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Alps
Range
Countries Slovenia, France, Germany, Switzerland, Italy, Austria, Liechtenstein
Highest point Mont Blanc (Italian: Monte Bianco)
 - elevation 4,810.9 m (15,784 ft)
 - coordinates 45°50′01″N 06°51′54″E / 45.83361°N 6.865°E / 45.83361; 6.865
Geology Bündner schist, flysch, molasse
Orogeny Alpine orogeny
Period Tertiary
Relief of the Alps. See also map with international borders marked
The Alps from space in 2002.
The Alps (German: Alpen; Italian: Alpi; Western Lombard: Alp; French: Alpes; Occitan: Aups/Alps; Romansh: Alps; Slovene: Alpe) are one of the great mountain range systems of Europe, stretching from Austria and Slovenia in the east; through Italy, Switzerland, Liechtenstein and Germany; to France in the west.
The highest mountain in the Alps is Mont Blanc, at 4,808 metres (15,774 ft), on the Italian–French border. All the main peaks of the Alps can be found in the list of mountains of the Alps and list of Alpine peaks by prominence.
The English name Alps was taken via French from Latin Alpes, which may be ultimately cognate with Latin albus ("white"). The German Albe, Alpe or Alp (f., Old High German alpâ, plural alpûn), and the French Alpage or Alpe in the singular mean "alpine pasture", and only in the plural may also refer to the mountain range as a whole.[1]

Contents

Geography

The Alps are generally divided into the Western Alps and the Eastern Alps. The division is along the line between Lake Constance and Lake Como, following the rivers Rhine, Liro and Mera. The Western Alps are higher, but their central chain is shorter and curved; they are located in Italy, France and Switzerland. The Eastern Alps (main ridge system elongated and broad) belong to Italy, Austria, Switzerland, Germany, Liechtenstein and Slovenia. The highest peak of the Western Alps is Mont Blanc, at 4,807 metres (15,771 ft). The highest peak of the Eastern Alps is Piz Bernina, at 4,049 metres (13,284 ft). The Dufourspitze, 4,634 metres (15,203 ft) and Ortler,[2] 3,905 metres (12,812 ft), are the second-highest, respectively.
The Eastern Alps are commonly subdivided according to the different lithology (rock composition) of the more central parts of the Alps and the groups at its northern and southern fringes:
The border between the Central Alps and the Southern Limestone Alps is the Periadriatic Seam. The Northern Limestone Alps are separated from the Central Eastern Alps by the Greywacke zone.
The Western Alps are commonly subdivided with respect to geography:
Series of lower mountain ranges run parallel to the main chain of the Alps, including the French Prealps. (See Alpine geography.)
The geologic subdivision is different and makes no difference between the Western and Eastern Alps: the Helveticum in the north, the Penninicum and Austroalpine system in the center and, south of the Periadriatic Seam, the Southern Alpine system and parts of the Dinarides (see Alpine geology). Geographically, the Jura Mountains do not belong to the Alps; geologically, however, they do.

Main chain

The watershed between Italy and Switzerland (View from Tête Blanche, Pennine Alps)
The main chain of the Alps follows the watershed from the Mediterranean Sea to the Wienerwald, passing over many of the highest and most famous peaks in the Alps. From the Colle di Cadibona to Col de Tende it runs westwards, before turning to the northwest and then, near the Colle della Maddalena, to the north. Upon reaching the Swiss border, the line of the main chain heads approximately east-northeast, a heading it follows until its end near Vienna.

Principal passes

The Alps do not form an impassable barrier; they have been traversed for war and commerce, and later by pilgrims, students and tourists. Crossing places by road, train or foot are called passes. These are depressions in the mountains into which a valley leads from the plains and hilly pre-mountainous zones.

Four-thousanders

The Union Internationale des Associations d'Alpinisme (UIAA) has defined a list of 82 "official" Alpine 4,000-metre (13,123 ft) summits. The list contains many subpeaks with little prominence, but important for mountaineering. Here are the twelve four-thousanders with at least 1 km prominence.
Name Height (metres, feet) Range
Mont Blanc 4,807 m (15,771 ft) Graian Alps
Monte Rosa 4,634 m (15,203 ft) Pennine Alps
Dom 4,545 m (14,911 ft) Pennine Alps
Weisshorn 4,505 m (14,780 ft) Pennine Alps
Matterhorn 4,478 m (14,692 ft) Pennine Alps
Grand Combin 4,314 m (14,154 ft) Pennine Alps
Finsteraarhorn 4,273 m (14,019 ft) Bernese Alps
Aletschhorn 4,192 m (13,753 ft) Bernese Alps
Barre des Écrins 4,102 m (13,458 ft) Dauphiné Alps
Gran Paradiso 4,061 m (13,323 ft) Graian Alps
Piz Bernina 4,049 m (13,284 ft) Bernina Range
Weissmies 4,023 m (13,199 ft) Pennine Alps
Karl Blodig was the first person to climb all the major four-thousand metre peaks, circa 1900.

Geology and orogeny

The Alps form a part of a Tertiary orogenic belt of mountain chains, called the Alpide belt, that stretches through southern Europe and Asia from the Atlantic all the way to the Himalayas. This belt of mountain chains was formed during the Alpine orogeny. A gap in these mountain chains in central Europe separates the Alps from the Carpathians off to the east. Orogeny took place continuously and tectonic subsidence is to blame for the gaps in between.
The cristalline basement of the Mont Blanc Massif
The Alps arose as a result of the collision of the African and European tectonic plates, in which the western part of the Tethys Ocean, which was formerly in between these continents, disappeared. Enormous stress was exerted on sediments of the Tethys Ocean basin and its Mesozoic and early Cenozoic strata were pushed against the stable Eurasian landmass by the northward-moving African landmass. Most of this occurred during the Oligocene and Miocene epochs. The pressure formed great recumbent folds, or nappes, that rose out of what had become the Tethys Sea and pushed northward, often breaking and sliding one over the other to form gigantic thrust faults. Crystalline basement rocks, which are exposed in the higher central regions, are the rocks forming Mont Blanc, the Matterhorn, and high peaks in the Pennine Alps and Hohe Tauern.
The formation of the Mediterranean Sea is a more recent development, and does not mark the northern shore of the African landmass.

Climate

The Alps are split into five climate zones, each with a different kind of environment. The climate, plant life and animal life vary on different sections or zones of the mountain.
Pine trees above the Aletsch Glacier, Valais
1.The section of the Alps that is above 3000 metres is called the névé zone. This area, which has the coldest climate, is permanently coated with compressed snow. That is why plants are scarce in the névé zone.
2. The alpine zone lies between the height of 2000 and 3000 metres. This zone is less cold than in the névé zone. Wildflowers and grasses grow here.
3. Just below the alpine zone is the subalpine zone, 1500 to 2000 metres high. Forests of fir trees and spruce trees grow in the subalpine zone as the temperature slowly goes up.
4. At about 1000 to 1500 metres high is the arable zone. Millions of oak trees sprout in this area. This is also where farming takes place.
5. Below 1000 metres are the lowlands. Here, a larger variety of plants produce. Aside from plants, villages are also in the lowlands because the temperature is more bearable for both humans and animals.
The Alps are a classic example of what happens when a temperate area at lower altitude gives way to higher-elevation terrain. Elevations around the world which have cold climates similar to those found in polar areas have been called Alpine. A rise from sea level into the upper regions of the atmosphere causes the temperature to decrease (see adiabatic lapse rate). The effect of mountain chains on prevailing winds is to carry warm air belonging to the lower region into an upper zone, where it expands in volume at the cost of a proportionate loss of heat, often accompanied by the precipitation in the form of snow or rain.

Political and cultural history

The Inn valley at Innsbruck, Tyrol
Little is known of the early dwellers of the Alps, save from scanty accounts preserved by Roman and Greek historians and geographers. A few details have come down to us of the conquest of many of the Alpine tribes by Augustus. Also, recent research into Mitochondrial DNA indicates that MtDNA Haplogroup K very likely originated in or near the southeastern Alps approximately 12–15,000 years ago.
During the Second Punic War in 218 BC, the Carthaginian general Hannibal successfully crossed the Alps along with an army numbering 38,000 infantry, 8,000 cavalry, and 37 war elephants.[3] This was one of the most celebrated achievements of any military force in ancient warfare.[3]
Much of the Alpine region was gradually settled by Germanic tribes (Langobards, Alemanni, Bavarii) from the 6th to the 13th centuries, the latest expansion corresponding to the Walser migrations.
Not until after the final breakup of the Carolingian Empire in the 10th and 11th century can the local history of the Alps be traced out.

Exploration

The higher regions of the Alps were long left to the exclusive attention of the people of the adjoining valleys even when Alpine travellers (as distinguished from Alpine climbers) began to visit these valleys. The two men who first explored the regions of ice and snow were H.B. de Saussure (1740–1799) in the Pennine Alps and the Benedictine monk of Disentis Placidus a Spescha (1752–1833), most of whose ascents were made before 1806 in the valleys at the sources of the Rhine.

Travel and tourism

Königssee, Bavaria
The Alps are popular both in summer and in winter as a destination for sightseeing and sports. Winter sports (Alpine and Nordic skiing, snowboarding, tobogganing, snowshoeing, ski tours) can be practised in most regions from December to April. In summer, the Alps are popular with hikers, mountain bikers, paragliders, mountaineers, while many alpine lakes attract swimmers, sailors and surfers. The lower regions and larger towns of the Alps are well served by motorways and main roads, but higher passes and by-roads can be treacherous even in summer. Many passes are closed in winter. A multitude of airports around the Alps (and some within), as well as long-distance rail links from all neighbouring countries, afford large numbers of travellers easy access from abroad. The Alps typically see more than 100 million visitors a year.

Flora

A natural vegetation limit with altitude is given by the presence of the chief deciduous trees—oak, beech, ash and sycamore maple. These do not reach exactly to the same elevation, nor are they often found growing together; but their upper limit corresponds accurately enough to the change from a temperate to a colder climate that is further proved by a change in the presence of wild herbaceous vegetation. This limit usually lies about 1,200 metres (3,940 ft) above the sea on the north side of the Alps, but on the southern slopes it often rises to 1,500 metres (4,920 ft), sometimes even to 1,700 metres (5,580 ft).
This region is not always marked by the presence of the characteristic trees. Human interference has nearly exterminated them in many areas, and, except for the beech forests of the Austrian Alps, forests of deciduous trees are rarely found. In many districts where such woods once existed, they have been replaced by the Scots pine and Norway spruce, which are less sensitive to the ravages of goats who are the worst enemies of such trees.
Above the forestry, there is often a band of short pine trees (Pinus mugo), which is in turn superseded by dwarf shrubs, typically Rhododendron ferrugineum (on acid soils) or Rhododendron hirsutum (on alkaline soils). Above this is the alpine meadow, and even higher, the vegetation becomes more and more sparse. At these higher altitudes, the plants tend to form isolated cushions. In the Alps, several species of flowering plants have been recorded above 4,000 metres (13,120 ft), including Ranunculus glacialis, Androsace alpina and Saxifraga biflora.

Fauna

Species common to the Alps.

References

  1. ^ Jacob Grimm, Deutsches Wörterbuch, s.v. "Albe", "Alpe". The original meaning being "white" (in reference to the permanent snow. The term may be common Italo-Celtic, since Celtic languages also have terms for high mountains derived from alp. German Alpen is the accusative in origin, but was made the nominative in Modern German, whence also Alm.
  2. ^ Excluding the Piz Zupò and Piz Roseg located in the Bernina range, close to Piz Bernina.
  3. ^ a b Lancel, Serge, Hannibal, p. 71

See also

External links


Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From Wikitravel

Europe : Alps
Alps seen from Aiguille du Midi
Alps seen from Aiguille du Midi
.The Alps are a range of mountains in Europe caused by uplift in the European Plate as it is impacted by the African Plate moving north; they stretch from Italy through France, Switzerland, Germany, Austria, and into the former Yugoslav republic of Slovenia.^ Leaving, however, the larger question of the connexion between the great mountain ranges of Europe and Asia, we find that the Alps are formed of a series of wrinkles or folds, one behind another, frequently arranged en echelon .

^ ALPS, the collective name for one of the great mountain systems of Europe .

^ But in height and importance the ranges that rise therein are much surpassed by a great mountain-chain, stretching from south-eastern France to the borders of Hungary , as well as between the plains of northern Italy and of southern Germany .

The highest peaks in Europe (outside of the Caucasus mts.) are located in the Alps. Mont Blanc (4810 meters), Dufourspitze (4634 meters) and the world famous Matterhorn (4478 meters) official alpine four-thousanders.
Many areas of the Alps are covered by eternal snow and ice. The largest glaciers are located in the Valais and Bernese Alps of Switzerland. The Aletsch Glacier with its 23 kilometers length and 900 meters depth is now a UNESCO World Heritage site.
.Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia and Liechtenstein are often referred to as the alpine countries because their territories are dominated by the alps.^ Thus the Alpine states (Italy, Switzerland and Austria), other than France and Bavaria, hold bits of territory on the slope of the Alps where one would not expect to find them.

Other destinations

Ski Areas

The alps are home to some of the largest and most well known ski areas in the world, much like the mountains themselves they can be found across multiple countries in some cases making it possible to ski into another nation.
Major Ski areas:

Austria

Germany

France

Italy

Switzerland

Understand

.This mountain range is so notable that the name Alps has also been given to other mountain ranges, most notably the Southern Alps in New Zealand and the Japan Alps in Japan.^ On the other hand, in the Eastern Alps, it is generally necessary to cross three distinct ridges between the northern and southern plains, the central ridge being the highest and most difficult.

^ The eastern portion of this range, from the St Gotthard Pass to the Splugen, is sometimes named the Adula Alps.

^ ALPS, the collective name for one of the great mountain systems of Europe .

Tourism (and the economy in general) is very much geared towards Skiing, snowboarding, and other Winter sports throughout most of the Alps. In ski resorts despite a new focus on summer time activities such as hiking or golf some of the hotels and other facilities may close. .This increase in summer time sports such as Mountain Biking, Golf, Parapenting, or Whitewater Kayaking is now fulling the growth of the alps as a year round tourist destination.^ Such a gap is that between the Alps and the Carpathians, but a glance at a geological map of the region will show that the folding was probably at one time continuous.

^ P. Protogine connexion, that the pebbles of the Swiss Molasse are not generally such as would be derived from the neighbouring mountains, but resemble the rocks of the Eastern Alps.

The Alps have always been popular as a mountaineering and hiking destination, but clearly this is nowhere near as lucrative for the locals, as the tourist invasion during the winter season.

Talk

.The alps skirt, straddle, or wholly encompass 7 european nations: France, Italy, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Austria, Germany, and Slovenia.^ Thus the Alpine states (Italy, Switzerland and Austria), other than France and Bavaria, hold bits of territory on the slope of the Alps where one would not expect to find them.

Each of these has their own national language and a myriad of local dialects. However in most major towns or tourist destinations some English will be spoken. In general languages thus follow national borders but this is not always the case! .German is the official language in Germany, Austria and Liechtenstein and large portion of central, northern and eastern Switzerland.^ In Switzerland there are Italian-speaking regions, as well as some spots (in the Grisons) where the old Romance dialect of Romansch or Ladin survives; while in Austria, besides German, Italian and Ladin, we havea Slavonic-speaking population in the South-Eastern Alps.

It is also spoken in Italy's South Tyrol. .French is spoken in southern and western Switzerland, France and along the French frontier in Italy as well.^ But in height and importance the ranges that rise therein are much surpassed by a great mountain-chain, stretching from south-eastern France to the borders of Hungary , as well as between the plains of northern Italy and of southern Germany .

Slovenian, in addition to Slovenia is spoken by a minority in northeastern Italy around Trieste and the Italian-Slovenian frontier. Lastly, a tiny portion of France speaks Italian across the frontier near the city of Nice.

See

Beautiful alpine scenery.
The Jungfraujoch [1], highest railway in Europe, almost 3 km of altitude difference between Interlaken and the summit station. View on the largest glacier in the Alps.
The view from the Aguille du Midi [2]in Chamonix or its counter part the Helbronner [3] point in Italy.
The Gornergrat [4] train, from Zermatt, view over 29 four-thousanders.

Do

.The best things to do in the Alps will vary from region to region, but in general mountain sports would be the thing to do!^ Hence the upper region of the Alps sustains a far more varied and brilliant vegetation.

^ The larger villages are mostly in the mountain region, but in many parts of the Alps the villages stand in the subalpine region at heights varying from 4000 ft.

^ Six regions or zones, which are best distinguished by their characteristic vegetation, are found in the Alps.

  • Climb mountains or go hiking.
  • Go mountain biking. In many places you can take bikes up the ski lifts during the summer.
  • Go Whitewater kayaking or rafting.
  • Go Paragliding
  • Play snow golf[5]

Eat

Fondues of many types

Stay safe

Due to the fact the alps hold relatively few major metropolitan areas violent crime is relatively low in this expansive region. .In the larger towns and cities normal levels of crime will exist but these are nothing that can not be accounted for with a little common sense.^ Eocene beds, indeed, penetrate farther within the chain, but these are limestones with nummulites or lignite -bearing shales and have nothing in common with the Flysch.

Most commonly crime is relegated to the level of petty theft, pick-pockets etc.
This article is an outline and needs more content. It has a template, but there is not enough information present. Please plunge forward and help it grow!

1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

.ALPS, the collective name for one of the great mountain systems of Europe.^ ALPS, the collective name for one of the great mountain systems of Europe .

^ The Alps are a complex fold-mountain system.
  • CARNIC ALPS, 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.history.com [Source type: General]

^ The alps, which contains the famous Mont Blanc, is a great mountain range in Europe that stretches from various countries like Austria,France,Germany,Italy and more.
  • Questions about Alps - Ask.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: General]

Table of contents

1. Position and Name

.The continent of Europe is no more than a great peninsula extending westwards from the much vaster continent of Asia, while it is itself broken up by two inland seas into several smaller peninsulas - the Mediterranean forming the Iberian, the Italian and the Greek peninsulas, while the Baltic forms that of Scandinavia and the much smaller one of Denmark.^ The continent of Europe is no more than a great peninsula extending westwards from the much vaster continent of Asia , while it is itself broken up by two inland seas into several smaller peninsulas - the Mediterranean forming the Iberian, the Italian and the Greek peninsulas, while the Baltic forms that of Scandinavia and the much smaller one of Denmark .

^ It takes no longer than the one hour ride from Zürich airport to the village for me to fall in love with the Swiss landscape.
  • Postcard: White Christmas in Einsiedeln « L O V E O N T H E R U N 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC loveontherun.org [Source type: General]

^ Alps , the highest and most remarkable chain of mountains in Europe, forming the watershed between the rivers which discharge their waters into the Mediterranean, and those which run to the Atlantic ocean, the North sea, and the Black sea.
  • Alps 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC chestofbooks.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Save the last-named, all these peninsulas of Europe are essentially mountain ranges.^ Save the last-named, all these peninsulas of Europe are essentially mountain ranges.

^ The alps, which contains the famous Mont Blanc, is a great mountain range in Europe that stretches from various countries like Austria,France,Germany,Italy and more.
  • Questions about Alps - Ask.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.ask.com [Source type: General]

^ Perceived loudness, dynamic range and peak level; suitable for all situations where some combination of these three must be powerfully yet unobtrusively controlled.
  • Audessence ALPS-1 brochure and specifications 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.audessence.com [Source type: General]

.But in height and importance the ranges that rise therein are much surpassed by a great mountain-chain, stretching from south-eastern France to the borders of Hungary, as well as between the plains of northern Italy and of southern Germany.^ It lies on the border between Austria and Italy.
  • The Italian Alps from www.stayinpiedmont.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.stayinpiedmont.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A ridge mountain in the southern chain.
  • SummitPost - Julian Alps -- Climbing, Hiking & Mountaineering 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.summitpost.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But in height and importance the ranges that rise therein are much surpassed by a great mountain-chain, stretching from south-eastern France to the borders of Hungary , as well as between the plains of northern Italy and of southern Germany .

.This chain is collectively known as the Alps, and is the most important physical feature of the European continent.^ This chain is collectively known as the Alps, and is the most important physical feature of the European continent.

^ Driving the road to Alpe D'huez involves experiencing the 21 hairpin bends that are perhaps the most challenging and well known stage of the Tour de France.

^ With their unique combination of natural and cultural history, the Alps have become a living space, an economic area and a recreational playground of eminent importance at the heart of the European continent.
  • The Alps — CIPRA 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.cipra.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Alps, however, do not present so continuous a barrier as the Himalayas, the Andes or even the Pyrenees.^ The Alps, however, do not present so continuous a barrier as the Himalayas, the Andes or even the Pyrenees .

^ In the area of the Carnic Alps however things get even more complicated.
  • SummitPost - Carnic Alps -- Climbing, Hiking & Mountaineering 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.summitpost.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They are formed of numerous ranges, divided by comparatively deep valleys, which, with many local exceptions, tend towards parallelism with the general direction of the whole mass.^ They are formed of numerous ranges, divided by comparatively deep valleys, which, with many local exceptions, tend towards parallelism with the general direction of the whole mass.

^ Many hundreds of square miles of Alpine glaciers, such as those in the Ortles and Adamello ranges and such deep-valley glaciers as the Aletsch Glacier near Brig, Switz., are still found in the Alps.
  • Alps (mountains, Europe) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The spots at which they were crossed are called passes (this word is sometimes though rarely applied to gorges only), and are the points at which the great chain sinks to form depressions, up to which deep-cut valleys lead from the plains.

.This, between the Dauphine and the borders of Hungary, forms a broad band convex towards the north, while most of the valleys lie between the directions west to east and south-west to north-east.^ This, between the Dauphine and the borders of Hungary, forms a broad band convex towards the north, while most of the valleys lie between the directions west to east and south-west to north-east.

^ Ljubljana) at the north-eastern end of the Adriatic Sea, and bordering Italy and Austria to the alpine west and north, Hungary to the north-east, and Croatia along a long frontier to the east and south.
  • Alps - Related Articles - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Paris ) extending across Europe from the English Channel in the north-west to the Mediterranean in the south-east; bounded by Belgium , Luxembourg , Germany , Switzerland , Italy and Spain ; founding member of the European Union .
  • Alps - Related Articles - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

.But in many parts deep transverse valleys intersect the prevailing direction of the ridges, and facilitate the passage of man, plants and animals, as well as of currents of air which mitigate the contrast that would otherwise be found between the climates of the opposite slopes.^ Climate - Plant and animal life .
  • Alps (mountains, Europe) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Alps (mountains, Europe) :: Tourism -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But in many parts deep transverse valleys intersect the prevailing direction of the ridges, and facilitate the passage of man, plants and animals, as well as of currents of air which mitigate the contrast that would otherwise be found between the climates of the opposite slopes.

^ Glaciation therefore modified what otherwise would have been a harsher physical environment: the climate was much milder in the valleys than on the surrounding heights, settlement could be established deeper into the mountains, communication was facilitated, and soils were inherently more fertile because of morainic deposits.
  • Alps (mountains, Europe) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The derivation of the name Alps is still very uncertain, some writers connecting it with a Celtic root alb, said to mean height, while others suggest the Latin adjective albus (white), referring to the colour of the snowy peaks.^ The derivation of the name Alps is still very uncertain, some writers connecting it with a Celtic root alb , said to mean height, while others suggest the Latin adjective albus (white), referring to the colour of the snowy peaks.

^ Article Excerpts: ...of some other very impressive mountains, the Alps .
  • Articles about Alps :: American Way Magazine 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.americanwaymag.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It has some very underrated players, and others that are unknown and I don't think will make much of an impact with the team.
  • What do you guys think of the Philly Union? - Yahoo! Answers 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

.But in all parts of the great chain itself, the term Alp (or Alm in the Eastern Alps) is exclusively applied to the high mountain pastures (see ALP), and not to the peaks and ridges of the chain.^ But in all parts of the great chain itself, the term Alp (or Alm in the Eastern Alps) is exclusively applied to the high mountain pastures (see ALP), and not to the peaks and ridges of the chain.

^ Mountain scenery, waterfalls, great food—the Alps has it all!
  • TRAVEL: Alps Vacation | Atakos.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.atakos.com [Source type: General]

^ But the design created by GE Sensing for the Ventostat has fixed all of that, and they’ve been kind enough to partner with Alps Controls to give our customers an exclusive sneak peak at the new Ventostat, before anyone else can see them in Orlando.

2. Limits

.These will depend on the meaning we attach to the word Alps as referring to the great mountain-chain of central Europe.^ ALPS, the collective name for one of the great mountain systems of Europe .

^ The Alps are the largest mountain system in Europe.

^ These will depend on the meaning we attach to the word Alps as referring to the great mountain-chain of central Europe.

.If we merely desire to distinguish it from certain minor ranges (e.g.^ If we merely desire to distinguish it from certain minor ranges (e.g.

the .Cevennes, the Jura, the hills of central Germany, the Carpathians, the Apennines), which ar really independent ranges rather than offshoots of the main chain, the best limits are on the west (strictly speaking south), the Col d'Altare or di Cadibona (1624 ft.^ Cevennes , the Jura , the hills of central Germany, the Carpathians, the Apennines ), which ar really independent ranges rather than offshoots of the main chain, the best limits are on the west (strictly speaking south), the Col d'Altare or di Cadibona (1624 ft.

^ To the west the limit will then be the Col de Tenda (6145 ft.

^ Starting from the Col d'Altare or di Cadibona (west of Savona), the main chain extends first south-west, then north-west to the Col de Tenda, though nowhere rising much beyond the zone of coniferous trees.

), leading from .Turin to Savona and Genoa, and on the east the line of the railway over the Semmering Pass (3215 ft.^ Turin to Savona and Genoa , and on the east the line of the railway over the Semmering Pass (3215 ft.

^ Cuneo ( Coni) to Ventimiglia , while on the east our line will be the route over the Radstadter Tauern (5702 ft.

) from .Vienna to Marburg in the Mur valley, and on by Laibach to Trieste.^ Vienna to Marburg in the Mur valley, and on by Laibach to Trieste .

^ Salzburg to Villach in Carinthia , and thence by Klagenfurt to Marburg and so past Laibach in Carniola on to Trieste; from Villach the direct route to Trieste would be over the Predil Pass (3813 ft.

.But if we confine the meaning of the term Alps to those parts of the chain that are what is commonly called " Alpine," where the height is sufficient to support a considerable mass of perpetual snow, our boundaries to the west and to the east must be placed at spots other than those mentioned above.^ But if we confine the meaning of the term Alps to those parts of the chain that are what is commonly called " Alpine," where the height is sufficient to support a considerable mass of perpetual snow , our boundaries to the west and to the east must be placed at spots other than those mentioned above.

^ Our week in the Swiss Alps are a dream-come-true for those with a taste for amazing scenery and cool mountain air in June.
  • Overseas Adventure Travel for Women, Trips to Alps, Switzerland, Austria, Germany 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC canyoncalling.com [Source type: General]

^ The derivation of the name Alps is still very uncertain, some writers connecting it with a Celtic root alb , said to mean height, while others suggest the Latin adjective albus (white), referring to the colour of the snowy peaks.

.To the west the limit will then be the Col de Tenda (6145 ft.^ To the west the limit will then be the Col de Tenda (6145 ft.

^ Col de Tenda (Tenda to Cuneo), carriage road, railway beneath.

^ Starting from the Col d'Altare or di Cadibona (west of Savona), the main chain extends first south-west, then north-west to the Col de Tenda, though nowhere rising much beyond the zone of coniferous trees.

), leading from .Cuneo (Coni) to Ventimiglia, while on the east our line will be the route over the Radstadter Tauern (5702 ft.^ Cuneo ( Coni) to Ventimiglia , while on the east our line will be the route over the Radstadter Tauern (5702 ft.

^ Soon after our watershed makes a last bend to the south-east and culminates in the Terglou (9400 ft.

^ Turin to Savona and Genoa , and on the east the line of the railway over the Semmering Pass (3215 ft.

) and the .Katschberg (5384 ft.^ Katschberg (5384 ft.

) from .Salzburg to Villach in Carinthia, and thence by Klagenfurt to Marburg and so past Laibach in Carniola on to Trieste; from Villach the direct route to Trieste would be over the Predil Pass (3813 ft.^ Salzburg to Villach in Carinthia , and thence by Klagenfurt to Marburg and so past Laibach in Carniola on to Trieste; from Villach the direct route to Trieste would be over the Predil Pass (3813 ft.

^ Though it was not the most direct route to the pass we wanted to reach, we scrambled up the creek, mesmerized by its beauty.

^ Other problems also weigh against the Traversette, he says—for example, its distance from Turin and its avoidance of a more obvious, direct neighboring route across the Montgenevre Pass.
  • In the Alps, hunting for Hannibal's trail 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC news-service.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) or the .Pontebba or Saifnitz Pass (2615 ft.^ Pontebba or Saifnitz Pass (2615 ft.

^ Saifnitz or Pontebba Pass (Villach by Tarvis and Pontebba to Udine ), railway.

), more to the west, but in either case this would exclude the .Terglou (9400 ft.^ Terglou (9400 ft.

^ Soon after our watershed makes a last bend to the south-east and culminates in the Terglou (9400 ft.

), the highest summit of the entire .South-Eastern Alps, as well as its lower neighbours.^ South-Eastern Alps, as well as its lower neighbours.

^ In Switzerland there are Italian-speaking regions, as well as some spots (in the Grisons) where the old Romance dialect of Romansch or Ladin survives; while in Austria, besides German, Italian and Ladin, we havea Slavonic-speaking population in the South-Eastern Alps.

^ But L. Ravenstein's maps (scale :250,000) of the Swiss Alps (2 sheets) and of the Eastern Alps (8 sheets) include the whole chain, save that portion south of the range of Mont Blanc.

.On the northern side the Alps (in whichever sense we take this term) are definitely bounded by the course of the Rhine from Basel to the Lake of Constance, the plain of Bavaria, and the low region of foot-hills that extend from Salzburg to the neighbourhood of Vienna.^ On the northern side the Alps (in whichever sense we take this term) are definitely bounded by the course of the Rhine from Basel to the Lake of Constance , the plain of Bavaria , and the low region of foot-hills that extend from Salzburg to the neighbourhood of Vienna.

^ Mont Blanc [ r ] : Add brief definition or description Eiger [ r ] : Add brief definition or description Zugspitze [ r ] : Highest mountain in Germany , in the Wetterstein Range of the Northern Limestone Alps , between Austria and Germany.
  • Alps - Related Articles - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The division of Western Alps and Eastern Alps is along the line from Lake Constance along the Rhine to Lake Como.
  • Alps Facts - Interesting & Fun Facts About Alps Mountains 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC lifestyle.iloveindia.com [Source type: News]

.One result of this limit, marked out by Nature herself, is that the waters which flow down the northern slope of the Alps find their way either into the North Sea through the Rhine, or into the Black Sea by means of the Danube, not a drop reaching the Baltic Sea.^ One result of this limit, marked out by Nature herself, is that the waters which flow down the northern slope of the Alps find their way either into the North Sea through the Rhine, or into the Black Sea by means of the Danube , not a drop reaching the Baltic Sea .

^ The Alps form a divide between the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean Sea, and the Black Sea and give rise to several major European rivers, including the Rhône , Danube , and Po .
  • Alps (mountains, Europe) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rhine [ r ] : A large river (ca 1,320 km) that drains portions of northern Europe, flowing from south-eastern Switzerland through Germany and the Netherlands, into the North Sea.
  • Alps - Related Articles - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

.On the southern side the mountains extending from near Turin to near Trieste subside into the great plain of Piedmont, Lombardy and Venetia.^ On the southern side the mountains extending from near Turin to near Trieste subside into the great plain of Piedmont , Lombardy and Venetia .

^ Alpine vegetation [ r ] : Add brief definition or description Apennine peninsula [ r ] : A boot-shaped peninsula in southern Europe extending into the Mediterranean Sea .
  • Alps - Related Articles - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

^ But in height and importance the ranges that rise therein are much surpassed by a great mountain-chain, stretching from south-eastern France to the borders of Hungary , as well as between the plains of northern Italy and of southern Germany .

.But what properly forms the western bit of the Alps runs, from near Turin to the Col de Tenda, in a southerly direction, then bending eastwards to the Col d'Altare that divides it from the Apennines.^ But what properly forms the western bit of the Alps runs, from near Turin to the Col de Tenda, in a southerly direction, then bending eastwards to the Col d'Altare that divides it from the Apennines.

^ Maritime Alps (from the Col de Tenda to the Col de l'Argentiere).

^ Alpe d'Albion to Dascio slightly bends in the western Bergell area and follows a northeast-southwest strike at Masino .
  • Search Results ((keywords_en:WESTERN ALPS)) - ETH E-Collection 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC e-collection.ethbib.ethz.ch [Source type: Academic]

.It should be borne in mind that the limits adopted above refer purely to the topographical aspect of the Alps as they exist at the present day.^ It should be borne in mind that the limits adopted above refer purely to the topographical aspect of the Alps as they exist at the present day.

^ It should always be borne in mind that in the Western and Central Alps there is but one ridge to cross, to which access is gained by a deep-cut valley, though often it would be shorter to cross a second pass in order to gain the plains, e.g.

^ [Credits : Niklausschreiber2] REFERENCED IN RELATED TO Aspects of the topic "Alps" are discussed in the following places at Britannica Assorted References .
  • Alps (mountains, Europe) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Naturalists will of course prefer other limits according as they are geologists, botanists or zoologists.^ Naturalists will of course prefer other limits according as they are geologists, botanists or zoologists.

3. Climate

.It is well known that as we rise from the sealevel into the upper regions of the atmosphere the temperature decreases.^ It is well known that as we rise from the sealevel into the upper regions of the atmosphere the temperature decreases.

^ Streams in this region drop into shape by June and fish well through the summer and into the fall.
  • Trinity Alps Streams 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.shasta.com [Source type: Original source]

.The effect of mountain-chains on prevailing winds is to carry warm air belonging to the lower region into an upper zone, where it expands in volume at the cost of a proportionate loss of heat, often accompanied by the precipitation of moisture in the form of snow or rain.^ The effect of mountain-chains on prevailing winds is to carry warm air belonging to the lower region into an upper zone, where it expands in volume at the cost of a proportionate loss of heat, often accompanied by the precipitation of moisture in the form of snow or rain .

^ The black redstart ( Ruticilla titys ), though common in the lower regions, is also met with in fair numbers almost up to the snow-line.

^ It is well known that as we rise from the sealevel into the upper regions of the atmosphere the temperature decreases.

.The position of the Alps about the centre of the European continent has profoundly modified the climate of all the surrounding regions.^ The position of the Alps about the centre of the European continent has profoundly modified the climate of all the surrounding regions.

^ With their unique combination of natural and cultural history, the Alps have become a living space, an economic area and a recreational playground of eminent importance at the heart of the European continent.
  • The Alps — CIPRA 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.cipra.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Today's French Alps What's On Guide Choose from 29 different things to do today in the French Alps, or from 170 future events from all around the region.
  • AngloINFO French Alps: living in and moving to the French Alps, France 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC frenchalps.angloinfo.com [Source type: General]

.The accumulation of vast masses of snow, which have gradually been converted into permanent glaciers, maintains a gradation of very different climates within the narrow space that intervenes between the foot of the mountains and their upper ridges; it cools the breezes that are wafted to the plains on either side, but its most important function is to regulate the water-supply of that large region which is traversed by the streams of the Alps.^ The accumulation of vast masses of snow, which have gradually been converted into permanent glaciers, maintains a gradation of very different climates within the narrow space that intervenes between the foot of the mountains and their upper ridges; it cools the breezes that are wafted to the plains on either side, but its most important function is to regulate the water-supply of that large region which is traversed by the streams of the Alps.

^ With its plethora of alpine glaciers, numerous lakes and wetlands and major rivers (6 of the 8 departments bear the name of a river), the Rhone Alps’ water supplies are particularly significant and include 7,000 km of waterways.

^ Our week in the Swiss Alps are a dream-come-true for those with a taste for amazing scenery and cool mountain air in June.
  • Overseas Adventure Travel for Women, Trips to Alps, Switzerland, Austria, Germany 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC canyoncalling.com [Source type: General]

.Nearly all the moisture that is precipitated during six or seven months is stored up in the form of snow, and is gradually diffused in the course of the succeeding summer; even in the hottest and driest seasons the reserves accumulated during a long preceding period of years in the form of glaciers are available to maintain the regular flow of the greater streams.^ Nearly all the moisture that is precipitated during six or seven months is stored up in the form of snow, and is gradually diffused in the course of the succeeding summer; even in the hottest and driest seasons the reserves accumulated during a long preceding period of years in the form of glaciers are available to maintain the regular flow of the greater streams.

^ These new snow cannons at Drouzin le Mont mean that the snow creating capabilities at the resort have been doubled, all the main runs and nursery area will be maintained in better condition and piste closures will be significantly reduced during periods of low snow fall.

^ ALL Pediatrics has opened up some more check-up slots for the month of December and early January.

.Nor is this all; the lakes that fill several of the main valleys on the southern side of the Alps are somewhat above the level of the plains of Lombardy and Venetia, and afford an inexhaustible supply of water, which, from a remote period, has been used for that system of irrigation to which they owe their proverbial fertility.^ Nor is this all; the lakes that fill several of the main valleys on the southern side of the Alps are somewhat above the level of the plains of Lombardy and Venetia, and afford an inexhaustible supply of water, which, from a remote period, has been used for that system of irrigation to which they owe their proverbial fertility.

^ With its plethora of alpine glaciers, numerous lakes and wetlands and major rivers (6 of the 8 departments bear the name of a river), the Rhone Alps’ water supplies are particularly significant and include 7,000 km of waterways.

^ All told, the complete high level traverse crests a dozen mountain passes at 8,000 to 10,000 feet and crosses several glaciers.

.Six regions or zones, which are best distinguished by their characteristic vegetation, are found in the Alps.^ Six regions or zones, which are best distinguished by their characteristic vegetation, are found in the Alps.

^ Hence the upper region of the Alps sustains a far more varied and brilliant vegetation.

^ It is here that the characteristic vegetation of the Alps is developed in its full beauty and variety.

.It is an error to suppose that these are indicated by absolute height above the sea-level.^ It is an error to suppose that these are indicated by absolute height above the sea-level.

.Local conditions of exposure to the sun, protection from cold winds, or the reverse, are of primary importance in determining the climate and the corresponding vegetation.^ Local conditions of exposure to the sun, protection from cold winds, or the reverse, are of primary importance in determining the climate and the corresponding vegetation.

.The great plain of Upper Italy has a winter climate colder than that of the British Islands.^ The great plain of Upper Italy has a winter climate colder than that of the British Islands.

^ The mean annual temperature of this region differs little from that of the British Islands; but the climatal conditions are widely different.

^ Subsequently, as the climate of the plains assumed a colder and more humid character, they retired before the invading forests to the high mountains.

.The olive and the characteristic shrubs of the northern coasts of the Mediterranean do not thrive in the open air, but the former valuable tree ripens its fruit in sheltered places at the foot of the mountains, and penetrates along the deeper valleys and the shores of the Italian lakes.^ The olive and the characteristic shrubs of the northern coasts of the Mediterranean do not thrive in the open air, but the former valuable tree ripens its fruit in sheltered places at the foot of the mountains, and penetrates along the deeper valleys and the shores of the Italian lakes.

^ Above the lake there are broad areas: high carst plateau named Komna, The high Valley of Triglav Lakes and dark woods north of Bohinj lake, with places where men's foot probably still didn't step.
  • SummitPost - Julian Alps -- Climbing, Hiking & Mountaineering 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.summitpost.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Framed by mountains on all sides, Lake Wakatipu is a grand place for a steam boat cruise.
  • Southern Alps > New Zealand 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.newzealand.com [Source type: News]

.The evergreen oak is wild on the rocks about the Lake of Garda, and lemons are cultivated on a large scale, with partial protection in winter.^ The evergreen oak is wild on the rocks about the Lake of Garda , and lemons are cultivated on a large scale, with partial protection in winter.

^ About another quarter is utterly barren, consisting of snow-fields, glaciers, bare rock, lakes and the beds of streams.

.The olive has been known to survive severe cold when of short duration, but it cannot be cultivated with success where frosts are prolonged, or where the mean winter temperature falls below 42° F.; and to produce fruit it requires a heat of at least 75° F. during the day, continued through four or five months of the summer and autumn.^ The olive has been known to survive severe cold when of short duration, but it cannot be cultivated with success where frosts are prolonged, or where the mean winter temperature falls below 42° F.; and to produce fruit it requires a heat of at least 75° F. during the day, continued through four or five months of the summer and autumn.

^ Here snow usually lies for several months, till it gives place to a spring and summer considerably warmer than the average of British seasons.

^ The guide describes 53 day walks, 5 tours between 2 and 8 days duration, plus 40 short outings.
  • Alps Maps from Omni Resources - International Map & Guidebook Specialists. 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.omnimap.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The vine is far more tolerant of cold than the olive, but to produce tolerable wine it demands, at the season of ripening, a degree of heat not much less than that needed by the the deeper valleys of the Alps, even in the interior of the chain, and up to a considerable height on slopes exposed to the sun.^ The vine is far more tolerant of cold than the olive, but to produce tolerable wine it demands, at the season of ripening, a degree of heat not much less than that needed by the the deeper valleys of the Alps, even in the interior of the chain, and up to a considerable height on slopes exposed to the sun.

^ The Alps costs less than 10% of that.
  • Alps near dye-sublimation quality color printer .. (cameras-scanners) 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.cameras-scanners-flaar.org [Source type: General]

^ Glaciation therefore modified what otherwise would have been a harsher physical environment: the climate was much milder in the valleys than on the surrounding heights, settlement could be established deeper into the mountains, communication was facilitated, and soils were inherently more fertile because of morainic deposits.
  • Alps (mountains, Europe) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The protection afforded by winter snow enables the plant to resist severe and prolonged frosts, such as would be fatal in more exposed situations.^ The future of the Alpine space is being seen more and more in terms of sustainable development, with equal attention afforded to the twin aspects of protection and use.
  • The Alps — CIPRA 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.cipra.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At almost 10,000 feet, the pass is one of the highest in the Alps and would certainly be cold enough to retain a former winter's snows.
  • In the Alps, hunting for Hannibal's trail 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC news-service.stanford.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Equally, if not more beautiful in winter and spring, when it turns into a sea of snow-covered hills.
  • SummitPost - Julian Alps -- Climbing, Hiking & Mountaineering 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.summitpost.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Many wild plants characteristic of the warmer parts of middle Europe are seen to flourish along with the vine.^ Many wild plants characteristic of the warmer parts of middle Europe are seen to flourish along with the vine.

^ Tithonian fossils, characteristic of southern Europe, occur in the upper Jurassic, while the Gosau beds, belonging to the upper Cretaceous, contain many of the forms of the Hippuritic sea.

.A mean summer temperature of at least 68° F. is considered necessary to produce tolerable wine, but in ordinary seasons this is much exceeded in many of the great valleys of the Alps.^ A mean summer temperature of at least 68° F. is considered necessary to produce tolerable wine, but in ordinary seasons this is much exceeded in many of the great valleys of the Alps.

^ But historians can cite with precision many references to wine growing in the Alps and the region's prominence at various times over the past several hundred years.
  • FRENCH ALPS WINES 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.weimax.com [Source type: General]

^ Christmas shopping in Germany is a great way to experience the true gift of giving, and late fall is the perfect time to consider a trip to the Bavarian Alps to do so.
  • A Visit to the Bavarian Alps: Christmas Markets and Pagan Spirits 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.gonomad.com [Source type: General]

.Many writers take the growth of grain as the characteristic of the mountain region; but so many varieties of all the common species are in cultivation, and these have such different climatal requirements, that they do not afford a satisfactory criterion.^ Many writers take the growth of grain as the characteristic of the mountain region; but so many varieties of all the common species are in cultivation, and these have such different climatal requirements, that they do not afford a satisfactory criterion.

^ Today's French Alps What's On Guide Choose from 29 different things to do today in the French Alps, or from 170 future events from all around the region.
  • AngloINFO French Alps: living in and moving to the French Alps, France 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC frenchalps.angloinfo.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1995, this newly identified condition was named - Autoimmune Lymphproliferative Syndrome or ALPS. By August 1999, 58 individuals from 35 families had been diagnosed with ALPS. These families come from all over the country and are of many different racial backgrounds.
  • genome.gov | Learning About ALPS 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.genome.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.A more natural limit is afforded by the presence of the chief deciduous trees - oak, beech, ash and sycamore.^ A more natural limit is afforded by the presence of the chief deciduous trees - oak, beech , ash and sycamore.

^ Their potential natural vegetation is deciduous forest of Quercus robur , Q. petraea , Q. pubescens , and other broad-leaved trees.
  • Alps conifer and mixed forests - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ The interference of man has in many districts almost extirpated them, and, excepting the beech forests of the Austrian Alps, a considerable wood of deciduous trees is scarcely anywhere to be found.

.These do not reach exactly to the same elevation, nor are they often found growing together; but their upper limit corresponds accurately enough to the change from a temperate to a colder climate that is further proved by a change in the wild herbaceous vegetation.^ These do not reach exactly to the same elevation, nor are they often found growing together; but their upper limit corresponds accurately enough to the change from a temperate to a colder climate that is further proved by a change in the wild herbaceous vegetation.

^ The great plain of Upper Italy has a winter climate colder than that of the British Islands.

^ The climate of the glacial region has often been compared to that of the polar regions , but they are widely different.

.This limit usually lies about 4000 ft.^ This limit usually lies about 4000 ft.

^ In some parts of the Alps the limit maybe set at about 8000 ft.

above the sea on the north side of the Alps, but on the southern slopes it often rises to 5000 ft., sometimes even to .55 00 ft.^ Alps, but on the southern slopes it often rises to 5000 ft., sometimes even to 55 00 ft.

.It must not be supposed that this region is always marked by the presence of the characteristic trees.^ It must not be supposed that this region is always marked by the presence of the characteristic trees.

^ The most characteristic feature of this region is the prevalence of coniferous trees, which, where they have not been artificially kept down, form vast forests that cover a large part of the surface.

^ We must observe, as regards the plants of the lower alpine region, that it is the actual presence of a forest vegetation, rather than the theoretical treelimit, which affects their vertical distribution; so that, e.g.

.The interference of man has in many districts almost extirpated them, and, excepting the beech forests of the Austrian Alps, a considerable wood of deciduous trees is scarcely anywhere to be found.^ The interference of man has in many districts almost extirpated them, and, excepting the beech forests of the Austrian Alps, a considerable wood of deciduous trees is scarcely anywhere to be found.

^ In many districts where such woods once existed, their place has been occupied by the Scottish pine and spruce , which suffer less from the ravages of goats, the worst enemies of tree vegetation.

^ Though among mammalia - as also in the case of the birds - there are but few forms peculiar to the Alps, many interesting animals have found in the high mountains at least a temporary refuge from man.

.In many districts where such woods once existed, their place has been occupied by the Scottish pine and spruce, which suffer less from the ravages of goats, the worst enemies of tree vegetation.^ In many districts where such woods once existed, their place has been occupied by the Scottish pine and spruce , which suffer less from the ravages of goats, the worst enemies of tree vegetation.

^ The interference of man has in many districts almost extirpated them, and, excepting the beech forests of the Austrian Alps, a considerable wood of deciduous trees is scarcely anywhere to be found.

.The mean annual temperature of this region differs little from that of the British Islands; but the climatal conditions are widely different.^ The mean annual temperature of this region differs little from that of the British Islands; but the climatal conditions are widely different.

^ The great plain of Upper Italy has a winter climate colder than that of the British Islands.

^ The climate of the glacial region has often been compared to that of the polar regions , but they are widely different.

.Here snow usually lies for several months, till it gives place to a spring and summer considerably warmer than the average of British seasons.^ Here snow usually lies for several months, till it gives place to a spring and summer considerably warmer than the average of British seasons.

^ Opened from end of May (depends very much of snow) till firs snow fall (usually in December).
  • SummitPost - Julian Alps -- Climbing, Hiking & Mountaineering 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.summitpost.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In summer best months are from start of July till end of October.
  • SummitPost - Julian Alps -- Climbing, Hiking & Mountaineering 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.summitpost.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Subalpine is the region which mainly determines the manner of life of the population of the Alps.^ The Subalpine is the region which mainly determines the manner of life of the population of the Alps.

^ The larger villages are mostly in the mountain region, but in many parts of the Alps the villages stand in the subalpine region at heights varying from 4000 ft.

^ With its population of 5.65 million and surface area of 44,000 km², the Rhone Alps is France’s second largest region.

.On a rough estimate we may reckon that, of the space lying between the summits of the Alps and the low country on either side, one-quarter is available for cultivation, of which about one-half may be vineyards and corn-fields, while the remainder produces forage and grass.^ On a rough estimate we may reckon that, of the space lying between the summits of the Alps and the low country on either side, one-quarter is available for cultivation, of which about one-half may be vineyards and corn -fields, while the remainder produces forage and grass .

^ Although only containing about fifty major peaks over 4000m (13,123'), the Alps rise very steeply from low bases and feature extensive glaciation on thousands of their summits.
  • Alps - Peakbagger.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.peakbagger.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chamonix, France = climate is somewhere between Geneva & Zermatt, one of the drier alps areas.
  • The Alps: Berner Oberland & Loetschental, Switzerland 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.photoseek.com [Source type: General]

.About another quarter is utterly barren, consisting of snow-fields, glaciers, bare rock, lakes and the beds of streams.^ About another quarter is utterly barren, consisting of snow-fields, glaciers, bare rock, lakes and the beds of streams.

^ The Eastern Alps consist of a central mass of crystalline and schistose rocks flanked on each side by a zone of Mesozoic beds and on the north by an outer band of Tertiary deposits.

^ The evergreen oak is wild on the rocks about the Lake of Garda , and lemons are cultivated on a large scale, with partial protection in winter.

.There remains about one-half, which is divided between forest and pasture, and it is the produce of this half which mainly supports the relatively large population.^ There remains about one-half, which is divided between forest and pasture, and it is the produce of this half which mainly supports the relatively large population.

^ While large areas of habitat remain untouched, winter resorts and increasing human populations threaten this ecoregion.
  • Alps conifer and mixed forests - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ On a rough estimate we may reckon that, of the space lying between the summits of the Alps and the low country on either side, one-quarter is available for cultivation, of which about one-half may be vineyards and corn -fields, while the remainder produces forage and grass .

.For a quarter of the year the flocks and herds are fed on the upper pastures; but the true limit of the wealth of a district is the number of animals that can be supported during the long winter, and while one part of the population is engaged in tending the beasts and in making cheese and butter, the remainder is busy cutting hay and storing up winter food for the cattle.^ For a quarter of the year the flocks and herds are fed on the upper pastures; but the true limit of the wealth of a district is the number of animals that can be supported during the long winter, and while one part of the population is engaged in tending the beasts and in making cheese and butter , the remainder is busy cutting hay and storing up winter food for the cattle .

^ SUBNETWORK is a separately identifiable part of a larger network that typically represents a certain limited number of host computers, the hosts in a building or geographic area, or the hosts on an individual local area network.
  • alpS 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.cnsny.net [Source type: Reference]

^ The Alps The Alps make for what would probably be one of the most enchanting holidays that one will have during their lifetime.
  • Hotel Alps Austria, Hotel Apls Italy, Alps Hotel Reservations and Booking 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC hoteliux.com [Source type: General]

.The larger villages are mostly in the mountain region, but in many parts of the Alps the villages stand in the subalpine region at heights varying from 4000 ft.^ The larger villages are mostly in the mountain region, but in many parts of the Alps the villages stand in the subalpine region at heights varying from 4000 ft.

^ But historians can cite with precision many references to wine growing in the Alps and the region's prominence at various times over the past several hundred years.
  • FRENCH ALPS WINES 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.weimax.com [Source type: General]

^ Many travelers think of the Alps as a winter vacationland, but you'll find that nearly all the Bavarian resorts and villages boast year-round attractions.
  • Introduction in The Bavarian Alps at Frommer's 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.frommers.com [Source type: General]

to .55 00 ft.^ Alps, but on the southern slopes it often rises to 5000 ft., sometimes even to 55 00 ft.

above the sea, more rarely extending to about 6000 ft. .The most characteristic feature of this region is the prevalence of coniferous trees, which, where they have not been artificially kept down, form vast forests that cover a large part of the surface.^ The most characteristic feature of this region is the prevalence of coniferous trees, which, where they have not been artificially kept down, form vast forests that cover a large part of the surface.

^ As with nearby mountain chains, the Alps are very important as they contribute much of what is left of the original forest cover of central and southern Europe.
  • Alps conifer and mixed forests - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Terrestrial Ecoregions -- Alps conifer and mixed forests (PA0501) 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.worldwildlife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ Towards the SW the whole massif is lowering down to the Po river plane, the hilly landscape is fruitful in lower parts and covered with dense woods on upper parts.
  • SummitPost - Julian Alps -- Climbing, Hiking & Mountaineering 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.summitpost.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These play a most important part in the natural economy of the country.^ These play a most important part in the natural economy of the country.

^ In any case, however, the migration of these plants to the Alps must for the most part have taken place via the Arctic.

^ The best part is you can (for the most part) pull out and even edit the information you want from all these sources to create your own custom file.
  • Apple Learning Interchange - Google Earth: Small World, Your World, Our World 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC edcommunity.apple.com [Source type: General]

.They protect the valleys from destructive avalanches, and, retaining the superficial soil by their roots, they mitigate the destructive effects of heavy rains.^ They protect the valleys from destructive avalanches, and, retaining the superficial soil by their roots, they mitigate the destructive effects of heavy rains.

.In valleys where they have been rashly cut away, and the waters pour down the slopes unchecked, every tiny rivulet becomes a raging torrent, that carries off the grassy slopes and devastates the floor of the valley, covering the soil with gravel and debris.^ In valleys where they have been rashly cut away, and the waters pour down the slopes unchecked, every tiny rivulet becomes a raging torrent, that carries off the grassy slopes and devastates the floor of the valley, covering the soil with gravel and debris.

^ They protect the valleys from destructive avalanches, and, retaining the superficial soil by their roots, they mitigate the destructive effects of heavy rains.

.In the pine forests of the Alps the prevailing species are the common spruce and the silver fir; on siliceous soil the larch flourishes, and surpasses every other European species in height.^ In the pine forests of the Alps the prevailing species are the common spruce and the silver fir ; on siliceous soil the larch flourishes, and surpasses every other European species in height.

^ Mountain forests are composed of mixed beech ( Fagus sylvatica ) and silver fir ( Abies alba ), pure spruce ( Picea abies ), or prostrate pine ( Pinus mugo ) in the outer regions.
  • Alps conifer and mixed forests - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Terrestrial Ecoregions -- Alps conifer and mixed forests (PA0501) 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.worldwildlife.org [Source type: Academic]

^ But the many other great tours in the Ortler, Silvretta, Berner Oberland and countless other gems in the Alps, are relatively unknown among "non-European" skiers.

.The Scottish pine is chiefly found at a lower level and rarely forms forests.^ The Scottish pine is chiefly found at a lower level and rarely forms forests.

^ In the Northern Alps the pine forests rarely surpass the limit of 6000 ft.

^ The mughus, creeping pine, or Krummholz of the Germans, is common in the Eastern Alps, and sometimes forms on the higher mountains a distinct zone above the level of its congeners.

.The Siberian fir is found scattered at intervals throughout the Alps but is not common.^ The Siberian fir is found scattered at intervals throughout the Alps but is not common.

^ In the pine forests of the Alps the prevailing species are the common spruce and the silver fir ; on siliceous soil the larch flourishes, and surpasses every other European species in height.

^ The Alps are representative of the high habitat diversity that can be found in mountain systems, as 200 habitat types can be classified throughout the mountain range.
  • Alps conifer and mixed forests - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Academic]
  • Terrestrial Ecoregions -- Alps conifer and mixed forests (PA0501) 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.worldwildlife.org [Source type: Academic]

.The mughus, creeping pine, or Krummholz of the Germans, is common in the Eastern Alps, and sometimes forms on the higher mountains a distinct zone above the level of its congeners.^ The mughus, creeping pine, or Krummholz of the Germans, is common in the Eastern Alps, and sometimes forms on the higher mountains a distinct zone above the level of its congeners.

^ Formed during the Oligocene and Miocene epochs, the Alps are home to a high level of biodiversity .
  • Alps conifer and mixed forests - Encyclopedia of Earth 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.eoearth.org [Source type: Academic]

^ In the Western Alps the outer border of Molasse persists; but it no longer forms so well-defined a zone, and strips are infolded amongst the older rocks.

.In the Northern Alps the pine forests rarely surpass the limit of 6000 ft.^ In the Northern Alps the pine forests rarely surpass the limit of 6000 ft.

^ In the pine forests of the Alps the prevailing species are the common spruce and the silver fir ; on siliceous soil the larch flourishes, and surpasses every other European species in height.

^ Wolverines are a rare and elusive predator inhabiting the American Alps (photo from US Forest Service remote camera in the American Alps).
  • NCCC - American Alps Legacy Project 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.northcascades.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

above the sea, but on the south side they commonly attain .7000 ft., while the larch, Siberian fir and mughus often extend above that elevation.^ Siberian fir and mughus often extend above that elevation.

.Throughout the Teutonic region of the Alps the word Alp is used specifically for the upper pastures where cattle are fed in summer, but this region is held to include the whole space between the uppermost limit of trees and the first Alpine p pp appearance of permanent masses of snow.^ The native inhabitants of the Alps were naturally the first to use the alpine passes.

^ The stronghold of this last, the distinctively " Alpine " flora, is the region above the tree-limit.

^ Throughout the Teutonic region of the Alps the word Alp is used specifically for the upper pastures where cattle are fed in summer, but this region is held to include the whole space between the uppermost limit of trees and the first Alpine p pp appearance of permanent masses of snow.

.It is here that the characteristic vegetation of the Alps is developed in its full beauty and variety.^ It is here that the characteristic vegetation of the Alps is developed in its full beauty and variety.

^ Six regions or zones, which are best distinguished by their characteristic vegetation, are found in the Alps.

Shrubs are not wanting. .Three species of rhododendron vie with each other in the brilliancy of their masses of red or pink flowers; the common juniper rises higher still, along with three species of bilberry; and several dwarf willows attain nearly to the utmost limit of vegetation.^ Three species of rhododendron vie with each other in the brilliancy of their masses of red or pink flowers; the common juniper rises higher still, along with three species of bilberry ; and several dwarf willows attain nearly to the utmost limit of vegetation.

^ In the pine forests of the Alps the prevailing species are the common spruce and the silver fir ; on siliceous soil the larch flourishes, and surpasses every other European species in height.

.The upper limit of this region coincides with the so-called limit of perpetual snow.^ The upper limit of this region coincides with the so-called limit of perpetual snow.

^ Still, even with these reservations, the so-called line of perpetual snow is not fixed.

.On the higher parts of lofty mountains more snow falls in each year than is melted on the spot.^ On the higher parts of lofty mountains more snow falls in each year than is melted on the spot.

^ More of a massif than a single mountain, it has 10 summits over 4000m.
  • The Italian Alps from www.stayinpiedmont.com 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.stayinpiedmont.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As might be expected, the main chain boasts of more glaciers and eternal snow than the independent or external ranges.

.A portion of this is carried away by the wind before it is consolidated; a larger portion accumulates in hollows and depressions of the region. surface, and is gradually converted into glacier-ice, which descends by a slow secular motion into the deeper valleys, where it goes to swell perennial streams.^ A portion of this is carried away by the wind before it is consolidated; a larger portion accumulates in hollows and depressions of the region.

^ The accumulation of vast masses of snow, which have gradually been converted into permanent glaciers, maintains a gradation of very different climates within the narrow space that intervenes between the foot of the mountains and their upper ridges; it cools the breezes that are wafted to the plains on either side, but its most important function is to regulate the water-supply of that large region which is traversed by the streams of the Alps.

^ We continued along the mountain ridge, then descended on wide open slopes into the next valley toward the town of Wenns.

.As on a mountain the snow does not lie in beds of uniform thickness, and some parts are more exposed to the sun and warm winds than others, we commonly find beds of snow alternating with exposed slopes covered with brilliant vegetation; and to the observer near at hand there is no appearance in the least corresponding to the term limit of perpetual snow, though the case is otherwise when a high mountain-chain is viewed from a distance.^ As on a mountain the snow does not lie in beds of uniform thickness, and some parts are more exposed to the sun and warm winds than others, we commonly find beds of snow alternating with exposed slopes covered with brilliant vegetation; and to the observer near at hand there is no appearance in the least corresponding to the term limit of perpetual snow, though the case is otherwise when a high mountain-chain is viewed from a distance.

^ In the case of every mountain system geographers are disposed to regard, as a general rule, the watershed (or boundary dividing the waters flowing towards opposite slopes of the range) as marking the main chain, and this usage is justified in that the highest peaks often rise on or very near the watershed.

^ Three species of rhododendron vie with each other in the brilliancy of their masses of red or pink flowers; the common juniper rises higher still, along with three species of bilberry ; and several dwarf willows attain nearly to the utmost limit of vegetation.

.Similar conditions are repeated at many different points, so that the level at which large snow-beds show themselves along its flanks is approximately horizontal.^ Similar conditions are repeated at many different points, so that the level at which large snow-beds show themselves along its flanks is approximately horizontal.

^ Since the border between Austria and Italy runs along the northern chain of this large mountain range the itineraries are quite different.
  • SummitPost - Carnic Alps -- Climbing, Hiking & Mountaineering 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.summitpost.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.But this holds good only so far as the conditions are similar.^ But this holds good only so far as the conditions are similar.

.On the opposite sides of the same chain the exposure to the sun or to warm winds may cause a wide difference in the level of permanent snow; but in some cases the increased fall of snow on the side exposed to moist winds may more than compensate the increased influence of the sun's rays.^ On the opposite sides of the same chain the exposure to the sun or to warm winds may cause a wide difference in the level of permanent snow; but in some cases the increased fall of snow on the side exposed to moist winds may more than compensate the increased influence of the sun's rays.

^ As on a mountain the snow does not lie in beds of uniform thickness, and some parts are more exposed to the sun and warm winds than others, we commonly find beds of snow alternating with exposed slopes covered with brilliant vegetation; and to the observer near at hand there is no appearance in the least corresponding to the term limit of perpetual snow, though the case is otherwise when a high mountain-chain is viewed from a distance.

^ On the other side of Tarvisio the same picture - the wild, rugged group of Viš and Montaž , where some of the highest mountains of Julian Alps are located.
  • SummitPost - Julian Alps -- Climbing, Hiking & Mountaineering 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.summitpost.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Still, even with these reservations, the so-called line of perpetual snow is not fixed.^ NEW - Evening Appointment Line ALL Pediatrics has established an evening appointment line for existing patients, to call and schedule an evening sick appointment.

^ Even if called Pre-Alps, some of these summits are still high enough, rugged and hard to be climbed.
  • SummitPost - Julian Alps -- Climbing, Hiking & Mountaineering 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.summitpost.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The occurrence of favourable meteorological conditions during several successive seasons may and does increase the extent of the snow-fields, and lower the limit of seemingly permanent snow; while an opposite state of things may cause the limit to rise higher on the flanks of the mountains.^ As temperatures rise, so does the snow line.

^ The occurrence of favourable meteorological conditions during several successive seasons may and does increase the extent of the snow-fields, and lower the limit of seemingly permanent snow; while an opposite state of things may cause the limit to rise higher on the flanks of the mountains.

^ Three species of rhododendron vie with each other in the brilliancy of their masses of red or pink flowers; the common juniper rises higher still, along with three species of bilberry ; and several dwarf willows attain nearly to the utmost limit of vegetation.

.Hence all attempts to fix accurately the level of perpetual snow in the Alps are fallacious, and can at the best approach only to local accuracy for a particular district.^ Hence all attempts to fix accurately the level of perpetual snow in the Alps are fallacious, and can at the best approach only to local accuracy for a particular district.

^ Spring approaches and all across the Alps bears are slowly emerging from their winter slumber.
  • WWF - WWF's work in the European Alps 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.panda.org [Source type: News]

^ Another approach of the problem is to look at the passes in the Alps, and to find out which one suits the texts best.
  • Hannibal in the Alps 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.livius.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In some parts of the Alps the limit maybe set at about 8000 ft.^ In some parts of the Alps the limit maybe set at about 8000 ft.

^ The larger villages are mostly in the mountain region, but in many parts of the Alps the villages stand in the subalpine region at heights varying from 4000 ft.

^ In the Northern Alps the pine forests rarely surpass the limit of 6000 ft.

above the sea, while in others it cannot be placed much below 9500 ft.
more delicate tree. .These conditions are satisfied in English Miles o 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 £30 Peaks Passes Glaciers Land above 1500 feet left white Emery Walker sG As very little snow can rest on rocks that lie at an angle exceeding 60°, and this is soon removed by the wind, some steep masses of rock remain bare even near the summits of the highest peaks, but as almost every spot offering the least hold for vegetation is covered with snow, few flowering plants are seen above ii,000 ft.^ Several peaks rise above 10,000 ft (3,000 m); the highest is Mont Blanc .
  • Alps (mountains, Europe) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The highest summit in the crown of wild peaks.
  • SummitPost - Julian Alps -- Climbing, Hiking & Mountaineering 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.summitpost.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These conditions are satisfied in English Miles o 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 £30 Peaks Passes Glaciers Land above 1500 feet left white Emery Walker sG As very little snow can rest on rocks that lie at an angle exceeding 60°, and this is soon removed by the wind, some steep masses of rock remain bare even near the summits of the highest peaks, but as almost every spot offering the least hold for vegetation is covered with snow, few flowering plants are seen above ii,000 ft.

.There is reason to think, however, that it is the want of soil rather than climatal conditions that checks the upward extension of the alpine flora.^ There is reason to think, however, that it is the want of soil rather than climatal conditions that checks the upward extension of the alpine flora .

^ There are, however, alpine lakes higher up (e.g.

^ We must observe, as regards the plants of the lower alpine region, that it is the actual presence of a forest vegetation, rather than the theoretical treelimit, which affects their vertical distribution; so that, e.g.

.Increased direct effect of solar radiation compensates for the cold of the nights, and in the few spots where plants have been found in flower up to a height of 12,000 ft., nothing has indicated that the processes of vegetation were arrested by the severe cold which they must sometimes endure.^ Increased direct effect of solar radiation compensates for the cold of the nights, and in the few spots where plants have been found in flower up to a height of 12,000 ft., nothing has indicated that the processes of vegetation were arrested by the severe cold which they must sometimes endure.

^ Several peaks rise above 10,000 ft (3,000 m); the highest is Mont Blanc .
  • Alps (mountains, Europe) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The spots at which they were crossed are called passes (this word is sometimes though rarely applied to gorges only), and are the points at which the great chain sinks to form depressions, up to which deep-cut valleys lead from the plains.

.The climate of the glacial region has often been compared to that of the polar regions, but they are widely different.^ The climate of the glacial region has often been compared to that of the polar regions , but they are widely different.

^ They differ widely in skiing access, character and facilities ( Courchevel 1300-Le Praz, Courchevel 1550, Courchevel 1650 and Courchevel 1850).
  • thealps.com > Home 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.thealps.com [Source type: General]

^ The mean annual temperature of this region differs little from that of the British Islands; but the climatal conditions are widely different.

.Here, intense solar radiation by day, which raises the surface when dry to a temperature approaching 80° F., alternates with severe frost by night.^ Here, intense solar radiation by day, which raises the surface when dry to a temperature approaching 80° F., alternates with severe frost by night.

.There, a sun which never sets sends feeble rays that maintain a low equable temperature, rarely rising more than a few degrees above the freezing-point.^ There, a sun which never sets sends feeble rays that maintain a low equable temperature, rarely rising more than a few degrees above the freezing-point.

^ A few details have come down to us of the conquest of many of the Alpine tribes by Augustus, though not much more than their names.

^ There are some 600 ski resorts in the Alps, with more than 270 in Austria alone.
  • Alps (mountains, Europe) :: Tourism -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hence the upper region of the Alps sustains a far more varied and brilliant vegetation.^ Hence the upper region of the Alps sustains a far more varied and brilliant vegetation.

^ But historians can cite with precision many references to wine growing in the Alps and the region's prominence at various times over the past several hundred years.
  • FRENCH ALPS WINES 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.weimax.com [Source type: General]

^ The larger villages are mostly in the mountain region, but in many parts of the Alps the villages stand in the subalpine region at heights varying from 4000 ft.

4. Main Chain. - .In the case of every mountain system geographers are disposed to regard, as a general rule, the watershed (or boundary dividing the waters flowing towards opposite slopes of the range) as marking the main chain, and this usage is justified in that the highest peaks often rise on or very near the watershed.^ In the case of every mountain system geographers are disposed to regard, as a general rule, the watershed (or boundary dividing the waters flowing towards opposite slopes of the range) as marking the main chain, and this usage is justified in that the highest peaks often rise on or very near the watershed.

^ On the Azusagawa River and surrounded by mountains, such as the popular Hotakadake , Japan's third-highest peak, it is a good point to start mountain climbing in the Northern Alps.
  • Japan Omnibus - Sightseeing - Chubu Area - Japan Alps 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.japan-zone.com [Source type: General]

^ The Alps, therefore, are not composed of a single range (as shown on the old maps) but of a great " divide," flanked on either side by other important ranges, which, however, do not comprise such lofty peaks as the main watershed.

.Yet, as a matter of fact, several important mountain groups are situated on one or other side of the watershed of the Alps, and form almost independent ranges, being only connected with the main chain by a kind of peninsula: such are the Dauphine Alps, the Eastern and Western Graians, the entire Bernese Oberland, the Todi, Albula and Silvretta groups, the Ortler and Adamello ranges, and the Dolomites of south Tirol, not to speak of the lower Alps of the Vorarlberg, Bavaria and Salzburg.^ Yet, as a matter of fact, several important mountain groups are situated on one or other side of the watershed of the Alps, and form almost independent ranges, being only connected with the main chain by a kind of peninsula: such are the Dauphine Alps, the Eastern and Western Graians, the entire Bernese Oberland, the Todi , Albula and Silvretta groups, the Ortler and Adamello ranges, and the Dolomites of south Tirol , not to speak of the lower Alps of the Vorarlberg , Bavaria and Salzburg.

^ In the following remarks we propose to follow the main watershed from one end of the Alps to the other.

^ Thus there are lofty ranges parallel to that which forms the main watershed.

.Of course each of these semi-detached ranges has a watershed of its own, like the lateral ridges that branch off from the main watershed.^ Of course each of these semi-detached ranges has a watershed of its own, like the lateral ridges that branch off from the main watershed.

^ There are also schemes (more or less advanced) for piercing the Spliigen and the Hohe Tauern, both on the main ridge, and the LOtschen Pass , on one of the external ranges.

^ Thus there are lofty ranges parallel to that which forms the main watershed.

.Thus there are lofty ranges parallel to that which forms the main watershed.^ Thus there are lofty ranges parallel to that which forms the main watershed.

^ The Alps, therefore, are not composed of a single range (as shown on the old maps) but of a great " divide," flanked on either side by other important ranges, which, however, do not comprise such lofty peaks as the main watershed.

^ They are formed of numerous ranges, divided by comparatively deep valleys, which, with many local exceptions, tend towards parallelism with the general direction of the whole mass.

.The Alps, therefore, are not composed of a single range (as shown on the old maps) but of a great " divide," flanked on either side by other important ranges, which, however, do not comprise such lofty peaks as the main watershed.^ The Alps, therefore, are not composed of a single range (as shown on the old maps) but of a great " divide," flanked on either side by other important ranges, which, however, do not comprise such lofty peaks as the main watershed.

^ Thus there are lofty ranges parallel to that which forms the main watershed.

^ In the case of every mountain system geographers are disposed to regard, as a general rule, the watershed (or boundary dividing the waters flowing towards opposite slopes of the range) as marking the main chain, and this usage is justified in that the highest peaks often rise on or very near the watershed.

.In the following remarks we propose to follow the main watershed from one end of the Alps to the other.^ In the following remarks we propose to follow the main watershed from one end of the Alps to the other.

^ The Alps, therefore, are not composed of a single range (as shown on the old maps) but of a great " divide," flanked on either side by other important ranges, which, however, do not comprise such lofty peaks as the main watershed.

^ In the one case we have no direct knowledge (though the Romans probably selected the passes pointed out to them by the natives as the easiest), while in the other we hear almost exclusively of the passes across the main chain or the principal passes of the Alps.

.Starting from the Col d'Altare or di Cadibona (west of Savona), the main chain extends first south-west, then north-west to the Col de Tenda, though nowhere rising much beyond the zone of coniferous trees.^ Starting from the Col d'Altare or di Cadibona (west of Savona), the main chain extends first south-west, then north-west to the Col de Tenda, though nowhere rising much beyond the zone of coniferous trees.

^ Beyond the Col de Tenda the direction is first roughly west, then north-west to the Rocher des Trois Eveques (939 0 ft.

^ To the west the limit will then be the Col de Tenda (6145 ft.

.Beyond the Col de Tenda the direction is first roughly west, then north-west to the Rocher des Trois Eveques (939 0 ft.^ Beyond the Col de Tenda the direction is first roughly west, then north-west to the Rocher des Trois Eveques (939 0 ft.

^ To the west the limit will then be the Col de Tenda (6145 ft.

^ Col de Tenda (Tenda to Cuneo), carriage road, railway beneath.

), just south of the .Mont Enchastraye (9695 ft.^ Mont Enchastraye (9695 ft.

), several peaks of about .10,000 ft.^ Several peaks rise above 10,000 ft (3,000 m); the highest is Mont Blanc .
  • Alps (mountains, Europe) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the other hand the chain between the Great St Bernard and the Simplon sinks at barely half a dozen points below a level of 10,000 ft.

^ Glaciers cover about 1,500 sq mi (3,900 sq km), mostly at elevations above 10,000 ft (3,000 m).
  • Alps (mountains, Europe) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

rising on the watershed, though the highest of all, the .Punta dell' Argentera (10,794 ft.^ Punta dell' Argentera.

^ Punta dell' Argentera (10,794 ft.

) stands a little way to its north. .From the Rocher des Trois Eveques the watershed runs due north for a long distance, though of the two loftiest peaks of this region one, the Aiguille de Chambeyron (11,155 ft.^ The Drôme and Isère are possible, and the first one should be preferred because in that case the distance to Gap can be covered in two or three days.
  • Hannibal in the Alps 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.livius.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Though it's long been on the map, the Savoie region is well below the radar of most wine drinkers, particularly those here in California.
  • FRENCH ALPS WINES 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.weimax.com [Source type: General]

), is just to the west, and the other, the .Monte Viso (12,609 ft.^ Monte Viso (12,609 ft.

^ But, though it rises in a number of lofty peaks, such as the Mont Velan (12,353 ft.

^ A number of high peaks crown our watershed before it attains the Mont Dolent (12,543 ft.

), is just to the east of the watershed. .From the head of the Val Pellice the main chain runs north-west, and diminishes much in average height till it reaches the Mont Thabor (10,440 ft.^ From the head of the Val Pellice the main chain runs north-west, and diminishes much in average height till it reaches the Mont Thabor (10,440 ft.

^ Several peaks rise above 10,000 ft (3,000 m); the highest is Mont Blanc .
  • Alps (mountains, Europe) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A few miles farther north these same beds rise again to the surface at the summit of an anticlinal which runs parallel to the chain.

), which forms the apex of a salient angle which the main chain here presents towards the west. .Hence the main watershed extends eastwards, culminating in the Aiguille de Scolette (11,500 ft.^ Aiguille de Scolette..

^ Hence the main watershed extends eastwards, culminating in the Aiguille de Scolette (11,500 ft.

^ From the Rocher des Trois Eveques the watershed runs due north for a long distance, though of the two loftiest peaks of this region one, the Aiguille de Chambeyron (11,155 ft.

), but makes a great .curve to the north-west and back to the south-east before rising in the Rochemelon (11,605 ft.^ Rochemelon (11,605 ft.

^ The map covers from Pontcharra in the north to Lac du Chambon in the south and from Grenoble in the west to Valloire in the east; includes Grenoble, Chartreuse, and Grandes Rousses.
  • Alps Maps from Omni Resources - International Map & Guidebook Specialists. 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.omnimap.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Soon after our watershed makes a last bend to the south-east and culminates in the Terglou (9400 ft.

), which may be considered as a re-entering angle in the great rampart by which Italy is guarded from its neighbours. .Thence the direction taken is north as far as the eastern summit (11,693 ft.^ Thence the direction taken is north as far as the eastern summit (11,693 ft.

^ Thence for a short way the direction is north to the Col de la Seigne, and then north-east along the crest of the Mont Blanc chain, which culminates in the peak of Mont Blanc (15,782 ft.

^ Beyond the Col de Tenda the direction is first roughly west, then north-west to the Rocher des Trois Eveques (939 0 ft.

) of the .Levanna, the watershed rising in a series of snowy peaks, though the loftiest point of the region, the Pointe de Charbonel (12,336 ft.^ But all the loftiest peaks rise on it: Scopi (10,499 ft.

^ Levanna, the watershed rising in a series of snowy peaks, though the loftiest point of the region, the Pointe de Charbonel (12,336 ft.

^ Tour du Grand St Pierre Pointe des Sengies (E) (E) 12,113 Uja di Ciamarella (C) 12,061 Cima di Charforon (E) 12,025 Grande Motte (W).

), stands a little to the west. .Once more the chain bends to the north-west, rising in several lofty peaks (the highest is the Aiguille de la Grande Sassiere, 12,323 ft.^ Once more the chain bends to the north-west, rising in several lofty peaks (the highest is the Aiguille de la Grande Sassiere, 12,323 ft.

^ Tour du Grand St Pierre Pointe des Sengies (E) (E) 12,113 Uja di Ciamarella (C) 12,061 Cima di Charforon (E) 12,025 Grande Motte (W).

^ Signal du Mont Iseran (C) 10,634 11,871 Pointe de la Rechasse (W) 10,575 11,838 Grand Assaly (C).

), before attaining the considerable depression of the Little St Bernard Pass. .Thence for a short way the direction is north to the Col de la Seigne, and then north-east along the crest of the Mont Blanc chain, which culminates in the peak of Mont Blanc (15,782 ft.^ Mont Blanc de Seilon.

^ Thence for a short way the direction is north to the Col de la Seigne, and then north-east along the crest of the Mont Blanc chain, which culminates in the peak of Mont Blanc (15,782 ft.

^ Signal du Mont Iseran (C) 10,634 11,871 Pointe de la Rechasse (W) 10,575 11,838 Grand Assaly (C).

), the loftiest in the Alps. .A number of high peaks crown our watershed before it attains the Mont Dolent (12,543 ft.^ A number of high peaks crown our watershed before it attains the Mont Dolent (12,543 ft.

^ Monte Viso (12,609 ft.

^ But, though it rises in a number of lofty peaks, such as the Mont Velan (12,353 ft.

). .Thence after a short dip to the south-east, our chain takes near the Great St Bernard Pass the generally eastern direction that it maintains till it reaches Monte Rosa,whence it bends northwards, making one small dip to the east as far as the Simplon Pass.^ Thence after a short dip to the south-east, our chain takes near the Great St Bernard Pass the generally eastern direction that it maintains till it reaches Monte Rosa,whence it bends northwards, making one small dip to the east as far as the Simplon Pass .

^ The small coach wound around the hairpin turns, and one of our mates kept putting his hands in front of his face, as he was afraid to look out the window.
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^ Hence the passes that can be shown to have been certainly known to them are comparatively few in number: they are, in topographical order from west to east, the Col de l'Argentiere, the Mont Genevre , the two St Bernards, the Spliigen, the Septimer, the Brenner, the Radsta.dter Tauern, the SOlkscharte, the P16cken and the Pontebba (or Saifnitz).

.It is in the portion of the watershed between the Great St Bernard and the Simplon that the main chain maintains a greater average height than in any other part.^ It is in the portion of the watershed between the Great St Bernard and the Simplon that the main chain maintains a greater average height than in any other part.

^ On the other hand the chain between the Great St Bernard and the Simplon sinks at barely half a dozen points below a level of 10,000 ft.

^ The Alps, therefore, are not composed of a single range (as shown on the old maps) but of a great " divide," flanked on either side by other important ranges, which, however, do not comprise such lofty peaks as the main watershed.

.But, though it rises in a number of lofty peaks, such as the Mont Velan (12,353 ft.^ But, though it rises in a number of lofty peaks, such as the Mont Velan (12,353 ft.

^ Monte Viso (12,609 ft.

^ A number of high peaks crown our watershed before it attains the Mont Dolent (12,543 ft.

), the .Matterhorn (14,782 ft.^ Matterhorn (14,782 ft.

), the .Lyskamm (14,889 ft.^ Lyskamm (14,889 ft.

), the .Nord End of Monte Rosa (15,132 ft.^ Nord End of Monte Rosa (15,132 ft.

^ Monte Rosa itself, and the Dom (14,942 ft.

^ Monte Rosa (Dufour spitze) 15,217 Nord End (Monte Rosa) 15,132 Dom (Mischabelhorner) 14,942 Lyskamm.

), and the .Weissmies (13,226 ft.^ Weissmies (13,226 ft.

), yet many of the highest points of the region, such as the .Grand Combin (14,164 ft.^ Grand Combin (14,164 ft.

), the .Dent Blanche (14,318 ft.^ Dent Blanche (14,318 ft.

), the .Weisshorn (14,804 ft.^ Weisshorn (14,804 ft.

^ Weisshorn 14,804 Matterhorn.

), the true summit or .Dufourspitze (15,217 ft.^ Dufourspitze (15,217 ft.

) of .Monte Rosa itself, and the Dom (14,942 ft.^ Monte Rosa itself, and the Dom (14,942 ft.

^ Nord End of Monte Rosa (15,132 ft.

^ Monte Rosa (Dufour spitze) 15,217 Nord End (Monte Rosa) 15,132 Dom (Mischabelhorner) 14,942 Lyskamm.

), all rise on its northern slope and not on the main watershed. .On the other hand the chain between the Great St Bernard and the Simplon sinks at barely half a dozen points below a level of 10,000 ft.^ Italy - Great St. Bernard Valley .
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.The Simplon Pass corresponds to what may be called a dislocation of the main chain.^ The Simplon Pass corresponds to what may be called a dislocation of the main chain.

^ It is in the portion of the watershed between the Great St Bernard and the Simplon that the main chain maintains a greater average height than in any other part.

^ On the other hand, if from the Dreiherrenspitze we cleave to the true main watershed of the Alpine chain, we find that it dips south, passes over the Hochgall (11,287 ft.

.Thence to the St Gotthard the divide runs north-east, all the higher summits (including the Monte Leone, 11,684 ft., and the Pizzo Rotondo, 10,489 ft.^ Pizzo Gallegione (10,201 ft.

^ Thence to the St Gotthard the divide runs north-east, all the higher summits (including the Monte Leone , 11,684 ft., and the Pizzo Rotondo, 10,489 ft.

^ Thence the direction taken is north as far as the eastern summit (11,693 ft.

) rising on it, a curious contrast to the long stretch just described. .From the St Gotthard to the Maloja the watershed between the basins of the Rhine and Po runs in an easterly direction as a whole, though making two great dips towards the south, first to near the Vogelberg (10,565 ft.^ From the St Gotthard to the Maloja the watershed between the basins of the Rhine and Po runs in an easterly direction as a whole, though making two great dips towards the south, first to near the Vogelberg (10,565 ft.

^ From the Rocher des Trois Eveques the watershed runs due north for a long distance, though of the two loftiest peaks of this region one, the Aiguille de Chambeyron (11,155 ft.

^ On the other hand the chain between the Great St Bernard and the Simplon sinks at barely half a dozen points below a level of 10,000 ft.

) and again to near the .Pizzo Gallegione (10,201 ft.^ Pizzo Gallegione (10,201 ft.

), so that it presents a broken and irregular appearance. .But all the loftiest peaks rise on it: Scopi (10,499 ft.^ But all the loftiest peaks rise on it: Scopi (10,499 ft.

^ Several peaks rise above 10,000 ft (3,000 m); the highest is Mont Blanc .
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^ But, though it rises in a number of lofty peaks, such as the Mont Velan (12,353 ft.

), .Piz Medel (10,509 ft.^ Piz Timun (10,502 ft.

^ Piz Medel (10,509 ft.

), the .Rheinwaldhorn (11,149 ft.^ Rheinwaldhorn (11,149 ft.

), the .Tambohorn (10,749 ft.^ Tambohorn (10,749 ft.

) and .Piz Timun (10,502 ft.^ Piz Timun (10,502 ft.

^ Piz Medel (10,509 ft.

^ Arosa Rothhorn 9,794 10,502 Piz Curver..

).
.From the Maloja Pass the main watershed dips to the southeast for a short distance, and then runs eastwards and nearly over the highest summit of the Bernina group, the Piz Bernina (13,304 ft.^ Being aware of their beauty, the summits of Martuljek group are posing just above the main valley of Sava river.
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), to the Bernina Pass. .Thence to the Reschen Scheideck Pass the main chain is ill-defined, though on it rises the Corno di Campo (10,844 ft.^ Reschen Scheideck Pass (4902 ft.

^ Corno di Campo.

^ Thence to the Reschen Scheideck Pass the main chain is ill-defined, though on it rises the Corno di Campo (10,844 ft.

), beyond which it runs slightly north-east past the sources of the .Adda and the Fra g ile Pass, sinks to form the depression of the Ofen Pass, soon bends north and rises once more in the Piz Sesvenna (10,568 ft.^ Piz Timun (10,502 ft.

^ Adda and the Fra g ile Pass, sinks to form the depression of the Ofen Pass, soon bends north and rises once more in the Piz Sesvenna (10,568 ft.

^ Piz Medel (10,509 ft.

).
.The break in the continuity of the Alpine chain marked by the deep valley, the Vintschgau, of the upper Adige (Etsch) is one of the most remarkable features in the orography of the Alps.^ The break in the continuity of the Alpine chain marked by the deep valley, the Vintschgau, of the upper Adige (Etsch) is one of the most remarkable features in the orography of the Alps.

^ The following is a list of the most thoroughly characteristic alpine plants - all of them ipso facto members of the endemic element - which are at once peculiar to the Alps (or practically I. 48 so) and widely distributed within the limits of the chain.

^ But you even don't need to enter deep valleys if you want to admire the most famous views on Julian Alps peaks and walls.
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.The little Reschen lake which forms the chief source of the Adige is only 13 ft.^ The little Reschen lake which forms the chief source of the Adige is only 13 ft.

^ The most singular, and probably the loftiest, lake in the Alps is the ever-frozen tarn that forms the summit of the Roccia Viva (11,976 ft.

below the .Reschen Scheideck Pass (4902 ft.^ Reschen Scheideck Pass (4902 ft.

^ Io,640 Ramoljoch (Vent to Gurgl), snow 1'0.479 Langtaufererjoch (Vent to the Reschen Scheideck Pass), snow.

^ Thence to the Reschen Scheideck Pass the main chain is ill-defined, though on it rises the Corno di Campo (10,844 ft.

), and by it is but 5 m. from the Inn valley. .Eastward of this pass, the main chain runs north-east to the Brenner Pass along the snowy crest of the Oetzthal and Stubai Alps, the loftiest point on it being the Weisskugel (12,291 ft., Oetzthal), for the highest summits both of the Oetzthal and of the Stubai districts, the Wildspitze (12,382 ft.^ Eastward of this pass, the main chain runs north-east to the Brenner Pass along the snowy crest of the Oetzthal and Stubai Alps, the loftiest point on it being the Weisskugel (12,291 ft., Oetzthal), for the highest summits both of the Oetzthal and of the Stubai districts, the Wildspitze (12,382 ft.

^ From the Rocher des Trois Eveques the watershed runs due north for a long distance, though of the two loftiest peaks of this region one, the Aiguille de Chambeyron (11,155 ft.

^ A few miles farther north these same beds rise again to the surface at the summit of an anticlinal which runs parallel to the chain.

) and the .Zuckerhiitl (11,520 ft.^ Zuckerhiitl (11,520 ft.

) stand a little to the north.
.The Brenner (4495 ft.^ The Brenner (4495 ft.

) is almost the lowest of all the great .carriage-road passes across the main chain, and has always been the chief means of communication between Germany and Italy.^ Scharnitz or Seefeld Pass (Partenkirchen to Zirl), carriage road Hirschbiihel Pass (Berchtesgaden to Saalfelden), carriage road.

^ Passo di Valles (Paneveggio to Cencenighe), foot path 6,667 Rolle Pass (Predazzo to San Martino di Castrozza and Primiero), carriage road.

^ Both will be exclusively rail and will shave at least an hour off trips between France and Germany and Italy.

.For some way beyond it the watershed runs eastwards over the highest crest of the Zillerthal Alps, which attains 11,559 ft.^ For some way beyond it the watershed runs eastwards over the highest crest of the Zillerthal Alps, which attains 11,559 ft.

^ From the Rocher des Trois Eveques the watershed runs due north for a long distance, though of the two loftiest peaks of this region one, the Aiguille de Chambeyron (11,155 ft.

^ The highest permanently inhabited village in the Alps is Juf, 6998 ft.

in the Hochfeiler. .But, a little farther, at the Dreiherrenspitze (11,500 ft.^ But, a little farther, at the Dreiherrenspitze (11,500 ft.

^ On the other hand, if from the Dreiherrenspitze we cleave to the true main watershed of the Alpine chain, we find that it dips south, passes over the Hochgall (11,287 ft.

^ Hence the main watershed extends eastwards, culminating in the Aiguille de Scolette (11,500 ft.

) we have to choose between following the watershed southwards, or keeping due east along the highest crest of the .Greater Tauern Alps.^ The eastward direction is maintained and the watershed (though not the chief Alpine watershed) continues through the Greater Tauern Alps, culminating in the Gross Venediger (12,008 ft.

^ Greater Tauern Alps.

.(a) The latter course is adopted by many geographers and has much in its favour.^ The latter course is adopted by many geographers and has much in its favour.

.The eastward direction is maintained and the watershed (though not the chief Alpine watershed) continues through the Greater Tauern Alps, culminating in the Gross Venediger (12,008 ft.^ Gross Glockner (12,461 ft.

^ The eastward direction is maintained and the watershed (though not the chief Alpine watershed) continues through the Greater Tauern Alps, culminating in the Gross Venediger (12,008 ft.

^ But, though it rises in a number of lofty peaks, such as the Mont Velan (12,353 ft.

), for the .Gross Glockner (12,461 ft.^ Gross Glockner (12,461 ft.

^ The eastward direction is maintained and the watershed (though not the chief Alpine watershed) continues through the Greater Tauern Alps, culminating in the Gross Venediger (12,008 ft.

) rises to the south. .Our chain bends northeast near the Radstddter Tauern Pass, and preserves that direction through the Lesser Tauern Alps to the Semmering Pass.^ Our chain bends northeast near the Radstddter Tauern Pass, and preserves that direction through the Lesser Tauern Alps to the Semmering Pass.

^ In the one case we have no direct knowledge (though the Romans probably selected the passes pointed out to them by the natives as the easiest), while in the other we hear almost exclusively of the passes across the main chain or the principal passes of the Alps.

^ Thence after a short dip to the south-east, our chain takes near the Great St Bernard Pass the generally eastern direction that it maintains till it reaches Monte Rosa,whence it bends northwards, making one small dip to the east as far as the Simplon Pass .

.(b) On the other hand, if from the Dreiherrenspitze we cleave to the true main watershed of the Alpine chain, we find that it dips south, passes over the Hochgall (11,287 ft.^ On the other hand, if from the Dreiherrenspitze we cleave to the true main watershed of the Alpine chain, we find that it dips south, passes over the Hochgall (11,287 ft.

^ On the other hand the chain between the Great St Bernard and the Simplon sinks at barely half a dozen points below a level of 10,000 ft.

^ In the one case we have no direct knowledge (though the Romans probably selected the passes pointed out to them by the natives as the easiest), while in the other we hear almost exclusively of the passes across the main chain or the principal passes of the Alps.

), the culminating point of the .Rieserferner group, and then sinks to the Toblach Pass, but at a point a little east of the great Dolomite peak of the Drei Zinnen it bends east again, and rises in the Monte Coglians (9128 ft., the monarch of the Carnic Alps).^ Rieserferner group, and then sinks to the Toblach Pass, but at a point a little east of the great Dolomite peak of the Drei Zinnen it bends east again, and rises in the Monte Coglians (9128 ft., the monarch of the Carnic Alps).

^ But in all parts of the great chain itself, the term Alp (or Alm in the Eastern Alps) is exclusively applied to the high mountain pastures (see ALP), and not to the peaks and ridges of the chain.

^ Thence for a short way the direction is north to the Col de la Seigne, and then north-east along the crest of the Mont Blanc chain, which culminates in the peak of Mont Blanc (15,782 ft.

.Soon after our watershed makes a last bend to the south-east and culminates in the Terglou (9400 ft.^ Terglou (9400 ft.

^ Soon after our watershed makes a last bend to the south-east and culminates in the Terglou (9400 ft.

^ A number of high peaks crown our watershed before it attains the Mont Dolent (12,543 ft.

), the highest point of the .Julic Alps, though the Grintovc (8429 ft., the culminating point of the Karawankas Alps) stands more to the east.^ Gangolf Haub - Jalovec On the south-east European Alps (see also Alps - Eastern part GROUP page) could not finish more beautifully as they do with the group of Julian Alps.
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.Finally our watershed turns south and ends near the great limestone plateau of the Birnbaumerwald, between Laibach and Gorz.^ Finally our watershed turns south and ends near the great limestone plateau of the Birnbaumerwald, between Laibach and Gorz .

^ Soon after our watershed makes a last bend to the south-east and culminates in the Terglou (9400 ft.

^ From the St Gotthard to the Maloja the watershed between the basins of the Rhine and Po runs in an easterly direction as a whole, though making two great dips towards the south, first to near the Vogelberg (10,565 ft.

.As might be expected, the main chain boasts of more glaciers and eternal snow than the independent or external ranges.^ As might be expected, the main chain boasts of more glaciers and eternal snow than the independent or external ranges.

^ Cevennes , the Jura , the hills of central Germany, the Carpathians, the Apennines ), which ar really independent ranges rather than offshoots of the main chain, the best limits are on the west (strictly speaking south), the Col d'Altare or di Cadibona (1624 ft.

^ Among the great alpine rivers we may distinguish two classes: those which spring directly from glaciers and those which rise in lakes, these being fed by eternal snows or glaciers.

.Yet it is a curious fact that the three longest glaciers in the Alps (the Great Aletsch, 162 m., and the Unteraar and the Fiescher, each 10 m.^ Yet it is a curious fact that the three longest glaciers in the Alps (the Great Aletsch, 162 m., and the Unteraar and the Fiescher, each 10 m.

^ Summaries of the Alpine history of the three great divisions of the Alps are given in (W. Alps) L. Vaccarone, Statistica delle Prime Ascensioni nelle Alpi Occidentali (3rd.

^ In the Eastern Alps the longest glacier is the Pasterze (rather over 64 m.

) are all in the Bernese Oberland. .In the main chain the two longest are both 94 m., the Mer de Glace at Chamonix and the Gorner at Zermatt.^ In the main chain the two longest are both 94 m., the Mer de Glace at Chamonix and the Gorner at Zermatt .

.In the Eastern Alps the longest glacier is the Pasterze (rather over 64 m.^ In the Eastern Alps the longest glacier is the Pasterze (rather over 64 m.

^ But the next two longest glaciers in the Eastern Alps (the Hintereis, 64 m., and the Gepatsch, 6 m.

^ Yet it is a curious fact that the three longest glaciers in the Alps (the Great Aletsch, 162 m., and the Unteraar and the Fiescher, each 10 m.

), which is not near the true main watershed, though it clings to the slope of the .Greater Tauern range, east of the Dreiherrenspitze.^ Greater Tauern range, east of the Dreiherrenspitze.

.But the next two longest glaciers in the Eastern Alps (the Hintereis, 64 m., and the Gepatsch, 6 m.^ In the Eastern Alps the longest glacier is the Pasterze (rather over 64 m.

^ But the next two longest glaciers in the Eastern Alps (the Hintereis, 64 m., and the Gepatsch, 6 m.

^ Yet it is a curious fact that the three longest glaciers in the Alps (the Great Aletsch, 162 m., and the Unteraar and the Fiescher, each 10 m.

) are both in the .Oetzthal Alps, and so close to the true main watershed.^ Oetzthal Alps, and so close to the true main watershed.

^ On the other hand, if from the Dreiherrenspitze we cleave to the true main watershed of the Alpine chain, we find that it dips south, passes over the Hochgall (11,287 ft.

^ In the following remarks we propose to follow the main watershed from one end of the Alps to the other.

.The so-called alpine lakes are the sheets of water found at the foot of the Alps, on either slope, just where the rivers that form them issue into the plains.^ The so-called alpine lakes are the sheets of water found at the foot of the Alps, on either slope, just where the rivers that form them issue into the plains.

^ With the return of a milder climate, the so-called northern forms of the present alpine flora were split in two, one portion following close on the northern ice in its gradual retreat to the Arctic, the other following the shrinking glaciers till the plants were able to establish (or re-establish) themselves on the slopes of the Alps.

^ One result of this limit, marked out by Nature herself, is that the waters which flow down the northern slope of the Alps find their way either into the North Sea through the Rhine, or into the Black Sea by means of the Danube , not a drop reaching the Baltic Sea .

.There are, however, alpine lakes higher up (e.g.^ There are, however, alpine lakes higher up (e.g.

^ There is reason to think, however, that it is the want of soil rather than climatal conditions that checks the upward extension of the alpine flora .

the .lake of Thun, and those in the Upper Engadine, in the heart of the mountains, though these are naturally smaller in extent, while the true lakes of the High Alps are represented by the glacier lakes of the Marjelensee (near the Great Aletsch glacier) and those on the northern slope of the Col de Fenetre, between Aosta and the Val de Bagnes.^ Thun , and those in the Upper Engadine , in the heart of the mountains, though these are naturally smaller in extent, while the true lakes of the High Alps are represented by the glacier lakes of the Marjelensee (near the Great Aletsch glacier) and those on the northern slope of the Col de Fenetre, between Aosta and the Val de Bagnes.

^ The Jurassic and Cretaceous beds also differ, though in a less degree, from those of northern Europe.

^ Col de Chermontane (Val de Bagnes to Arolla), snow 12 ,543 Cimes Blanches (Val Tournanche to Ayas), bridle path 12,540 Col de Torrent (Evolena to the Val de Torrent), bridle path 12,527 Augstbord Pass (St Niklaus to Turtmann), bridle path.

.The most singular, and probably the loftiest, lake in the Alps is the ever-frozen tarn that forms the summit of the Roccia Viva (11,976 ft.^ The most singular, and probably the loftiest, lake in the Alps is the ever-frozen tarn that forms the summit of the Roccia Viva (11,976 ft.

^ For some way beyond it the watershed runs eastwards over the highest crest of the Zillerthal Alps, which attains 11,559 ft.

^ Thence the direction taken is north as far as the eastern summit (11,693 ft.

) in the Eastern Graians.
.Among the great alpine rivers we may distinguish two classes: those which spring directly from glaciers and those which rise in lakes, these being fed by eternal snows or glaciers.^ Among the great alpine rivers we may distinguish two classes: those which spring directly from glaciers and those which rise in lakes, these being fed by eternal snows or glaciers.

^ In this respect we may note that two small crustaceans, Diaptomus bacillifer and D. denticornis, swarm in the ice-cold waters of the highest alpine tarns throughout the entire chain; and the former of these is also a characteristic inhabitant of pools formed from melting snow in the extreme north.

^ As might be expected, the main chain boasts of more glaciers and eternal snow than the independent or external ranges.

.In the former class are the Isere, the Rhone, the Aar, the Ticino, the Tosa, the Hinter (or main) Rhine and the Linth; while in the latter class we have the Durance, the Po, the Reuss, the Vorder and middle branches of the Rhine, the Inn, the Adda, the Oglio and the Adige.^ In the former class are the Isere, the Rhone , the Aar , the Ticino, the Tosa, the Hinter (or main) Rhine and the Linth ; while in the latter class we have the Durance , the Po, the Reuss , the Vorder and middle branches of the Rhine, the Inn, the Adda, the Oglio and the Adige.

.The Piave and the Drave seem to be outside either class.^ The Piave and the Drave seem to be outside either class.

.5. Principal Passes.-Though the Alps form a barrier they have never formed an impassable barrier, since, from the earliest days onwards, they have been traversed first, perhaps, for purposes of war or commerce, and later by pilgrims, students and tourists.^ Principal Passes.-Though the Alps form a barrier they have never formed an impassable barrier, since, from the earliest days onwards, they have been traversed first, perhaps, for purposes of war or commerce, and later by pilgrims, students and tourists.

^ But to the outer world these passes first became known when the Romans traversed them in order to conquer the world beyond.

^ The spots at which they were crossed are called passes (this word is sometimes though rarely applied to gorges only), and are the points at which the great chain sinks to form depressions, up to which deep-cut valleys lead from the plains.

.The spots at which they were crossed are called passes (this word is sometimes though rarely applied to gorges only), and are the points at which the great chain sinks to form depressions, up to which deep-cut valleys lead from the plains.^ The spots at which they were crossed are called passes (this word is sometimes though rarely applied to gorges only), and are the points at which the great chain sinks to form depressions, up to which deep-cut valleys lead from the plains.

^ It covers some 325 kilometres of mountain and valley and crossed 16 passes with an accumulation of almost 18,000 metres of height gain in fifteen stages.
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^ Principal Passes.-Though the Alps form a barrier they have never formed an impassable barrier, since, from the earliest days onwards, they have been traversed first, perhaps, for purposes of war or commerce, and later by pilgrims, students and tourists.

.Hence the oldest name for such passes is Mont (still retained in cases of the Mont Cenis and the Monte Moro), for it was many ages before this term was especially applied to the peaks of the Alps, which with a few very rare exceptions (e.g.^ Hence the oldest name for such passes is Mont (still retained in cases of the Mont Cenis and the Monte Moro), for it was many ages before this term was especially applied to the peaks of the Alps, which with a few very rare exceptions (e.g.

^ The derivation of the name Alps is still very uncertain, some writers connecting it with a Celtic root alb , said to mean height, while others suggest the Latin adjective albus (white), referring to the colour of the snowy peaks.

^ Though among mammalia - as also in the case of the birds - there are but few forms peculiar to the Alps, many interesting animals have found in the high mountains at least a temporary refuge from man.

the .Monte Viso was known to the Romans as Vesulus) were long simply disregarded.^ Monte Viso was known to the Romans as Vesulus) were long simply disregarded.

^ Of these the Mont Genevre and the Brenner were the most frequented, while it will be noticed that in the Central Alps only two passes (the Spliigen and the Septimer) were certainly known to the Romans.

.The native inhabitants of the Alps were naturally the first to use the alpine passes.^ The native inhabitants of the Alps were naturally the first to use the alpine passes.

^ As time went on the travellers (with whatever object) who used the great alpine passes could not put up any longer with the bad old mule paths.

But to the outer world these passes first became known when the Romans traversed them in order to conquer the world beyond. .In the one case we have no direct knowledge (though the Romans probably selected the passes pointed out to them by the natives as the easiest), while in the other we hear almost exclusively of the passes across the main chain or the principal passes of the Alps.^ In the one case we have no direct knowledge (though the Romans probably selected the passes pointed out to them by the natives as the easiest), while in the other we hear almost exclusively of the passes across the main chain or the principal passes of the Alps.

^ Principal Passes.-Though the Alps form a barrier they have never formed an impassable barrier, since, from the earliest days onwards, they have been traversed first, perhaps, for purposes of war or commerce, and later by pilgrims, students and tourists.

^ But in all parts of the great chain itself, the term Alp (or Alm in the Eastern Alps) is exclusively applied to the high mountain pastures (see ALP), and not to the peaks and ridges of the chain.

.For obvious reasons the Romans, having once found an easy direct pass across the main chain, did not trouble to seek for harder and more devious routes.^ For obvious reasons the Romans, having once found an easy direct pass across the main chain, did not trouble to seek for harder and more devious routes.

^ As might be expected, the main chain boasts of more glaciers and eternal snow than the independent or external ranges.

^ In the one case we have no direct knowledge (though the Romans probably selected the passes pointed out to them by the natives as the easiest), while in the other we hear almost exclusively of the passes across the main chain or the principal passes of the Alps.

.Hence the passes that can be shown to have been certainly known to them are comparatively few in number: they are, in topographical order from west to east, the Col de l'Argentiere, the Mont Genevre, the two St Bernards, the Spliigen, the Septimer, the Brenner, the Radsta.dter Tauern, the SOlkscharte, the P16cken and the Pontebba (or Saifnitz).^ Hence the passes that can be shown to have been certainly known to them are comparatively few in number: they are, in topographical order from west to east, the Col de l'Argentiere, the Mont Genevre , the two St Bernards, the Spliigen, the Septimer, the Brenner, the Radsta.dter Tauern, the SOlkscharte, the P16cken and the Pontebba (or Saifnitz).

^ Pontebba or Saifnitz Pass (2615 ft.

^ Of these the Mont Genevre and the Brenner were the most frequented, while it will be noticed that in the Central Alps only two passes (the Spliigen and the Septimer) were certainly known to the Romans.

.Of these the Mont Genevre and the Brenner were the most frequented, while it will be noticed that in the Central Alps only two passes (the Spliigen and the Septimer) were certainly known to the Romans.^ The Matterhorn, Monte Rosa, Zinarothorn, Ober Gabelhorn, Dent Blanche, Weisshorn, Bietschhorn, Grand Combin: these are some of the most dramatic mountains in Europe.
  • Alps Maps from Omni Resources - International Map & Guidebook Specialists. 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.omnimap.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chamonix to Zermatt, Mont Blanc to the Matterhorn- in two weeks of mountain travel you will see the greatest collection of 4000 metre peaks in the Alps and visit some of the most spectacular valleys.
  • Alps Maps from Omni Resources - International Map & Guidebook Specialists. 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.omnimap.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This two-volume set covers the ultimate alpine long distance walk which encirclese most of the Pennine Alps.
  • Alps Maps from Omni Resources - International Map & Guidebook Specialists. 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.omnimap.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In fact the central portion of the Alps was by far the least Romanised and least known till the early middle ages.^ In fact the central portion of the Alps was by far the least Romanised and least known till the early middle ages .

^ It is an interesting fact that the centrally situated Bernese Alps produce hardly a single peculiar species.

^ Of these the Mont Genevre and the Brenner were the most frequented, while it will be noticed that in the Central Alps only two passes (the Spliigen and the Septimer) were certainly known to the Romans.

.Thus the Simplon is first certainly mentioned in 1235, the St Gotthard (without name) in 1236, the Lukmanier in 965, the San Bernardino in 941; of course they may have been known before, but authentic history is silent as regards them till the dates specified.^ Thus the Simplon is first certainly mentioned in 1235, the St Gotthard (without name) in 1236, the Lukmanier in 965, the San Bernardino in 941; of course they may have been known before, but authentic history is silent as regards them till the dates specified.

^ Simplon and the St Gotthard, not to speak of the side passes of the Arlberg, Albula and Pyhrn of the latter.

^ San Bernardino Pass (Thusis to Bellinzona ), carriage road 6,769 Lukmanier Pass (Disentis to Olivone), carriage road..

Even the Mont Cenis (from the 15th to the 19th century the favourite pass for travellers going from France to Italy) is first heard of in 756 only. In the 13th century many hitherto unknown passes came into prominence, even some of the easy glacier passes. .It should always be borne in mind that in the Western and Central Alps there is but one ridge to cross, to which access is gained by a deep-cut valley, though often it would be shorter to cross a second pass in order to gain the plains, e.g. the Mont Genevre, that is most directly reached by the Col du Lautaret; and the Simplon, which is best gained by one of the lower passes over the western portion of the Bernese Oberland chain.^ The most significant risk of this in the Alps, where there is the most input from local topographic mapping; in Scandinavia, where the source is almost exclusively Russian mapping, the risk is low.
  • Digital Elevation Data - with SRTM voids filled using accurate topographic mapping 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.viewfinderpanoramas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Although most ALPS patients have one normal and one altered copy of the Fas gene, the altered protein is able to interfere with the function of the normal one.
  • genome.gov | Learning About ALPS 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.genome.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ There is no cure for ALPS. However, we can treat and prevent most of its complications.
  • genome.gov | Learning About ALPS 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.genome.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.On the other hand, in the Eastern Alps, it is generally necessary to cross three distinct ridges between the northern and southern plains, the central ridge being the highest and most difficult.^ On the other side of Tarvisio the same picture - the wild, rugged group of Viš and Montaž , where some of the highest mountains of Julian Alps are located.
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^ On the eastern part, Julian Alps stretch towards the central Slovenia with a hilly landscape.
  • SummitPost - Julian Alps -- Climbing, Hiking & Mountaineering 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.summitpost.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The latter brings you just below one of the broadest and highest walls in Eastern Alps - the famous Triglav North Wall .
  • SummitPost - Julian Alps -- Climbing, Hiking & Mountaineering 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.summitpost.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Thus the passes which crossed a single ridge, and did not involve too great a detour through a long valley of approach, became the most important and the most popular, e.g. the Mont Cenis, Llie Great St Bernard, the St Gotthard, the Septimer and the Brenner.^ Thus the passes which crossed a single ridge, and did not involve too great a detour through a long valley of approach, became the most important and the most popular, e.g.

^ Hence the passes that can be shown to have been certainly known to them are comparatively few in number: they are, in topographical order from west to east, the Col de l'Argentiere, the Mont Genevre , the two St Bernards, the Spliigen, the Septimer, the Brenner, the Radsta.dter Tauern, the SOlkscharte, the P16cken and the Pontebba (or Saifnitz).

^ From Austria: Through Karavanke tunnel or over Koren pass (Wurzen Pass) into Sava valley, highway to Tarvisio.
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.As time went on the travellers (with whatever object) who used the great alpine passes could not put up any longer with the bad old mule paths.^ As time went on the travellers (with whatever object) who used the great alpine passes could not put up any longer with the bad old mule paths.

^ The native inhabitants of the Alps were naturally the first to use the alpine passes.

^ Segnes Pass (Elm to Flims), foot path Kisten Pass (Linththal to Ilanz), bad bridle path Panixer Pass (Elm to Ilanz), bad bridle path.

A few passes (e.g. the .Semmering, the Brenner, the Tenda and the Arlberg) can boast of carriage roads constructed before 1800, while those over the Umbrail and the Great St Bernard were not completed till the early years of the 10th century.^ Semmering, the Brenner, the Tenda and the Arlberg) can boast of carriage roads constructed before 1800, while those over the Umbrail and the Great St Bernard were not completed till the early years of the 10th century.

^ Col de Tenda (Tenda to Cuneo), carriage road, railway beneath.

^ Col de Fenetre (Great St Bernard to the Swiss Val Ferret ), 11 ,539 bridle path.

.Most of the carriage roads across the great alpine passes were thus constructed in the 19th century (particularly its first half), largely owing to the impetus given by Napoleon.^ Most of the carriage roads across the great alpine passes were thus constructed in the 19th century (particularly its first half), largely owing to the impetus given by Napoleon .

^ Scharnitz or Seefeld Pass (Partenkirchen to Zirl), carriage road Hirschbiihel Pass (Berchtesgaden to Saalfelden), carriage road.

^ Passo di Valles (Paneveggio to Cencenighe), foot path 6,667 Rolle Pass (Predazzo to San Martino di Castrozza and Primiero), carriage road.

.As late as 1905, the highest pass over the main chain that had a carriage road was the Great St Bernard (8111 ft.^ Maloja Pass (St Moritz to Chiavenna), carriage road .

^ As late as 1905, the highest pass over the main chain that had a carriage road was the Great St Bernard (8111 ft.

^ Scharnitz or Seefeld Pass (Partenkirchen to Zirl), carriage road Hirschbiihel Pass (Berchtesgaden to Saalfelden), carriage road.

), but three still higher passes over side ridges have roads-the .Stelvio (9055 ft.^ Stelvio (9055 ft.

), the .Col du Galibier (8721 ft.^ Col du Galibier (8721 ft.

^ Dauphine Alps (from the Col du Galibier, westwards and southwards).

^ Cottian Alps (from the Col de l'Argentiere to the Mont Cenis and westwards to the Col du Galibier).

), in the .Dauphine Alps, and the Umbrail Pass (8242 ft.^ Dauphine Alps, and the Umbrail Pass (8242 ft.

^ (Dauphine), are rivals; the Italian Alps boast of Trepalle, 6788 ft.

^ Chief Passes of the Dauphine Alps.

). .Still more recently the main alpine chain has been subjected to the further indignity of having railway lines carried over it or through it-the Brenner and the Pontebba lines being cases of the former, and the Col de Tenda, the Mont Cenis (though the tunnel is really 17 m.^ Col de Tenda (Tenda to Cuneo), carriage road, railway beneath.

^ Still more recently the main alpine chain has been subjected to the further indignity of having railway lines carried over it or through it-the Brenner and the Pontebba lines being cases of the former, and the Col de Tenda, the Mont Cenis (though the tunnel is really 17 m.

^ Hence the passes that can be shown to have been certainly known to them are comparatively few in number: they are, in topographical order from west to east, the Col de l'Argentiere, the Mont Genevre , the two St Bernards, the Spliigen, the Septimer, the Brenner, the Radsta.dter Tauern, the SOlkscharte, the P16cken and the Pontebba (or Saifnitz).

to the west), the .Simplon and the St Gotthard, not to speak of the side passes of the Arlberg, Albula and Pyhrn of the latter.^ Simplon and the St Gotthard, not to speak of the side passes of the Arlberg, Albula and Pyhrn of the latter.

^ Pyhrn Pass (Linz to Liezen), carriage road over, railway tunnel beneath 3,100 Wagreinstattel (Radstadt to St Johann in Pongau), carriage road 2,743 14.

^ The eastern portion of this range, from the St Gotthard Pass to the Splugen, is sometimes named the Adula Alps.

.There are also schemes (more or less advanced) for piercing the Spliigen and the Hohe Tauern, both on the main ridge, and the LOtschen Pass, on one of the external ranges.^ There are also schemes (more or less advanced) for piercing the Spliigen and the Hohe Tauern, both on the main ridge, and the LOtschen Pass , on one of the external ranges.

^ As might be expected, the main chain boasts of more glaciers and eternal snow than the independent or external ranges.

^ There are a few outstanding voids in the foothills, but the entire length of the main ridge has now been fixed.
  • Digital Elevation Data - with SRTM voids filled using accurate topographic mapping 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.viewfinderpanoramas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The numerous mountain railways, chiefly in Switzerland, up various peaks (e.g.^ The numerous mountain railways, chiefly in Switzerland , up various peaks (e.g.

^ Typical Bohinj mountains - three peaks to hike and scramble up.
  • SummitPost - Julian Alps -- Climbing, Hiking & Mountaineering 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.summitpost.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

the .Rigi and Pilatus) and over various side passes (e.g.^ Rigi and Pilatus) and over various side passes (e.g.

the .Briinig and the Little Scheidegg) do not concern us here.^ Briinig and the Little Scheidegg) do not concern us here.

6. Divisions.-The Alps, within the limits indicated under (2) above, form a great range, consisting of a main chain, with ramifications, and of several parallel minor chains. They thus form a single connected whole as contrasted with the plains at their base, and nature has made no breaks therein, save at the spots where they sink to comparatively low depressions or passes. .But for the sake of practical convenience it has long been usual to select certain of the best marked of these passes to serve as limits within the range, whether to distinguish several great divisions from each other, or to further break up each of these great divisions into smaller groups.^ But for the sake of practical convenience it has long been usual to select certain of the best marked of these passes to serve as limits within the range, whether to distinguish several great divisions from each other, or to further break up each of these great divisions into smaller groups.

^ The continent of Europe is no more than a great peninsula extending westwards from the much vaster continent of Asia , while it is itself broken up by two inland seas into several smaller peninsulas - the Mediterranean forming the Iberian, the Italian and the Greek peninsulas, while the Baltic forms that of Scandinavia and the much smaller one of Denmark .

^ In some places there are elevation inaccuracies but these are often shown up by surrounding SRTM data and other sources and have been adjusted for.
  • Digital Elevation Data - with SRTM voids filled using accurate topographic mapping 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.viewfinderpanoramas.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

As these divisions, great or small, are so to speak artificial, several systems have been proposed according to which the Alps may be divided. .We give below that which seems to us to be the most satisfactory (based very largely on personal acquaintance with most parts of the range), considering, as in the case of the limits of the chain, only its topographical aspect, as it exists at the present day, while leaving it to geologists, botanists and zoologists to elaborate special divisions as required by these various sciences.^ We give below that which seems to us to be the most satisfactory (based very largely on personal acquaintance with most parts of the range), considering, as in the case of the limits of the chain, only its topographical aspect, as it exists at the present day, while leaving it to geologists, botanists and zoologists to elaborate special divisions as required by these various sciences.

^ It should be borne in mind that the limits adopted above refer purely to the topographical aspect of the Alps as they exist at the present day.

^ In any case, however, the migration of these plants to the Alps must for the most part have taken place via the Arctic.

.Our selected divisions relate only to the High Alps between the Col de Tenda and the route over the Radstddter Tauern, while in each of the 18 subdivisions the less elevated outlying peaks are regarded as appendages of the higher group within the topographical limits of which they rise.^ Our selected divisions relate only to the High Alps between the Col de Tenda and the route over the Radstddter Tauern, while in each of the 18 subdivisions the less elevated outlying peaks are regarded as appendages of the higher group within the topographical limits of which they rise.

^ To the west the limit will then be the Col de Tenda (6145 ft.

^ Maritime Alps (from the Col de Tenda to the Col de l'Argentiere).

.No attempt, of course, has been made to give a complete catalogue of the peaks and passes of the Alps, while in the case of the peaks the culminating point of a lower halfdetached group has been included rather than the loftier spurs of the higher and main group; in the case of the passes, the villages or valleys they connect have been indicated, and also the general character of the route over each pass.^ Kev Reynolds describes the villages, valleys and mountains of Central Switzerland, and provides 90 of the region's best walking routes that will lead to some of the finest views in all the Alps.
  • Alps Maps from Omni Resources - International Map & Guidebook Specialists. 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.omnimap.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Being aware of their beauty, the summits of Martuljek group are posing just above the main valley of Sava river.
  • SummitPost - Julian Alps -- Climbing, Hiking & Mountaineering 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.summitpost.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Julian Pre-Alps group map Important peaks: Monte Plauris - Musi range 1958m Monte Plauris / Lopič .
  • SummitPost - Julian Alps -- Climbing, Hiking & Mountaineering 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.summitpost.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As regards the main divisions, three are generally distinguished; the Western Alps (chiefly French and Italian, with a small bit of the Swiss Valais) being held to extend from the Col de Tenda to the Simplon Pass, the Central Alps (all but wholly Swiss and Italian) thence to the Reschen Scheideck Pass, and the Eastern Alps (wholly Austrian and Italian, save the small Bavarian bit at the north-west angle) thence to the Radstadter Tauern route, with a bend outwards towards the south-east, as explained under (2) in order to include the higher summits of the SouthEastern Alps.^ Kev Reynolds describes the villages, valleys and mountains of Central Switzerland, and provides 90 of the region's best walking routes that will lead to some of the finest views in all the Alps.
  • Alps Maps from Omni Resources - International Map & Guidebook Specialists. 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.omnimap.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The map covers from Pontcharra in the north to Lac du Chambon in the south and from Grenoble in the west to Valloire in the east; includes Grenoble, Chartreuse, and Grandes Rousses.
  • Alps Maps from Omni Resources - International Map & Guidebook Specialists. 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.omnimap.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ However, Fas mutations do not explain all cases of ALPS. About 17 percent of people with ALPS do not have a Fas mutation.
  • genome.gov | Learning About ALPS 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.genome.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Strictly speaking, we should follow the Reschen Scheideck route down the Adige valley, but as this would include in the Central Alps the Ortler and some other of the highest Tirolese summits, it is best (remembering the artificial character of the division) to draw a line from Nlals southwards either over the Umbrail Pass (the old historical pass) or the Stelvio (wellknown only since the carriage road was built over it in the first quarter of the 19th century) to the head of the Valtellina, and then over the Aprica Pass (as the Bergamasque Alps properly belong to the Central Alps) to the Oglio valley or the Val Camonica, and down that valley to the Lake of Iseo and Brescid.^ On the other side of Tarvisio the same picture - the wild, rugged group of Viš and Montaž , where some of the highest mountains of Julian Alps are located.
  • SummitPost - Julian Alps -- Climbing, Hiking & Mountaineering 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.summitpost.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ ALPS is not cancer; it is not contagious; it is not AIDS. There is a wide spectrum of illness in ALPS. For some, it is very mild; for others, it is more severe.
  • genome.gov | Learning About ALPS 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.genome.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Valleys Some valleys of Julian Alps are special pearls.
  • SummitPost - Julian Alps -- Climbing, Hiking & Mountaineering 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.summitpost.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Assuming these three main divisions, we must now consider in detail the 18 sub-divisions which we distinguish; the first 5 forming the Western Alps, the next 7 the Central Alps, and the rest the Eastern Alps, the heights throughout being, of course, given in English feet and representing the latest measurements.^ Assuming these three main divisions, we must now consider in detail the 18 sub-divisions which we distinguish; the first 5 forming the Western Alps, the next 7 the Central Alps, and the rest the Eastern Alps, the heights throughout being, of course, given in English feet and representing the latest measurements.

^ As regards the main divisions, three are generally distinguished; the Western Alps (chiefly French and Italian, with a small bit of the Swiss Valais) being held to extend from the Col de Tenda to the Simplon Pass, the Central Alps (all but wholly Swiss and Italian) thence to the Reschen Scheideck Pass, and the Eastern Alps (wholly Austrian and Italian, save the small Bavarian bit at the north-west angle) thence to the Radstadter Tauern route, with a bend outwards towards the south-east, as explained under (2) in order to include the higher summits of the SouthEastern Alps.

^ Such is in outline the process by which the Alps were elevated; but when the chain is examined in detail, it is found that its history has not been uniform throughout; and it will be convenient, for purposes of description, to divide it into three portions, which may be called the Eastern Alps, the Swiss Alps, and the Western Alps.

I. Western Alps I. Maritime Alps (from the Col de Tenda to the Col de l'Argentiere).
Chief Peaks of the Maritime Alps. Punta dell' Argentera. 10,794 Mont Tinibras. .9,948 Cima dei Gelas.^ Cima dei Gelas.

.. 10,286 Mont Enchastraye 9,695 Monte Matto. ... 10,128 Monte Bego. 9,426 Mont Pelat. ... 10,017 Mont Monnier. 9,246 Mont Clapier. ... .9,994 Rocca dell' Abisso 9,039 Chief Passes of the Maritime Alps. Passo del Pagarin (Vesubie Valley to Valdieri), snow..^ Passo del Pagarin (Vesubie Valley to Valdieri), snow..

^ Rocca dell' Abisso 9,039 Chief Passes of the Maritime Alps.

^ Lecki Pass (Wyttenwasser Glen to the Mutten Glen), snow 9,554 Passo Rotondo (Airolo to Oberwald), snow 9,449 Kaltwasser Pass (Simplon Hospice to Veglia Alp), snow.

.9,236 Col di Fremamorta (Tinee Valley to the Baths of Valdieri), bridle path..^ Col de Balme (Chamonix to the Trient Valley), bridle path.

^ Col Girardin (Ubaye Valley to the Queyras Valley), bridle path..

^ Passo di Collalunga (Tinee Valley to Vinadio), bridle path.

.8,688 Bassa di Druos (same to same), bridle path..^ Bassa di Druos (same to same), bridle path..

^ Bocca di Cadlimo (Airolo to the Lukmanier Pass), foot path 8,340 Valserberg (Hinterrhein to Vals Platz), bridle path 8,225 Safierberg (Splugen to Safien Platz), bridle path.

^ Fraele Pass (Bormio to the Ofen road), partly bridle path Scale di Fraele (Bormio to Fraele), bridle path.

.8,629 Passo di Collalunga (Tinee Valley to Vinadio), bridle path.^ Passo di Lei (Avers Valley to Chiavenna), foot path..

^ Passo di Naret (Fusio to Airolo), bridle path..

^ Passo di Collalunga (Tinee Valley to Vinadio), bridle path.

.8,531 Coll dell' Agnel (Tenda to Valdieri), foot path.^ Coll dell' Agnel (Tenda to Valdieri), foot path.

^ Col de Martignare (La Grave to St Jean d'Arves), foot path 8,531 Col des Tourettes (Orcieres to Chateauroux ), bridle path.

^ Col de Pourriac (Tinee Valley to Argentera), foot path 8,222 Col della Finestre (St Martin de Vesubie to Valdieri), bridle path.

.8,426 Col della Ciriegia (St Martin Vesubie to the Baths of Valdieri), bridle path 8,370 Col des Granges Communes (St Etienne de Tinee to Barce lonnette), bridle path.^ Col d'Abries or de Prali (Perosa to Abries), bridle path.

^ Col de la Forclaz (Chamonix to St Gervais), bridle path.

^ Col de Sorebois (Zinal to the Val de Torrent), bridle path.

.8,242 Col de Pourriac (Tinee Valley to Argentera), foot path 8,222 Col della Finestre (St Martin de Vesubie to Valdieri), bridle path.^ Col d'Abries or de Prali (Perosa to Abries), bridle path.

^ Col de la Forclaz (Chamonix to St Gervais), bridle path.

^ Col de Sorebois (Zinal to the Val de Torrent), bridle path.

.8,107 Col di Guercia (Tinee Valley to Vinadio), foot path..^ Passo di Lei (Avers Valley to Chiavenna), foot path..

^ Passo di Collalunga (Tinee Valley to Vinadio), bridle path.

^ Col di Fremamorta (Tinee Valley to the Baths of Valdieri), bridle path..

.8,042 Col della Lombarda (same to same), bridle path..^ Col della Lombarda (same to same), bridle path..

^ Col della Ciriegia (St Martin Vesubie to the Baths of Valdieri), bridle path 8,370 Col des Granges Communes (St Etienne de Tinee to Barce lonnette), bridle path.

^ Col d'Abries or de Prali (Perosa to Abries), bridle path.

.7,858 Col de la Cayolle (Var Valley to Barcelonnette), carriage road 7,717 Col di Santa Anna (Tinee Valley to Vinadio), bridle path 7,605 Col del Sabbione (Tenda to Valdieri), bridle path 7,428 Col d'Allos or de Valgelaye (Verdon Valley to Barcelonnette), carriage road.^ Col d'Abries or de Prali (Perosa to Abries), bridle path.

^ Col de la Forclaz (Chamonix to St Gervais), bridle path.

^ Col de la Madeleine (La Chambre to M06tiers Tarentaise), bridle path (W).

.7,382 Col de l'Argentiere (Barcelonnette to Cuneo), carriage road.^ Col de Tenda (Tenda to Cuneo), carriage road, railway beneath.

^ Col de l'Argentiere (Barcelonnette to Cuneo), carriage road.

^ Col de Vars (Ubaye Valley to the Queyras Valley), carriage road.

.6,545 Col de Tenda (Tenda to Cuneo), carriage road, railway beneath.^ Col de Tenda (Tenda to Cuneo), carriage road, railway beneath.

^ Col de l'Argentiere (Barcelonnette to Cuneo), carriage road.

^ Col de Vars (Ubaye Valley to the Queyras Valley), carriage road.

.6,145 2. Cottian Alps (from the Col de l'Argentiere to the Mont Cenis and westwards to the Col du Galibier).^ Col du Galibier (8721 ft.

^ Dauphine Alps (from the Col du Galibier, westwards and southwards).

^ Maritime Alps (from the Col de Tenda to the Col de l'Argentiere).

.Chief Peaks of the Cottian Alps. Monte Viso.^ Julian Pre-Alps group map Important peaks: Monte Plauris - Musi range 1958m Monte Plauris / Lopič .
  • SummitPost - Julian Alps -- Climbing, Hiking & Mountaineering 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.summitpost.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Chief Peaks of the Pennine Alps.

^ Chief Peaks of the Dauphine Alps.

... 12,609 Dents d'Ambin. .Viso di Vallante.^ Viso di Vallante.

.. 12,048 Mont d'Ambin. .Aiguille de Scolette..^ Aiguille de Scolette..

^ Hence the main watershed extends eastwards, culminating in the Aiguille de Scolette (11,500 ft.

11,500 Pointe de la Font Sancte Aiguille de Chambeyron. 11,155 Punta Ferrant. .
Grand Rubren.. 11,142 Visolotto.. .
Brec de Chambeyron. 11,116 Rochebrune. .. Rognosa d'Etache.. 11,106 Punta Sommeiller. .
11,096 11,080 11,057 11,037 II,001 10,906 10,896 Bric Froid .
Grand Glayza.. Rognosa di Sestrieres Panestrel Roche du Grand Galibier Peou Roc Pic du Pelvat. � Pointe Haute de Mary � Pic du Thabor.. � Mont Thabor. .
.Col d'Ambin (Exilles to Bramans), snow..^ Col d'Ambin (Exilles to Bramans), snow..

.Col de St Veran (Val Varaita to the Queyras Valley), foot path.^ Col de Sorebois (Zinal to the Val de Torrent), bridle path.

^ Col de Balme (Chamonix to the Trient Valley), bridle path.

^ Col Serena (Great St Bernard to Courmayeur), foot path.

Col d'Etache (Bardonneche to Bramans), bridle path Col dell' Agnello (Val Varaita to the Queyras Valley), bridle path. .Col Girardin (Ubaye Valley to the Queyras Valley), bridle path..^ Col de Balme (Chamonix to the Trient Valley), bridle path.

^ Col de Longet (Ubaye Valley to Val Varaita), bridle path.

^ Col Girardin (Ubaye Valley to the Queyras Valley), bridle path..

.8,855 Col de Sautron (Val Maira to Barcelonnette), bridle path.^ Col d'Abries or de Prali (Perosa to Abries), bridle path.

^ Col de Sorebois (Zinal to the Val de Torrent), bridle path.

^ Col de Balme (Chamonix to the Trient Valley), bridle path.

8,823 Col de Longet (Ubaye Valley to Val Varaita), bridle path. 8,767 Col de Mary or de Maurin (Ubaye Valley to Val Maira), bridle path. .8,708 Col d'Abries or de Prali (Perosa to Abries), bridle path.^ Col d'Abries or de Prali (Perosa to Abries), bridle path.

^ Col de Sorebois (Zinal to the Val de Torrent), bridle path.

^ Col de Balme (Chamonix to the Trient Valley), bridle path.

.8,695 Col de la Roue (Bardonneche to Modane), bridle path 8,419 Col de Frejus (same to same), carriage road, beneath which is the so-called Mont Cenis railway tunnel.^ Col d'Abries or de Prali (Perosa to Abries), bridle path.

^ Col de la Forclaz (Chamonix to St Gervais), bridle path.

^ Col de la Madeleine (La Chambre to M06tiers Tarentaise), bridle path (W).

.
Col de Clapier (Bramans to Susa), bridle path.. .Col d'Izouard (Briancon to the Queyras Valley), carriage road.^ Col d'Izouard (Briancon to the Queyras Valley), carriage road.

^ Col de Vars (Ubaye Valley to the Queyras Valley), carriage road.

^ Col de Tenda (Tenda to Cuneo), carriage road, railway beneath.

.Col de la Croix (Torre Pellice to Abries), bridle path Petit Mont Cenis (Bramans to the Mont Cenis Plateau), bridle path.^ Col d'Abries or de Prali (Perosa to Abries), bridle path.

^ Col de la Forclaz (Chamonix to St Gervais), bridle path.

^ Col de la Madeleine (La Chambre to M06tiers Tarentaise), bridle path (W).

7,166 Col de Vars (Ubaye Valley to the Queyras Valley), carriage road. .. 6,939 Mont Cenis (Lanslebourg to Susa), carriage road. 6,893 Col de Sestrieres (Pignerol to Cesanne), carriage road 6,631 Mont Genevre (Briancon to Cesanne), carriage road. .6,083 Col des Echelles de Planpinet (Briancon to Bardonneche), partly carriage road 5,774 3. Dauphine Alps (from the Col du Galibier, westwards and southwards).^ (France & Switzerland) Bicycling Atlas des Col des Alpes.
  • Alps Maps from Omni Resources - International Map & Guidebook Specialists. 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.omnimap.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Pointe des Ecrins
13,462
10,571
Meije
13,081
Vieux Chaillol .
10,378
Ailefroide
12,989
Tete de Vautisse
10,375
Mont Pelvoux
12,973
Grand Pinier .
10,237
Pic Sans Nom�
12,845
Pic de Parieres .
10,007
Pic Gaspard. .
12,730
Mourre Froid .
9,830
Pic Coolidge
12,323
Belledonne (highest) .
9,781
Grande Ruine
12,317
Rocher Blanc (Sept Laux)
9,617
Rateau
12,317
Taillefer. .. .
9,387
Montagne des Agneaux
12,008
Pic du Frene. .
9,219
Les Bans
I 1,979
Tete de 1'Obiou .
9,164
Sommet des Rouies .
11,923
Grand Ferrand. .
9,059
Aiguille du Plat .
11,818
Pic de Bure (Aurouse)
8,898
Pic d'Olan
11,735
Grand Veymont
7,697
Pic Bonvoisin .
11,680
Mont Aiguille .
6,880
Aiguilles d'Arves (highest
Chamechaude .
6,847
point)
11,529
Dent de Crolles .
6,779
Grandes Rousses.. .
11,395
Grand Som. .
6,670
Roche de la Muzelle. .
11,349
Mont Granier .
6,358
Sirac
11,280
Dent du Chat .
4,593
.Chief Peaks of the Dauphine Alps.^ Chief Peaks of the Pennine Alps.

^ Chief Peaks of the Dauphine Alps.

^ Chief Peaks of the Graian Alps.

.Chief Passes of the Dauphine Alps.
Col de la Lauze (St Christophe to La Grave), snow..^ Col du Clot des Cavales (La Berarde to La Grave), snow.

^ Col des Avalanches (La Berarde to Vallouise), snow..

^ Col de la Casse Deserte (La Berarde to La Grave), snow.

.11.625 Col des Avalanches (La Berarde to Vallouise), snow..^ Col du Clot des Cavales (La Berarde to La Grave), snow.

^ Col des Avalanches (La Berarde to Vallouise), snow..

^ Col de la Casse Deserte (La Berarde to La Grave), snow.

.11,520 Col de la Casse Deserte (La Berarde to La Grave), snow.^ Col du Clot des Cavales (La Berarde to La Grave), snow.

^ Col des Avalanches (La Berarde to Vallouise), snow..

^ Col de la Casse Deserte (La Berarde to La Grave), snow.

.11,516 Col Emile Pic (La Grave to Vallouise), snow.^ Col des Avalanches (La Berarde to Vallouise), snow..

^ Col de la Casse Deserte (La Berarde to La Grave), snow.

^ Col du Glacier Blanc (La Grave to Vallouise), snow.

.. .11,490 Col des Ecrins (La Berarde to Vallouise), snow..^ Col du Clot des Cavales (La Berarde to La Grave), snow.

^ Col des Avalanches (La Berarde to Vallouise), snow..

^ Col de la Casse Deserte (La Berarde to La Grave), snow.

.11,205 Col du Glacier Blanc (La Grave to Vallouise), snow.^ Col du Clot des Cavales (La Berarde to La Grave), snow.

^ Col des Avalanches (La Berarde to Vallouise), snow..

^ Col de la Casse Deserte (La Berarde to La Grave), snow.

.10,854 Col du Sele (La Berarde to Vallouise), snow 10,834 Breche de la Meije (La Berarde to la Grave), snow..^ Col du Clot des Cavales (La Berarde to La Grave), snow.

^ Col des Avalanches (La Berarde to Vallouise), snow..

^ Col de la Casse Deserte (La Berarde to La Grave), snow.

.10,827 Col de la Temple (La Berarde to Vallouise), snow.^ Col du Clot des Cavales (La Berarde to La Grave), snow.

^ Col des Avalanches (La Berarde to Vallouise), snow..

^ Col de la Casse Deserte (La Berarde to La Grave), snow.

.10,772 Col des Aiguilles d'Arves (Valloire to St Jean d'Arves), snow 10,335 Col du Says (La Berarde to the Val Gaudemar), snow.^ Col du Clot des Cavales (La Berarde to La Grave), snow.

^ Col des Aiguilles d'Arves (Valloire to St Jean d'Arves), snow 10,335 Col du Says (La Berarde to the Val Gaudemar), snow.

^ Col des Avalanches (La Berarde to Vallouise), snow..

.10,289 Col du Clot des Cavales (La Berarde to La Grave), snow.^ Col du Clot des Cavales (La Berarde to La Grave), snow.

^ Col des Avalanches (La Berarde to Vallouise), snow..

^ Col de la Casse Deserte (La Berarde to La Grave), snow.

.10,263 Col du Loup du Valgaudemar (Vallouise to the Val Gaude mar), snow.^ Col du Glacier Blanc (La Grave to Vallouise), snow.

^ Col du Sellar (Vallouise to the Val Gaudemar), snow.

^ Col du Loup du Valgaudemar (Vallouise to the Val Gaude mar), snow.

.. .. .10,210 Col Lombard (La Grave to St Jean d'Arves), snow..^ Col des Quirlies (St Jean d'Arves to Clavans), snow.

^ Col du Glacier Blanc (La Grave to Vallouise), snow.

^ Col de la Lauze (St Christophe to La Grave), snow..

.10,171 Breche des Grandes Rousses (Allemont to Clavans), snow.^ Breche des Grandes Rousses (Allemont to Clavans), snow.

^ Signal du Mont Iseran (C) 10,634 11,871 Pointe de la Rechasse (W) 10,575 11,838 Grand Assaly (C).

^ Col des Aiguilles d'Arves (Valloire to St Jean d'Arves), snow 10,335 Col du Says (La Berarde to the Val Gaudemar), snow.

.10,171 Col du Sellar (Vallouise to the Val Gaudemar), snow.^ Col du Glacier Blanc (La Grave to Vallouise), snow.

^ Col du Sellar (Vallouise to the Val Gaudemar), snow.

^ Col du Loup du Valgaudemar (Vallouise to the Val Gaude mar), snow.

.10,063 Col de la Muande (St Christophe to the Val Gaudemar), snow.^ Col des Aiguilles d'Arves (Valloire to St Jean d'Arves), snow 10,335 Col du Says (La Berarde to the Val Gaudemar), snow.

^ Col des Avalanches (La Berarde to Vallouise), snow..

^ Col de la Casse Deserte (La Berarde to La Grave), snow.

... .10,037 Col des Quirlies (St Jean d'Arves to Clavans), snow.^ Col de St Theodule (Zermatt to Chatillon ), snow..

^ Col de Valsorey (Bourg St Pierre to Aosta), snow.

^ Col des Quirlies (St Jean d'Arves to Clavans), snow.

.9,679 [[[Peaks And Passes]] Col du Goleon (La Grave to Valloire), foot path 9,449 Pas de la Cavale (Vallouise to Champoleon), carriage road.^ Col de Tenda (Tenda to Cuneo), carriage road, railway beneath.

^ Col du Clot des Cavales (La Berarde to La Grave), snow.

^ Col des Avalanches (La Berarde to Vallouise), snow..

.8,990 Col d'Orcieres (Dormillouse to Orcieres), bridle path..^ Col d'Abries or de Prali (Perosa to Abries), bridle path.

^ Col de la Forclaz (Chamonix to St Gervais), bridle path.

^ Col de Martignare (La Grave to St Jean d'Arves), foot path 8,531 Col des Tourettes (Orcieres to Chateauroux ), bridle path.

8,859 Col de l'Infernet (La Grave to St Jean d'Arves), foot path 8,826 Col du Galibier (Lautaret Hospice to St Michel de Maurienne), carriage road 8,721 Breche de Valsenestre (Bourg d'Oisans to Valsenestre), foot 8,642 path.. .. .. ... .8,642 Col de Vallonpierre (Val Gaudemar to Champoleon), foot 8,596 path.^ Col de Sorebois (Zinal to the Val de Torrent), bridle path.

^ Col de St Veran (Val Varaita to the Queyras Valley), foot path.

^ Col de Val Estrete (same to same), foot path.

.. ... 8,596 Col de Val Estrete (same to same), foot path. .. 8,596 Col de Vaurze (Val Gaudemar to Val Jouffrey), foot path. 8,531 Col de Martignare (La Grave to St Jean d'Arves), foot path 8,531 Col des Tourettes (Orcieres to Chateauroux), bridle path. 8,465 Col de la Muzelle (St Christophe to Valsenestre), foot path 8,202 Col de l'Eychauda (Vallouise to Monestier), bridle path. .Col d'Arsine (La Grave to Monestier), bridle path Col des Pres Nouveaux (Le Freney to St Jean d'Arves), bridle path 7,523 Col des Sept Laux (Allevard to Bourg d'Oisans), bridle path 7,166 Col du Lautaret (Briancon to Bourg d'Oisans), carriage road 6,808 Col de la Croix de Fer (Bourg d'Oisans to St Jean d'Arves), carriage road..^ Col d'Abries or de Prali (Perosa to Abries), bridle path.

^ Col de la Forclaz (Chamonix to St Gervais), bridle path.

^ Col de Martignare (La Grave to St Jean d'Arves), foot path 8,531 Col des Tourettes (Orcieres to Chateauroux ), bridle path.

6,765 Col du Glandon (Bourg d'Oisans to La Chambre), carriage road Col de l'Alpe de Venosc (Venosc to Le Freney), bridle path Col d'Ornon (Bourg d'Oisans to La Mure), carriage road. .Col Bayard (La Mure to Gap), carriage road Col de la Croix Haute (Grenoble to Veynes and Gap), rail way line over 3,829 4. Graian Alps (from the Mont Cenis to the Little St Bernard Pass).^ (France & Switzerland) Bicycling Atlas des Col des Alpes.
  • Alps Maps from Omni Resources - International Map & Guidebook Specialists. 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.omnimap.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These are usually divided into three groups, the Central (the watershed between the two passes named), the Western or French, and the Eastern or Italian; in the following lists the initials " C," " W," and " E " show to which group each peak and pass belongs.^ These are usually divided into three groups, the Central (the watershed between the two passes named), the Western or French, and the Eastern or Italian; in the following lists the initials " C," " W," and " E " show to which group each peak and pass belongs.

^ On the other hand, in the Eastern Alps, it is generally necessary to cross three distinct ridges between the northern and southern plains, the central ridge being the highest and most difficult.

^ Wild peak in the western part of Martuljek group.
  • SummitPost - Julian Alps -- Climbing, Hiking & Mountaineering 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.summitpost.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Chief Peaks of the Graian Alps. Grand Paradis (E).. .13,324 Grande Aiguille Rousse Grivola (E)..^ Grand Cornier 13,022 Aiguille de Trelatete.

^ Grande Aiguille Rousse Grivola (E)..

13,022 (C)... Grande Casse (W).. 12,668 Granta Parey (C). .
Mont Pourri (W).. 12,428 Roc du Mulinet (C) .
Mont Herbetet (E).. 12,396 Aiguille Pers (C). .Pointe de Charbonel (C) 12,336 Pointe de la Sana (W) Aiguille de la Grande Cima dell' Auille (C) .^ Pointe de la Font Sancte Aiguille de Chambeyron.

^ Pointe de Charbonel (C) 12,336 Pointe de la Sana (W) Aiguille de la Grande Cima dell' Auille (C) .

^ Tour du Grand St Pierre Pointe des Sengies (E) (E) 12,113 Uja di Ciamarella (C) 12,061 Cima di Charforon (E) 12,025 Grande Motte (W).

Sassiere (C).. .12,323 Pointe de I'Echelle (W) Dent Parrachee (W).^ Pointe de I'Echelle (W) Dent Parrachee (W).

^ Grande Dent de Morcles 9,777 Gross Wannehorn 12,812 Schilthorn.

^ Tour du Grand St Pierre Pointe des Sengies (E) (E) 12,113 Uja di Ciamarella (C) 12,061 Cima di Charforon (E) 12,025 Grande Motte (W).

12,179 Punta Foura (E) .
.Tour du Grand St Pierre Pointe des Sengies (E) (E) 12,113 Uja di Ciamarella (C) 12,061 Cima di Charforon (E) 12,025 Grande Motte (W).^ Tour du Grand St Pierre Pointe des Sengies (E) (E) 12,113 Uja di Ciamarella (C) 12,061 Cima di Charforon (E) 12,025 Grande Motte (W).

^ Signal du Mont Iseran (C) 10,634 11,871 Pointe de la Rechasse (W) 10,575 11,838 Grand Assaly (C).

^ Aiguille du Midi Tour Noir Aiguille des Glaciers.

12,018 Albaron (C).. 12,015 Roccia Viva (E).. 11,976 Levanna (C).. .
Bessanese (C). .
Punta di Gaij (E). Dome de l'Arpont (W). .Pointe de Ronce (C)..^ Pointe de Ronce (C)..

.Bec de l'Invergnan (C).^ Bec de l'Invergnan (C).

Tsanteleina (C) .
.Dome de Chasseforet (W) Croce Rossa (C)..^ Dome de Chasseforet (W) Croce Rossa (C)..

.Aiguille de Peclet (W).^ Aiguille de Peclet (W).

.Mont Emilius (E) Punta d'Arnas (C) Aiguille de Polset (W).^ Mont Emilius (E) Punta d'Arnas (C) Aiguille de Polset (W).

^ Aiguille de la Za Mont Collon .

^ Aiguille de Tour Mont Gele Bec de Luseney.

Rochemelon (C).. Mont Chalanson(C). .
Tersiva (E).. Grande Traversiere (C). Tete du Rutor (C). .
.Chief Passes of the Graian Alps. Col de la Grande Rousse (Rhemes Valley to the Val Grisanche), snow (C).^ But there are other peaks too that the modest walker can climb, and snow-free passes that link one enchanting valley to another.
  • Alps Maps from Omni Resources - International Map & Guidebook Specialists. 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.omnimap.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (France) Route des Grandes Alpes "Dcouvertes Regionales" Map.
  • Alps Maps from Omni Resources - International Map & Guidebook Specialists. 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.omnimap.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ (France & Switzerland) Bicycling Atlas des Col des Alpes.
  • Alps Maps from Omni Resources - International Map & Guidebook Specialists. 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.omnimap.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Col de Gebroulaz (Arc Valley to Moutiers Tarentaise), snow (W) � Col de Monei (Cogne to Locana), snow (E) Col du Grand Paradis (Ceresole to the Val Savaranche), snow (E).. .
Col du Charforon (same to same), snow (E).. Col de Teleccio (Cogne to Locana), snow (E) .
Col de Lauzon (Cogne to the Val Savaranche), bridle path (E) Col du Bouquetin (Bonneval to Val d'Isere), snow (C). Col de St Grat (Val Grisanche to La Thuille), snow (C). Col de l'Herbetet (Cogne to the Val Savaranche), snow (E) Col du Collerin (Bessans to Balme), snow (C) .
10,860
Tete des Toillies
10,430
10,781
Monte Granero
10,401
10,758
Mont Chaberton
10,286
10,673
Tete de Moyse .
10,204
10,637
Monte Meidassa
10,187
Io,601
Pelvo d'Elva .
10,053
10,558
Mont Politri .
10,009
10,539
Mont Albergian
9,974
10,516
Bric Bouchet .
9,853
I o,440
Punta Cournour
9410
.9,364 9,331 9,144 9,003 11,424 11,395 11,382 11,323 11,319 11,306 I 1,260 11,188 11,182 II,109 10,975 Col du Grand Etret (Ceresole to the Val Savaranche), snow (E).^ I 1,260 11,188 11,182 II,109 10,975 Col du Grand Etret (Ceresole to the Val Savaranche), snow (E).

^ Col du Sellar (Vallouise to the Val Gaudemar), snow.

^ Col de la Sachette (Tignes to Bourg St Maurice ), foot path Col du) Palet (Tignes to M06tiers Tarentaise or Bourg St Maurice), bridle path (W) 8,721 Col du Mont (Ste Foy to the Val Grisanche), bridle path (C) 8,681 Col de la Croix de Nivolet (Ceresole to the Val Savaranche), bridle path (E).

.. .. .. 10,361 Pointe des Cerces.. .1 0,434 Chief Passes in the Cottian Alps. Col Sommeiller (Bardonneche to Bramans), snow 9,718 Col de la Traversette (Crissolo to Abries), mainly bridle path beneath pass tunnel made in 1478-1480. ..^ Col d'Abries or de Prali (Perosa to Abries), bridle path.

^ Col de la Forclaz (Chamonix to St Gervais), bridle path.

^ Col de la Madeleine (La Chambre to M06tiers Tarentaise), bridle path (W).

9,679 8,294 8,173 7,835 7,576 7,970 7,874 6,401 5,446 4,462 4,088 Pointe de la Gliere (W) Pointe de la Galise (C) Pointe de la Traversiere (C) 10,962 Pointe de Mean Martin (W). 10,949 11 ,943 Punta Lavina (E). � 10,854 11,917 Ormelune (C). .10,771 11,887 Roche Chevriere (W).^ TSdi 11,887 Piz Segnes 10,178 Bifertenstock.

.10,768 11,874 Signal du Mont Iseran (C) 10,634 11,871 Pointe de la Rechasse (W) 10,575 11,838 Grand Assaly (C).^ This map is centred on the Glaciers de la Vanoise and extends to La Grand Cimarella in the east (just across the Italian border), to Valloire in the south west and to Mont Pourri in the north.
  • Alps Maps from Omni Resources - International Map & Guidebook Specialists. 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.omnimap.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

� 10,414 11,831 Roisebanque (E).. .10,381 11,802 Becca di Nona (E)..^ Becca di Nona (E)..

10,309 11,703 Torre d'Ovarda (C). .10,089 11,700 Pointe du Pousset (E) 11,677 Dome de Val d'Isere (C) 11,615 Uja di Mondrone (C) .^ Pointe du Pousset (E) 11,677 Dome de Val d'Isere (C) 11,615 Uja di Mondrone (C) .

^ Tour du Grand St Pierre Pointe des Sengies (E) (E) 12,113 Uja di Ciamarella (C) 12,061 Cima di Charforon (E) 12,025 Grande Motte (W).

^ Riffelhorn 9,617 10,630 Pointe Percee du Reposoir 9,029 10,588 Crammont.

11,608 Bellagarda (C). .. 11,605 Monte Marzo (E) 11,582 Petit Mont Blanc de 11,526 Pralognan (W).. 11,467 Mont Jouvet (W).. 11,438 Monte Civrari (C). .
.9,994 9,951 9,725 9,643 9,023 8,809 8,409 7,553 11,483 1 1,385 11,247 10,988 10,929 10,913 10,831 10,827 10,827 10,686 Io,506 10,693 Tagliaferro.^ I 1,651 I 1,618 11,585 11,520 11,516 11,483 I 1,418 11,405 11,346 11,241 11,103 11,083 11,057 II,011 10,827 10,814 10,758 10,178 Watzmann.

... .9,725 10,693 Riffelhorn 9,617 10,630 Pointe Percee du Reposoir 9,029 10,588 Crammont.^ Riffelhorn 9,617 10,630 Pointe Percee du Reposoir 9,029 10,588 Crammont.

^ Signal du Mont Iseran (C) 10,634 11,871 Pointe de la Rechasse (W) 10,575 11,838 Grand Assaly (C).

^ Pointe du Colloney8,832 10,512 Catogne.

.. 8,980 10,552 Pointe des Fours. 8,921 10,525 Pointe du Colloney�8,832 10,512 Catogne. .. �8,527 10,289 Monte BO. .. 8,386 10,260 Mont Joly. .�8,29, 10,201 Brevent. 8,28.
.10,099 Pointe de Salles.^ Pointe de Salles.

^ Signal du Mont Iseran (C) 10,634 11,871 Pointe de la Rechasse (W) 10,575 11,838 Grand Assaly (C).

^ Pointe de la Gliere (W) Pointe de la Galise (C) Pointe de la Traversiere (C) 10,962 Pointe de Mean Martin (W).

.8,183 10,073 Aiguille de Varens..^ Aiguille de Varens..

^ Col des Aiguilles d'Arves (Valloire to St Jean d'Arves), snow 10,335 Col du Says (La Berarde to the Val Gaudemar), snow.

8,163 9,935 Mont Chetif ... .7,687 9, 6,132 9,738 1784 Sale Mole ve (highest point) 4,528 9,987 Mont Favre.^ Sale Mole ve (highest point) 4,528 9,987 Mont Favre.

Sasseneire .
.Grand Golliaz Tour Sallieres Pizzo Bianco .^ Grand Golliaz Tour Sallieres Pizzo Bianco .

.Latelhorn Schwarzhorn (Augstbord) Gornergrat .^ Latelhorn Schwarzhorn (Augstbord) Gornergrat .

.Pointe de Lechaud .^ Pointe de Lechaud .

.Buet Mont Ruan Mont Neri Bella Tola.^ Buet Mont Ruan Mont Neri Bella Tola.

... .Pointe de Tanneverge Belvedere (Aigs.^ Pointe de Tanneverge Belvedere (Aigs.

.Rouges) Col de Bassac (Rhemes Valley to the Val Grisanche), snow(C) 10,345 Col du Carro (Bonneval to Ceresole), snow (C).^ Col du Mont Rouge (Val de Bagnes to the Val d'Heremence), snow.

^ Col de Sort (Val Savaranche to the Rhemes Valley), partly bridle path (C)..

^ Col de la Grande Rousse (Rhemes Valley to the Val Grisanche), snow (C).

.. .10,302 Col d'Arbole (Combos to Brissogne), snow (E).^ Col des Aiguilles d'Arves (Valloire to St Jean d'Arves), snow 10,335 Col du Says (La Berarde to the Val Gaudemar), snow.

^ Col de la Goletta(Va ld'Isere to the Rhemes Valley), snow (C) 10,237 Col de Rhemes (same to same), snow (C).

^ Col du Sele (La Berarde to Vallouise), snow 10,834 Breche de la Meije (La Berarde to la Grave), snow..

.10,292 Col de la Goletta(Va ld'Isere to the Rhemes Valley), snow (C) 10,237 Col de Rhemes (same to same), snow (C).^ Col des Avalanches (La Berarde to Vallouise), snow..

^ Col de la Casse Deserte (La Berarde to La Grave), snow.

^ Col de la Temple (La Berarde to Vallouise), snow.

.10,174 Col de la Grande Casse (Pralognan to the Premou Glen), snow (W).^ Col des Avalanches (La Berarde to Vallouise), snow..

^ Col de la Casse Deserte (La Berarde to La Grave), snow.

^ Col de la Temple (La Berarde to Vallouise), snow.

.10,171 Col de Sea (Bonneval to Forno Alpi Graie), snow (C)..^ Col della Crocetta (Ceresole to Forno Alpi Graie), bridle path (C) Col de la Platiere (St Jean de Maurienne to Moitiers Taren taise), partly bridle path (W) 8,531 Col de la Vanoise (Pralognan to Termignon), bridle path (W) 8,291 Col des Encombres (St Michel de Maurienne to Moutiers Tarentaise), bridle path (W).

^ Fenetre de Champorcher (Cogne to Champorcher), bridle path (E) Col de Vaudet (Isere Valley to the Val Grisanche), foot path Col de Bardoney (Cogne to Pont Canavese), snow (E).

^ Col du Clot des Cavales (La Berarde to La Grave), snow.

.10,115 Col de l'Autaret (Bessans to Usseglio), foot path (C)..^ Col d'Abries or de Prali (Perosa to Abries), bridle path.

^ Col de la Forclaz (Chamonix to St Gervais), bridle path.

^ Col de Martignare (La Grave to St Jean d'Arves), foot path 8,531 Col des Tourettes (Orcieres to Chateauroux ), bridle path.

.10,073 Col de Girard (Bonneval to Forno Alpi Graie), snow (C).^ Col della Crocetta (Ceresole to Forno Alpi Graie), bridle path (C) Col de la Platiere (St Jean de Maurienne to Moitiers Taren taise), partly bridle path (W) 8,531 Col de la Vanoise (Pralognan to Termignon), bridle path (W) 8,291 Col des Encombres (St Michel de Maurienne to Moutiers Tarentaise), bridle path (W).

^ Fenetre de Champorcher (Cogne to Champorcher), bridle path (E) Col de Vaudet (Isere Valley to the Val Grisanche), foot path Col de Bardoney (Cogne to Pont Canavese), snow (E).

^ Col du Clot des Cavales (La Berarde to La Grave), snow.

.Col Rosset (Val Savaranche to the Rhemes Valley), bridle path (C).^ Col d'Abries or de Prali (Perosa to Abries), bridle path.

^ Col de la Forclaz (Chamonix to St Gervais), bridle path.

^ Col de Martignare (La Grave to St Jean d'Arves), foot path 8,531 Col des Tourettes (Orcieres to Chateauroux ), bridle path.

.. .9,922 Col d'Arnas (Bessans to Balme), snow (C).^ Col de l'Herbetet (Cogne to the Val Savaranche), snow (E) Col du Collerin (Bessans to Balme), snow (C) .

^ Collarin d'Arnas (Balme to Usseglio), snow (C) Finestra del Torrent (Rhemes Valley to the Val Grisanche), foot path (C) .

^ Col d'Arnas (Bessans to Balme), snow (C).

.. .9,889 Col de la Galise (Ceresole to Val d'Isere), snow (C).^ Col de la Forclaz (Chamonix to St Gervais), bridle path.

^ Col de Girard (Bonneval to Forno Alpi Graie), snow (C).

^ Col de Martignare (La Grave to St Jean d'Arves), foot path 8,531 Col des Tourettes (Orcieres to Chateauroux ), bridle path.

.9,836 Col de Sort (Val Savaranche to the Rhemes Valley), partly bridle path (C)..^ Col d'Abries or de Prali (Perosa to Abries), bridle path.

^ Col de Sorebois (Zinal to the Val de Torrent), bridle path.

^ Col de Balme (Chamonix to the Trient Valley), bridle path.

.Quecees de Tignes (Val d'Isere to Termignon), snow (W).^ Col de l'Herbetet (Cogne to the Val Savaranche), snow (E) Col du Collerin (Bessans to Balme), snow (C) .

^ Fenetre de Champorcher (Cogne to Champorcher), bridle path (E) Col de Vaudet (Isere Valley to the Val Grisanche), foot path Col de Bardoney (Cogne to Pont Canavese), snow (E).

^ Col des Aiguilles d'Arves (Valloire to St Jean d'Arves), snow 10,335 Col du Says (La Berarde to the Val Gaudemar), snow.

.Col della Nouva (Cogne to Pont Canavese), partly bridle path (E) .^ Col della Lombarda (same to same), bridle path..

^ Col della Nouva (Cogne to Pont Canavese), partly bridle path (E) .

^ Col della Crocetta (Ceresole to Forno Alpi Graie), bridle path (C) Col de la Platiere (St Jean de Maurienne to Moitiers Taren taise), partly bridle path (W) 8,531 Col de la Vanoise (Pralognan to Termignon), bridle path (W) 8,291 Col des Encombres (St Michel de Maurienne to Moutiers Tarentaise), bridle path (W).

.Col de Garin (Aosta to Cogne), foot path (E)..^ Col d'Abries or de Prali (Perosa to Abries), bridle path.

^ Col de la Forclaz (Chamonix to St Gervais), bridle path.

^ Col de Martignare (La Grave to St Jean d'Arves), foot path 8,531 Col des Tourettes (Orcieres to Chateauroux ), bridle path.

.Collarin d'Arnas (Balme to Usseglio), snow (C) Finestra del Torrent (Rhemes Valley to the Val Grisanche), foot path (C) .^ Bocca di Tuckett (Campiglio to Molveno), snow Passo di Val Morta or del Diavolo (Val Seriana to Sondrio ), foot path.

^ Passo di Lei (Avers Valley to Chiavenna), foot path..

^ Passo del Pagarin (Vesubie Valley to Valdieri), snow..

.Fenetre de Champorcher (Cogne to Champorcher), bridle path (E) Col de Vaudet (Isere Valley to the Val Grisanche), foot path Col de Bardoney (Cogne to Pont Canavese), snow (E).^ Col d'Abries or de Prali (Perosa to Abries), bridle path.

^ Col de Sorebois (Zinal to the Val de Torrent), bridle path.

^ Fenetre de Champorcher (Cogne to Champorcher), bridle path (E) Col de Vaudet (Isere Valley to the Val Grisanche), foot path Col de Bardoney (Cogne to Pont Canavese), snow (E).

.Col de Chaviere (Modane to Pralognan), foot path (W).^ Col d'Abries or de Prali (Perosa to Abries), bridle path.

^ Col de la Forclaz (Chamonix to St Gervais), bridle path.

^ Col de Martignare (La Grave to St Jean d'Arves), foot path 8,531 Col des Tourettes (Orcieres to Chateauroux ), bridle path.

.Col de la Leisse (Tignes to Termignon), snow (W) Col du Mont Iseran (Bonneval to Val d'Isere), bridle path (C).^ Col d'Abries or de Prali (Perosa to Abries), bridle path.

^ Col de la Forclaz (Chamonix to St Gervais), bridle path.

^ Col de la Madeleine (La Chambre to M06tiers Tarentaise), bridle path (W).

.Ghicet di Sea (Balme to Forno Alpi Graie), foot path (C).^ Ghicet di Sea (Balme to Forno Alpi Graie), foot path (C).

^ Bocca di Cadlimo (Airolo to the Lukmanier Pass), foot path 8,340 Valserberg (Hinterrhein to Vals Platz), bridle path 8,225 Safierberg (Splugen to Safien Platz), bridle path.

^ Passo di Valles (Paneveggio to Cencenighe), foot path 6,667 Rolle Pass (Predazzo to San Martino di Castrozza and Primiero), carriage road.

.Col de la Sachette (Tignes to Bourg St Maurice), foot path Col du) Palet (Tignes to M06tiers Tarentaise or Bourg St Maurice), bridle path (W) 8,721 Col du Mont (Ste Foy to the Val Grisanche), bridle path (C) 8,681 Col de la Croix de Nivolet (Ceresole to the Val Savaranche), bridle path (E).^ Col d'Abries or de Prali (Perosa to Abries), bridle path.

^ Col de la Forclaz (Chamonix to St Gervais), bridle path.

^ Col de Martignare (La Grave to St Jean d'Arves), foot path 8,531 Col des Tourettes (Orcieres to Chateauroux ), bridle path.

.8,665 Col della Crocetta (Ceresole to Forno Alpi Graie), bridle path (C) Col de la Platiere (St Jean de Maurienne to Moitiers Taren taise), partly bridle path (W) 8,531 Col de la Vanoise (Pralognan to Termignon), bridle path (W) 8,291 Col des Encombres (St Michel de Maurienne to Moutiers Tarentaise), bridle path (W).^ Col d'Abries or de Prali (Perosa to Abries), bridle path.

^ Col de Martignare (La Grave to St Jean d'Arves), foot path 8,531 Col des Tourettes (Orcieres to Chateauroux ), bridle path.

^ Col de la Madeleine (La Chambre to M06tiers Tarentaise), bridle path (W).

.. .7,668 Little St Bernard (Aosta to M06tiers Tarentaise), carriage road (C).^ Pyhrn Pass (Linz to Liezen), carriage road over, railway tunnel beneath 3,100 Wagreinstattel (Radstadt to St Johann in Pongau), carriage road 2,743 14.

^ Maloja Pass (St Moritz to Chiavenna), carriage road .

^ St Gotthard Pass (Andermatt to Airolo), carriage road over, railway tunnel beneath.

.7,179 Col de la Madeleine (La Chambre to M06tiers Tarentaise), bridle path (W).^ Col d'Abries or de Prali (Perosa to Abries), bridle path.

^ Col de la Forclaz (Chamonix to St Gervais), bridle path.

^ Col de la Madeleine (La Chambre to M06tiers Tarentaise), bridle path (W).

.. ... .6,509 5. Pennine Alps (from the Little St Bernard to the Simplon Pass).^ Simplon and the St Gotthard, not to speak of the side passes of the Arlberg, Albula and Pyhrn of the latter.

^ On the other hand the chain between the Great St Bernard and the Simplon sinks at barely half a dozen points below a level of 10,000 ft.

^ Chief Passes of the Pennine Alps.

.This range contains all the highest peaks in the Alps, save the Finsteraarhorn (14,026) in the Bernese Oberland.^ This range contains all the highest peaks in the Alps, save the Finsteraarhorn (14,026) in the Bernese Oberland.

^ But in all parts of the great chain itself, the term Alp (or Alm in the Eastern Alps) is exclusively applied to the high mountain pastures (see ALP), and not to the peaks and ridges of the chain.

^ Save the last-named, all these peninsulas of Europe are essentially mountain ranges.

.Chief Peaks of the Pennine Alps. 9,735 9,646 Chief Passes of the Pennine Alps. Sesiajoch (Zermatt to Alagna), snow..^ Lecki Pass (Wyttenwasser Glen to the Mutten Glen), snow 9,554 Passo Rotondo (Airolo to Oberwald), snow 9,449 Kaltwasser Pass (Simplon Hospice to Veglia Alp), snow.

^ Lysjoch (Zermatt to Gressoney), snow 14,033 Mischabeljoch (Zermatt to Saas), snow 12,651 9,341 Alphubel Pass (same to same), snow 12,474 Adler Pass (same to same), snow.

^ Lauithor (Lauterbrunnen to the Eggishorn), snow Monchjoch (Grindelwald to the Eggishorn), snow Jungfraujoch (Wengern Alp to the Eggishorn), snow Strahlegg Pass (Grindelwald to the Grimsel), snow.

.14,515 9,623 Col de la Brenva (Courmayeur to Chamonix), snow 14,217 9,411 Domjoch (Randa to Saas), snow.^ Col des Avalanches (La Berarde to Vallouise), snow..

^ Col de la Casse Deserte (La Berarde to La Grave), snow.

^ Col de la Temple (La Berarde to Vallouise), snow.

.14,062 9,351 Lysjoch (Zermatt to Gressoney), snow 14,033 Mischabeljoch (Zermatt to Saas), snow 12,651 9,341 Alphubel Pass (same to same), snow 12,474 Adler Pass (same to same), snow.^ Zwischbergen Pass (Saas to Gondo), snow.

^ Planura Pass (same to same), snow.

^ Lysjoch (Zermatt to Gressoney), snow 14,033 Mischabeljoch (Zermatt to Saas), snow 12,651 9,341 Alphubel Pass (same to same), snow 12,474 Adler Pass (same to same), snow.

.12,461 9,311 Moming Pass (Zermatt to Zinal), snow 12,287 Schwarzthor (Zermatt to Ayas), snow.^ Col Durand (Zermatt to Zinal), snow.

^ Moming Pass (Zermatt to Zinal), snow 12,287 Schwarzthor (Zermatt to Ayas), snow.

^ Lysjoch (Zermatt to Gressoney), snow 14,033 Mischabeljoch (Zermatt to Saas), snow 12,651 9,341 Alphubel Pass (same to same), snow 12,474 Adler Pass (same to same), snow.

.. .12,274 9,305 Col de Triolet (Chamonix to Courmayeur), snow.^ Col du Grant (Chamonix to Courmayeur), snow..

^ Col de Triolet (Chamonix to Courmayeur), snow.

^ Col de Talefre (Chamonix to Courmayeur), snow.

.12,110 9,295 Ried Pass (St Niklaus to Saas), snow.^ Zwischbergen Pass (Saas to Gondo), snow.

^ Ried Pass (St Niklaus to Saas), snow.

^ Lysjoch (Zermatt to Gressoney), snow 14,033 Mischabeljoch (Zermatt to Saas), snow 12,651 9,341 Alphubel Pass (same to same), snow 12,474 Adler Pass (same to same), snow.

.. .II,800 9,206 New Weissthor (Zermatt to Macugnaga), snow.^ II,800 9,206 New Weissthor (Zermatt to Macugnaga ), snow.

.11,746 9,121 Allalin Pass (Zermatt to Saas), snow..^ Allalin Pass (Zermatt to Saas), snow..

^ Zwischbergen Pass (Saas to Gondo), snow.

^ Moming Pass (Zermatt to Zinal), snow 12,287 Schwarzthor (Zermatt to Ayas), snow.

.11,713 Col de Valpelline (Zermatt to Aosta), snow.^ Col Durand (Zermatt to Zinal), snow.

^ Col de Collon (Arolla to Aosta), snow.

^ Col de St Theodule (Zermatt to Chatillon ), snow..

.11,687 9,0$5 Biesjoch (Randa to Turtmann), snow.^ Biesjoch (Randa to Turtmann), snow.

.11,644 8,973 Triftjoch (Zermatt to Zinal), snow.^ Col Durand (Zermatt to Zinal), snow.

^ Moming Pass (Zermatt to Zinal), snow 12,287 Schwarzthor (Zermatt to Ayas), snow.

^ Triftjoch (Zermatt to Zinal), snow.

.. .11,615 Col d'Argentiere (Chamonix to Orsieres), snow 11,536 8,954 Col du Sonadon (Bourg St Pierre to the Val de Bagnes), snow.^ Col du Mont Rouge (Val de Bagnes to the Val d'Heremence), snow.

^ Col du Grant (Chamonix to Courmayeur), snow..

^ Col d'Argentiere (Chamonix to Orsieres), snow 11,536 8,954 Col du Sonadon (Bourg St Pierre to the Val de Bagnes), snow.

.. .. .. .11,447 Col de Talefre (Chamonix to Courmayeur), snow.^ Col du Grant (Chamonix to Courmayeur), snow..

^ Col de Triolet (Chamonix to Courmayeur), snow.

^ Col de Talefre (Chamonix to Courmayeur), snow.

.11,430 Col d'Herens (Zermatt to Evolena), snow..^ Col Durand (Zermatt to Zinal), snow.

^ Col d'Herens (Zermatt to Evolena), snow..

^ Col de Bertol (Arolla to the Col d'Herens), snow.

.11,418 Col Durand (Zermatt to Zinal), snow.^ Col Durand (Zermatt to Zinal), snow.

^ Col de Fenetre (Val de Bagnes to Aosta), bridle path 9,141 11,956 Z'Meiden Pass (Zinal to Turtmann), bridle path.

^ Col d'Argentiere (Chamonix to Orsieres), snow 11,536 8,954 Col du Sonadon (Bourg St Pierre to the Val de Bagnes), snow.

.11,398 Col des Maisons Blanches (Bourg St Pierre to the Val de Bagnes), snow.^ Col du Mont Rouge (Val de Bagnes to the Val d'Heremence), snow.

^ Col d'Argentiere (Chamonix to Orsieres), snow 11,536 8,954 Col du Sonadon (Bourg St Pierre to the Val de Bagnes), snow.

^ Col des Maisons Blanches (Bourg St Pierre to the Val de Bagnes), snow.

.. .11,241 8,649 Col de Bertol (Arolla to the Col d'Herens), snow.^ Col de Bertol (Arolla to the Col d'Herens), snow.

^ Col de Collon (Arolla to Aosta), snow.

^ Col de Chermontane (Val de Bagnes to Arolla), snow 12 ,543 Cimes Blanches (Val Tournanche to Ayas), bridle path 12,540 Col de Torrent (Evolena to the Val de Torrent), bridle path 12,527 Augstbord Pass (St Niklaus to Turtmann), bridle path.

.11,200 Col de Miage (Contamines to Courmayeur), snow.^ Col du Mont Tondu (Contamines to Courmayeur), snow.

^ Col de Triolet (Chamonix to Courmayeur), snow.

^ Col de Talefre (Chamonix to Courmayeur), snow.

.11,077 Col du Grant (Chamonix to Courmayeur), snow..^ Col du Grant (Chamonix to Courmayeur), snow..

^ Col du Mont Tondu (Contamines to Courmayeur), snow.

^ Col de Triolet (Chamonix to Courmayeur), snow.

.11,060 Col du Mont Rouge (Val de Bagnes to the Val d'Heremence), snow.^ Col du Mont Rouge (Val de Bagnes to the Val d'Heremence), snow.

^ Col du Mont Tondu (Contamines to Courmayeur), snow.

^ Col des Maisons Blanches (Bourg St Pierre to the Val de Bagnes), snow.

... .10,962 Col du Chardonnet (Chamonix to Orsieres), snow..^ Col du Grant (Chamonix to Courmayeur), snow..

^ Col du Tour (Chamonix to Orsieres), snow.

^ Col du Chardonnet (Chamonix to Orsieres), snow..

.10,909 Col de St Theodule (Zermatt to Chatillon), snow..^ Col Durand (Zermatt to Zinal), snow.

^ Col de St Theodule (Zermatt to Chatillon ), snow..

^ Col de Valsorey (Bourg St Pierre to Aosta), snow.

.10,899 Col du Tour (Chamonix to Orsieres), snow.^ Col du Grant (Chamonix to Courmayeur), snow..

^ Col du Tour (Chamonix to Orsieres), snow.

^ Col du Chardonnet (Chamonix to Orsieres), snow..

.10,762 Fenetre de Saleinaz (Saleinaz Glacier to Trient Glacier),snow 10,709 Col de Tracuit (Zinal to Turtmann), snow.^ Col Durand (Zermatt to Zinal), snow.

^ Fenetre de Saleinaz (Saleinaz Glacier to Trient Glacier),snow 10,709 Col de Tracuit (Zinal to Turtmann), snow.

^ Col de Chermontane (Val de Bagnes to Arolla), snow 12 ,543 Cimes Blanches (Val Tournanche to Ayas), bridle path 12,540 Col de Torrent (Evolena to the Val de Torrent), bridle path 12,527 Augstbord Pass (St Niklaus to Turtmann), bridle path.

.. .10,670 Zwischbergen Pass (Saas to Gondo), snow.^ Zwischbergen Pass (Saas to Gondo), snow.

^ Lysjoch (Zermatt to Gressoney), snow 14,033 Mischabeljoch (Zermatt to Saas), snow 12,651 9,341 Alphubel Pass (same to same), snow 12,474 Adler Pass (same to same), snow.

^ Ried Pass (St Niklaus to Saas), snow.

.. .10,657 Col d'Oren (Val de Bagnes to the Valpelline), snow..^ Col du Mont Rouge (Val de Bagnes to the Val d'Heremence), snow.

^ Col des Maisons Blanches (Bourg St Pierre to the Val de Bagnes), snow.

^ Col de Valpelline (Zermatt to Aosta), snow.

.10,637 Col de Seilon (Val de Bagnes to the Val d'Heremence), snow 10,499 Col du Cret (Val de Bagnes to the Val d'Heremence), snow 10,329 Col de Valcournera (Val Tournanche to the Valpelline), 12,700 snow..^ Col du Sellar (Vallouise to the Val Gaudemar), snow.

^ Col de Seilon (Val de Bagnes to the Val d'Heremence), snow 10,499 Col du Cret (Val de Bagnes to the Val d'Heremence), snow 10,329 Col de Valcournera (Val Tournanche to the Valpelline), 12,700 snow..

^ Col de Valpelline (Zermatt to Aosta), snow.

.
.12,609 Col de Collon (Arolla to Aosta), snow.^ Col de Bertol (Arolla to the Col d'Herens), snow.

^ Col de Collon (Arolla to Aosta), snow.

^ Col de Valsorey (Bourg St Pierre to Aosta), snow.

.. .12,586 Col de Valsorey (Bourg St Pierre to Aosta), snow.^ Col de Collon (Arolla to Aosta), snow.

^ Col des Maisons Blanches (Bourg St Pierre to the Val de Bagnes), snow.

^ Col de St Theodule (Zermatt to Chatillon ), snow..

.12,579 Col de Chermontane (Val de Bagnes to Arolla), snow 12 ,543 Cimes Blanches (Val Tournanche to Ayas), bridle path 12,540 Col de Torrent (Evolena to the Val de Torrent), bridle path 12,527 Augstbord Pass (St Niklaus to Turtmann), bridle path.^ Col d'Abries or de Prali (Perosa to Abries), bridle path.

^ Col de la Forclaz (Chamonix to St Gervais), bridle path.

^ Col de Chermontane (Val de Bagnes to Arolla), snow 12 ,543 Cimes Blanches (Val Tournanche to Ayas), bridle path 12,540 Col de Torrent (Evolena to the Val de Torrent), bridle path 12,527 Augstbord Pass (St Niklaus to Turtmann), bridle path.

.12 ,474 Col de Crete Seche (Val de Bagnes to the Valpelline), snow 12,471 Col de Breuil (Bourg St Maurice to La Thuille), snow .^ Col des Avalanches (La Berarde to Vallouise), snow..

^ Col du Mont Rouge (Val de Bagnes to the Val d'Heremence), snow.

^ Col de la Casse Deserte (La Berarde to La Grave), snow.

.12 ,353 Col d'Olen (Alagna to Gressoney), bridle path.^ Col de Moud (Alagna to Rima and Varallo), bridle path.

^ Bettafurka (Ayas to Gressoney), bridle path.

^ Col d'Olen (Alagna to Gressoney), bridle path.

.9,420 12,320 Monte Moro (Saas to Macugnaga), partly bridle path.^ Monte Moro (Saas to Macugnaga), partly bridle path.

^ Fraele Pass (Bormio to the Ofen road), partly bridle path Scale di Fraele (Bormio to Fraele), bridle path.

^ Col de Sort (Val Savaranche to the Rhemes Valley), partly bridle path (C)..

.12,304 Pas de Chevres (Arolla to the Val d'Heremence), foot path 12,264 Antrona Pass (Saas to Antrona), partly bridle path..^ Col de Sorebois (Zinal to the Val de Torrent), bridle path.

^ Baranca Pass (Varallo to the Val Anzasca), bridle path.

^ Col de Sort (Val Savaranche to the Rhemes Valley), partly bridle path (C)..

.12,159 Col de Sorebois (Zinal to the Val de Torrent), bridle path.^ Col d'Abries or de Prali (Perosa to Abries), bridle path.

^ Col de Sorebois (Zinal to the Val de Torrent), bridle path.

^ Col de Balme (Chamonix to the Trient Valley), bridle path.

.12,100 Col de Vessona (Valpelline to the St Barthelemy Glen), foot 12,058 path.^ Col Serena (Great St Bernard to Courmayeur), foot path.

^ Col de St Veran (Val Varaita to the Queyras Valley), foot path.

^ Col de Val Estrete (same to same), foot path.

.. .9,167 12,051 Col de Fenetre (Val de Bagnes to Aosta), bridle path 9,141 11,956 Z'Meiden Pass (Zinal to Turtmann), bridle path.^ Col d'Abries or de Prali (Perosa to Abries), bridle path.

^ Col de Sorebois (Zinal to the Val de Torrent), bridle path.

^ Col de Fenetre (Great St Bernard to the Swiss Val Ferret ), 11 ,539 bridle path.

.9,095 11,828 Turlo Pass (Alagna to Macugnaga), foot path.^ Turlo Pass (Alagna to Macugnaga), foot path.

^ Fuorcla Maisas (Remus to the Samnaun Glen), snow 9,357 Vermunt or Fermunt Pass (Guarda to Patenen), snow 9,193 Futschol Pass (Ardez to Galtiir), foot path.

^ Bocca di Cadlimo (Airolo to the Lukmanier Pass), foot path 8,340 Valserberg (Hinterrhein to Vals Platz), bridle path 8,225 Safierberg (Splugen to Safien Platz), bridle path.

.8,977 11,615 Col de Fenetre (Great St Bernard to the Swiss Val Ferret), 11 ,539 bridle path.^ Col d'Abries or de Prali (Perosa to Abries), bridle path.

^ Col de la Forclaz (Chamonix to St Gervais), bridle path.

^ Col de Sorebois (Zinal to the Val de Torrent), bridle path.

.. .. .8,855 11,503 Bettafurka (Ayas to Gressoney), bridle path.^ Bettafurka (Ayas to Gressoney), bridle path.

^ Col de Fenetre (Great St Bernard to the Swiss Val Ferret ), 11 ,539 bridle path.

^ Col de Fenetre (Val de Bagnes to Aosta), bridle path 9,141 11,956 Z'Meiden Pass (Zinal to Turtmann), bridle path.

.8,780 11,489 Col du Mont Tondu (Contamines to Courmayeur), snow.^ Col du Grant (Chamonix to Courmayeur), snow..

^ Col du Mont Tondu (Contamines to Courmayeur), snow.

^ Col de Miage (Contamines to Courmayeur), snow.

.8,498 11,447 Col Serena (Great St Bernard to Courmayeur), foot path.^ Col Serena (Great St Bernard to Courmayeur), foot path.

^ Col della Ciriegia (St Martin Vesubie to the Baths of Valdieri), bridle path 8,370 Col des Granges Communes (St Etienne de Tinee to Barce lonnette), bridle path.

^ Col de la Forclaz (Chamonix to St Gervais), bridle path.

.8,327 11,293 Col Ferret ' (Courmayeur to Orsieres), carriage road in 11,280 progress.^ Col Ferret ' (Courmayeur to Orsieres), carriage road in 11,280 progress.

^ Simplon Pass (Brieg to Domo d'Ossola), carriage road over, railway tunnel beneath 6,592 Col de Checouri (Courmayeur to the Lac de Combal), bridle path.

^ Col de Tenda (Tenda to Cuneo), carriage road, railway beneath.

8,311 11,086 Col de la Seigne (Chapieux to Courmayeur) bridle path 8,242 10,985 Col de Susanfe (Champery to Salvan), foot path. .8,202 10,962 Col du Bonhomme (Contamines to Chapieux), bridle path.^ Col du Bonhomme (Contamines to Chapieux), bridle path.

^ Col de Voza (Chamonix to Contamines), bridle path..

^ Col della Ciriegia (St Martin Vesubie to the Baths of Valdieri), bridle path 8,370 Col des Granges Communes (St Etienne de Tinee to Barce lonnette), bridle path.

.8,147 10,913 Col de Valdobbia (Gressoney to the Val Sesia), bridle path 8,134 10,893 Great St Bernard (Martigny to Aosta), carriage road.^ Col d'Abries or de Prali (Perosa to Abries), bridle path.

^ Col de la Forclaz (Chamonix to St Gervais), bridle path.

^ Col de Tenda (Tenda to Cuneo), carriage road, railway beneath.

8,111 10,876 Col de Sagerou (Sixt to Champery), foot path.. .7,917 10,742 Col de Moud (Alagna to Rima and Varallo), bridle path.^ Col d'Abries or de Prali (Perosa to Abries), bridle path.

^ Col de Sorebois (Zinal to the Val de Torrent), bridle path.

^ Col de Balme (Chamonix to the Trient Valley), bridle path.

.7,622 10,696 Col d'Anterne (Sixt to Servos), bridle path.^ Col d'Anterne (Sixt to Servos), bridle path.

^ Col della Ciriegia (St Martin Vesubie to the Baths of Valdieri), bridle path 8,370 Col des Granges Communes (St Etienne de Tinee to Barce lonnette), bridle path.

^ Col d'Abries or de Prali (Perosa to Abries), bridle path.

7,425 Mont Blanc.. .15,782 Monte Rosa (Dufour spitze) 15,217 Nord End (Monte Rosa) 15,132 Dom (Mischabelhorner) 14,942 Lyskamm.^ Monte Rosa itself, and the Dom (14,942 ft.

^ Nord End of Monte Rosa (15,132 ft.

^ Monte Rosa (Dufour spitze) 15,217 Nord End (Monte Rosa) 15,132 Dom (Mischabelhorner) 14,942 Lyskamm.

.. 14,889 Weisshorn 14,804 Matterhorn. 14,782 Taschhorn.. 14,758 Mont Maudit 14,669 Dent Blanche 14,318 Dome du Goiter 14,210 Grand Combin 14,164 Castor 13,879 Zinal Rothhorn 13,856 Alphubel 13,803 Grandes Jorasses� 13,797 Rimpfischhorn� 13,790 Strahlhorn .� 13,751 Dent d'Herens 13,715 Zermatt Breithorn� 13,685 Aiguille Verte .� 13,541 Ober Gabelhorn.. � 13,364 Aiguille de Bionnassay � 13,341 Allalinhorn. .. � 13,236 Weissmies.. � .13,226 Aiguille du Grant 13,170 Laquinhorn.^ Aiguille du Grant 13,170 Laquinhorn.

.. 13,140 Rossbodenhorn.. .13,128 Grand Cornier 13,022 Aiguille de Trelatete.^ Grand Cornier 13,022 Aiguille de Trelatete.

^ Aiguille de Bionnassay 13,341 Allalinhorn.

^ Pointe de Charbonel (C) 12,336 Pointe de la Sana (W) Aiguille de la Grande Cima dell' Auille (C) .

12,832 Aiguille d'Argentiere. 12,819 Ruinette.. �. � 12,727 Aiguille de Triolet. � 12,717 Mont Blanc de Seilon. .Aiguille du Midi Tour Noir Aiguille des Glaciers.^ Aiguille du Midi Tour Noir Aiguille des Glaciers.

^ Tour du Grand St Pierre Pointe des Sengies (E) (E) 12,113 Uja di Ciamarella (C) 12,061 Cima di Charforon (E) 12,025 Grande Motte (W).

^ Col des Aiguilles d'Arves (Valloire to St Jean d'Arves), snow 10,335 Col du Says (La Berarde to the Val Gaudemar), snow.

Mont Dolent 10,325 10,270 ? 10,214 9,777 9,593 9,492 9,475 9,446 Aiguille du Chardonnet Cima di Jazzi. Balfrin. Pigne d'Arolla .
Mont Velan. Aiguille du Dru Tete Blanche .
L'Eveque. Mont Pleureur. .DOme de Miage.^ DOme de Miage.

Lo Besso. .Aiguille de la Za Mont Collon .^ Aiguille de la Za Mont Collon .

^ Signal du Mont Iseran (C) 10,634 11,871 Pointe de la Rechasse (W) 10,575 11,838 Grand Assaly (C).

^ Pointe de la Font Sancte Aiguille de Chambeyron.

Diablons. Aiguille de Tour Mont Gele Bec de Luseney. � Aiguille de Grepon. Ch�au des Dames � Aiguille des Charmoz Aiguille du Tacul. Grand Tournalin.. .Pointe de Rosa Blanche Mont Avril..^ Pointe de Rosa Blanche Mont Avril..

^ Tschudi , De prised ac vera alpind Rhaetid (1538, also in German, same date); and L. von Welden, Der Monte Rosa (1824).

^ Signal du Mont Iseran (C) 10,634 11,871 Pointe de la Rechasse (W) 10,575 11,838 Grand Assaly (C).

.Grande Rochere 9,390 9,354 9,331 9,269 Corno Bianco.^ Grande Rochere 9,390 9,354 9,331 9,269 Corno Bianco.

.. Grauhaupt. ... Pointe d'Orny. .. .Dent du Midi..^ Dent du Midi..

.
.Col d'Egua (Rima to the Val Anzasca), bridle path..^ Col d'Abries or de Prali (Perosa to Abries), bridle path.

^ Col de la Forclaz (Chamonix to St Gervais), bridle path.

^ Col de Martignare (La Grave to St Jean d'Arves), foot path 8,531 Col des Tourettes (Orcieres to Chateauroux ), bridle path.

.7,336 Col de Balme (Chamonix to the Trient Valley), bridle path.^ Col d'Abries or de Prali (Perosa to Abries), bridle path.

^ Col de la Forclaz (Chamonix to St Gervais), bridle path.

^ Col de Sorebois (Zinal to the Val de Torrent), bridle path.

.7,221 Simplon Pass (Brieg to Domo d'Ossola), carriage road over, railway tunnel beneath 6,592 Col de Checouri (Courmayeur to the Lac de Combal), bridle path.^ Col d'Abries or de Prali (Perosa to Abries), bridle path.

^ Col de Tenda (Tenda to Cuneo), carriage road, railway beneath.

^ Col de Sorebois (Zinal to the Val de Torrent), bridle path.

.6,431 Baranca Pass (Varallo to the Val Anzasca), bridle path.^ Baranca Pass (Varallo to the Val Anzasca), bridle path.

^ Bocca di Cadlimo (Airolo to the Lukmanier Pass), foot path 8,340 Valserberg (Hinterrhein to Vals Platz), bridle path 8,225 Safierberg (Splugen to Safien Platz), bridle path.

^ Tonale Pass (Trent to Edolo), carriage road Passo di Zovetto (Val di Scalve to Edolo), bridle path Colle Maniva (Val Trompia to Bagolino), bridle path Campo or Ginevrie Pass (Dimaro by Campiglio to Pinzolo), carriage road.

.5,971 Col de Voza (Chamonix to Contamines), bridle path..^ Col d'Abries or de Prali (Perosa to Abries), bridle path.

^ Col de la Forclaz (Chamonix to St Gervais), bridle path.

^ Col de Sorebois (Zinal to the Val de Torrent), bridle path.

5,496 Col de la Forclaz (Chamonix to St Gervais), bridle path. 5,105 Col de la Forclaz (Trient Valley to Martigny), carriage road 4,987 II.
6. Bernese Oberland (from the Lake of Geneva to the Furka, the Reuss Valley and the Lake of Lucerne). This general name seems best to describe the range in question, though, of course, portions of it are in Cantons other than that of Berne, viz. Vaud, Fribourg, the Valais, Lucerne, Uri and Unterwalden.
Chief Peaks of the Bernese Oberland. Finsteraarhorn. .. 14,026 Wellhorn.. 10,486 Aletschhorn.. 13,721 Mettenberg.. 10,194 Jungfrau. .. 13,669 Lafelhorn. ... 10,165 Minch.. � 13,468 Grand Muveran.. 10,043 Gross Schreckhorn.. 13,386 Gross Wendenstock. 9,987 Gross Fiescherhorn.. 13,285 Sparrhorn. .. .9,928 Eiger 13,042 Torrenthorn 9,853 Bietschhorn.^ Eiger 13,042 Torrenthorn 9,853 Bietschhorn.

12,970 Grande Dent de Morcles 9,777 Gross Wannehorn 12,812 Schilthorn. ... 9,754 Gross Nesthorn.. 12 ,533 Eggishorn. .. 9,626 Lauterbrunnen Breithorn 12,399 Uri Rothstock 9,620 Balmhorn.. 12,176 Schwarzhorn(Grindelwald)9,613 Wetterhorn (Mittelhorn) 12,166 Gross Siedelhorn �9,452 Wetterhorn (Hash JungAlbristhorn. .. 9,069 frau).. 12,149 Rothihorn. 9,052 Wetterhorn (Rosenhorn) 12,I10 Faulhorn. 8,803 Blumlisalphorn.. 12,044 Gummfluh. 8,074 Gross Doldenhorn 11,966 Sulegg.. 7,914 Altels 11,930 Vanil Noir.. 7,858 Dammastock. 11,920 Niesen.. 7,763 Galenstock 11,802 Brienzer Rothhorn. .7,714 Sustenhorn 11,523 Tour d'Ai.^ Sustenhorn 11,523 Tour d'Ai.

7,658 Gspaltenhorn. 11,293 Hohgant. 7,225 Fleckistock. ... 11 ,21 4 Stockhorn. 7,192 Gross Hiihnerstock.. 10,985 Kaiseregg 7,182 Ewigschneehorn. .. .10,929 Pilatus (Tomlishorn) 6,995 Ritzlihorn 10,768 Chamossaire...^ Pilatus (Tomlishorn) 6,995 Ritzlihorn 10,768 Chamossaire...

6,943 Wildhorn. 10,709 Gemmenalphorn. 6,772 Wildstrubel.. .10,673 Rochers de Naye.^ Rochers de Naye.

6,710 Diablerets. � .10,650 Moleson 6,582 Titlis 10,627 Dent de Jaman 6,165 Gross Spannort..^ Moleson 6,582 Titlis 10,627 Dent de Jaman 6,165 Gross Spannort..

^ Grande Dent de Morcles 9,777 Gross Wannehorn 12,812 Schilthorn.

^ Grosse Scheidegg (Grindelwald to Meiringen), bridle path 6,434 Col de Jaman (Montreux to Montbovon), mule path over, railway tunnel beneath.

.10,516 Napf 4,629 Chief Passes of the Bernese Oberland. Lauithor (Lauterbrunnen to the Eggishorn), snow Monchjoch (Grindelwald to the Eggishorn), snow Jungfraujoch (Wengern Alp to the Eggishorn), snow Strahlegg Pass (Grindelwald to the Grimsel), snow.^ Petersgrat (Lauterbrunnen to the Lotschenthal), snow Lbtschenliicke (Lotschenthal to the Eggishorn), snow Lauteraarsattel (Grindelwald to the Grimsel), snow.

^ Napf 4,629 Chief Passes of the Bernese Oberland.

^ Lauithor (Lauterbrunnen to the Eggishorn), snow Monchjoch (Grindelwald to the Eggishorn), snow Jungfraujoch (Wengern Alp to the Eggishorn), snow Strahlegg Pass (Grindelwald to the Grimsel), snow.

.Griinhornlucke (Great Aletsch Glacier to the Fiescher Glacier), snow.^ Among the great alpine rivers we may distinguish two classes: those which spring directly from glaciers and those which rise in lakes, these being fed by eternal snows or glaciers.

^ Yet it is a curious fact that the three longest glaciers in the Alps (the Great Aletsch, 162 m., and the Unteraar and the Fiescher, each 10 m.

^ Griinhornlucke (Great Aletsch Glacier to the Fiescher Glacier), snow.

.Oberaarjoch (Grimsel to the Eggishorn), snow.^ Petersgrat (Lauterbrunnen to the Lotschenthal), snow Lbtschenliicke (Lotschenthal to the Eggishorn), snow Lauteraarsattel (Grindelwald to the Grimsel), snow.

^ Oberaarjoch (Grimsel to the Eggishorn), snow.

^ Lauithor (Lauterbrunnen to the Eggishorn), snow Monchjoch (Grindelwald to the Eggishorn), snow Jungfraujoch (Wengern Alp to the Eggishorn), snow Strahlegg Pass (Grindelwald to the Grimsel), snow.

.Gauli Pass (Grimsel to Meiringen), snow,.^ Gauli Pass (Grimsel to Meiringen ), snow,.

^ Grimsel Pass (Meiringen to the Rhone Glacier), carriage road 7,100 Kleine Scheidegg (Grindelwald to Lauterbrunnen), railway over.

^ Lauithor (Lauterbrunnen to the Eggishorn), snow Monchjoch (Grindelwald to the Eggishorn), snow Jungfraujoch (Wengern Alp to the Eggishorn), snow Strahlegg Pass (Grindelwald to the Grimsel), snow.

.Petersgrat (Lauterbrunnen to the Lotschenthal), snow Lbtschenliicke (Lotschenthal to the Eggishorn), snow Lauteraarsattel (Grindelwald to the Grimsel), snow.^ Petersgrat (Lauterbrunnen to the Lotschenthal), snow Lbtschenliicke (Lotschenthal to the Eggishorn), snow Lauteraarsattel (Grindelwald to the Grimsel), snow.

^ Lauithor (Lauterbrunnen to the Eggishorn), snow Monchjoch (Grindelwald to the Eggishorn), snow Jungfraujoch (Wengern Alp to the Eggishorn), snow Strahlegg Pass (Grindelwald to the Grimsel), snow.

^ Grimsel Pass (Meiringen to the Rhone Glacier), carriage road 7,100 Kleine Scheidegg (Grindelwald to Lauterbrunnen), railway over.

.Beichgrat (Lotschenthal to the Bel Alp), snow.^ Beichgrat (Lotschenthal to the Bel Alp), snow.

.Lammernjoch (Lenk to the Gemmi), snow.^ Lammernjoch (Lenk to the Gemmi), snow.

.Triftlimmi (Rhone Glacier to the Gadmen Valley), snow Sustenlimmi (Stein Alp to Goeschenen), snow..^ Triftlimmi (Rhone Glacier to the Gadmen Valley), snow Sustenlimmi (Stein Alp to Goeschenen), snow..

.Gamchiliicke (Kien Valley to Lauterbrunnen), snow 7. Lepontine Alps (from the Simplon to the Splugen and south of the Furka and Oberalp Passes).^ Other valleys more to the south are cut in the fore-Alps already.
  • SummitPost - Julian Alps -- Climbing, Hiking & Mountaineering 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.summitpost.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The eastern portion of this range, from the St Gotthard Pass to the Splugen, is sometimes named the Adula Alps.
Chief Peaks of the Monte Leone. .. .11,684 Rheinwaldhorn Guferhorn Blindenhorn Basodino Tambohorn Helsenhorn Wasenhorn Ofenhorn Cherbadung Piz Medel Scopi Pizzo Rotondo Pizzo dei Piani Piz Terri Piz Aul Pizzo di Pesciora Wyttenwasserstock Campo Tencia.^ Thence to the St Gotthard the divide runs north-east, all the higher summits (including the Monte Leone , 11,684 ft., and the Pizzo Rotondo, 10,489 ft.

^ Rheinwaldhorn Guferhorn Blindenhorn Basodino Tambohorn Helsenhorn Wasenhorn Ofenhorn Cherbadung Piz Medel Scopi Pizzo Rotondo Pizzo dei Piani Piz Terri Piz Aul Pizzo di Pesciora Wyttenwasserstock Campo Tencia.

^ Piz Morteratsch 12,317 Monte della Disgrazia 12,067 Pizzo di Verona .

Leckihorn. Bruschghorn. Alperschellihorn .
.Chief Passes of the Lepontine Alps. Zapport Pass (Hinterrhein to Malvaglia and Biasca), snow.^ Reckner (Tuxergebirge) Chief Passes of the Central Tirol Alps.

^ Chief Passes of the Lombard Alps.

^ Rocca dell' Abisso 9,039 Chief Passes of the Maritime Alps.

.10,105 Gtiferlticke (Kanal Glen to the Lenta Glen), snow.^ Gtiferlticke (Kanal Glen to the Lenta Glen), snow.

^ Cevedale Pass (Santa Caterina to the Martell Glen), snow 10,732 Gepatschjoch (Vent to the Kauns Valley), snow.

.9,777 Lentaliicke (Hinterrhein to Vals Platz), snow..^ Lentaliicke (Hinterrhein to Vals Platz), snow..

^ Bocca di Cadlimo (Airolo to the Lukmanier Pass), foot path 8,340 Valserberg (Hinterrhein to Vals Platz), bridle path 8,225 Safierberg (Splugen to Safien Platz), bridle path.

.9,692 Hohsand Pass (Binn to Tosa Falls), snow.^ Hohsand Pass (Binn to Tosa Falls), snow.

^ Ritter Pass (Binn to Veglia Alp), snow.

^ Gries Pass (Ulrichen to Tosa Falls), bridle path.

.9,603 Lecki Pass (Wyttenwasser Glen to the Mutten Glen), snow 9,554 Passo Rotondo (Airolo to Oberwald), snow 9,449 Kaltwasser Pass (Simplon Hospice to Veglia Alp), snow.^ Ritter Pass (Binn to Veglia Alp), snow.

^ Lecki Pass (Wyttenwasser Glen to the Mutten Glen), snow 9,554 Passo Rotondo (Airolo to Oberwald), snow 9,449 Kaltwasser Pass (Simplon Hospice to Veglia Alp), snow.

^ Fuorcla Maisas (Remus to the Samnaun Glen), snow 9,357 Vermunt or Fermunt Pass (Guarda to Patenen), snow 9,193 Futschol Pass (Ardez to Galtiir), foot path.

.9,351 Scaradra Pass (Vals Platz to Olivone), foot path.^ Scaradra Pass (Vals Platz to Olivone), foot path.

^ Satteltelucke (Vals Platz to Vrin), foot path..

^ Fuorcla Maisas (Remus to the Samnaun Glen), snow 9,357 Vermunt or Fermunt Pass (Guarda to Patenen), snow 9,193 Futschol Pass (Ardez to Galtiir), foot path.

.9,088 Satteltelucke (Vals Platz to Vrin), foot path..^ Bocca di Tuckett (Campiglio to Molveno), snow Passo di Val Morta or del Diavolo (Val Seriana to Sondrio ), foot path.

^ Fenetre de Champorcher (Cogne to Champorcher), bridle path (E) Col de Vaudet (Isere Valley to the Val Grisanche), foot path Col de Bardoney (Cogne to Pont Canavese), snow (E).

^ Scheien Pass (Klosters to the See Glen), foot path 8,557 Vereina Pass or Pass da Val Torta (Klosters to Lavin), foot path..

.9,082 Ritter Pass (Binn to Veglia Alp), snow.^ Ritter Pass (Binn to Veglia Alp), snow.

^ Lecki Pass (Wyttenwasser Glen to the Mutten Glen), snow 9,554 Passo Rotondo (Airolo to Oberwald), snow 9,449 Kaltwasser Pass (Simplon Hospice to Veglia Alp), snow.

^ Lauithor (Lauterbrunnen to the Eggishorn), snow Monchjoch (Grindelwald to the Eggishorn), snow Jungfraujoch (Wengern Alp to the Eggishorn), snow Strahlegg Pass (Grindelwald to the Grimsel), snow.

.8,832 Cavanna Pass (Realp to the Val Bedretto), snow..^ Diavolezza Pass(Bernina road to the Morteratsch Glen), snow Passo di Dosde (Val Grosina to Val Viola Bormina), foot path..

^ Pisgana Pass (Val di Genova to Ponte di Legno), snow.

^ Passo della Duana (Avers Valley to the Val Bregaglia), snow 9,187 Sertig Pass (Davos to Scanfs), foot path.

.8,566 Scatta Minoja (Devero to the Val Formazza), bridle path.^ Scatta Minoja (Devero to the Val Formazza), bridle path.

^ Bocca di Cadlimo (Airolo to the Lukmanier Pass), foot path 8,340 Valserberg (Hinterrhein to Vals Platz), bridle path 8,225 Safierberg (Splugen to Safien Platz), bridle path.

^ Col de Sorebois (Zinal to the Val de Torrent), bridle path.

.8,521 Bocca di Cadlimo (Airolo to the Lukmanier Pass), foot path 8,340 Valserberg (Hinterrhein to Vals Platz), bridle path 8,225 Safierberg (Splugen to Safien Platz), bridle path.^ Passo di Naret (Fusio to Airolo), bridle path..

^ Baranca Pass (Varallo to the Val Anzasca), bridle path.

^ Scaradra Pass (Vals Platz to Olivone), foot path.

.8,170 Geisspfad Pass (Binn to Devero), foot path..^ Cuolm d'Alp bella or Vignitz Pass (Samnaun Glen to Kappl), foot path.

^ Forcella di Lunghino (Maloja to the Septimer Pass), foot path 8,645 Scaletta Pass (Davos to Scanfs), bridle path..

^ Forcellina (Avers Valley to the Septimer Pass), foot path.

.8,120 Gries Pass (Ulrichen to Tosa Falls), bridle path.^ Gries Pass (Ulrichen to Tosa Falls), bridle path.

^ Nufenen Pass (Ulrichen to Airolo), bridle path.

^ Bocca di Cadlimo (Airolo to the Lukmanier Pass), foot path 8,340 Valserberg (Hinterrhein to Vals Platz), bridle path 8,225 Safierberg (Splugen to Safien Platz), bridle path.

.8,098 Passo di Naret (Fusio to Airolo), bridle path..^ Passo di Naret (Fusio to Airolo), bridle path..

^ Passo di Collalunga (Tinee Valley to Vinadio), bridle path.

^ Passo di San Marco (Bergamo to Morbegno), bridle path.

.8,015 Nufenen Pass (Ulrichen to Airolo), bridle path.^ Gries Pass (Ulrichen to Tosa Falls), bridle path.

^ Nufenen Pass (Ulrichen to Airolo), bridle path.

^ Bocca di Cadlimo (Airolo to the Lukmanier Pass), foot path 8,340 Valserberg (Hinterrhein to Vals Platz), bridle path 8,225 Safierberg (Splugen to Safien Platz), bridle path.

.8,006 Diesrut Pass (Vrin to the Somvix Glen), bad bridle path.^ Schwein Alp Pass (Waggithal to the Klon Glen), bridle path.

^ Diesrut Pass (Vrin to the Somvix Glen), bad bridle path.

^ Fuorcla Maisas (Remus to the Samnaun Glen), snow 9,357 Vermunt or Fermunt Pass (Guarda to Patenen), snow 9,193 Futschol Pass (Ardez to Galtiir), foot path.

7,953 Albrun Pass (Binn to Devero and Baceno), bridle path 7,907 Greina Pass (Olivone to the Somvix Glen), bridle path � 7,743 San Giacomo Pass (Airolo to Tosa Falls), bridle path 7,573 Passo di Buffalora(Val Mesocco to the Val Calanca),foot path 7,431 Passo dell' Uomo (Airolo to the Lukmanier Pass),bridle path 7,258 Splugen Pass (Thusis to Chiavenna), carriage road. .6,946 St Gotthard Pass (Andermatt to Airolo), carriage road over, railway tunnel beneath.^ Col de Tenda (Tenda to Cuneo), carriage road, railway beneath.

^ Arlberg Pass (Landeck to Bludenz), carriage road over, railway tunnel beneath.

^ Maloja Pass (St Moritz to Chiavenna), carriage road .

.. ... .6,936 San Bernardino Pass (Thusis to Bellinzona), carriage road 6,769 Lukmanier Pass (Disentis to Olivone), carriage road..^ San Bernardino Pass (Thusis to Bellinzona ), carriage road 6,769 Lukmanier Pass (Disentis to Olivone), carriage road..

^ Kriizli Pass (Amsteg to Sedrun), foot path Foo or Ramin Pass (Elm to Weisstannen), bridle path Oberalp Pass (Andermatt to Disentis), carriage road Klausen Pass (Altdorf to Linththal), carriage road .

^ Scharnitz or Seefeld Pass (Partenkirchen to Zirl), carriage road Hirschbiihel Pass (Berchtesgaden to Saalfelden), carriage road.

.6,289 8. The Range of the Todi (from the Oberalp Pass to the Klausen Pass).^ The Range of the Todi (from the Oberalp Pass to the Klausen Pass).

^ Chief Passes of the Range of the Todi.

.Chief Peaks of the Range of the Todi. TSdi 11,887 Piz Segnes 10,178 Bifertenstock.^ TSdi 11,887 Piz Segnes 10,178 Bifertenstock.

^ Chief Peaks of the Range of the Todi.

^ Chief Peaks of the Silvretta and Rhatikon Ranges.

.11,241 Piz Giuf 10,165 Piz Urlaun.^ Piz Giuf 10,165 Piz Urlaun.

^ TSdi 11,887 Piz Segnes 10,178 Bifertenstock.

.11,060 Crispalt 10,105 Oberalpstock.^ Crispalt 10,105 Oberalpstock.

.. .10,926 Bristenstock 10,086 Gross Scheerhorn..^ Bristenstock 10,086 Gross Scheerhorn..

.10,814 Selbsanft 9,938 Claridenstock..^ Selbsanft 9,938 Claridenstock..

10,729 Vorab 9,925 Dussistock 10,703 Tschingelhbrner (Elm) 9,351 Ringelspitz. 10,667 Piz Sol (Grauehorner) � 9,348 Brigelserhorner (highest) 10,663 Calanda 9,213 Grosse Windg.11e... 10,473 Karpfstock. 9,177 Hausstock. ... 10,342 Mageren. .. 8,294 Gross Ruchen.. .. 10,289 Murtschenstock.. .8,012 Chief Passes of the Range of the Todi. Clariden Pass (Amsteg to Linththal), snow .^ Sand Alp Pass (Disentis to Linththal), snow Brunni Pass (Disentis to Amsteg), snow .

^ Clariden Pass (Amsteg to Linththal), snow .

^ Chief Peaks of the Range of the Todi.

.Planura Pass (same to same), snow.^ Planura Pass (same to same), snow.

^ Lysjoch (Zermatt to Gressoney), snow 14,033 Mischabeljoch (Zermatt to Saas), snow 12,651 9,341 Alphubel Pass (same to same), snow 12,474 Adler Pass (same to same), snow.

.Kammlilucke or Scheerjoch (Maderanerthal to Unter schachen), snow .^ Kammlilucke or Scheerjoch (Maderanerthal to Unter schachen), snow .

.Sardona Pass (Flims to Ragaz), snow .^ Sardona Pass (Flims to Ragaz), snow .

.Sand Alp Pass (Disentis to Linththal), snow Brunni Pass (Disentis to Amsteg), snow .^ Sand Alp Pass (Disentis to Linththal), snow Brunni Pass (Disentis to Amsteg), snow .

^ Clariden Pass (Amsteg to Linththal), snow .

^ Kriizli Pass (Amsteg to Sedrun), foot path Foo or Ramin Pass (Elm to Weisstannen), bridle path Oberalp Pass (Andermatt to Disentis), carriage road Klausen Pass (Altdorf to Linththal), carriage road .

.Segnes Pass (Elm to Flims), foot path Kisten Pass (Linththal to Ilanz), bad bridle path Panixer Pass (Elm to Ilanz), bad bridle path.^ Segnes Pass (Elm to Flims), foot path Kisten Pass (Linththal to Ilanz), bad bridle path Panixer Pass (Elm to Ilanz), bad bridle path.

^ Diesrut Pass (Vrin to the Somvix Glen), bad bridle path.

^ Kriizli Pass (Amsteg to Sedrun), foot path Foo or Ramin Pass (Elm to Weisstannen), bridle path Oberalp Pass (Andermatt to Disentis), carriage road Klausen Pass (Altdorf to Linththal), carriage road .

.Kriizli Pass (Amsteg to Sedrun), foot path Foo or Ramin Pass (Elm to Weisstannen), bridle path Oberalp Pass (Andermatt to Disentis), carriage road Klausen Pass (Altdorf to Linththal), carriage road .^ Sand Alp Pass (Disentis to Linththal), snow Brunni Pass (Disentis to Amsteg), snow .

^ Kriizli Pass (Amsteg to Sedrun), foot path Foo or Ramin Pass (Elm to Weisstannen), bridle path Oberalp Pass (Andermatt to Disentis), carriage road Klausen Pass (Altdorf to Linththal), carriage road .

^ Clariden Pass (Amsteg to Linththal), snow .

9,741 9,646
9,344 9,318 9,121
8,977 8,613 8,203
7,897 7,710 7,290 6,719 6,404
12,140 � 11,680 � 11,385 10,995 � 10,844 � 10,607 � 10,519 � 10,516 � 10,512 � 10,355 0,289.10,276 � 10,200 � Io,181 Tschingel Pass (Lauterbrunnen to Kandersteg), 9,265 g (g), snow 9,265 Hohthiirli Pass (Kandersteg to the Kien Valley), foot path 8,882 Lutschen Pass (Kandersteg to the Liitschenthal), snow 8,842 Sefinenfurka(Lauterbrunnen to the Kien Valley), foot path 8,583 Wendenjoch (Engelberg to the Gadmen Valley), snow. .8,544 Furtwangsattel(Guttannen to the Gadmen Valley), foot path..^ Passo di Lei (Avers Valley to Chiavenna), foot path..

^ Fenetre de Champorcher (Cogne to Champorcher), bridle path (E) Col de Vaudet (Isere Valley to the Val Grisanche), foot path Col de Bardoney (Cogne to Pont Canavese), snow (E).

^ Forcellina (Avers Valley to the Septimer Pass), foot path.

.. .. ... .8,393 Furka Pass (Rhone Glacier to Andermatt), carriage road.^ Furka Pass (Rhone Glacier to Andermatt), carriage road.

^ Kriizli Pass (Amsteg to Sedrun), foot path Foo or Ramin Pass (Elm to Weisstannen), bridle path Oberalp Pass (Andermatt to Disentis), carriage road Klausen Pass (Altdorf to Linththal), carriage road .

^ Scharnitz or Seefeld Pass (Partenkirchen to Zirl), carriage road Hirschbiihel Pass (Berchtesgaden to Saalfelden), carriage road.

.7,992 Rawil Pass (Sion to Lenk), bridle path.^ Rawil Pass (Sion to Lenk), bridle path.

^ Sanetsch Pass (Sion to Saanen), bridle path.

^ Bocca di Cadlimo (Airolo to the Lukmanier Pass), foot path 8,340 Valserberg (Hinterrhein to Vals Platz), bridle path 8,225 Safierberg (Splugen to Safien Platz), bridle path.

.7,924 Gemmi Pass (Kandersteg to Leukerbad), bridle path.^ Gemmi Pass (Kandersteg to Leukerbad), bridle path.

^ Bocca di Cadlimo (Airolo to the Lukmanier Pass), foot path 8,340 Valserberg (Hinterrhein to Vals Platz), bridle path 8,225 Safierberg (Splugen to Safien Platz), bridle path.

^ Joch Pass (Meiringen to Engelberg ), bridle path..

.7,641 Surenen Pass (Engelberg to Altdorf), foot path..^ Cuolm d'Alp bella or Vignitz Pass (Samnaun Glen to Kappl), foot path.

^ Joch Pass (Meiringen to Engelberg ), bridle path..

^ Forcella di Lunghino (Maloja to the Septimer Pass), foot path 8,645 Scaletta Pass (Davos to Scanfs), bridle path..

.7,563 Susten Pass (Meiringen to Wassen), partly carriage road.^ Susten Pass (Meiringen to Wassen), partly carriage road.

^ Scharnitz or Seefeld Pass (Partenkirchen to Zirl), carriage road Hirschbiihel Pass (Berchtesgaden to Saalfelden), carriage road.

^ Passo di Valles (Paneveggio to Cencenighe), foot path 6,667 Rolle Pass (Predazzo to San Martino di Castrozza and Primiero), carriage road.

.7,422 Sanetsch Pass (Sion to Saanen), bridle path.^ Rawil Pass (Sion to Lenk), bridle path.

^ Sanetsch Pass (Sion to Saanen), bridle path.

^ Bocca di Cadlimo (Airolo to the Lukmanier Pass), foot path 8,340 Valserberg (Hinterrhein to Vals Platz), bridle path 8,225 Safierberg (Splugen to Safien Platz), bridle path.

.. .7,331 Joch Pass (Meiringen to Engelberg), bridle path..^ Joch Pass (Meiringen to Engelberg ), bridle path..

^ Fraele Pass (Bormio to the Ofen road), partly bridle path Scale di Fraele (Bormio to Fraele), bridle path.

^ Forcella di Lunghino (Maloja to the Septimer Pass), foot path 8,645 Scaletta Pass (Davos to Scanfs), bridle path..

.7,267 Grimsel Pass (Meiringen to the Rhone Glacier), carriage road 7,100 Kleine Scheidegg (Grindelwald to Lauterbrunnen), railway over.^ Susten Pass (Meiringen to Wassen), partly carriage road.

^ Grimsel Pass (Meiringen to the Rhone Glacier), carriage road 7,100 Kleine Scheidegg (Grindelwald to Lauterbrunnen), railway over.

^ Furka Pass (Rhone Glacier to Andermatt), carriage road.

.. ... .6,772 Col de Cheville (Sion to Bex), bridle path..^ Col d'Abries or de Prali (Perosa to Abries), bridle path.

^ Col de Sorebois (Zinal to the Val de Torrent), bridle path.

^ Col de Balme (Chamonix to the Trient Valley), bridle path.

6,723 Grosse Scheidegg (Grindelwald to Meiringen), bridle path 6,434 Col de Jaman (Montreux to Montbovon), mule path over, railway tunnel beneath. .. 4,974 Brunig Pass (Meiringen to Lucerne), railway over.. 3,396 11,14 9 11,132 II,103 10,749 10,749 10,742 10,680 10,6 37 10,542 10,509 10,499 10,489 10,361 10,338 10,250 10,247 10,119 10,089 10,069 10,020 9,991 Lepontine Alps. Piz Blas.. 9,918 Monte Giove. 9,876 Pizzo Centrale. 9,853 Pizzas d'Annarosa 9,850 Piz Beverin.. 9,843 Weisshorn (Splugen) 9,$17 Pizzo Lucendro. 9,708 Piz Tomiil.. 9,676 Piz Cavel. 9, 6 59 Barenhorn 9, 6 20 Six Madun (Badus) 9,619 Piz Muraun. 9,512 Zervreilerhorn. 9,508 Monte Cistella. 9,353 Piz Lukmanier. 9,115 Monte Prosa. 8,983 Pizzo Columbh. .8,363 Monte Camoghe 7,303 Piz Mundaun.^ Monte Camoghe 7,303 Piz Mundaun.

6,775 Monte Generoso. .5,591 Monte San Salvatore 3,004 9. The Alps of North-Eastern Switzerland (north of the Klausen Pass) Chief Peaks of the North-Eastern Swiss Alps. Glarnisch (highest) Bbser Faulen..^ Central Tirol Alps (from the Brenner Pass to the Radstalter Tauern Pass, north of the Drave Valley and south of the Pinzgau and the Enns Valley).

^ The Eastern Alps consist of a central mass of crystalline and schistose rocks flanked on each side by a zone of Mesozoic beds and on the north by an outer band of Tertiary deposits.

^ Reckner (Tuxergebirge) Chief Passes of the Central Tirol Alps.

Santis .
.Altmann Faulfirst Alvier.^ Altmann Faulfirst Alvier.

.. .. .
Kurfursten (highest). .Speer 9,580 Gross Mythen..^ Speer 9,580 Gross Mythen..

9,200 Rigikulm. 8,216 Hoher Kasten.. .7,999 Rossberg 7,9 2 5 Zugerberg (Hochwacht) 7,753 Albis Hochwacht..^ Rossberg 7,9 2 5 Zugerberg (Hochwacht) 7,753 Albis Hochwacht..

7,576 Uetliberg. .
.6,411 6,240 5,906 5,899 5,194 3,255 2,887 2,864 Chief Passes of the North-Eastern Swiss Alps. Ruosalperkulm (Schachen Valley to the Muota Valley), foot path..^ Forcellina (Avers Valley to the Septimer Pass), foot path.

^ Ruosalperkulm (Schachen Valley to the Muota Valley), foot path..

^ Karren Alp Pass (Muota Valley to Linththal), foot path Kinzigkulm Pass (Schachen Valley to the Muota Valley), foot path .

.Karren Alp Pass (Muota Valley to Linththal), foot path Kinzigkulm Pass (Schachen Valley to the Muota Valley), foot path .^ Forcellina (Avers Valley to the Septimer Pass), foot path.

^ Ruosalperkulm (Schachen Valley to the Muota Valley), foot path..

^ Karren Alp Pass (Muota Valley to Linththal), foot path Kinzigkulm Pass (Schachen Valley to the Muota Valley), foot path .

.Saasberg Pass (Einsiedeln to Glarus), foot path.^ Saasberg Pass (Einsiedeln to Glarus ), foot path.

^ Pragel Pass (Muotathal to Glarus), carriage road in progress Hacken Pass (Schwyz to Einsiedeln ), foot path Holzegg Pass (same to same), bridle path Ibergeregg Pass (Schwyz to Iberg and Einsiedeln), carriage road 7,126 6,877 6,811 6,227 5,512 5,417 5,158 5,099 4,616 4,613 Krazeren Pass (Nesslau to Urnasch), bridle path.

^ Fuorcla Maisas (Remus to the Samnaun Glen), snow 9,357 Vermunt or Fermunt Pass (Guarda to Patenen), snow 9,193 Futschol Pass (Ardez to Galtiir), foot path.

.Kamor Pass (Appenzell to Rai), bridle path.^ Kamor Pass (Appenzell to Rai), bridle path.

^ Bocca di Cadlimo (Airolo to the Lukmanier Pass), foot path 8,340 Valserberg (Hinterrhein to Vals Platz), bridle path 8,225 Safierberg (Splugen to Safien Platz), bridle path.

^ Joch Pass (Meiringen to Engelberg ), bridle path..

.Saxerlucke (Appenzell to Sax), foot path..^ Saxerlucke (Appenzell to Sax), foot path..

.Schwein Alp Pass (Waggithal to the Klon Glen), bridle path.^ Schwein Alp Pass (Waggithal to the Klon Glen), bridle path.

^ Diesrut Pass (Vrin to the Somvix Glen), bad bridle path.

^ Fuorcla Maisas (Remus to the Samnaun Glen), snow 9,357 Vermunt or Fermunt Pass (Guarda to Patenen), snow 9,193 Futschol Pass (Ardez to Galtiir), foot path.

.Pragel Pass (Muotathal to Glarus), carriage road in progress Hacken Pass (Schwyz to Einsiedeln), foot path Holzegg Pass (same to same), bridle path Ibergeregg Pass (Schwyz to Iberg and Einsiedeln), carriage road 7,126 6,877 6,811 6,227 5,512 5,417 5,158 5,099 4,616 4,613 Krazeren Pass (Nesslau to Urnasch), bridle path.^ Pragel Pass (Muotathal to Glarus), carriage road in progress Hacken Pass (Schwyz to Einsiedeln ), foot path Holzegg Pass (same to same), bridle path Ibergeregg Pass (Schwyz to Iberg and Einsiedeln), carriage road 7,126 6,877 6,811 6,227 5,512 5,417 5,158 5,099 4,616 4,613 Krazeren Pass (Nesslau to Urnasch), bridle path.

^ Saasberg Pass (Einsiedeln to Glarus ), foot path.

^ Kriizli Pass (Amsteg to Sedrun), foot path Foo or Ramin Pass (Elm to Weisstannen), bridle path Oberalp Pass (Andermatt to Disentis), carriage road Klausen Pass (Altdorf to Linththal), carriage road .

3,993 io. .Bernina Alps (from the Maloja to the Reschen Scheideck and the Stelvio, south and east of the Val Bregaglia and of the Engadine and north of the Valtellina).^ Bernina Alps (from the Maloja to the Reschen Scheideck and the Stelvio, south and east of the Val Bregaglia and of the Engadine and north of the Valtellina).

^ Gangolf Haub - Jalovec On the south-east European Alps (see also Alps - Eastern part GROUP page) could not finish more beautifully as they do with the group of Julian Alps.
  • SummitPost - Julian Alps -- Climbing, Hiking & Mountaineering 10 February 2010 11:011 UTC www.summitpost.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This, between the Dauphine and the borders of Hungary, forms a broad band convex towards the north, while most of the valleys lie between the directions west to east and south-west to north-east.

.Chief Peaks of the Bernina Alps. Piz Bernina.^ Chief Peaks of the Pennine Alps.

^ Chief Peaks of the Dauphine Alps.

^ Chief Peaks of the Graian Alps.

13,304 Piz Zupo 13,131 Monte di Scerscen. .13,116 Piz Roseg 12,934 Piz Pala 12,835 Crast' Aguzza.^ Piz Roseg 12,934 Piz Pala 12,835 Crast' Aguzza.

.12,704 Piz Morteratsch 12,317 Monte della Disgrazia 12,067 Pizzo di Verona.^ Piz Morteratsch 12,317 Monte della Disgrazia 12,067 Pizzo di Verona .

^ Cima di Redasc6 Piz Lischanna Pizzo di Sena Piz Casana..

.11,359 Cima di Piazzi.^ Cima di Piazzi.

.11,283 Cima di Castello.^ Cima di Castello.

11,155 Cima Viola.. 11,103 Pizzo Cengalo. 11,070 Cima di Rosso I 1,060 Pizzo Scalino. 10,903 Pizzo Badile.. 10,863 Corno di Campo. .10,844 Pizzo di Dosde.^ Pizzo di Dosde.

^ Thence to the Reschen Scheideck Pass the main chain is ill-defined, though on it rises the Corno di Campo (10,844 ft.

.10,762 Cima di Saoseo.^ Cima di Saoseo.

.10,752 Piz Languard Piz Sesvenna Piz Pisoc.^ Piz Languard Piz Sesvenna Piz Pisoc.

.Piz Murtarol Piz Quatervals..^ Piz Murtarol Piz Quatervals..

.Pizzo della Margna.^ Pizzo della Margna.

.Cima di Redasc6 Piz Lischanna Pizzo di Sena Piz Casana..^ Cima di Redasc6 Piz Lischanna Pizzo di Sena Piz Casana..

^ Piz Morteratsch 12,317 Monte della Disgrazia 12,067 Pizzo di Verona .

^ Cima di Rosso I 1,060 Pizzo Scalino.

.Monte Foscagno Pizzo del Teo.^ Monte Foscagno Pizzo del Teo.

.Pizzo del Ferro.^ Pizzo del Ferro.

Piz Umbrail. Zwei Schwestern Monte Braulio. Monte Spluga. Monte Massuccio Mont la Schera 10,568 � 10,427 10,424 10,358 10,355 10,299 10,204 10,099 10,0 79 10,oio 10,007 '0,007 9,955 9,784 9,777 9,321 9,239 8,494 Chief Passes of the Bernina Alps. Fuorcla Bellavista (Pontresina to Chiesa, in Val Malenco), snow .
.Fuorcla Crast' Aguzza (same to same), snow Fuorcla Tschierva (same to same), snow .^ Fuorcla Crast' Aguzza (same to same), snow Fuorcla Tschierva (same to same), snow .

^ Fuorcla Sella (same to same), snow Passo di Bondo (Bondo to the Baths of Masino), snow Passo di Castello (Maloja to Morbegno), snow .

Fuorcla Sella (same to same), snow � Passo di Bondo (Bondo to the Baths of Masino), snow Passo di Castello (Maloja to Morbegno), snow .
.Passo Tremoggia (Sils to Chiesa), snow.^ Passo Tremoggia (Sils to Chiesa), snow.

.
.Passo di Mello (Chiareggio to Val Masino), snow.^ Passo di Mello (Chiareggio to Val Masino), snow.

^ Passo di Cercen (Val di Genova to Fucine), snow.

^ Passo di Presena (Val di Genova to the Tonale Pass), snow.

.Diavolezza Pass(Bernina road to the Morteratsch Glen), snow Passo di Dosde (Val Grosina to Val Viola Bormina), foot path..^ Passo di Lei (Avers Valley to Chiavenna), foot path..

^ Passo di Ball (San Martino di Castrozza to the Pravitale Glen), foot path.

^ Grasleiten Pass (Vajolet Glen to the Grasleiten Glen), foot path 8,521 Passo di Pravitale (Rosetta Plateau to the Pravitale Glen), foot path.

... .Passo di Sacco (Bernina road to Grosio), foot path.^ Passo di Lei (Avers Valley to Chiavenna), foot path..

^ Passo di Verva (Bormio to Grosio), foot path..

^ Passo di Venina (Val Brembana to Sondrio), foot path .

.Passo di Zocca (Vicosoprano to Val Masino), snow .^ Passo di Mello (Chiareggio to Val Masino), snow.

^ Passo di Cercen (Val di Genova to Fucine), snow.

^ Passo di Presena (Val di Genova to the Tonale Pass), snow.

.Casana Pass (Scanfs to Livigno), bridle path.^ Casana Pass (Scanfs to Livigno), bridle path.

^ Alpisella Pass (Livigno to Fraele), bridle path..

^ Bocca di Cadlimo (Airolo to the Lukmanier Pass), foot path 8,340 Valserberg (Hinterrhein to Vals Platz), bridle path 8,225 Safierberg (Splugen to Safien Platz), bridle path.

.
.Muretto Pass (Maloja to Chiesa), partly snow..^ Muretto Pass (Maloja to Chiesa), partly snow..

.Umbrail Pass or Wermserjoch (Munster Valley to the Stelvio road), carriage road Passo di Val Viola (Bernina road to Bormio), bridle path Giufplan Pass (Ofen road to Fraele), bridle path.^ Passo di Lei (Avers Valley to Chiavenna), foot path..

^ Fraele Pass (Bormio to the Ofen road), partly bridle path Scale di Fraele (Bormio to Fraele), bridle path.

^ Passo di Naret (Fusio to Airolo), bridle path..

.Bernina Pass (Pontresina to Tirano), carriage road Forcola di Livigno (Bernina Pass to Livigno), small carriage road..^ Aprica Pass (Edolo to Tirano), carriage road.

^ Bernina Pass (Pontresina to Tirano), carriage road Forcola di Livigno (Bernina Pass to Livigno), small carriage road..

^ Scharnitz or Seefeld Pass (Partenkirchen to Zirl), carriage road Hirschbiihel Pass (Berchtesgaden to Saalfelden), carriage road.

.Cruschetta Pass (Schuls by Scarl to Taufers), bridle path .^ Cruschetta Pass (Schuls by Scarl to Taufers), bridle path .

^ Bocca di Cadlimo (Airolo to the Lukmanier Pass), foot path 8,340 Valserberg (Hinterrhein to Vals Platz), bridle path 8,225 Safierberg (Splugen to Safien Platz), bridle path.

^ Joch Pass (Meiringen to Engelberg ), bridle path..

.Passo di Verva (Bormio to Grosio), foot path..^ Passo di Lei (Avers Valley to Chiavenna), foot path..

^ Passo di Verva (Bormio to Grosio), foot path..

^ Passo di Venina (Val Brembana to Sondrio), foot path .

.Sursass or Schlinig Pass (Remus to Mals) foot path .^ Sursass or Schlinig Pass (Remus to Mals) foot path .

^ Fuorcla Maisas (Remus to the Samnaun Glen), snow 9,357 Vermunt or Fermunt Pass (Guarda to Patenen), snow 9,193 Futschol Pass (Ardez to Galtiir), foot path.

^ Bocca di Cadlimo (Airolo to the Lukmanier Pass), foot path 8,340 Valserberg (Hinterrhein to Vals Platz), bridle path 8,225 Safierberg (Splugen to Safien Platz), bridle path.

.Foscagno Pass (Bormio to Trepalle), bridle path .^ Foscagno Pass (Bormio to Trepalle), bridle path .

^ Tabarettascharte (Sulden to Trafoi), foot path Stelvio Pass (Trafoi to Bormio), carriage road 9,055 Gavia Pass (Santa Caterina to Ponte di Legno), foot path 8,651 Timmeljoch orTimblerjoch (Solden to the Passeierthal and Meran ), bridle path.

^ Bocca di Cadlimo (Airolo to the Lukmanier Pass), foot path 8,340 Valserberg (Hinterrhein to Vals Platz), bridle path 8,225 Safierberg (Splugen to Safien Platz), bridle path.

.Alpisella Pass (Livigno to Fraele), bridle path..^ Casana Pass (Scanfs to Livigno), bridle path.

^ Alpisella Pass (Livigno to Fraele), bridle path..

^ Dossradond Pass (Santa Maria Munster to Fraele), bridle path..

.Scarl Pass (Scarl to Santa Maria Munster), carriage road.^ Scarl Pass (Scarl to Santa Maria Munster ), carriage road.

^ Dossradond Pass (Santa Maria Munster to Fraele), bridle path..

^ Scharnitz or Seefeld Pass (Partenkirchen to Zirl), carriage road Hirschbiihel Pass (Berchtesgaden to Saalfelden), carriage road.

.Dossradond Pass (Santa Maria Munster to Fraele), bridle path..^ Scarl Pass (Scarl to Santa Maria Munster ), carriage road.

^ Alpisella Pass (Livigno to Fraele), bridle path..

^ Dossradond Pass (Santa Maria Munster to Fraele), bridle path..

.
.Passo Dheira (Livigno to Trepalle) bridle path.^ Passo Dheira (Livigno to Trepalle) bridle path.

^ Passo di Naret (Fusio to Airolo), bridle path..

^ Casana Pass (Scanfs to Livigno), bridle path.

.
.Ofen Pass (Zernez to Mals), carriage road.^ Ofen Pass (Zernez to Mals), carriage road.

^ Scharnitz or Seefeld Pass (Partenkirchen to Zirl), carriage road Hirschbiihel Pass (Berchtesgaden to Saalfelden), carriage road.

^ Passo di Valles (Paneveggio to Cencenighe), foot path 6,667 Rolle Pass (Predazzo to San Martino di Castrozza and Primiero), carriage road.

.Fraele Pass (Bormio to the Ofen road), partly bridle path Scale di Fraele (Bormio to Fraele), bridle path.^ Fraele Pass (Bormio to the Ofen road), partly bridle path Scale di Fraele (Bormio to Fraele), bridle path.

^ Foscagno Pass (Bormio to Trepalle), bridle path .

^ Alpisella Pass (Livigno to Fraele), bridle path..

.
.Maloja Pass (St Moritz to Chiavenna), carriage road .^ Maloja Pass (St Moritz to Chiavenna), carriage road .

^ Scharnitz or Seefeld Pass (Partenkirchen to Zirl), carriage road Hirschbiihel Pass (Berchtesgaden to Saalfelden), carriage road.

^ Passo di Valles (Paneveggio to Cencenighe), foot path 6,667 Rolle Pass (Predazzo to San Martino di Castrozza and Primiero), carriage road.

.12,087 II,805 11,572 10,840 10,227 10,171 9,912 9,$13 9,767 9,351 9,026 9,000 8,832 8,389 8,242 7,976 7,723 7,645 7,638 7,599 7,592 7,540 7,517 7,497 7,386 7,349 7,248 7,071 6,398 6,372 5,935 II. Albula Range (from the Splugen Pass to the Fluela Pass, north and west of the Val Bregaglia and of the Engadine).^ II,805 11,572 10,840 10,227 10,171 9,912 9,$13 9,767 9,351 9,026 9,000 8,832 8,389 8,242 7,976 7,723 7,645 7,638 7,599 7,592 7,540 7,517 7,497 7,386 7,349 7,248 7,071 6,398 6,372 5,935 II. Albula Range (from the Splugen Pass to the Fluela Pass, north and west of the Val Bregaglia and of the Engadine).

^ Bocca di Cadlimo (Airolo to the Lukmanier Pass), foot path 8,340 Valserberg (Hinterrhein to Vals Platz), bridle path 8,225 Safierberg (Splugen to Safien Platz), bridle path.

^ Col de Chermontane (Val de Bagnes to Arolla), snow 12 ,543 Cimes Blanches (Val Tournanche to Ayas), bridle path 12,540 Col de Torrent (Evolena to the Val de Torrent), bridle path 12,527 Augstbord Pass (St Niklaus to Turtmann), bridle path.

.Peaks of the Albula Range. 11,228 Pizzo Stella.^ Peaks of the Albula Range.

.10,375 11,132 Fluela Schwarzhorn 10,335 11,109 Pizzo della Duana 10,279 '1,106 Pizzo Gallegione 10,201 11,093 Gletscherhorn 10,191 10 ,959 Cima di Lago 10,112 10,785 Hoch Ducan io,060 10,739 Piz Grisch..^ Pizzo Gallegione (10,201 ft.

^ Fluela Schwarzhorn 10,335 11,109 Pizzo della Duana 10,279 '1,106 Pizzo Gallegione 10,201 11,093 Gletscherhorn 10,191 10 ,959 Cima di Lago 10,112 10,785 Hoch Ducan io,060 10,739 Piz Grisch..

^ Cima di Redasc6 Piz Lischanna Pizzo di Sena Piz Casana..

10,000 10,689 Averser Weissberg. 9,987 10,667 Surettahorn.. � .9,971 10,584 Arosa Rothhorn 9,794 10,502 Piz Curver..^ Piz Timun (10,502 ft.

^ Arosa Rothhorn 9,794 10,502 Piz Curver..

9,761 10,430 Pizzo Lunghino 9,121 10,378 Statzerhorn.. 8,450 Chief Passes of the Albula Range. Fuorcla Calderas (Molins to Bevers), snow.. .10,270 Fuorcla d'Eschia (Madulein to Bergun), snow.^ Fuorcla d'Eschia (Madulein to Bergun), snow.

.9,869 Passo della Duana (Avers Valley to the Val Bregaglia), snow 9,187 Sertig Pass (Davos to Scanfs), foot path.^ Passo di Lei (Avers Valley to Chiavenna), foot path..

^ Forcellina (Avers Valley to the Septimer Pass), foot path.

^ Passo della Forcellina or di Campo (Cedegolo to the Val di Fumo), foot path.

.9,062 Forcella di Prassignola (Avers Valley to Soglio), old paved cattle path.^ Passo di Lei (Avers Valley to Chiavenna), foot path..

^ Forcella di Prassignola (Avers Valley to Soglio), old paved cattle path.

^ Forcella di Lunghino (Maloja to the Septimer Pass), foot path 8,645 Scaletta Pass (Davos to Scanfs), bridle path..

.. .. ... .8,924 Tinzenthor (Bergun to Savognino), foot path.^ Tinzenthor (Bergun to Savognino), foot path.

^ Albula Pass (Bergun to Ponte ), carriage road over, rail 7,595 7,582 7,504 Passo di Madesimo or d'Emet (Avers Valley to Madesimo), foot path.

^ Ducan Pass (Davos to Bergun), foot path.

.8,918 Forcella di Lago or Madris Pass (Avers Valley to Chia venna), foot path.^ Passo di Lei (Avers Valley to Chiavenna), foot path..

^ Forcellina (Avers Valley to the Septimer Pass), foot path.

^ Forcella di Prassignola (Avers Valley to Soglio), old paved cattle path.

.8,793 Forcellina (Avers Valley to the Septimer Pass), foot path.^ Passo di Lei (Avers Valley to Chiavenna), foot path..

^ Forcellina (Avers Valley to the Septimer Pass), foot path.

^ Fuorcla Maisas (Remus to the Samnaun Glen), snow 9,357 Vermunt or Fermunt Pass (Guarda to Patenen), snow 9,193 Futschol Pass (Ardez to Galtiir), foot path.

.8,770 Ducan Pass (Davos to Bergun), foot path.^ Grialetsch Pass (Davos to Sus ), foot path..

^ Tinzenthor (Bergun to Savognino), foot path.

^ Ducan Pass (Davos to Bergun), foot path.

.. .8,763 Passo di Lei (Avers Valley to Chiavenna), foot path..^ Passo di Lei (Avers Valley to Chiavenna), foot path..

^ Forcellina (Avers Valley to the Septimer Pass), foot path.

^ Passo di Verva (Bormio to Grosio), foot path..

.8,724 Forcella di Lunghino (Maloja to the Septimer Pass), foot path 8,645 Scaletta Pass (Davos to Scanfs), bridle path..^ Forcella di Lunghino (Maloja to the Septimer Pass), foot path 8,645 Scaletta Pass (Davos to Scanfs), bridle path..

^ Strela Pass (Davos to Langwies), bridle path.

^ Forcellina (Avers Valley to the Septimer Pass), foot path.

.8,593 Suvretta Pass (St Moritz to Bevers), bridle path...^ Joch Pass (Meiringen to Engelberg ), bridle path..

^ Fraele Pass (Bormio to the Ofen road), partly bridle path Scale di Fraele (Bormio to Fraele), bridle path.

^ Col de la Forclaz (Chamonix to St Gervais), bridle path.

.8,590 Fuorcla d'Alp Fontauna (Bergun to Scanfs), foot path..^ Cuolm d'Alp bella or Vignitz Pass (Samnaun Glen to Kappl), foot path.

^ Fuorcla d'Alp Fontauna (Bergun to Scanfs), foot path..

^ Forcella di Lunghino (Maloja to the Septimer Pass), foot path 8,645 Scaletta Pass (Davos to Scanfs), bridle path..

.8,580 Stallerberg (Avers Valley to Bivio-Stalla), foot path..^ Passo di Lei (Avers Valley to Chiavenna), foot path..

^ Septimer Pass (Bivio-Stalla to Casaccia), bridle path..

^ Fenetre de Champorcher (Cogne to Champorcher), bridle path (E) Col de Vaudet (Isere Valley to the Val Grisanche), foot path Col de Bardoney (Cogne to Pont Canavese), snow (E).

.8,478 Grialetsch Pass (Davos to Sus), foot path..^ Cuolm d'Alp bella or Vignitz Pass (Samnaun Glen to Kappl), foot path.

^ Forcella di Lunghino (Maloja to the Septimer Pass), foot path 8,645 Scaletta Pass (Davos to Scanfs), bridle path..

^ Strela Pass (Davos to Langwies), bridle path.

.. .8,353 Fluela Pass (Davos to Sus), carriage road..^ Arlberg Pass (Landeck to Bludenz), carriage road over, railway tunnel beneath.

^ Scharnitz or Seefeld Pass (Partenkirchen to Zirl), carriage road Hirschbiihel Pass (Berchtesgaden to Saalfelden), carriage road.

^ Tre Croci Pass (Cortina to Auronzo), carriage road Karersee or Caressa Pass (Welschenofen to Vigo di Fassa), carriage road..

.. .7,838 Strela Pass (Davos to Langwies), bridle path.^ Strela Pass (Davos to Langwies), bridle path.

^ Bocca di Cadlimo (Airolo to the Lukmanier Pass), foot path 8,340 Valserberg (Hinterrhein to Vals Platz), bridle path 8,225 Safierberg (Splugen to Safien Platz), bridle path.

^ Joch Pass (Meiringen to Engelberg ), bridle path..

.7,799 Albula Pass (Bergun to Ponte), carriage road over, rail 7,595 7,582 7,504 Passo di Madesimo or d'Emet (Avers Valley to Madesimo), foot path.^ Passo di Lei (Avers Valley to Chiavenna), foot path..

^ Forcellina (Avers Valley to the Septimer Pass), foot path.

^ Passo di Verva (Bormio to Grosio), foot path..

.. ... .7,481 12. Silvretta and Rhatikon Ranges (from the Fluela Pass to the Reschen Scheideck and the Arlberg Pass).^ Reschen Scheideck Pass (4902 ft.

^ Io,640 Ramoljoch (Vent to Gurgl), snow 1'0.479 Langtaufererjoch (Vent to the Reschen Scheideck Pass), snow.

^ Thence to the Reschen Scheideck Pass the main chain is ill-defined, though on it rises the Corno di Campo (10,844 ft.

.Chief Peaks of the Silvretta and Rhatikon Ranges. 10,145 10,132 10,079 10,037 10,010 9,968 9,899 9,784 9,7481 9,640 9,554 9, 9,449482 9,285 9,282 9,252 8,678 8,445 8,419 Chief Passes of the Silvretta and Rhatikon Ranges. J amjoch (Guarda to Galtiir), snow ..^ Silvretta Pass (Klosters to Lavin), snow.

^ Fuorcla Maisas (Remus to the Samnaun Glen), snow 9,357 Vermunt or Fermunt Pass (Guarda to Patenen), snow 9,193 Futschol Pass (Ardez to Galtiir), foot path.

^ Fuorcla del Confin (Silvretta Pass to the Vermunt Glacier), snow.

.10,112 Fuorcla del Confin (Silvretta Pass to the Vermunt Glacier), snow.^ Fuorcla del Confin (Silvretta Pass to the Vermunt Glacier), snow.

^ Silvretta Pass (Klosters to Lavin), snow.

^ Fuorcla Maisas (Remus to the Samnaun Glen), snow 9,357 Vermunt or Fermunt Pass (Guarda to Patenen), snow 9,193 Futschol Pass (Ardez to Galtiir), foot path.

.. ... .10,033 Buinlacke (Guarda to Patenen), snow.^ Fuorcla Maisas (Remus to the Samnaun Glen), snow 9,357 Vermunt or Fermunt Pass (Guarda to Patenen), snow 9,193 Futschol Pass (Ardez to Galtiir), foot path.

^ Buinlacke (Guarda to Patenen), snow.

.10,020 Silvretta Pass (Klosters to Lavin), snow.^ Silvretta Pass (Klosters to Lavin), snow.

^ Scheien Pass (Klosters to the See Glen), foot path 8,557 Vereina Pass or Pass da Val Torta (Klosters to Lavin), foot path..

^ Fuorcla del Confin (Silvretta Pass to the Vermunt Glacier), snow.

.. .9,886 Zahnliicke (Jam Glen to the Fimber Glen), snow.^ Zahnliicke (Jam Glen to the Fimber Glen), snow.

.9,712 Verstanklathor (Klosters to Lavin), snow.^ Verstanklathor (Klosters to Lavin), snow.

^ Silvretta Pass (Klosters to Lavin), snow.

^ Fuorcla Zadrell or Vernela Pass (Klosters to Lavin), snow.

.9,682 Fuorcla d'Urezzas (Ardez to Galtiir), snow..^ Fuorcla Maisas (Remus to the Samnaun Glen), snow 9,357 Vermunt or Fermunt Pass (Guarda to Patenen), snow 9,193 Futschol Pass (Ardez to Galtiir), foot path.

^ Fuorcla Tasna (Ardez to Ischgl), snow.

^ Fuorcla d'Urezzas (Ardez to Galtiir), snow..

.9,564 Fuorcla Tasna (Ardez to Ischgl), snow.^ Fuorcla Tasna (Ardez to Ischgl), snow.

^ Fuorcla Maisas (Remus to the Samnaun Glen), snow 9,357 Vermunt or Fermunt Pass (Guarda to Patenen), snow 9,193 Futschol Pass (Ardez to Galtiir), foot path.

^ Fuorcla d'Urezzas (Ardez to Galtiir), snow..

9,374 Fuorcla Maisas (Remus to the Samnaun Glen), snow 9,357 Vermunt or Fermunt Pass (Guarda to Patenen), snow � 9,193 Futschol Pass (Ardez to Galtiir), foot path. .. .9,098 Fuorcla Zadrell or Vernela Pass (Klosters to Lavin), snow.^ Silvretta Pass (Klosters to Lavin), snow.

^ Fuorcla Maisas (Remus to the Samnaun Glen), snow 9,357 Vermunt or Fermunt Pass (Guarda to Patenen), snow 9,193 Futschol Pass (Ardez to Galtiir), foot path.

^ Scheien Pass (Klosters to the See Glen), foot path 8,557 Vereina Pass or Pass da Val Torta (Klosters to Lavin), foot path..

.9,033 Cuolm d'Alp bella or Vignitz Pass (Samnaun Glen to Kappl), foot path.^ Cuolm d'Alp bella or Vignitz Pass (Samnaun Glen to Kappl), foot path.

^ Schwein Alp Pass (Waggithal to the Klon Glen), bridle path.

^ Vajolet Pass (Tiers to the Vajolet Glen), foot path..

.. .8,852 Schafbiicheljoch (Mathon to St Anton), foot path..^ Col de Martignare (La Grave to St Jean d'Arves), foot path 8,531 Col des Tourettes (Orcieres to Chateauroux ), bridle path.

^ St Antonien or Gargellenjoch (St Antonien to St Gallenkirch), foot path .

^ Ofen Pass (Schweizerthor to Schruns), foot path Cavelljoch (Bludenz and the Liinersee to Seewis), foot path Gruben Pass (St Antonien to Schruns), foot path.

.8,685 Fimber Pass (Remus to Ischgl), bridle path.^ Fimber Pass (Remus to Ischgl), bridle path.

^ Fuorcla Maisas (Remus to the Samnaun Glen), snow 9,357 Vermunt or Fermunt Pass (Guarda to Patenen), snow 9,193 Futschol Pass (Ardez to Galtiir), foot path.

^ Bocca di Cadlimo (Airolo to the Lukmanier Pass), foot path 8,340 Valserberg (Hinterrhein to Vals Platz), bridle path 8,225 Safierberg (Splugen to Safien Platz), bridle path.

.. .8,570 Scheien Pass (Klosters to the See Glen), foot path 8,557 Vereina Pass or Pass da Val Torta (Klosters to Lavin), foot path..^ Scheien Pass (Klosters to the See Glen), foot path 8,557 Vereina Pass or Pass da Val Torta (Klosters to Lavin), foot path..

^ Fless Pass (Klosters to Sus), foot path .

^ Silvretta Pass (Klosters to Lavin), snow.

.8,540 Chief Piz Kesch.^ Chief Piz Kesch.

.Piz dellas Calderas .^ Piz dellas Calderas .

Piz Platta .
Piz Julier .
Piz d'Err. .
Piz d'Aela. .Cima da Flex Piz Uertsch..^ Cima da Flex Piz Uertsch..

Piz Forbisch. Piz Ot. .
Gross Piz Vadret. Piz Timun or Emet .
Tinzenhorn .
Piz Michel .
Piz Linard. .
Fluchthorn. .
Gross Piz Buin .
Verstanklahorn .
Muttler
11,201
11,165
10,880
10,831
10,821
Vesulspitze. .
Fluela Weisshorn
Piz Minschun .
Patteriol. .
Piz Faschalba .
.
.
.
.
Piz Fliana .
.
10 ,775
Hexenkopf. .
.
Stammerspitze
.
10,689
Gemsbleiskopf
.
Silvrettahorn .
.
Io,657
Pischahorn .
.
Augstenberg .
io,611
Scesaplana .
Plattenhorn .
.
10,568
Rothbleiskopf
.
Dreilanderspitze
10,539
Hohes Rad .
Piz Tasna
Kuchenspitze .
Hoher Riffler .
10,
10,404431
10,368
Scuh
Plattenpspitze hiltfl
Madrishorn .
Piz Mondin .
1 0,325
Drusenfluh .
.
Kiichelspitze .
10,315
Sulzfluh. .
.
Gross Seehorn
10,247
Zimbaspitze
.
Vesilspitze. .
10,220
Naafkopf .
Gross Litzner. .
. .
10,207
Falknis.. .
way tunnel beneath Septimer Pass (Bivio-Stalla to Casaccia), bridle path.. J ulier Pass (Thusis to Silvaplana), carriage road Zebles Pass (Ischgl to the Samnaun Glen), bridle path .
Garnerajoch (Klosters to Gaschurn), foot path .
Fless Pass (Klosters to Sus), foot path .
St Antonien or Gargellenjoch (St Antonien to St Gallenkirch), foot path .
Drusenthor (Schiers to Schruns), foot path .
Verrajochl (Ltinersee to the Schweizerthor), foot path. Ofen Pass (Schweizerthor to Schruns), foot path Cavelljoch (Bludenz and the Liinersee to Seewis), foot path Gruben Pass (St Antonien to Schruns), foot path. Schlappinerjoch (Klosters to St Gallenkirch), bridle path .
Schweizerthor (Schiers to Schruns), foot path. .
Bielerh8he (Patenen to Galtiir), bridle path .
Zeinisjoch (Patenen to Galtiir), bridle path. Arlberg Pass (Landeck to Bludenz), carriage road over, railway tunnel beneath. .
III. Eastern Alps 13. The Alps of Bavaria, the Vorarlberg and Salzburg (north of the Arlberg Pass, Innsbruck, the Pinzgau, and the Enns valley).
.Chief Peaks of the Alps of Bavaria, the Vorarlberg and Salzburg. Parseierspitze.^ Birkkarspitze (Karwendel) 9,042 Chief Passes of the Alps of Bavaria, the Vorarlberg and Salzburg.

^ Chief Peaks of the Pennine Alps.

^ Chief Peaks of the Dauphine Alps.

9,968 Dachstein.. 9,830 Zugspitze.. � 9,738 Hochkonig.. 9,639 Valluga. ... 9,223 Rockspitze. .. 9,059 E. Hohe Griesspitze. 9,052 Stanskogel. ... 9,052 Birkkarspitze (Karwendel) 9,042 Chief Passes of the Alps of Bavaria, the Vorarlberg and Salzburg. Gentschel Pass (Oberstdorf to Schrocken), bridle path .
Schrofen Pass (Oberstdorf to Warth), foot path .
Gerlos Pass (Zell to Mittersill), bridle path .
Pass Thurn (Kitzbahel to Mittersill), carriage road. .
Fern Pass (Reutte to Nassereit), carriage road. Scharnitz or Seefeld Pass (Partenkirchen to Zirl), carriage road � � Hirschbiihel Pass (Berchtesgaden to Saalfelden), carriage road. .Hochfilzen Pass (Saalfelden to Kitzbahel), railway over.^ Hochfilzen Pass (Saalfelden to Kitzbahel), railway over.

.Pyhrn Pass (Linz to Liezen), carriage road over, railway tunnel beneath 3,100 Wagreinstattel (Radstadt to St Johann in Pongau), carriage road 2,743 14. Central Tirol Alps (from the Brenner Pass to the Radstalter Tauern Pass, north of the Drave Valley and south of the Pinzgau and the Enns Valley).^ Col de Tenda (Tenda to Cuneo), carriage road, railway beneath.

^ Arlberg Pass (Landeck to Bludenz), carriage road over, railway tunnel beneath.

^ Pyhrn Pass (Linz to Liezen), carriage road over, railway tunnel beneath 3,100 Wagreinstattel (Radstadt to St Johann in Pongau), carriage road 2,743 14.

.This division takes in the Zillerthal and Tauern Ranges.^ This division takes in the Zillerthal and Tauern Ranges.

.Chief Peaks of the Central Tirol Alps. Ruthnerhorn (Rieser ferner).^ Chief Peaks of the Dolomites of South Tirol.

^ Central Tirol Alps (from the Brenner Pass to the Radstalter Tauern Pass, north of the Drave Valley and south of the Pinzgau and the Enns Valley).

^ Reckner (Tuxergebirge) Chief Passes of the Central Tirol Alps.

.. Hochalmspitze.. Reichenspitze (Z). .Gross Rotherknopf (Schober) .^ Gross Rotherknopf (Schober) .

Gross Morchner (Z). .Hochnarr (Goldberg) Ankogel.^ Hochnarr (Goldberg) Ankogel.

.. Hochschober .
. 11,096 Kitzsteinhorn .
. 11,090 Sonnblick. Schwarzenstein (Z).. .11,057 Zsigmondyspitze Gross Geiger.^ Zsigmondyspitze Gross Geiger.

... .11,041 Reckner (Tuxergebirge) Chief Passes of the Central Tirol Alps. Mitterbachjoch (Breitlahner to Taufers), snow (Z) Trippachsattel (Floiten Valley to Taufers), snow (Z).^ Central Tirol Alps (from the Brenner Pass to the Radstalter Tauern Pass, north of the Drave Valley and south of the Pinzgau and the Enns Valley).

^ Reckner (Tuxergebirge) Chief Passes of the Central Tirol Alps.

^ Chief Passes of the Lombard Alps.

.
Riffelthor (Kaprun to Heiligenblut), snow .
Bockkarscharte (Ferleiten to Heiligenblut), snow .
Sonnblickscharte (Rauris to Heiligenblut), snow. Alpeinerscharte (Breitlahner to St Jodok am Brenner), foot path (Z) .
Vorder Umbalthorl (Pragraten to Kasern), snow .
Ober Sulzbachthorl (Pragraten to Wald), snow .
Keilbachjoch (Mayrhofen to Steinhaus), foot path (Z) .
Unter Sulzbachthorl (Wald to Gschloss), snow .
.Schwarzkopfscharte (Bramberg to Gschloss), snow..^ Schwarzkopfscharte (Bramberg to Gschloss), snow..

.Pragraterthorl (Pragraten to the Defereggen Glen),foot path Glodisthorl (Lienz to Kals), snow Antholzerscharte (Rein Valley to the Antholz Valley), snow (Z) Krimmlerthorl "(Krimml Glen to the Obersulzbach Glen) snow .^ Pragraterthorl (Pragraten to the Defereggen Glen),foot path Glodisthorl (Lienz to Kals), snow Antholzerscharte (Rein Valley to the Antholz Valley), snow (Z) Krimmlerthorl "(Krimml Glen to the Obersulzbach Glen) snow .

^ Fuorcla Maisas (Remus to the Samnaun Glen), snow 9,357 Vermunt or Fermunt Pass (Guarda to Patenen), snow 9,193 Futschol Pass (Ardez to Galtiir), foot path.

^ Krimmler Tauern (Krimml to Kasern), foot path 8,642 Virgner or Defereggerthorl (Defereggen Glen to Virgen and Pragraten), foot path 8,586 Backlenke or Trojerjoch (Pragraten to the Defereggen Glen), foot path 8,573 Hochthor or Heiligenbluter Tauern (Heiligenblut to Rauris), foot path 8,442 Horndljochl (Mayrhofen to Steinhaus), foot path (Z) 8,383 Velber Tauern (Windisch Matrei to Mittersill), bridle path.

.Goldzechscharte (Heiligenblut to Rauris), snow .^ Goldzechscharte (Heiligenblut to Rauris), snow .

^ Sonnblickscharte (Rauris to Heiligenblut), snow.

.KalserthOrl (Kals to Lienz), snow.^ KalserthOrl (Kals to Lienz), snow.

^ Pragraterthorl (Pragraten to the Defereggen Glen),foot path Glodisthorl (Lienz to Kals), snow Antholzerscharte (Rein Valley to the Antholz Valley), snow (Z) Krimmlerthorl "(Krimml Glen to the Obersulzbach Glen) snow .

.
[Peaks And Passes Ober Tramerscharte (Rauris to Dollach), snow 9193 Kleine Elendscharte (Gastein to Gmtind), snow Kleine Zirknitzscharte (Dollach to Fragant or Rauris), snow 88,,987 921 Dossener or Mallnitzerscharte (Mallnitz to Gmtind), snow 8, � ,783 Grosse Elendscharte (Mallnitz to the Upper Malta Glen), snow Unter Pfandlscharte (Ferleiten to Heiligenblut), snow 8,744 Heiliggeistjochl (Mayrhofen to Kasern), foot path (Z) 88,721770 Bergerthorl (Kals to Heiligenblut), foot path.. .8,695 Kaprunerthorl (upper Kaprun Glen to the upper Stubach Glen), snow.^ Kaprunerthorl (upper Kaprun Glen to the upper Stubach Glen), snow.

.8,645 Krimmler Tauern (Krimml to Kasern), foot path 8,642 Virgner or Defereggerthorl (Defereggen Glen to Virgen and Pragraten), foot path 8,586 Backlenke or Trojerjoch (Pragraten to the Defereggen Glen), foot path 8,573 Hochthor or Heiligenbluter Tauern (Heiligenblut to Rauris), foot path 8,442 Horndljochl (Mayrhofen to Steinhaus), foot path (Z) 8,383 Velber Tauern (Windisch Matrei to Mittersill), bridle path.^ Krimmler Tauern (Krimml to Kasern), foot path 8,642 Virgner or Defereggerthorl (Defereggen Glen to Virgen and Pragraten), foot path 8,586 Backlenke or Trojerjoch (Pragraten to the Defereggen Glen), foot path 8,573 Hochthor or Heiligenbluter Tauern (Heiligenblut to Rauris), foot path 8,442 Horndljochl (Mayrhofen to Steinhaus), foot path (Z) 8,383 Velber Tauern (Windisch Matrei to Mittersill), bridle path.

^ Kals Matreierthorl (Kals to Windisch Matrei), bridle path 7,238 Die Stanz (Gastein to Rauris), foot path.

^ [Peaks And Passes Ober Tramerscharte (Rauris to Dollach), snow 9193 Kleine Elendscharte (Gastein to Gmtind), snow Kleine Zirknitzscharte (Dollach to Fragant or Rauris), snow 88,,987 921 Dossener or Mallnitzerscharte (Mallnitz to Gmtind), snow 8, ,783 Grosse Elendscharte (Mallnitz to the Upper Malta Glen), snow Unter Pfandlscharte (Ferleiten to Heiligenblut), snow 8,744 Heiliggeistjochl (Mayrhofen to Kasern), foot path (Z) 88,721770 Bergerthorl (Kals to Heiligenblut), foot path..

.8,334 Kaiser Tauern (Kals to Uttendorf), foot path 8,242 Hohe or Korn Tauern (Mallnitz to Gastein), bridle path over, railway tunnel beneath 8,081 Niedere or Mallnitzer Tauern (Mallnitz to Gastein), bridle path 7,920 Fuscherthorl (Ferleiten to the Seidlwinkel Glen), foot path 7,891 Lappacherjoch (Lappach to the Ahrn Valley), foot path (Z).^ Kaiser Tauern (Kals to Uttendorf), foot path 8,242 Hohe or Korn Tauern (Mallnitz to Gastein ), bridle path over, railway tunnel beneath 8,081 Niedere or Mallnitzer Tauern (Mallnitz to Gastein), bridle path 7,920 Fuscherthorl (Ferleiten to the Seidlwinkel Glen), foot path 7,891 Lappacherjoch (Lappach to the Ahrn Valley), foot path (Z).

^ [Peaks And Passes Ober Tramerscharte (Rauris to Dollach), snow 9193 Kleine Elendscharte (Gastein to Gmtind), snow Kleine Zirknitzscharte (Dollach to Fragant or Rauris), snow 88,,987 921 Dossener or Mallnitzerscharte (Mallnitz to Gmtind), snow 8, ,783 Grosse Elendscharte (Mallnitz to the Upper Malta Glen), snow Unter Pfandlscharte (Ferleiten to Heiligenblut), snow 8,744 Heiliggeistjochl (Mayrhofen to Kasern), foot path (Z) 88,721770 Bergerthorl (Kals to Heiligenblut), foot path..

^ Fuorcla Maisas (Remus to the Samnaun Glen), snow 9,357 Vermunt or Fermunt Pass (Guarda to Patenen), snow 9,193 Futschol Pass (Ardez to Galtiir), foot path.

.7,763 Tuxerjoch or Schmirnjoch (Mayrhofen to St Jodok am Brenner), foot path (Z).^ Col de Martignare (La Grave to St Jean d'Arves), foot path 8,531 Col des Tourettes (Orcieres to Chateauroux ), bridle path.

^ St Antonien or Gargellenjoch (St Antonien to St Gallenkirch), foot path .

^ Ofen Pass (Schweizerthor to Schruns), foot path Cavelljoch (Bludenz and the Liinersee to Seewis), foot path Gruben Pass (St Antonien to Schruns), foot path.

.7,697 Klammljoch (Taufers to the Defereggen Valley), bridle path 7,517 Arlscharte (St Johann in Pongau to GmUnd), foot path 7,386 Pfitscherjoch (Mayrhofen to Sterzing), foot path (Z).^ Klammljoch (Taufers to the Defereggen Valley), bridle path 7,517 Arlscharte (St Johann in Pongau to GmUnd ), foot path 7,386 Pfitscherjoch (Mayrhofen to Sterzing), foot path (Z).

^ Krimmler Tauern (Krimml to Kasern), foot path 8,642 Virgner or Defereggerthorl (Defereggen Glen to Virgen and Pragraten), foot path 8,586 Backlenke or Trojerjoch (Pragraten to the Defereggen Glen), foot path 8,573 Hochthor or Heiligenbluter Tauern (Heiligenblut to Rauris), foot path 8,442 Horndljochl (Mayrhofen to Steinhaus), foot path (Z) 8,383 Velber Tauern (Windisch Matrei to Mittersill), bridle path.

^ Bocca di Cadlimo (Airolo to the Lukmanier Pass), foot path 8,340 Valserberg (Hinterrhein to Vals Platz), bridle path 8,225 Safierberg (Splugen to Safien Platz), bridle path.

.7,376 Kals Matreierthorl (Kals to Windisch Matrei), bridle path 7,238 Die Stanz (Gastein to Rauris), foot path.^ Kals Matreierthorl (Kals to Windisch Matrei), bridle path 7,238 Die Stanz (Gastein to Rauris), foot path.

^ Krimmler Tauern (Krimml to Kasern), foot path 8,642 Virgner or Defereggerthorl (Defereggen Glen to Virgen and Pragraten), foot path 8,586 Backlenke or Trojerjoch (Pragraten to the Defereggen Glen), foot path 8,573 Hochthor or Heiligenbluter Tauern (Heiligenblut to Rauris), foot path 8,442 Horndljochl (Mayrhofen to Steinhaus), foot path (Z) 8,383 Velber Tauern (Windisch Matrei to Mittersill), bridle path.

^ Bocca di Cadlimo (Airolo to the Lukmanier Pass), foot path 8,340 Valserberg (Hinterrhein to Vals Platz), bridle path 8,225 Safierberg (Splugen to Safien Platz), bridle path.

.6,900 Stallersattel (Defereggen Glen to the Antholz Glen), bridle path (R) .^ Schwein Alp Pass (Waggithal to the Klon Glen), bridle path.

^ Grodenerjoch (Groden Glen to Colfuschg), bridle path.

^ J ulier Pass (Thusis to Silvaplana), carriage road Zebles Pass (Ischgl to the Samnaun Glen), bridle path .

.Radstadter Tauern (Radstadrto Mautendorf), carriage road 5,702 15. Ortler, Oetzthal and Stubai Ranges (from the Reschen Scheideck and the Stelvio to the Brenner Pass, south of the Inn Valley, and north of the Tonale Pass).^ Reschen Scheideck Pass (4902 ft.

^ Radstadter Tauern (Radstadrto Mautendorf), carriage road 5,702 15.

^ Reschen Scheideck Pass (Landeck to Meran), carriage road 4,902 Brenner Pass (Innsbruck to Verona), railway over.

Chief Peaks of the Ortler, Oetzthal and Stubai Ranges. Chief Passes of the Ortler, Oetzthal and Stubai Ranges. Hochjoch (Sulden to the Zebru Glen), snow. .11,602 Vioz Pass (Santa Caterina to Pejo), snow.^ Vioz Pass (Santa Caterina to Pejo), snow.

^ Cevedale Pass (Santa Caterina to the Martell Glen), snow 10,732 Gepatschjoch (Vent to the Kauns Valley), snow.

^ Passo del Zebru (Santa Caterina to the Zebru Glen), snow.

10,949 Sonklarscharte (Solden to Sterzing), snow. .10,916 Konigsjoch (Sulden to Santa Caterina), snow..^ Konigsjoch (Sulden to Santa Caterina), snow..

^ Vioz Pass (Santa Caterina to Pejo), snow.

^ Cevedale Pass (Santa Caterina to the Martell Glen), snow 10,732 Gepatschjoch (Vent to the Kauns Valley), snow.

10,811 Cevedale Pass (Santa Caterina to the Martell Glen), snow 10,732 Gepatschjoch (Vent to the Kauns Valley), snow. Io,640 Ramoljoch (Vent to Gurgl), snow � 1'0.479 Langtaufererjoch (Vent to the Reschen Scheideck Pass), snow. 10,391 Bildstockljoch (Solden to Ranalt), snow.. 10,296 Gurgler Eisjoch (Gurgl to the Pfossen Glen), snow.. .10,292 Eissee Pass (Sulden to the Martell Glen), snow.^ Eissee Pass (Sulden to the Martell Glen), snow.

^ Hochjoch (Sulden to the Zebru Glen), snow.

^ Fuorcla Maisas (Remus to the Samnaun Glen), snow 9,357 Vermunt or Fermunt Pass (Guarda to Patenen), snow 9,193 Futschol Pass (Ardez to Galtiir), foot path.

.10,279 Langthalerjoch (Gurgl to Pfelders), snow.^ Langthalerjoch (Gurgl to Pfelders), snow.

.10,033 Passo del Zebru (Santa Caterina to the Zebru Glen), snow.^ Passo del Zebru (Santa Caterina to the Zebru Glen), snow.

^ Hochjoch (Sulden to the Zebru Glen), snow.

^ Lecki Pass (Wyttenwasser Glen to the Mutten Glen), snow 9,554 Passo Rotondo (Airolo to Oberwald), snow 9,449 Kaltwasser Pass (Simplon Hospice to Veglia Alp), snow.

.9,925 Sa.11entjoch (Martell Glen to Rabbi), snow.^ Sa.11entjoch (Martell Glen to Rabbi ), snow.

^ Eissee Pass (Sulden to the Martell Glen), snow.

^ Cevedale Pass (Santa Caterina to the Martell Glen), snow 10,732 Gepatschjoch (Vent to the Kauns Valley), snow.

.9,913 Niederjoch (Vent to the Schnals Valley), snow -9, 8 99 Sforzellina Pass (Santa Caterina to Pejo), snow .^ Vioz Pass (Santa Caterina to Pejo), snow.

^ Venter Hochjoch (Vent to the Schnals Valley), snow..

^ Niederjoch (Vent to the Schnals Valley), snow -9, 8 99 Sforzellina Pass (Santa Caterina to Pejo), snow .

.Pitzthalerjochl (Mittelberg to Solden), snow .^ Pitzthalerjochl (Mittelberg to Solden), snow .

.Eisjochl am Bild (Pfelders to the Pfossen Glen), snow .^ Eisjochl am Bild (Pfelders to the Pfossen Glen), snow .

^ Gurgler Eisjoch (Gurgl to the Pfossen Glen), snow..

.Venter Hochjoch (Vent to the Schnals Valley), snow..^ Venter Hochjoch (Vent to the Schnals Valley), snow..

^ Cevedale Pass (Santa Caterina to the Martell Glen), snow 10,732 Gepatschjoch (Vent to the Kauns Valley), snow.

^ Niederjoch (Vent to the Schnals Valley), snow -9, 8 99 Sforzellina Pass (Santa Caterina to Pejo), snow .

.Tabarettascharte (Sulden to Trafoi), foot path Stelvio Pass (Trafoi to Bormio), carriage road 9,055 Gavia Pass (Santa Caterina to Ponte di Legno), foot path 8,651 Timmeljoch orTimblerjoch (Solden to the Passeierthal and Meran), bridle path.^ Fraele Pass (Bormio to the Ofen road), partly bridle path Scale di Fraele (Bormio to Fraele), bridle path.

^ Jaufen Pass (Sterzing to Meran), bridle path.

^ Passo di Verva (Bormio to Grosio), foot path..

.. .8,232 Jaufen Pass (Sterzing to Meran), bridle path.^ Jaufen Pass (Sterzing to Meran), bridle path.

^ Tabarettascharte (Sulden to Trafoi), foot path Stelvio Pass (Trafoi to Bormio), carriage road 9,055 Gavia Pass (Santa Caterina to Ponte di Legno), foot path 8,651 Timmeljoch orTimblerjoch (Solden to the Passeierthal and Meran ), bridle path.

^ Bocca di Cadlimo (Airolo to the Lukmanier Pass), foot path 8,340 Valserberg (Hinterrhein to Vals Platz), bridle path 8,225 Safierberg (Splugen to Safien Platz), bridle path.

.6,870 Reschen Scheideck Pass (Landeck to Meran), carriage road 4,902 Brenner Pass (Innsbruck to Verona), railway over.^ Arlberg Pass (Landeck to Bludenz), carriage road over, railway tunnel beneath.

^ Reschen Scheideck Pass (4902 ft.

^ Reschen Scheideck Pass (Landeck to Meran), carriage road 4,902 Brenner Pass (Innsbruck to Verona), railway over.

.4,495 16. Lombard Alps (from the Lake of Como to the Adige Valley, south of the Valtellina and the Aprica and Tonale Passes.^ Bernina Alps (from the Maloja to the Reschen Scheideck and the Stelvio, south and east of the Val Bregaglia and of the Engadine and north of the Valtellina).

^ The break in the continuity of the Alpine chain marked by the deep valley, the Vintschgau, of the upper Adige (Etsch) is one of the most remarkable features in the orography of the Alps.

^ Central Tirol Alps (from the Brenner Pass to the Radstalter Tauern Pass, north of the Drave Valley and south of the Pinzgau and the Enns Valley).

This Ortler Konigsspitze.. Monte Cevedale. .Wildspitze (Oetzthal) Weisskugel.^ Wildspitze (Oetzthal) Weisskugel.

Monte Zebru.. .Palon della Mare Punta San Matteo Thurwieserspitze Hintere Schwarze Similaun Pizzo Tresero .^ Palon della Mare Punta San Matteo Thurwieserspitze Hintere Schwarze Similaun Pizzo Tresero .

.Gross Ramolkogel Vertainspitze..^ Gross Ramolkogel Vertainspitze..

.Hochvernagtspitze Zuckerhiitl (Stubai) .^ Hochvernagtspitze Zuckerhiitl (Stubai) .

Schalfkogel.. .
Schrankogel. .
Hochwildspitze. .
Sonklarspitze. .
Tuckettspitze. .
Wilder Freiger.. .Veneziaspitze Tschengelser Hochwand Monte Confinale .^ Veneziaspitze Tschengelser Hochwand Monte Confinale .

Glockthurm. .
Fernerkogel.. .
Monte Sobretta .
Habicht. � Pflerscher Tribulaun .
.12,802 12,655 12,382 12,382 12,291 12,254 12,156 12,113 11,946 11,920 11,821 11,818 I 1,651 I 1,618 11,585 11,520 11,516 11,483 I 1,418 11,405 11,346 11,241 11,103 11,083 11,057 II,011 10,827 10,814 10,758 10,178 Watzmann.^ I 1,651 I 1,618 11,585 11,520 11,516 11,483 I 1,418 11,405 11,346 11,241 11,103 11,083 11,057 II,011 10,827 10,814 10,758 10,178 Watzmann.

^ I 1,260 11,188 11,182 II,109 10,975 Col du Grand Etret (Ceresole to the Val Savaranche), snow (E).

... 8,901 Rothewandspitze. .8,878 Gross Krottenkopf (Allgau)8, 71 8 Selbhorn..^ Gross Krottenkopf (Allgau)8, 71 8 Selbhorn..

8,711 Hohes Licht. .. 8,701 Madelegabel.. .. 8,681 Hochvogel. ... .8,511 Elmauer Haltsspitze (Kaiser gebirge).^ Elmauer Haltsspitze (Kaiser gebirge).

... 7,691 6,480 5,538 4,876 4,183 4,026 3,874 3,858 3,173 10,270 10,020 10,010 9,994 9,774 9,712 9,607 9,600 9,410 9,400 9,351 9,338 9,292 9,252 9,233 9,220 9,197 8,350 8,153 8,045 7,792 7,710 7,648 7,523 7,343 7,333 7,218 7,057 6,631 6,076 5,912 Gross Glockner.. .12,461 Gross Venediger.^ Gross Glockner (12,461 ft.

^ The eastward direction is maintained and the watershed (though not the chief Alpine watershed) continues through the Greater Tauern Alps, culminating in the Gross Venediger (12,008 ft.

.. .12,008 Gross Wiesbachhorn.^ The eastward direction is maintained and the watershed (though not the chief Alpine watershed) continues through the Greater Tauern Alps, culminating in the Gross Venediger (12,008 ft.

11,713 Hochfeiler (Zillerthal). 11,559 Dreiherrenspitze.. 11,500 Mosele (Z).. 11,438 Olperer (Z). 11,418 Johannisberg. .. 11,375 Hochgall (Rieserferner). 11,287 Thurnerkamp (Z). 11,228 Gross Loffler (Z). .
Fusstein (Z) .
11,024. I 1,008 � 10,844 10,814 � 10,785 � 10,689 � 10,673 � 10,663 10,512 � 10,196 10,122 9,485 6,742 9,859 9,826 9,541 9,465 9,459 division includes the Adamello, Presanella, Brenta and Bergamasque ranges.
Presanella .
11,694
Pizzo del Diavolo
9,564
Adamello .
11,661
Re di Castello .
9,482
Care Alto.. .
11,369
Recastello. .
9,475
Dosson di Genova .
11,254
Monte Gleno .
9,459
Crozzon di Lares
II,004
Monte Tornello
8,819
Corno di Baitone .
10,929
Corno Stella .
8,596
Busazza
10,922
Monte Legnone .
8,563
Lobbia Alta. .
10,486
Pizzo dei Tre Signori .
8,380
Cima Tosa (Brenta)
10,420
Pizzo di Presolana .
8,239
Cima di Brenta
10,352
Grigna.. .
7,907
Crozzon di Brenta
10,247
Monte Baldo. .
7,218
Pizzo di Coca (Bergam-
Monte Spinale. .
7,094
asque)
10,014
Monte Roan.. .
6,939
Pizzo di Scais
9,974
Monte Gazza. .
6,529
Pizzo di Redorta
9,964
Monte Resegone .
6,155
Pietra Grande
9,630
Chief Peaks of the Lombard Alps. .Chief Passes of the Lombard Alps. Passo di Lares (Lares Glacier to the Lobbia Glacier), snow.^ Passo di Lares (Lares Glacier to the Lobbia Glacier), snow.

^ Passo della Lobbia Alta (Lobbia Glacier to the Mandron Glacier), snow..

^ Passo di Presena (Val di Genova to the Tonale Pass), snow.

Passo di Cercen (Val di Genova to Fucine), snow. Passo della Lobbia Alta (Lobbia Glacier to the Mandron Glacier), snow.. Passo di Presena (Val di Genova to the Tonale Pass), snow. Pisgana Pass (Val di Genova to Ponte di Legno), snow. Bocca di Tuckett (Campiglio to Molveno), snow Passo di Val Morta or del Diavolo (Val Seriana to Sondrio), foot path. Bocca di Brenta (Pinzolo or Campiglio to Molveno), snow.
Passo del Groste (Campiglio to Cles), foot path. .
Passo di Venina (Val Brembana to Sondrio), foot path .
Passo del Salto (Val Seriana to Sondrio), foot path.. Passo del Venerocolo (Val di Scalve to the Aprica road), bridle path .
Passo della Forcellina or di Campo (Cedegolo to the Val di Fumo), foot path. Passo di Dordona (Val Brembana to Sondrio), foot path. .Passo di San Marco (Bergamo to Morbegno), bridle path.^ Passo di Naret (Fusio to Airolo), bridle path..

^ Passo di Collalunga (Tinee Valley to Vinadio), bridle path.

^ Passo di San Marco (Bergamo to Morbegno), bridle path.

Croce Domini Pass (Breno to Bagolino in Val Caffaro), bridle path .
.Tonale Pass (Trent to Edolo), carriage road Passo di Zovetto (Val di Scalve to Edolo), bridle path Colle Maniva (Val Trompia to Bagolino), bridle path Campo or Ginevrie Pass (Dimaro by Campiglio to Pinzolo), carriage road.^ Fraele Pass (Bormio to the Ofen road), partly bridle path Scale di Fraele (Bormio to Fraele), bridle path.

^ Passo di Naret (Fusio to Airolo), bridle path..

^ Baranca Pass (Varallo to the Val Anzasca), bridle path.

.
Gampenjoch (Cles to Meran), foot path. .. .Mendel Pass (Botzen to Cles), railway on the E. slope Passo di Castione or Presolana Pass (Clusone to the Val di Scalve), carriage road..^ Mendel Pass (Botzen to Cles), railway on the E. slope Passo di Castione or Presolana Pass (Clusone to the Val di Scalve), carriage road..

^ Passo del Venerocolo (Val di Scalve to the Aprica road), bridle path .

^ Passo di Presena (Val di Genova to the Tonale Pass), snow.

� .
Aprica Pass (Edolo to Tirano), carriage road. 17. The Dolomites of South Tirol (from the Brenner Pass Monte Croce Pass, and south of the Pusterthal).
Marmolata .
10,972
Pala di San Martino
9,831
Antelao
10,706
Rosengartenspitze
9,781
Tofana di Mezzo
10,633
Marmarole. .. .
9,715
Sorapiss
10,594
Cima di Fradusta
9,649
Monte Civetta
10,564
Fermedathurm .
9,407
Vernel
10,519
Cima d'Asta .
9,344
Monte Cristallo .
10,496
Cima di Canali .
9,338
Cima di Vezzana .
10,470
Croda Grande .
9,315
Cimon della Pala
10 ,453
Vajoletthurm (highest)
9,256
Langkofel
10,427
Sass Maor. .
9,239
Pelmo
10,397
Cima di Ball. .
9,131
Dreischusterspitze. .
10,375
Cima della Madonna
Boespitze. .
10,342
(Sass Maor). .
9,026
Croda Rossa (Hoher
Rosetta. ... .
8,993
Caisl)
10,329
Croda da Lago .
8,911
Piz Popena
10,312
Central Grasleitenspitze
8,875
Elferkofel
10,220
Schlern. .
8,406
Grohmannspitze .
10,207
Sasso di Mur
8,380
Zwolferkofel. .
10,142
Cima delle Dodici
7,671
Sass Rigais(Geislerspitzen)
9,932
Monte Pavione .
7,664
Drei Zinnen. .
9,853
Cima di Posta .
7,333
Kesselkogel (Rosengarten)
9,846
Monte Pasubio .
7,323
Fiinffingerspitze.. .
9,833
.Chief Peaks of the Dolomites of South Tirol.^ Chief Peaks of the Dolomites of South Tirol.

^ Chief Passes of the Dolomites of South Tirol.
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