/HTML/N0/l2/jpn/vol-26/issue-1/pdf/pg44.pdf. 
  78. ^ Skelton KH; Nemeroff CB, Owens MJ (October 20, 2004). "Spontaneous withdrawal from the triazolobenzodiazepine alprazolam increases cortical corticotropin-releasing factor mRNA expression". J Neurosci 24 (42): 9303–12. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1737-04.2004. PMID 15496666. 
  79. ^ Chouinard G (2004). "Issues in the clinical use of benzodiazepines: potency, withdrawal, and rebound". J Clin Psychiatry 65 (Suppl 5): 7–12. PMID 15078112. http://article.psychiatrist.com/?ContentType=START&ID=10000770. 
  80. ^ White, G; Gurley, Da (February 1995). "Alpha subunits influence Zn block of gamma 2 containing GABAA receptor currents.". Neuroreport 6 (3): 461–4. doi:10.1097/00001756-199502000-00014. PMID 7766843. 
  81. ^ Arvat, E.; Giordano, R.; Grottoli, S.; Ghigo, E. (Sep 2002). "Benzodiazepines and anterior pituitary function.". J Endocrinol Invest 25 (8): 735-47. PMID 12240908. 
  82. ^ Mandrioli, R.; Mercolini, L.; Raggi, MA. (Oct 2008). "Benzodiazepine metabolism: an analytical perspective.". Curr Drug Metab 9 (8): 827-44. PMID 18855614. 
  83. ^ a b Greenblatt, Dj; Wright, Ce (June 1993). "Clinical pharmacokinetics of alprazolam. Therapeutic implications.". Clinical pharmacokinetics 24 (6): 453–71. doi:10.2165/00003088-199324060-00003. PMID 8513649. 
  84. ^ Otani, K. (2003). "[Cytochrome P450 3A4 and Benzodiazepines]". Seishin Shinkeigaku Zasshi 105 (5): 631-42. PMID 12875231. 
  85. ^ Dresser, GK.; Spence, JD.; Bailey, DG. (Jan 2000). "Pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic consequences and clinical relevance of cytochrome P450 3A4 inhibition.". Clin Pharmacokinet 38 (1): 41-57. PMID 10668858. 
  86. ^ Wang JS, DeVane CL (2003). "Pharmacokinetics and drug interactions of the sedative hypnotics" (PDF). Psychopharmacol Bull 37 (1): 10–29. PMID 14561946. http://www.medworksmedia.com/psychopharmbulletin/pdf/12/010-029_PB%20W03_Wang_final.pdf. 
  87. ^ "FDA SPL Approved Application Filing for NDC Code 0228-3083 (Alprazolam by Actavis Elizabeth LLC)". AD535DF9-6361-460D-9648-450A0A6F61CD.xml. 
  88. ^ Back DJ; Orme ML. (June 1990). "Pharmacokinetic drug interactions with oral contraceptives". Clin Pharmacokinet. 18 (6): 472–84. doi:10.2165/00003088-199018060-00004. PMID 2191822. 
  89. ^ Izzo, AA.; Ernst, E. (2001). "Interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs: a systematic review.". Drugs 61 (15): 2163-75. PMID 11772128. 
  90. ^ Izzo, AA. (Mar 2004). "Drug interactions with St. John's Wort (Hypericum perforatum): a review of the clinical evidence.". Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther 42 (3): 139-48. PMID 15049433. 
  91. ^ Madabushi, R.; Frank, B.; Drewelow, B.; Derendorf, H.; Butterweck, V. (Mar 2006). "Hyperforin in St. John's wort drug interactions.". Eur J Clin Pharmacol 62 (3): 225-33. doi:10.1007/s00228-006-0096-0. PMID 16477470. 
  92. ^ Izzo, AA.; Ernst, E. (2009). "Interactions between herbal medicines and prescribed drugs: an updated systematic review.". Drugs 69 (13): 1777-98. doi:10.2165/11317010-000000000-00000. PMID 19719333. 
  93. ^ Griffiths RR, Wolf B (August 1990). "Relative abuse liability of different benzodiazepines in drug abusers". J Clin Psychopharmacol 10 (4): 237–43. doi:10.1097/00004714-199008000-00002. PMID 1981067. 
  94. ^ Eric C; Wang, Felix S, Chew. (2006). "MR Findings of Alprazolam Injection into the Femoral Artery with Microembolization and Rhabdomyolysis" (pdf). Radiology Case Reports 1 (3). http://www.radiologycasereports.net/index.php/rcr/article/viewPDFInterstitial/33/187. 
  95. ^ "DB00404 (Alprazolam)". Canada: DrugBank. August 26, 2008. http://redpoll.pharmacy.ualberta.ca/drugbank/cgi-bin/getCard.cgi?CARD=APRD00280. 
  96. ^ Sheehan MF, Sheehan DV, Torres A, Coppola A, Francis E (1991). "Snorting benzodiazepines". Am J Drug Alcohol Abuse 17 (4): 457–68. doi:10.3109/00952999109001605. PMID 1684083. 
  97. ^ Soumerai SB, Simoni-Wastila L, Singer C, et al. (July 2003). "Lack of relationship between long-term use of benzodiazepines and escalation to high dosages". Psychiatr Serv 54 (7): 1006–11. doi:10.1176/appi.ps.54.7.1006. PMID 12851438. http://ps.psychiatryonline.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=12851438. 
  98. ^ Walker, Bm; Ettenberg, A (April 2003). "The effects of alprazolam on conditioned place preferences produced by intravenous heroin.". Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior 75 (1): 75–80. doi:10.1016/S0091-3057(03)00043-1. PMID 12759115. 
  99. ^ MARCIA LANE (29 September 2006). "Xanax, alcohol mix kills 2". USA: St. Augustine Record. http://staugustine.com/stories/092906/news_4113407.shtml. Retrieved 10 December 2008. 
  100. ^ Wright State University and the University of Akron (January 2008). "OSAM - O- GRAM Highlights of Statewide Drug Use Trends" (PDF). USA: Ohio Government. http://www.odadas.state.oh.us/WebManager/UltimateEditorInclude/UserFiles/WebDocuments/Planning/Jan05ExecSummry.pdf. Retrieved 10 December 2008. 
  101. ^ Detective Eladio M. Paez (15 June 2008). "STATEMENT ON RAVES AND CLUB DRUGS TO THE SUBCOMMITTEE ON CRIME, CONGRESS OF THE UNITED STATES, HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES". USA: GOV House Judiciary. http://judiciary.house.gov/Legacy/paez0615.htm. Retrieved 10 December 2008. 
  102. ^ "SURVEILLANCE OF DRUG ABUSE TRENDS IN THE STATE OF OHIO - A Report Prepared for the Ohio Department of Alcohol and Drug Addiction Services". USA: The Ohio Substance Abuse Monitoring Network. 31 July 2001. http://www.odadas.ohio.gov/GD/DocumentManagement/DocumentDownload.aspx?DocumentID=225. Retrieved 10 December 2008. 
  103. ^ Ballenger, Jc (December 1984). "Psychopharmacology of the anxiety disorders.". The Psychiatric clinics of North America 7 (4): 757–71. PMID 6151647. 
  104. ^ Evans, Sm; Levin, Fr; Fischman, Mw (June 2000). "Increased sensitivity to alprazolam in females with a paternal history of alcoholism.". Psychopharmacology 150 (2): 150–62. doi:10.1007/s002130000421. PMID 10907668. 
  105. ^ Streeter, Cc; Ciraulo, Da; Harris, Gj; Kaufman, Mj; Lewis, Rf; Knapp, Cm; Ciraulo, Am; Maas, Lc; Ungeheuer, M; Szulewski, S; Renshaw, Pf (May 1998). "Functional magnetic resonance imaging of alprazolam-induced changes in humans with familial alcoholism.". Psychiatry research 82 (2): 69–82. doi:10.1016/S0925-4927(98)00009-2. PMID 9754450. 
  106. ^ Ciraulo, Da; Sarid-Segal, O; Knapp, C; Ciraulo, Am; Greenblatt, Dj; Shader, Ri (July 1996). "Liability to alprazolam abuse in daughters of alcoholics.". The American journal of psychiatry 153 (7): 956–8. PMID 8659624. 
  107. ^ Ciraulo, Da; Barnhill, Jg; Greenblatt, Dj; Shader, Ri; Ciraulo, Am; Tarmey, Mf; Molloy, Ma; Foti, Me (September 1988). "Abuse liability and clinical pharmacokinetics of alprazolam in alcoholic men.". The Journal of clinical psychiatry 49 (9): 333–7. PMID 3417618. 
  108. ^ Vorma, H; Naukkarinen, Hh; Sarna, Sj; Kuoppasalmi, Ki (2005). "Predictors of benzodiazepine discontinuation in subjects manifesting complicated dependence.". Substance use & misuse 40 (4): 499–510. doi:10.1081/JA-200052433. PMID 15830732. 
  109. ^ Isbister GK, O'Regan L, Sibbritt D, Whyte IM (July 2004). "Alprazolam is relatively more toxic than other benzodiazepines in overdose". Br J Clin Pharmacol 58 (1): 88–95. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2125.2004.02089.x. PMID 15206998. 
  110. ^ Wolf BC, Lavezzi WA, Sullivan LM, Middleberg RA, Flannagan LM (2005). "Alprazolam-related deaths in Palm Beach County". Am J Forensic Med Pathol 26 (1): 24–7. doi:10.1097/01.paf.0000153994.95642.c1. PMID 15725773. 
  111. ^ Rogers, Wo; Hall, Ma; Brissie, Rm; Robinson, Ca (January 1997). "Detection of alprazolam in three cases of methadone/benzodiazepine overdose.". Journal of forensic sciences 42 (1): 155–6. PMID 8988593. 
  112. ^ Merck Manual; Davis-Drug-Guide (5 February 2009). "alprazolam". Unbound Medicine. http://www.unboundmedicine.com/merckmanual/ub/view/Davis-Drug-Guide/51030/8/alprazolam. Retrieved 10 March 2009. 
  113. ^ "Benzodiazepine Names". non-benzodiazepines.org.uk. http://www.non-benzodiazepines.org.uk/benzodiazepine-names.html. Retrieved 2008-10-31. 
  114. ^ "DEA, Drug Scheduling". DEA. http://www.usdoj.gov/dea/pubs/scheduling.html. Retrieved 2008-10-31. 
  115. ^ UK Gov (1991). "Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (c. 38)". The UK Statute Law database. http://www.statutelaw.gov.uk/content.aspx?LegType=All+Primary&PageNumber=56&NavFrom=2&parentActiveTextDocId=1367412&activetextdocid=1367464. 
  116. ^ International Narcotics Control Board (August 2003). "List of psychotropic substances under international control" (PDF). incb.org. http://www.incb.org/pdf/e/list/green.pdf. Retrieved 7 December 2008. 
  117. ^ "Misuse Of Drugs (Amendment) Regulations". Irish Statute Book. Office of the Attorney General. 1993. http://www.irishstatutebook.ie/1993/en/si/0342.html. 
  118. ^ ____284.aspx Narkotikaklassade läkemedel, Läkemedelsverket

External links


Citable sentences

Up to date as of December 14, 2010

Here are sentences from other pages on Alprazolam, which are similar to those in the above article.








Got something to say? Make a comment.
Your name
Your email address
Message