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Alternative rock
Stylistic origins Punk rock, post-punk, hardcore punk, New Wave
Cultural origins Early 1980s United Kingdom and United States
Typical instruments Electric guitarbassdrums - sometimes keyboards
Mainstream popularity Limited before the success of grunge and Britpop in the 1990s. Widespread since then.
Subgenres
BritpopCollege rockDream pop - Geek rockGothic rockGrungeIndie popIndie rockMath rock - Noise pop - Noise rockPaisley UndergroundPost-Britpop - Post-rockShoegazing
Fusion genres
Alternative danceAlternative metalPsychobillyIndustrial rockMadchesterPost-punk revivalRiot Grrrl
Regional scenes
MassachusettsSeattle, WashingtonIllinoisManchester, England
Other topics
BandsCollege radioHistoryIndependent musicLollapalooza

Alternative rock (also called alternative music, alt-rock or simply alternative) is a genre of rock music that emerged in the 1980s and became widely popular in the 1990s. Alternative rock consists of various subgenres that have emerged from the independent music scene since the 1980s, such as grunge, Britpop, gothic rock, and indie pop. These genres are unified by their collective debt to the style and/or ethos of punk rock, which laid the groundwork for alternative music in the 1970s.[1] At times alternative rock has been used as a catch-all phrase for rock music from underground artists in the 1980s, and all music descended from punk rock (including punk itself, New Wave, and post-punk).

While a few artists like R.E.M. and The Cure achieved commercial success and mainstream critical recognition, many alternative rock artists during the 1980s were cult acts that recorded on independent labels and received their exposure through college radio airplay and word-of-mouth. With the breakthrough of Nirvana and the popularity of the grunge and Britpop movements in the 1990s, alternative rock entered the musical mainstream and many alternative bands became commercially successful.

Contents

The term "alternative rock"

The music now known as alternative rock was known by a variety of terms before "alternative rock" came into common usage around 1990.[2] "College rock" was used in the United States to describe the music during the 1980s due to its links to the college radio circuit and the tastes of college students. In the United Kingdom the term "indie" was preferred; by 1985 the term "indie" had come to mean a particular genre, or group of subgenres, rather than a simple demarcation of status.[3] "Indie rock" was also largely synonymous with the genre in the United States up until the genre's commercial breakthrough in the early 1990s, due to the majority of the bands belonging to independent labels.[4]

The term "alternative" had originated sometime around the mid-1980s;[5] it was an extension of the phrases "new music" and "post modern", both for the freshness of the music and its tendency to recontextualize the sounds of the past, which were commonly used by music industry of the time to denote cutting edge music.[1][6] Individuals who worked as DJs and promoters during the 1980s claim the term originates from American FM radio of the 1970s, which served as a progressive alternative to top 40 rock radio formats by featuring longer songs and giving the DJs more freedom in their song selections. One former DJ and promoter has said, "Somehow this term 'alternative' got rediscovered and heisted by college radio people during the 80s who applied it to new post-punk, indie, or underground-whatever music . . ."[7] At first the term referred to intentionally non mainstream rock based acts that were not influenced by "heavy metal ballads, rarefied new wave" and "high-energy dance anthems".[8] Usage of the term would broaden to include New Wave, pop music, punk rock, post-punk, and occasionally "college"/"indie" rock, all music found on the American "commercial alternative" radio stations of the time such as Los Angeles' KROQ-FM.[1] The use of the term "alternative" gained further exposure due to the success of Lollapalooza, where festival founder and Jane's Addiction frontman Perry Farrell coined the term "Alternative Nation".[1] As the 1990s went on the definition again became more specific.[1] In 1997 Neil Strauss of The New York Times defined alternative rock as "hard-edged rock distinguished by brittle, 70's-inspired guitar riffing and singers agonizing over their problems until they take on epic proportions".[8]

Defining music as alternative is often difficult because of two often conflicting applications of the word. Alternative can describe music that challenges the status quo and that is "fiercely iconoclastic, anticommercial, and antimainstream," but the term is also used in the music industry to denote "the choices available to consumers via record stores, radio, cable television, and the Internet."[9] Using a broad definition of the genre, Dave Thompson in his book Alternative Rock cites the formation of the Sex Pistols, the release the albums Horses by Patti Smith and Metal Machine Music by Lou Reed three key events that gave birth to alternative rock.[10]

Characteristics

"Alternative rock" is essentially an umbrella term for underground music that has emerged in the wake of punk rock since the mid-1980s.[11] Throughout much of its history, alternative rock has been largely defined by its rejection of the commercialism of mainstream culture. Alternative bands during the 1980s generally played in small clubs, recorded for indie labels, and spread their popularity through word of mouth.[12] As such, there is no set musical style for alternative rock as a whole, although The New York Times in 1989 asserted that the genre is "guitar music first of all, with guitars that blast out power chords, pick out chiming riffs, buzz with fuzztone and squeal in feedback."[13] Sounds range from the dirty guitars of grunge to the gloomy soundscapes of gothic rock to the guitar pop revivalism of Britpop to the shambolic performance style of twee pop. More often than in other rock styles, alternative rock lyrics tend to address topics of social concern, such as drug use, depression, and environmentalism.[12] This approach to lyrics developed as a reflection of the social and economic strains in the United States and United Kingdom of the 1980s and early 1990s.[14]

History

Alternative rock in the 1980s

One of the first popular alternative rock bands, R.E.M. relied on college radio airplay, constant touring, and a grassroots fanbase to break into the musical mainstream.

By 1984, a majority of groups signed to independent record labels were mining from a variety of rock and particularly 1960s rock influences. This represented a sharp break from the futuristic, hyper rational post-punk years.[15]

Throughout the 1980s, alternative rock was mainly an underground phenomena. While on occasion a song would become a commercial hit or albums would receive critical praise in mainstream publications like Rolling Stone, alternative rock in the 1980s was primarily relegated to independent record labels, fanzines, and college radio stations. Alternative bands built underground followings by touring constantly and regularly releasing low-budget albums. In the case of the United States, new bands would form in the wake of previous bands, which created an extensive underground circuit in America, filled with different scenes in various parts of the country.[11] Although American alternative artists of the 1980s never generated spectacular album sales, they exerted a considerable influence on later alternative musicians and laid the groundwork for their success.[16]

In contrast, British alternative rock was distinguished from that of the United States early on by a more pop-oriented focus (marked by an equal emphasis on albums and singles, as well as greater openness to incorporating elements of dance and club culture) and a lyrical emphasis on specifically British concerns. As a result, few British alternative bands have achieved commercial success in the US.[17] Since the 1980s alternative rock has been played extensively on the radio in the UK, particularly by disc jockeys such as John Peel (who championed alternative music on BBC Radio 1), Richard Skinner, and Annie Nightingale. Artists that had cult followings in the United States received greater exposure through British national radio and the weekly music press, and many alternative bands had chart success there.[18]

The American underground in the 1980s

Early American alternative bands such as R.E.M., The Feelies, and Violent Femmes combined punk influences with folk music and mainstream music influences. R.E.M. was the most immediately successful; its debut album, Murmur (1983), entered the Top 40 and spawned a number of jangle pop followers.[11] One of the many jangle pop scenes of the early 1980s, Los Angeles' Paisley Underground revived the sounds of the 1960s, incorporating psychedelia, rich vocal harmonies and the guitar interplay of folk rock as well as punk and underground influences such as The Velvet Underground.[11]

American indie record labels SST Records, Twin/Tone Records, Touch and Go Records, and Dischord Records presided over the shift from the hardcore punk that then dominated the American underground scene to the more diverse styles of alternative rock that were emerging.[19] Minneapolis bands Hüsker Dü and The Replacements were indicative of this shift. Both started out as punk rock bands, but soon diversified their sounds and became more melodic.[11] Michael Azerrad asserted that Hüsker Dü was the key link between hardcore punk and the more melodic, diverse music of college rock that emerged. Azerrad wrote, "Hüsker Dü played a huge role in convincing the underground that melody and punk rock weren't antithetical." The band also set an example by being the first group from the American indie scene to sign to a major record label, which helped establish college rock as "a viable commercial enterprise."[20] By focusing on heartfelt songwriting and wordplay instead of political concerns, The Replacements upended a number of underground scene conventions; Azerrad noted that "along with R.E.M. [The Replacements] were one of the few underground bands that mainstream people liked".[21]

By the late 1980s, the American alternative scene was dominated by styles ranging from quirky alternative pop (They Might Be Giants and Camper Van Beethoven), to noise rock (Sonic Youth, Big Black) to industrial rock (Ministry, Nine Inch Nails). These sounds were in turn followed by the advent of Boston's the Pixies and Los Angeles' Jane's Addiction.[11] Around the same time, the grunge subgenre emerged in Seattle, Washington. Grunge was based around a sludgy, murky guitar sound that synthesized heavy metal and punk rock.[22] Largely based around the Seattle indie label Sub Pop, grunge bands were noted for their thrift store fashion which favored flannel shirts and combat boots suited to the local weather.[23] Early grunge bands Soundgarden and Mudhoney found critical acclaim in the U.S. and UK, respectively.[11]

By the end of the decade, a number of alternative bands began to sign to major labels. While early major label signings Hüsker Dü and The Replacements had little success, acts who signed with majors in their wake such as R.E.M. and Jane's Addiction achieved gold and platinum records, setting the stage for alternative's later breakthrough.[24][25] Some bands such as the Pixies had massive success overseas while they were ignored domestically.[11]

British genres and trends of the 1980s

Robert Smith of The Cure rejects the genre labels like alternative, gothic rock, and college rock applied to his band. He has said, "Every time we went to America we had a different tag [. . .] I can't remember when we officially became 'alt-rock'".[26]

Gothic rock developed out of late-1970s British post-punk. With a reputation as the "darkest and gloomiest form of underground rock," gothic rock utilizes a synthesizer-and-guitar based sound drawn from post-punk to construct "foreboding, sorrowful, often epic soundscapes," and the genre's lyrics often address literary romanticism, morbidity, religious symbolism, and supernatural mysticism.[27] Bauhaus' debut single "Bela Lugosi's Dead", released in 1979, is considered to be the beginning of the gothic rock genre.[28] Around the same time, post-punk contemporaries Siouxsie and the Banshees and The Cure adopted the new sound.[27]

One of the key alternative rock bands to emerge during the 1980s was Manchester's The Smiths. Music journalist Simon Reynolds singled out The Smiths and their American contemporaries R.E.M. as "the two most important alt-rock bands of the day", commenting that they "were eighties bands only in the sense of being against the eighties". Reynolds noted that The Smiths' "whole stance was predicated on their British audience being a lost generation, exiles in their own land".[29] The Smiths' embrace of the guitar in an era of synthesizer-dominated music is viewed as signaling the end of the New Wave era and the advent of alternative rock in Britain. Despite the band's limited chart success and short career, The Smiths exerted an influence over the British indie scene through the end of the decade, as various bands drew from singer Morrissey's English-centered lyrical topics and guitarist Johnny Marr's jangly guitar-playing style.[17] The C86 cassette, a 1986 NME premium featuring such bands as The Wedding Present, Primal Scream, The Pastels, and the Soup Dragons, was a major influence on the development of indie pop and the British indie scene as a whole.[30][31]

Other forms of alternative rock developed in the UK during the 1980s. The Jesus and Mary Chain wrapped their pop melodies in walls of guitar noise, while New Order emerged from the demise of post-punk band Joy Division and experimented with techno and house music.[17] The Mary Chain, along with Dinosaur Jr and the dream pop of Cocteau Twins, were the influences for the shoegazing movement of the late 1980s. Named for the bandmembers' tendency to stare at their feet onstage, shoegazing acts like My Bloody Valentine, Slowdive, Ride, and Lush created an overwhelmingly loud "wash of sound" that obscured vocals and melodies with long, droning riffs, distortion, and feedback.[32] Shoegazing bands dominated the British music press at the end of the decade along with the drug-fueled Madchester scene. Based around The Haçienda, a nightclub in Manchester owned by New Order and Factory Records, Madchester bands such as Happy Mondays and The Stone Roses mixed acid house dance rhythms with melodic guitar pop.[33]

Popularization in the 1990s

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By the start of the 1990s, the music industry was enticed by alternative rock's commercial possibilities and major labels actively courted bands including Dinosaur Jr, Firehose, and Nirvana.[24] In particular, R.E.M.'s success had become a blueprint for many alternative bands in the late 1980s and 1990s to follow; the group had outlasted many of its contemporaries and by the 1990s had become one of the most popular bands in the world.[11]

The breakthrough success of grunge band Nirvana led to the widespread popularization of alternative rock in the 1990s. The release of the band's single "Smells Like Teen Spirit" from its second album Nevermind (1991) "marked the instigation of the grunge music phenomenon". Due to constant airplay of the song's music video on MTV, Nevermind was selling 400,000 copies a week by Christmas 1991.[34] The success of Nevermind surprised the music industry. Nevermind not only popularized grunge, but also established "the cultural and commercial viability of alternative rock in general."[35] Michael Azerrad asserted that Nevermind symbolized "a sea-change in rock music" in which the glam metal that had dominated rock music at that time fell out of favor in the face of music that was authentic and culturally relevant.[36]

Nirvana's surprise success with Nevermind heralded a "new openness to alternative rock" among commercial radio stations, opening doors for heavier alternative bands in particular.[37] In the wake of Nevermind, alternative rock "found itself dragged-kicking and screaming [. . .] into the mainstream" and record companies, confused by the genre's success yet eager to capitalize on it, scrambled to sign bands.[38] The New York Times declared in 1993, "Alternative rock doesn't seem so alternative anymore. Every major label has a handful of guitar-driven bands in shapeless shirts and threadbare jeans, bands with bad posture and good riffs who cultivate the oblique and the evasive, who conceal catchy tunes with noise and hide craftsmanship behind nonchalance."[39] However, many alternative rock artists rejected success, for it conflicted with the rebellious, DIY ethic the genre had espoused before mainstream exposure and their ideas of artistic authenticity.[40]

The grunge explosion

Other grunge bands subsequently replicated Nirvana's success. Pearl Jam had released its debut album Ten a month before Nevermind in 1991, but album sales only picked up a year later. By the second half of 1992 Ten became a breakthrough success, being certified gold and reaching number two on the Billboard 200 album chart.[41] Soundgarden's album Badmotorfinger and Alice in Chains' Dirt, along with the Temple of the Dog album collaboration featuring members of Pearl Jam and Soundgarden, were also among the 100 top selling albums of 1992.[42] The popular breakthrough of these grunge bands prompted Rolling Stone to nickname Seattle "the new Liverpool."[23] Major record labels signed most of the prominent grunge bands in Seattle, while a second influx of bands moved to the city in hopes of success.[43]

At the same time, critics asserted that advertising was co-opting elements of grunge and turning it into a fad. Entertainment Weekly commented in a 1993 article, "There hasn't been this kind of exploitation of a subculture since the media discovered hippies in the '60s"[44] The New York Times compared the "grunging of America" to the mass-marketing of punk rock, disco, and hip hop in previous years. As a result of the genre's popularity, a backlash against grunge developed in Seattle.[23] Nirvana's follow-up album In Utero (1993) was an intentionally abrasive album that Nirvana bassist Krist Novoselic described as a "wild aggressive sound, a true alternative record."[45] Nevertheless, upon its release in September 1993 In Utero topped the Billboard charts.[46] Pearl Jam also continued to perform well commercially with its second album, Vs. (1993), which topped the Billboard charts by selling a record 950,378 copies in its first week of release.[47]

Britpop

With the decline of the Madchester scene and the unglamorousness of shoegazing, the tide of grunge from America dominated the British alternative scene and music press in the early 1990s.[17] As a reaction, a flurry of defiantly British bands emerged that wished to "get rid of grunge" and "declare war on America", taking the public and native music press by storm.[48] Dubbed "Britpop" by the media, this movement represented by Blur, Oasis, Suede, and Pulp was the British equivalent of the grunge explosion, in that the artists propelled alternative rock to the top of the charts in their home country.[17] Britpop bands were influenced by and displayed reverence for British guitar music of the past, particularly movements and genres such as the British Invasion, glam rock, and punk rock.[49] In 1995 the Britpop phenomenon culminated in a rivalry between its two chief groups, Oasis and Blur, symbolized by their release of competing singles on the same day. Blur won "The Battle of Britpop", but Oasis soon eclipsed the other band in popularity with its second album, (What's the Story) Morning Glory? (1995),[50] which went on to become the third best-selling album in Britain's history.[51]

Other trends

Alternative bands who were leery of broad commercial success and stayed underground were termed "indie rock".[4] Long synonymous with alternative rock as a whole, indie rock became a distinct form following the popular breakthrough of Nirvana. Indie rock was formulated as a rejection of alternative's absorption into the mainstream by artists who could not or refused to cross over. While indie rock artists share the punk rock distrust of commercialized music, the genre does not entirely define itself against that, as "the general assumption is that it's virtually impossible to make indie rock's varying musical approaches compatible with mainstream tastes in the first place".[52] Labels such as Matador Records, Merge Records, and Dischord, and indie rockers like Pavement, Superchunk, Fugazi, and Sleater-Kinney dominated the American indie scene for most of the 1990s.[53] One of the main indie rock movements of the 1990s was lo-fi. The movement, which focused on the recording and distribution of music on low-quality cassette tapes, initially emerged in the 1980s. By 1992, Pavement and Sebadoh became popular lo-fi cult acts in the United States, while subsequently artists like Liz Phair and Beck brought the aesthetic to mainstream audiences.[54] The period also saw alternative confessional female singer-songwriters. Besides the previously mentioned Liz Phair, Tori Amos, Cat Power[citation needed], Björk[citation needed], PJ Harvey and the massively successful Alanis Morissette fit into this sub group.[55][56]

During the latter half of the 1990s, grunge was supplanted by post-grunge. Post-grunge bands such as Candlebox and Bush emerged soon after grunge's breakthrough. These artists lacked the underground roots of grunge and were largely influenced by what grunge had become, namely "a wildly popular form of inward-looking, serious-minded hard rock." Post-grunge was a more commercially viable genre that tempered the distorted guitars of grunge with polished, radio-ready production.[57]

Post-rock was established by Talk Talk's Laughing Stock and Slint's Spiderland albums, both released in 1991. Post-rock draws influence from a number of genres, including Krautrock, progressive rock, and jazz. The genre subverts or rejects rock conventions, and often incorporates electronic music. While the name of the genre was coined by music journalist Simon Reynolds in 1994, the sound of the genre was solidified by the release of Millions Now Living Will Never Die (1996) by the Chicago group Tortoise. Post-rock became the dominant form of experimental rock music in the 1990s and bands from the genre centered around the Thrill Jockey, Kranky, Drag City, and Too Pure record labels.[58] A related genre, math rock, peaked in the mid-1990s. In comparison to post-rock, math rock is more "rockist" and relies on complex time signatures and intertwining phrases.[59] While by the end of the decade a backlash had emerged against post-rock due to its "dispassionate intellectuality" and its perceived increasing predictability, a new wave of post-rock bands such as Godspeed You! Black Emperor and Sigur Rós emerged who further expanded the genre.[58]

After almost a decade in the underground ska acts became popular in the United States in 1996 with Mighty Mighty Bosstones, No Doubt, Goldfinger, Reel Big Fish, Less Then Jake and Save Ferris charting or getting radio exposure.[60]

Mainstream decline

By the end of the decade, alternative rock's mainstream prominence declined due to a number of events, notably the death of Nirvana's Kurt Cobain in 1994 and Pearl Jam's lawsuit against concert venue promoter Ticketmaster, which in effect barred the group from playing many major venues around the United States.[40] In addition to the decline of grunge bands, Britpop faded as Oasis's third album, Be Here Now (1997), received lackluster reviews and Blur began to incorporate influences from American alternative rock.[61] A signifier of alternative rock's declining popularity was the hiatus of the Lollapalooza festival after an unsuccessful attempt to find a headliner in 1998. In light of the festival's troubles that year, Spin said, "Lollapalooza is as comatose as alternative rock right now".[62]

Despite alternative rock's declining popularity, some artists retained mainstream relevance. Post-grunge remained commercially viable into the start of the 21st century, when bands like Creed and Matchbox Twenty became among the most popular rock bands in the United States.[57] At the same time Britpop began to decline, Radiohead achieved critical acclaim with its third album OK Computer (1997), and its follow-ups Kid A (2000) and Amnesiac (2001), which were a marked contrast with the traditionalism of Britpop. Radiohead, along with post-Britpop groups like Travis and Coldplay, were major forces in British rock in the subsequent years.[63]

Alternative rock in the 21st century

During the late 1990s and early 2000s, several alternative rock bands bands emerged, including The Strokes, Franz Ferdinand, Interpol, and The Rapture that drew primary inspiration from post-punk and New Wave, establishing the post-punk revival movement.[64] Preceded by the success of The Strokes and The White Stripes earlier in the decade, an influx of new alternative rock bands, including several post-punk revival artists and others such as Modest Mouse, The Killers, and Yeah Yeah Yeahs, found commercial success in the early 2000s. Due to the success of these bands, Entertainment Weekly declared in 2004, "After almost a decade of domination by rap-rock and nu-metal bands, mainstream alt-rock is finally good again."[65]

See also


Bibliography

Footnotes and references

  1. ^ a b c d e f di Perna, Alan. "Brave Noise—The History of Alternative Rock Guitar". Guitar World. December 1995.
  2. ^ Azerrad (2001), p. 446
  3. ^ Reynolds, p. 391
  4. ^ a b "Indie rock" is still sometimes used to describe the alternative rock of the 1980s, but as a genre term it generally refers to alternative music that stayed underground after the mainstream breakthrough of the genre in the early 1990s
  5. ^ Thompson, Dave. "Introduction". Third Ear: Alternative Rock. San Francisco: Miller Freeman, 2000. P. viii
  6. ^ Reynolds, p. 338
  7. ^ Mullen, Brendan. Whores: An Oral Biography of Perry Farrell and Jane's Addiction. Cambridge: Da Capo, 2005. P. 19. ISBN 0-306-81347-5
  8. ^ a b Forget Pearl Jam. Alternative Rock Lives by Neil Strauss for the The New York Times March 2, 1997
  9. ^ Starr, Larry; Waterman, Christopher. American Popular Music: From Minstrelsy to MTV. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. P. 430. ISBN 0-19-510854-X
  10. ^ Alternative Rock by Dave Thompson reprinted by Google Books
  11. ^ a b c d e f g h i Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "American Alternative Rock/Post-Punk". Allmusic. Retrieved May 20, 2006.
  12. ^ a b "Rock Music." Microsoft Encarta 2006 [CD]. Redmond, WA: Microsoft Corporation, 2005.
  13. ^ Pareles, Jon. (March 5, 1989). "A New Kind of Rock". NYTimes.com. http://www.nytimes.com/1989/03/05/arts/home-entertainment-recordings-soundings-a-new-kind-of-rock.html. Retrieved 2009-07-19. 
  14. ^ Charlton, Katherine. Rock Music Styles: A History. McGraw Hill, 2003. P. 346-47. ISBN 0-07-249555-3
  15. ^ Reynolds, p. 392-93.
  16. ^ Azerrad (2001), p. 3-5.
  17. ^ a b c d e Erlewine, Stephen Thomas. "British Alternative Rock". Allmusic. Retrieved May 20, 2006.
  18. ^ Charlton, p. 349
  19. ^ Reynolds, p. 390
  20. ^ Azerrad (2001), p. 159
  21. ^ Azerrad (2001), p. 196
  22. ^ "Genre – Grunge". Allmusic. http://allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=77:2679. Retrieved October 6, 2007. 
  23. ^ a b c Marin, Rick. "Grunge: A Success Story." The New York Times. November 15, 1992.
  24. ^ a b Azerrad (1994), p. 160
  25. ^ Azerrad (1994), p. 4
  26. ^ Spitz, Marc. "Robert Smith." Spin. November 2005.
  27. ^ a b "Genre – Goth Rock". Allmusic. http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=77:387. Retrieved October 6, 2007. 
  28. ^ Reynolds, p. 359
  29. ^ Reynolds, p. 392
  30. ^ Hann, Michael (October 13, 2004). "Fey City Rollers". guardian.co.uk. http://www.guardian.co.uk/music/2004/oct/13/popandrock. Retrieved July 19, 2009. 
  31. ^ Hasted, Nick (October 27, 2006). "How an NME cassette launched indie music". Independent.co.uk. http://www.independent.co.uk/arts-entertainment/music/news/how-an-nme-cassette-launched-indie-music-421802.html. Retrieved July 19, 2009. 
  32. ^ "Genre – Shoegaze". Allmusic. http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=77:2680. Retrieved October 6, 2007. 
  33. ^ "Genre – Manchester". Allmusic. http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=77:4391. Retrieved October 12, 2007. 
  34. ^ Lyons, p. 120
  35. ^ Olsen, Eric (April 9, 2004). "10 years later, Cobain lives on in his music". MSNBC.com. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/4652653/. Retrieved 2007-07-25. 
  36. ^ Azerrad (1994), p. 229-30
  37. ^ Rosen, Craig. "Some See 'New Openness' Following Nirvana Success." Billboard. January 25, 1992.
  38. ^ Browne, David (August 21, 1992). "Turn That @#!% Down!". EW.com. http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,311492,00.html. Retrieved April 17, 2007. 
  39. ^ Pareles, Jon (February 28, 1993). "Great Riffs. Big Bucks. New Hopes?". NYTimes.com. http://www.nytimes.com/1993/02/28/arts/pop-view-great-riffs-big-bucks-new-hopes.html. Retrieved 2009-07-19. 
  40. ^ a b Considine, J.D. "The Decade of Living Dangerously." Guitar World. March 1999.
  41. ^ Pearlman, Nina. "Black Days." Guitar World. December 2002.
  42. ^ Lyons, p. 136
  43. ^ Azerrad (2001), p. 452–53
  44. ^ "Smells Like Big Bucks". Entertainment Weekly. April 2, 1993. http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,306055,00.html. Retrieved 2007-07-25. 
  45. ^ DeRogatis, Jim. Milk It!: Collected Musings on the Alternative Music Explosion of the 90's. Cambridge: Da Capo, 2003. ISBN 0-306-81271-1, p. 18
  46. ^ "In Numero Uno". Entertainment Weekly. October 8, 1993. http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,308282,00.html. Retrieved 2007-09-08. 
  47. ^ "Pearl's Jam". Entertainment Weekly. November 19, 1993. http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,308749,00.html. Retrieved 2007-08-29. 
  48. ^ Youngs, Ian. "Looking back at the birth of Britpop". BBC News. August 14, 2005. Retrieved July 19, 2009.
  49. ^ Harris, p. 202
  50. ^ Harris, p. xvii
  51. ^ "Queen head all-time sales chart". BBC.co.uk. November 16, 2006. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/entertainment/6151050.stm. Retrieved January 3, 2007. 
  52. ^ "Indie Rock". Allmusic.com. http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=77:2687. Retrieved 2009-08-02. 
  53. ^ Azerrad (2001), pg. 495-497.
  54. ^ "Lo-Fi". Allmusic.com. http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=77:2678. Retrieved 2009-08-02. 
  55. ^ Billboard Alanis Morissette Artist biography
  56. ^ Billboard Artist biography PJ Harvey
  57. ^ a b "Post-Grunge". Allmusic.com. http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=77:2771. Retrieved 2007-08-28. 
  58. ^ a b "Post-Rock/Experimental". Allmusic.com. http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=77:2682. Retrieved 2009-07-28. 
  59. ^ "Math Rock". Allmusic.com. http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=77:4560. Retrieved 2009-08-06. 
  60. ^ Alternative Rock by Dave Thompsonre P112 published by Google books
  61. ^ Harris, p. xix
  62. ^ Weisbard, Eric. "This Monkey's Gone to Heaven." Spin. July 1998.
  63. ^ Harris, p. 369-70
  64. ^ "New Wave/Post-Punk Revival". Allmusic.com. http://www.allmusic.com/cg/amg.dll?p=amg&sql=77:13761. Retrieved 2009-08-06. 
  65. ^ Hiatt, Brian; Bonin, Lian; Volby, Karen (July 9, 2004). "The Return Of (Good) Alt-Rock". EW.com. http://www.ew.com/ew/article/0,,659881,00.html. Retrieved August 28, 2007. 

External links


Simple English

Alternative rock
Stylistic origins Punk rock, post-punk, hardcore punk, jazz,
Cultural origins Early 1980s United Kingdom and United States
Typical instruments Electric guitarBassdrums
Mainstream popularity Limited before the success of grunge and Britpop in the 1990s. Widespread since then.
Subgenres
Britpop – College rock – Dream pop - Geek rock – Gothic rock – GrungeIndie popIndie rock – Math rock - Noise pop - Noise rock – Paisley Underground – Post-rock – Shoegazing
Fusion genres
Alternative dance – Alternative metal – Psychobilly – Industrial rock – Madchester – Post-punk revival – Riot Grrrl
Regional scenes
Massachusetts – Seattle, Washington – Illinois – Manchester, England
Other topics
Bands – College radio – History – Independent music – Lollapalooza

Alternative rock is a type of rock music that became popular in the 1980s and became widely popular in the 1990s. Alternative rock is made up of various subgenres that have come out of the indie music scene since the 1980s, such as grunge, indie rock, Britpop, gothic rock, and indie pop.

These genres are sorted by their collective types of punk, which laid the groundwork for alternative music in the 1970s.[1]

Examples of alternative rock bands

  1. R.E.M.
  2. U2
  3. B52s
  4. Jimmy Eat World
  5. Sunny Day Real Estate
  6. Fugazi
  7. At the Drive-In
  8. Radiohead
  9. Kings of Leon
  10. Coldplay
  11. Linkin Park
  12. Smashing Pumpkins
  13. Snow Patrol
  14. Nirvana
  15. Soundgarden
  16. Stone Temple Pilots
  17. Pearl Jam
  18. Alice in Chains
  19. Blessid Union of Souls
  20. Counting Crows
  21. Muse (band)
  22. Ice-9
  23. Another Day Dying

References

  1. di Perna, Alan. "Brave Noise--The History of Alternative Rock Guitar". Guitar World. December 1995.

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