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Amazon Rainforest
Forest
Amazon rainforest, near Manaus, Brazil.
Countries Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia, Guyana, Suriname, French Guiana
Part of South America
River Amazon River
Area 5,500,000 km2 (2,123,562 sq mi)
.
Map of the Amazon rainforest ecoregions as delineated by the WWF.^ The Amazon rainforest is shared by nine countries as can be seen in the above map, these countries are: Brazil, Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, Columbia, Venezuela, Suriname, French Guiana and Guiana.
  • Amazon Rainforest Presentation 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: General]

^ Photo tours Resource for teachers Multi-media Amazon slideshow tour Amazon charts/graphs amazon map Deforestation photos Rainforest pictures [ amphibians .

^ Ecuador Amazon Rainforest Jungle Tours Ecuador Galapagos Islands Guide Travel hotels, maps .
  • Ecuador Amazon Rainforest Jungle Tours Ecuador Galapagos Islands Guide Travel hotels, maps 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.exploringecuador.com [Source type: General]

.Yellow line approximately encloses the Amazon drainage basin.^ Google Amazon Rainforest Yellow line approximately encloses the Amazon rainforest (although leaving out Venezuela and the Guianas) ...
  • Excite - Search: Amazon Rainforest 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC msxml.excite.com [Source type: General]

^ Amazon Facts The Amazon river basin contains the largest rainforest on Earth and covers approximately 40% of the South American continent.
  • A-Z of Global Warming: Amazon Rainforest | ABC article directory 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.abcarticledirectory.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Amazon rainforest is the drainage basin for the Amazon River and its many tributaries.

National boundaries shown in black. Satellite image from NASA.
.The Amazon rainforest (Brazilian Portuguese: Floresta Amazônica or Amazônia; Spanish: Selva Amazónica or Amazonia), also known as Amazonia, or the Amazon jungle, is a moist broadleaf forest that covers most of the Amazon Basin of South America.^ South America and even in the rainforest.
  • Rainforest Facts 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.rain-tree.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For full treatment, see South America: Amazon River basin .
  • Amazon Rainforest (region, South America) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: General]

^ Taking a jungle tour in the Amazon rainforest.
  • Volunteer Abroad Program - Help to Save Animals in the Amazon Rainforest (Private Reserve) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.volunteerabroad.com [Source type: General]

.This basin encompasses seven million square kilometers (1.7 billion acres), of which five and a half million square kilometers (1.4 billion acres) are covered by the rainforest.^ This basin encompasses seven million square kilometers (1.7 billion acres), of which five and a half million square kilometers (1.4 billion acres) are covered by the rainforest.
  • PhysOrg.com - amazon rainforest 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: News]

^ The park is primarily a rainforest covering approximately 9,820 square kilometers.
  • Volunteer Abroad Program - Help to Save Animals in the Amazon Rainforest (Private Reserve) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.volunteerabroad.com [Source type: General]

^ Its drainage basin covers 2,722,000 million square miles, and lies in the countries of Brazil, Columbia, Peru, Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia, and the three Guyanas.

.This region includes territory belonging to nine nations.^ This region includes territory belonging to nine nations.
  • WikiAnswers - What is the geographical location of the amazon rainforest 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]
  • PhysOrg.com - amazon rainforest 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: News]

^ Despite the Amazon Region represents around 50% of the Brazilian territory, less than 8% of national population live there (around 11 million).
  • Amazon � Brazil � Travel services in Amazon Rainforest 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.biosferabrasil.com [Source type: General]

.The majority of the forest is contained within Brazil, with 60% of the rainforest, followed by Peru with 13%, and with minor amounts in Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, Bolivia, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana.^ The basin also covers parts of Bolivia , Peru , Colombia , Ecuador , Venezuela and Guyana .
  • Media : Amazon 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC deoxy.org [Source type: General]

^ It is native to Guiana, Venezuela, Brazil, eastern Colombia, eastern Peru and eastern Bolivia.

^ One third of what is left is in the Amazonian countries of Guyana, Suliname, French Guyana, Venezuela, Columbia, Peru, Ecuador, Bolivia and Brazil.
  • Amazon Rainforest 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.theopenline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.States or departments in four nations bear the name Amazonas after it.^ States or departments in four nations bear the name Amazonas after it.
  • WikiAnswers - What is the geographical location of the amazon rainforest 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]
  • PhysOrg.com - amazon rainforest 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: News]
  • Amazon Rainforest - World Wonders 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC travel.moonlightchest.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In archives of the Brazilian State Department and the National Museum in Rio de Janeiro, Gluessing found details of Greiner’s jungle mission.
  • The first Boys from Brazil: Nazi graveyard discovered deep in the Amazon rainforest | Mail Online 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.dailymail.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ By Seth Kugel PRIMAVERA, Amazonas state, Brazil -- This riverfront fishing and manioc-farming community, four hours by motor-powered canoe from the...

.The Amazon represents over half of the planet's remaining rainforests, and it comprises the largest and most species-rich tract of tropical rainforest in the world.^ The Amazon Rainforest is one of the largest forests in the world, and arguably the most important.
  • Levi Novey: The Amazon Rainforest is More Important than Electric Cars 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ Half of the worlds plant and animal species live in the many rainforests of the world.
  • Amazon Rainforest Presentation 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: General]

^ The Amazon represents over half of the planet's remaining rainforests, and it comprises the largest and most species-rich tract of tropical rainforest in the world.
  • WikiAnswers - What is the geographical location of the amazon rainforest 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: General]
  • PhysOrg.com - amazon rainforest 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.physorg.com [Source type: News]

.The Amazon rainforest was short-listed in 2008 as a candidate to one of the New7Wonders of Nature by the New Seven Wonders of the World Foundation.^ The Amazon rainforest, also known as Amazonia, is one of the world's greatest natural resources.

^ NEWS ABOUT: Amazon rainforest .
  • Amazon rainforest – News Stories About Amazon rainforest - Page 1 | Newser 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.newser.com [Source type: General]

^ List distinctive characteristics of the Amazon Rainforest?
  • WikiAnswers - What are some distinctive characteristics of the amazon rainforest 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.As of February 2009 the Amazon was ranking first in Group E, the category for forests, national parks and nature reserves.^ Mishana is in a national reserve in the Amazon Rainforest.
  • Amazon Rainforest Videos - Amazon Rainforest Video Clips, Countries Videos, Brazil Videos : searchforvideo 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.searchforvideo.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ You will visit Monkey Island, Yasuni National Park and Biosphere Reserve, walk jungle trails and explore virgin rain forest.
  • Discover Amazonia - Amazon Rainforest Jungle Lodges & Wildlife Tours - Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador and Peru - Adventure Travel and Tours, Vacation Packages and Trips, Jungle Lodges, River Cruises, Backpacking, Birding, Rafting 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.discoveramazonia.com [Source type: General]

^ See More About: amazon forest manaus Updated on Oct.21, 2009 .
  • Brazil Amazon Jungle Lodges - Guide to Brazil Amazon Jungle Lodges 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC gobrazil.about.com [Source type: General]

[1]

Contents

Etymology

.The name Amazon is said to arise from a war which Francisco de Orellana had with a tribe of Tapuyas and other tribes from South America.^ The official name of that city is Puerto Francisco de Orellana.

^ DAY 01 MONDAY Quito / Manatee Amazon Explorer Depart from Quito in the morning (11:00), flight to Francisco de Orellana (Coca), arriving to Coca at around 12:00.
  • ECUADORIAN AMAZON RAIN FOREST 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.taratours.com [Source type: General]

^ Amazon John has been developing strong relationships with the indigenous tribes in South America for over 22 years.

The women of the tribe fought alongside the men, as was the custom among the entire tribe.[2] Orellana's descriptions may have been accurate, but a few historians speculate that Orellana could have been mistaking indigenous men wearing "grass skirts" for women. .Orellana derived the name Amazonas from the ancient Amazons of Asia and Africa described by Herodotus and Diodorus in Greek legends.^ States or departments in four nations bear the name Amazonas for the Amazon.

[2]
.Another etymology for the word suggests that it came originally from a native word amazona (Spanish spelling) or amassona (Portuguese spelling), meaning "destroyer (of) boats", in reference to the destructive nature of the root system possessed by some riparian plants.^ I found many references to Amazon legends and myths, but almost all of them were in Spanish or Portuguese.
  • Journal Peru » Myths and legends guarded by Peru’s Amazon Rainforest 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC journalperu.com [Source type: General]

^ Spanish and Indigenous Mother Tongues Since people speak Spanish in Ecuador, we’ll be including some Spanish words and phrases in some of the E-mails we send you.
  • OneWorld Classrooms -- Amazon Rain Forest Travel Logs 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ccph.com [Source type: General]

^ Some of the edible plants you'll find throughout the game include bananas (and their lookalike cousins, plantains), cashews, tannia root, and passion fruit.
  • GameFAQs: Amazon Trail 3rd Edition: Rainforest Adventures (PC) FAQ/Walkthrough by Mayhemme 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.gamefaqs.com [Source type: General]

History

Earth during the Eocene
The rainforest likely formed during the Eocene era, following the evolutionary appearance of angiosperm plants. .It appeared following a global reduction of tropical temperatures when the Atlantic Ocean had widened sufficiently to provide a warm, moist climate to the Amazon basin.^ The Amazon Rainforest has a warm and wet climate .
  • You Won’t Find George in This Jungle, Authors: Cyndy Pridell, Steve Zaluski, Matthew Zehr, April Percy , Grade Level: 2-6, Subject Area: Science/Social Studies, Students imagine taking a walk in the rainforest. Using a word processor, they write about sounds, smells, and sights that they encounter. Their writing will reflect their understanding of the unit. They need to include at least two illustrations, drawings, or pictures in their finished copy. These may come from an electronic source or be scanned into their document. 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.connected-learning.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Tropical rainforest in the Amazon Basin.
  • Amazon Rainforest Carbon Sink Threatened By Drought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.sciencedaily.com [Source type: News]

^ MORE ABOUT: climate change • environment • global warming • rainforest • global temperature • Amazon rainforest .
  • Amazon rainforest – News Stories About Amazon rainforest - Page 1 | Newser 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.newser.com [Source type: General]

.The rain forest has been in existence for at least 55 million years, and most of the region remained free of savanna-type biomes during that time period.^ The Amazon Rain forests has existed for millions of years.
  • Why Should We Save the Amazon Rain Forest? | Socyberty 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC socyberty.com [Source type: General]

^ At that time they were the most common found forest type.
  • Amazon Rainforest Presentation 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.slideshare.net [Source type: General]

^ The government will use rubber from Amazon trees to make 100 million condoms a year, given out freely as part of the country's anti-AIDS program.
  • Amazon rainforest – News Stories About Amazon rainforest - Page 1 | Newser 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.newser.com [Source type: General]

[3][4]
.Following the Cretaceous–Tertiary extinction event, the extinction of the dinosaurs and the wetter climate may have allowed the tropical rainforest to spread out across the continent.^ So, without tropical rainforests the greenhouse effect would likely be even more pronounced, and climate change may possibly get even worse in the future.
  • WWF - Why is the Amazon rainforest important? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.panda.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amazon Under Threat From Cleaner Air (May 8, 2008) — The Amazon rainforest, so crucial to the Earth's climate system, is coming under threat from cleaner air say prominent climate scientists.
  • Amazon Rainforest Carbon Sink Threatened By Drought 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.sciencedaily.com [Source type: News]

^ Find out more about the link between 'savannization', carbon dioxide and Amazon rainforests The importance of the Amazon rainforest for local and global climate .
  • WWF - Why is the Amazon rainforest important? 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.panda.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From 65–34 Mya, the rainforest extended as far south as 45°.^ Broadly defined, the Amazon Rainforest extends into nine South American countries.
  • Amazon Rain Forest - tips by travel authority Howard Hillman 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.hillmanwonders.com [Source type: General]

^ No matter where you are in the northern section of South America, the rainforest will not be too far away and can easily be included in your travels.

.Climate fluctuations during the last 34 million years have allowed savanna regions to expand into the tropics.^ Already, tropical deforestation results in about 1.5 billion metric tons of carbon being released into the atmosphere every year.

^ History of the Amazon The warm, wet forests of the Americas have been in existence for 55 million years, and thrived even during glacial periods, allowing for the evolution of an unparalleled diversity of species.
  • Amazon in Regions @ Tucan Travel 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.tucantravel.com [Source type: General]

^ It concludes that the Amazon Rainforest is on the brink of being turned into savanna or desert with catastrophic consequences for the world's climate.

During the Oligocene, for example, the rainforest spanned a relatively narrow band that lay mostly above latitude 15°N. It expanded again during the Middle Miocene, then retracted to a mostly inland formation at the last glacial maximum.[5] .However, the rainforest still managed to thrive during these glacial periods, allowing for the survival and evolution of a broad diversity of species.^ History of the Amazon The warm, wet forests of the Americas have been in existence for 55 million years, and thrived even during glacial periods, allowing for the evolution of an unparalleled diversity of species.
  • Amazon in Regions @ Tucan Travel 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.tucantravel.com [Source type: General]

^ Savanna divided patches of rainforest into "islands" and separated existing species for periods long enough to allow genetic differentiation (a similar rainforest retreat took place in Africa.

^ These societies produced pottery, cleared sections of rainforest for agriculture and managed forests to optimize the distribution of useful species.
  • Amazon Stonehenge suggests advanced ancient rainforest culture 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC news.mongabay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[6]
.During the mid-Eocene, it is believed that the drainage basin of the Amazon was split along the middle of the continent by the Purus Arch.^ During years of the El Niño the Amazon Basin has been modeled and observed to be a source of carbon release to the atmosphere while during years of La Niña the Amazon Basin became a sink (Tian 1998:664).

^ In the Amazon river there are islands as big as Switzerland and otters bigger than men, and at certain points along it you can be in the middle and see neither shore.
  • Ecuador Amazon Travel Amazon tours amazon lodge 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ecuadorexplorer.com [Source type: General]

^ The Amazon rainforest is the drainage basin for the Amazon River and its many tributaries.

.Water on the eastern side flowed toward the Atlantic, while to the west water flowed toward the Pacific across the Amazonas Basin.^ At Belem, where the river flows into the Atlantic Ocean, it can be 200 to 300 miles across, depending on the season.

^ Moreover, forty percent of all of all the earth's fresh water flows through the Amazon basin; more water than in the basins of the next six biggest rivers combined!
  • Ecuador Amazon Travel Amazon tours amazon lodge 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ecuadorexplorer.com [Source type: General]

^ Amazonia is the largest river basin in the world, and its forest stretches from the Atlantic Ocean in the east to the tree line of the Andes in the west.
  • Amazon Rainforest (region, South America) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: General]

.As the Andes Mountains rose, however, a large basin was created that enclosed a lake; now known as the Solimões Basin.^ When the South American plate moved into another tectonic plate, the Andes Mountains slowly rose up and blocked the flow of the river.

^ However, when you bid him goodbye, he will give you a map of the Amazon, and urge you to remember that all the land east of the Andes mountains belongs to Portugal.
  • GameFAQs: Amazon Trail 3rd Edition: Rainforest Adventures (PC) FAQ/Walkthrough by Mayhemme 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.gamefaqs.com [Source type: General]

^ Recent geological work, however, has failed to find much evidence of such forest refuges in the Amazon basin, and the Pleistocene refuge theory is now under question.
  • Why The Amazon Rainforest Is So Rich In Species 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.sciencedaily.com [Source type: News]

.Within the last 5–10 million years, this accumulating water broke through the Purus Arch, joining the easterly flow toward the Atlantic.^ Colorful poison frogs in the Amazon owe their great diversity to ancestors that leapt into the region from the Andes Mountains several times during the last 10 million years, a new study ...
  • Why The Amazon Rainforest Is So Rich In Species 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.sciencedaily.com [Source type: News]

^ Through our partnership with Travelers’ Philanthropy , IE guests can join with us in funding the construction of other water treatment plants in the Amazon.
  • » AmazonIETravel.com Blog:Just another WordPress weblog 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.ietravel.com [Source type: General]

^ This firm plans to export 300,000 cubic meters of raw logs the first year, while increasing its annual export to 1.2 million cubic meters after 10 years.
  • Amazon General Information 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC forests.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7][8]
.There is evidence that there have been significant changes in Amazon rainforest vegetation over the last 21,000 years through the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and subsequent deglaciation.^ For example, there have been significant reductions in deforestation rates in the Amazon rainforest.

^ Day 7: Last of three days in the Amazon Rainforest.
  • Chaska Tours - 8 Days: Machu Picchu and Amazon Rainforest 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.chaskatours.com [Source type: General]

^ What distinctive vegetation makes the Amazon rainforest?
  • WikiAnswers - What are some distinctive characteristics of the amazon rainforest 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Analyses of sediment deposits from Amazon basin paleolakes and from the Amazon Fan indicate that rainfall in the basin during the LGM was lower than for the present, and this was almost certainly associated with reduced moist tropical vegetation cover in the basin.^ The Amazon basin covers significant portions of the countries of Brazil, Peru, Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela and Bolivia, though the major part of the watershed lies within Brazil.

^ It covers almost the entire Amazon basin, mainly in Brazil, but also extending into neighbouring countries.
  • WikiAnswers - What are some distinctive characteristics of the amazon rainforest 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And that's water vapor that helps to maintain consistent cloud cover and rainfall, especially during the dry season when forests are most vulnerable to fires.
  • Amazon Rainforest Update : NPR 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: General]

[9] There is debate, however, over how extensive this reduction was. .Some scientists argue that the rainforest was reduced to small, isolated refugia separated by open forest and grassland;[10] other scientists argue that the rainforest remained largely intact but extended less far to the north, south, and east than is seen today.^ "If any tropical rain forest on Earth remains intact a century from now, it will be this portion of northern Amazonia," Conservation International President Russell Mittermeier said.
  • Nation & World | Brazil creates 7 new protected areas in eastern Amazon rain forest | Seattle Times Newspaper 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC seattletimes.nwsource.com [Source type: News]

^ The addition of transport routes has lead to increased settlement and deforestation, and at the current rate, scientists estimate that the Amazon rainforest will be reduced by 40% in two decades.
  • Amazon in Regions @ Tucan Travel 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.tucantravel.com [Source type: General]

^ I also visited Manaus, a thriving city in the middle of the rainforest that lacked the extreme poverty characteristic of other large Brazilian cities.
  • Amazon Rain Forest Brazil - Semester At Sea 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.leeryanmiller.com [Source type: General]

[11] .This debate has proved difficult to resolve because the practical limitations of working in the rainforest mean that data sampling is biased away from the center of the Amazon basin, and both explanations are reasonably well supported by the available data.^ The rainforest is supported by the extremely wet climate of the Amazon basin.

^ Amazon Rainforest Overview There are several wonderful lodges in Ecuador which lie in the heart of the Amazon rainforest, known as “El Oriente.” We have chosen the two Amazon lodges we consider to be the best, Napo Wildlife Center and the Kapawi Ecolodge, in large part because they both are responsible eco-tourism projects that support the local population while also promoting conservation.
  • Adventure Travel with ROW Adventures - Amazon Rainforest 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.rowadventures.com [Source type: General]

^ A true nature expedition , this adventure tour in the rainforests of the Amazon River basin will be a tour to remember!
  • Amazon Rainforest Camping Tour in Brazil - Book Online at Isango 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.isango.com [Source type: General]

.Based on archaeological evidence from an excavation at Caverna da Pedra Pintada, human inhabitants first settled in the Amazon region at least 11,200 years ago.^ The first human inhabitants are thought to have settled in the Amazon region about 11,200 years ago.
  • Amazon in Regions @ Tucan Travel 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.tucantravel.com [Source type: General]

^ Based upon accounts of continuous tribal settlements along the Amazon river by the first European explorers, anthropologists have estimated there may have been as many as six to eight million indigenous people in the Amazon 500 years ago.
  • Amazon General Information 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC forests.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ First conceived 150 years ago the Submitted by Anonymous (not verified) on Sun Aug.
  • Positive Feedback in the Amazon | Mother Jones 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: General]

[12] .Subsequent development led to late-prehistoric settlements along the periphery of the forest by 1250 CE, which induced alterations in the forest cover.^ The Amazon region covers 60 percent of Brazil, and 20 percent of its forest — 1.6 million square miles — has been destroyed by development, logging and farming.
  • Nation & World | Brazil creates 7 new protected areas in eastern Amazon rain forest | Seattle Times Newspaper 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC seattletimes.nwsource.com [Source type: News]

[13] .Biologists believe that a population density of 0.2 persons/km2 is the maximum that can be sustained in the rain forest through hunting.^ Counsell and others have warned of a massive "dieback" -- damaged or razed forest can no longer trap the moisture necessary to create the rain, which sustains the entire ecosystem.
  • New York City Is One of the Biggest Destroyers of the Amazon Rainforest | Environment | AlterNet 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ But better could be making rain forests pay with sustainable harvesting of nuts, animals, plants, inter-planting, and tourists ;^D, ect so locals want to protect them.
  • Levi Novey: The Amazon Rainforest is More Important than Electric Cars 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ Blank post cards Pencils Markers and crayons Address of the senator   Procedure Read the book It Zwibble and the Hunt for the Rain Forest Treasure by WereRoss and WerEnko.
  • Amazon Rainforest Unit Plan 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC ted.coe.wayne.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Hence, agriculture is needed to host a larger population.^ Done properly, however, bioprospecting can bolster both economic and conservation goals while underpinning the medical and agricultural advances needed to combat disease and sustain growing populations.
  • Rainforest Facts 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.rain-tree.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[14] The first European to travel the length of the Amazon River was Francisco de Orellana in 1542.[15]

Biodiversity

Deforestation in the Amazon Rainforest threatens many species of tree frogs, which are very sensitive to environmental changes (pictured: Giant leaf frog)
Scarlet Macaw, which is indigenous to the American tropics.
.Wet tropical forests are the most species-rich biome, and tropical forests in the Americas are consistently more species rich than the wet forests in Africa and Asia.^ Amazon rainforest: Encyclopedia II - Amazon Rainforest - Biodiversity Wet tropical forests are the most species-rich biome, and tropical forests in the Americas are consistently more species rich than are African and Asian wet forests[1].

^ (AP) - Brazil's president says "gringos" should pay Amazon nations to prevent deforestation, insisting rich Western nations have caused much more past environmental destruction than the loggers and farmers who cut and burn trees in the world's largest tropical rain forest.
  • Amazon rainforest – News Stories About Amazon rainforest - Page 1 | Newser 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.newser.com [Source type: General]

^ Clearing tropical forests for agriculture is estimated to produce 17% of the world's greenhouse gas emissions – more than the entire global transport system.
  • British supermarkets accused over destruction of Amazon rainforest | Environment | The Guardian 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

[16] .As the largest tract of tropical rainforest in the Americas, the Amazonian rainforests have unparalleled biodiversity.^ While the Trans-Amazonian largely failed to meet its economic and social goals , it did open up large tracts of previously inaccessible rainforest land to development.
  • Future threats to the Amazon rainforest 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC news.mongabay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ For these reasons the world largest forests-the coniferous forests of Siberia and Canada, and the tropical rainforests are not good carbon sinks, but new vigorously forests are."
  • Levi Novey: The Amazon Rainforest is More Important than Electric Cars 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ The biodiversity of the tropical rainforest is so immense that less than 1 percent of its millions of species have been studied by scientists for their active constituents and their possible uses.
  • Rainforest Facts 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.rain-tree.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One in ten known species in the world live in the Amazon Rainforest.^ Did you know that approximately one in every 10 known species in the world lives in the Amazon?
  • Levi Novey: The Amazon Rainforest is More Important than Electric Cars 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ The Amazon rainforest contains the largest collection of living plant and animal species in the world.
  • Rainforest Facts 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.rain-tree.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Scientists estimate that more than half of all the world’s plant and animal species live in rainforest, with one in ten known species of the world live in the Amazon rainforest.
  • Amazon in Regions @ Tucan Travel 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.tucantravel.com [Source type: General]

[17] .This constitutes the largest collection of living plants and animal species in the world.^ Many plants and animals live here.
  • You Won’t Find George in This Jungle, Authors: Cyndy Pridell, Steve Zaluski, Matthew Zehr, April Percy , Grade Level: 2-6, Subject Area: Science/Social Studies, Students imagine taking a walk in the rainforest. Using a word processor, they write about sounds, smells, and sights that they encounter. Their writing will reflect their understanding of the unit. They need to include at least two illustrations, drawings, or pictures in their finished copy. These may come from an electronic source or be scanned into their document. 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.connected-learning.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ This constitutes the largest collection of living plants and animal species in the world.
  • Photos / Pictures of the Amazon Rainforest 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC travel.mongabay.com [Source type: General]
  • Amazon in Regions @ Tucan Travel 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.tucantravel.com [Source type: General]

^ Scientists, even today, have discovered only a small percentage of the millions of species of plants and animals that live in the rain forests in the Amazon River basin.
  • Amazon River Aquariums, Discus Fish, and Reverse Osmosis Water. 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.aquariumfish.net [Source type: General]

.The region is home to about 2.5 million insect species,[18] tens of thousands of plants, and some 2,000 birds and mammals.^ The region is home to ~2.5 million insect species, tens of thousands of plants, and some 2000 birds and mammals.

^ Amazon flora and fauna The Amazon basin region is home to about 2.5 million insect species, tens of thousands of plants, and some 2,000 birds and mammals.
  • Amazon in Regions @ Tucan Travel 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.tucantravel.com [Source type: General]

^ To date, at least 40,000 plant species, 3,000 fish, 1,294 birds, 427 mammals, 428 amphibians, and 378 reptiles have been scientifically classified in the region.
  • Amazon in Regions @ Tucan Travel 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.tucantravel.com [Source type: General]

.To date, at least 40,000 plant species, 3,000 fish, 1,294 birds, 427 mammals, 428 amphibians, and 378 reptiles have been scientifically classified in the region.^ To date, at least 40,000 plant species, 3,000 fish, 1,294 birds, 427 mammals, 428 amphibians, and 378 reptiles have been scientifically classified in the region.
  • Amazon in Regions @ Tucan Travel 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.tucantravel.com [Source type: General]

^ Animals to include birds, reptiles, and mammals of the region.
  • You Won’t Find George in This Jungle, Authors: Cyndy Pridell, Steve Zaluski, Matthew Zehr, April Percy , Grade Level: 2-6, Subject Area: Science/Social Studies, Students imagine taking a walk in the rainforest. Using a word processor, they write about sounds, smells, and sights that they encounter. Their writing will reflect their understanding of the unit. They need to include at least two illustrations, drawings, or pictures in their finished copy. These may come from an electronic source or be scanned into their document. 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.connected-learning.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An estimated 438,000 species of plants of economic and social interest have been registered in the region with many more remaining to be discovered or catalogued.
  • Amazon in Regions @ Tucan Travel 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.tucantravel.com [Source type: General]

[19] .One in five of all the birds in the world live in the rainforests of the Amazon.^ The Amazon rainforest is one of the richest ecosystem in the world.
  • Why Should We Save the Amazon Rain Forest? | Socyberty 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC socyberty.com [Source type: General]

^ Improve ] The Amazon rainforest is the largest of all the forests in the world.
  • WikiAnswers - What are some distinctive characteristics of the amazon rainforest 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The amazon rainforest is the largest rainforest in the world.
  • Save the Amazon Rainforest - The Petition Site 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.thepetitionsite.com [Source type: General]

.Scientists have described between 96,660 and 128,843 invertebrate species in Brazil alone.^ Scientists have described between 96,660 and 128,843 invertebrate species in Brazil alone.
  • Amazon in Regions @ Tucan Travel 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.tucantravel.com [Source type: General]

[20]
.The diversity of plant species is the highest on Earth with some experts estimating that one square kilometer may contain over 75,000 types of trees and 150,000 species of higher plants.^ The diversity of plant species in the Amazon rainforest is the highest on Earth.
  • Rainforest Facts 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.rain-tree.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The diversity of plant species is the highest on Earth with some experts estimating that one square kilometre may contain over 75,000 types of trees and 150,000 species of higher plants.
  • Amazon in Regions @ Tucan Travel 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.tucantravel.com [Source type: General]

^ One hectare (2.47 acres) may contain over 750 types of trees and 1500 species of higher plants.
  • Rainforest Facts 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.rain-tree.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • How is the Amazon Rainforest ecosystem a valuable resource? - Yahoo! Answers 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC answers.yahoo.com [Source type: General]

.One square kilometer of Amazon rainforest can contain about 90,790 tonnes of living plants.^ What are three characteristics about the amazon rainforest?
  • WikiAnswers - What are some distinctive characteristics of the amazon rainforest 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC wiki.answers.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ NEWS ABOUT: Amazon rainforest .
  • Amazon rainforest – News Stories About Amazon rainforest - Page 1 | Newser 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.newser.com [Source type: General]

^ The Amazon rainforest contains the largest collection of living plant and animal species in the world.
  • Rainforest Facts 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.rain-tree.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The average plant biomass is estimated at 356 ± 47 tonnes ha−1.[21] .To date, an estimated 438,000 species of plants of economic and social interest have been registered in the region with many more remaining to be discovered or catalogued.^ An estimated 438,000 species of plants of economic and social interest have been registered in the region with many more remaining to be discovered or catalogued.
  • Amazon in Regions @ Tucan Travel 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.tucantravel.com [Source type: General]

^ To date, some 438,000 species of plants of economic and social interest have been registered in the region, and many more have yet to be catalogued or even discovered.
  • Rainforest Facts 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.rain-tree.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ To date, at least 40,000 plant species, 3,000 fish, 1,294 birds, 427 mammals, 428 amphibians, and 378 reptiles have been scientifically classified in the region.
  • Amazon in Regions @ Tucan Travel 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.tucantravel.com [Source type: General]

[22]
.The green leaf area of plants and trees in the rainforest varies by about 25% as a result of seasonal changes.^ The removing of the plants and trees from an area is called__________.
  • You Won’t Find George in This Jungle, Authors: Cyndy Pridell, Steve Zaluski, Matthew Zehr, April Percy , Grade Level: 2-6, Subject Area: Science/Social Studies, Students imagine taking a walk in the rainforest. Using a word processor, they write about sounds, smells, and sights that they encounter. Their writing will reflect their understanding of the unit. They need to include at least two illustrations, drawings, or pictures in their finished copy. These may come from an electronic source or be scanned into their document. 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.connected-learning.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Seventy percent of the plants in the rainforest are trees.

^ Not only are environmentalists concerned about the loss of biodiversity which will result from the forest's destruction, they are also concerned about the release of the carbon contained within the trees, which increases global warming.

.Leaves expand during the dry season when sunlight is at a maximum, then undergo abscission in the cloudy wet season.^ And that's water vapor that helps to maintain consistent cloud cover and rainfall, especially during the dry season when forests are most vulnerable to fires.
  • Amazon Rainforest Update : NPR 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: General]

^ Just as in the dry season the NEP changes the most, in the drier area of the Amazon Basin, the savanna, the NEP undergoes the greatest change when there is a decrease in precipitation.

^ Some species lose their leaves during the brief dry season in monsoon rainforests.

.These changes provide a balance of carbon between photosynthesis and respiration.^ This imbalance between respiration and photosynthesis creates a source for carbon dioxide.

^ Natural climate changes, rising carbon dioxide, and human factors all greatly influence the flow of carbon dioxide between the terrestrial ecosystems of the Amazon Basin and the atmosphere.

^ This graph demonstrates the relationship between carbon fluxes and temperature and precipitation through the use of NPP and heterotrophic respiration.

[23]
.The rainforest contains several species that can pose a hazard.^ The Amazon Rainforest is the world’s richest and most varied biological reservoir, containing several million species of insects, plants, birds, and other forms of life, many still unrecorded by science.
  • Amazon Rainforest (region, South America) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: General]

^ The Amazon rainforest contains the largest collection of living plant and animal species in the world.
  • Rainforest Facts 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.rain-tree.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Nearly half of the world's species of plants, animals and microorganisms will be destroyed or severely threatened over the next quarter century due to rainforest deforestation.
  • Rainforest Facts 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.rain-tree.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Among the largest predatory creatures are the Black Caiman, Jaguar and Anaconda.^ Wildlife it protects: Jaguars, Lowland Tapirs, Harpy Eagles, five species of macaws, Black Caimans, Giant Otters and 11 species of monkeys.
  • Luxury Amazon Rainforest Lodges, Tours & Travel 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.inkas.com [Source type: General]
  • Luxury Amazon Rainforest Tours & Lodges: Manu Wildlife Center 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.inkas.com [Source type: General]

In the river, electric eels can produce an electric shock that can stun or kill, while Piranha are known to bite and injure humans.[24] .Various species of poison dart frogs secrete lipophilic alkaloid toxins through their flesh.^ A poison dart frog.
  • Have a wild time in Ecuador's Amazon rainforest - mirror.co.uk 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.mirror.co.uk [Source type: General]

^ He is heating the body of poisonous frogs over the fire in order to harvest their poison for the darts in his blow gun.
  • GameFAQs: Amazon Trail 3rd Edition: Rainforest Adventures (PC) FAQ/Walkthrough by Mayhemme 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.gamefaqs.com [Source type: General]

There are also numerous parasites and disease vectors. Vampire bats dwell in the rainforest and can spread the rabies virus.[25] .Malaria, yellow fever and Dengue fever can also be contracted in the Amazon region.^ Health Malaria, yellow fever, rabies and dengue fever can be a risk in the Amazon.
  • Amazon in Regions @ Tucan Travel 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.tucantravel.com [Source type: General]

^ You should schedule a visit to a local travelers' health clinic to update your protection against Yellow fever and malaria.
  • Visit Cuzco, Machu Picchu & the Amazon rainforest | Andean Treks 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.andeantreks.com [Source type: General]

^ If you contract a disease, such as typhoid fever or malaria, and decline to take medication or rest, your health will deteriorate rapidly.
  • GameFAQs: Amazon Trail 3rd Edition: Rainforest Adventures (PC) FAQ/Walkthrough by Mayhemme 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.gamefaqs.com [Source type: General]

Deforestation

.Deforestation is the conversion of forested areas to non-forested areas.^ Countries would be compensated for their efforts to reduce deforestation and would also receive regular money for maintaining pre-existing forested areas.
  • Levi Novey: The Amazon Rainforest is More Important than Electric Cars 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

.The main sources of deforestation in the Amazon are human settlement and development of the land.^ The addition of transport routes has lead to increased settlement and deforestation, and at the current rate, scientists estimate that the Amazon rainforest will be reduced by 40% in two decades.
  • Amazon in Regions @ Tucan Travel 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.tucantravel.com [Source type: General]

^ The Amazon Rainforest loses thousands of acres of land every year to deforestation .Trees and plants are burned or cut down.
  • You Won’t Find George in This Jungle, Authors: Cyndy Pridell, Steve Zaluski, Matthew Zehr, April Percy , Grade Level: 2-6, Subject Area: Science/Social Studies, Students imagine taking a walk in the rainforest. Using a word processor, they write about sounds, smells, and sights that they encounter. Their writing will reflect their understanding of the unit. They need to include at least two illustrations, drawings, or pictures in their finished copy. These may come from an electronic source or be scanned into their document. 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.connected-learning.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In my opinion, to stop deforestation, one or more of the following needs to take place....Reduction of population, increase of productivity of food production on a per unit basis, synthetic sources of nutrition, and/or elimination of development of land that is suitable for food production.
  • Soybeans threaten Amazon rainforest | Grist 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.grist.org [Source type: General]
  • Soybeans threaten Amazon rainforest | Grist 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC preview.beta.grist.org [Source type: General]

[26] .Prior to the early 1960s, access to the forest's interior was highly restricted, and the forest remained basically intact.^ Time is running out for the remaining 20 percent of intact ancient forests unless governments around the world take swift action to ensure their future.
  • Amazon Rainforest 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.theopenline.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[27] Farms established during the 1960s was based on crop cultivation and the slash and burn method. .However, the colonists were unable to manage their fields and the crops because of the loss of soil fertility and weed invasion.^ Even correcting for poor soils, however, soybeans were an unlikely cash crop for the Cerrado.
  • VQR » Soy in the Amazon 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.vqronline.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Clear cutting and loss of fertile soil are the biggest danger for the rain forest.

[28] .The soils in the Amazon are productive for just a short period of time, so farmers are constantly moving to new areas and clearing more land.^ After a year or two, the productivity of the soil declines, and the transient farmers press a little deeper and clear new forest for more short-term agricultural land.
  • Amazon Destruction 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC rainforests.mongabay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Deforestation in the Amazon 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.mongabay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In areas where soils and topography are suitable for mechanized soy cultivation, rainforest lands are typically cleared for low-intensity cattle ranching then sold to soy producers some two to three years later.
  • Future threats to the Amazon rainforest 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC news.mongabay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [Credits : Union Press/Bruce Coleman, Inc., New York] Farmer helping set a fire in the Amazon Rainforest.
  • Amazon Rainforest (region, South America) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: General]

[28] .These farming practices led to deforestation and caused extensive environmental damage.^ The environmental destruction caused by soybean farming isnt limited to the Amazon, it occurs throughout the world wherever soybeans are produced.
  • The Soy Deception - How Palm Oil is Protecting the Amazon Rain Forest 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.coconutresearchcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ While these fires are small, they cause significant damage in an ecosystem not well adapted to fire.
  • Future threats to the Amazon rainforest 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC news.mongabay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[29] .Deforestation is considerable, and areas cleared of forest are visible to the naked eye from outer space.^ The effort could help countries detect deforestation shortly after it occurs making it easier to prevent further forest clearing.
  • Deforestation in the Amazon 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.mongabay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Countries would be compensated for their efforts to reduce deforestation and would also receive regular money for maintaining pre-existing forested areas.
  • Levi Novey: The Amazon Rainforest is More Important than Electric Cars 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

^ We’re all familiar with the statistic: every minute, an area of forest the size of five football fields is clear-cut in the Amazon.
  • Amazon Rainforest Vanishing Faster, Brazil Drafts Emergency Plan : EcoLocalizer 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC ecoworldly.com [Source type: General]

.Between 1991 and 2000, the total area of forest lost in the Amazon rose from 415,000 to 587,000 km2, with most of the lost forest becoming pasture for cattle.^ One hectare in the Peruvian Amazon has been calculated to have a value of $6820 if intact forest is sustainable harvested for fruits, latex, and timber; $1000 if clear-cut for commercial timber (not sustainable harvested); or $148 if used as cattle pasture.

^ The research shows that more than 38,600 square miles has been cleared for pasture since 1996, bringing the total area occupied by cattle ranches in the Brazilian Amazon to 214,000 square miles, an area larger than France.

^ Cramer pointed out that there is “a very significant risk” that very large areas of the Amazon will become “severely degraded” beyond 4°C warming.
  • What would a 4°C warmer world mean for the Amazon rainforest? | REDD-Monitor 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.redd-monitor.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[30] .Seventy percent of formerly forested land in the Amazon, and 91% of land deforested since 1970, is used for livestock pasture.^ Most deforested land is used for livestock pasture, agriculture and the cultivation of crops like soy beans (Brazil).
  • Amazon in Regions @ Tucan Travel 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.tucantravel.com [Source type: General]

^ One hectare in the Peruvian Amazon has been calculated to have a value of $6820 if intact forest is sustainable harvested for fruits, latex, and timber; $1000 if clear-cut for commercial timber (not sustainable harvested); or $148 if used as cattle pasture.

^ Cattle farming is now the biggest threat to the remaining Amazon rainforest, a fifth of which has been lost since 1970.
  • British supermarkets accused over destruction of Amazon rainforest | Environment | The Guardian 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

[31][32] .In addition, Brazil is currently the second-largest global producer of soybeans after the United States.^ For close to two centuries after its introduction into the United States the soybean languished as a curiosity crop.
  • Soybeans threaten Amazon rainforest | Grist 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.grist.org [Source type: General]
  • Soybeans threaten Amazon rainforest | Grist 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC preview.beta.grist.org [Source type: General]

^ Soybean meal mixed with grain for animal feed made it possible for Chinese meat consumption to grow to double that in the United States.
  • Soybeans threaten Amazon rainforest | Grist 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.grist.org [Source type: General]
  • Soybeans threaten Amazon rainforest | Grist 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC preview.beta.grist.org [Source type: General]

^ Thanks to a new variety of soybean developed by Brazilian scientists to flourish in rainforest climate, Brazil is on the verge of supplanting the United States as the world's leading exporter of soybeans .
  • Amazon Destruction 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC rainforests.mongabay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Deforestation in the Amazon 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.mongabay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The needs of soy farmers have been used to validate many of the controversial transportation projects that are currently developing in the Amazon.^ The addition of transport routes has lead to increased settlement and deforestation, and at the current rate, scientists estimate that the Amazon rainforest will be reduced by 40% in two decades.
  • Amazon in Regions @ Tucan Travel 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.tucantravel.com [Source type: General]

^ STARO was created to protect the Amazon Rainforest from destruction and help the people living in the rainforest live in harmony with nature using income generating projects which do not threaten the rainforest.
  • STARO - Save The Amazon Rainforest Organisation 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.staro.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ New genetically modified soy was specifically developed to withstand the toxins so farmers could spray even more pesticides on them without diminishing yields.
  • The Soy Deception - How Palm Oil is Protecting the Amazon Rain Forest 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.coconutresearchcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The first two highways successfully opened up the rain forest and led to increased settlement and deforestation.^ The addition of transport routes has lead to increased settlement and deforestation, and at the current rate, scientists estimate that the Amazon rainforest will be reduced by 40% in two decades.
  • Amazon in Regions @ Tucan Travel 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.tucantravel.com [Source type: General]

^ Should we find a way to increase the amount of CO2 in the air to make the rain forests grow back faster?
  • Amazon Scientist Discusses Work With Indigenous Tribes, Saving Rainforest | KPBS.org 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.kpbs.org [Source type: General]

^ Each rain forest has many species of monkeys, all of which differ from the species of the other two rain forests.

.The mean annual deforestation rate from 2000 to 2005 (22,392 km2 per year) was 18% higher than in the previous five years (19,018 km2 per year).^ Between 2000-2005 soybean cultivation reesulted in a small overall percentage of direct deforestation.
  • Deforestation in the Amazon 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.mongabay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Between the years 2000 and 2005, Brazil lost more than 50,000 square miles of rain forest.
  • The Soy Deception - How Palm Oil is Protecting the Amazon Rain Forest 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.coconutresearchcenter.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ More than U$15 billion dollars are estimated to be lost per year in government revenues to developing countries due to illegal logging practices.
  • SUNfiltered : Fresh culture daily. » amazon rainforest 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.sundancechannel.com [Source type: News]

[33] .At the current rate, in two decades the Amazon Rainforest will be reduced by 40%.^ The addition of transport routes has lead to increased settlement and deforestation, and at the current rate, scientists estimate that the Amazon rainforest will be reduced by 40% in two decades.
  • Amazon in Regions @ Tucan Travel 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.tucantravel.com [Source type: General]

^ For example, there have been significant reductions in deforestation rates in the Amazon rainforest.

^ The Amazon rainforest is being destroyed at an alarming rate and is in urgent need of protection.
  • Scoop: KFC exposed for trashing the Amazon rainforest 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.scoop.co.nz [Source type: News]

[34]

Conservation and climate change

.Environmentalists are concerned about the loss of biodiversity which will result from destruction of the forest, and also about the release of the carbon contained within the vegetation, which could accelerate global warming.^ MORE ABOUT: global warming • deforestation • forests • Amazon rainforest • carbon emissions .
  • Amazon rainforest – News Stories About Amazon rainforest - Page 1 | Newser 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.newser.com [Source type: General]

^ Already, tropical deforestation results in about 1.5 billion metric tons of carbon being released into the atmosphere every year.

^ MORE ABOUT: agriculture • greenhouse gases • global warming • Brazil • deforestation • logging • cattle industry • Amazon rainforest .
  • Amazon rainforest – News Stories About Amazon rainforest - Page 1 | Newser 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.newser.com [Source type: General]

.Amazonian evergreen forests account for about 10% of the world's terrestrial primary productivity and 10% of the carbon stores in ecosystems[35]—of the order of 1.1 × 1011 metric tonnes of carbon.^ Amazonian evergreen forests account for about 10% of the world's terrestrial primary productivity and 10% of the carbon stores in ecosystems Amazon Rainforest , Amazon Rainforest - The Amazon Basin , Amazon Rainforest - Biodiversity , Amazon Rainforest - Amazonian forests and carbon dynamics , Amazon Rainforest - Conservation , Amazon Rainforest - Notes .

^ Already, tropical deforestation results in about 1.5 billion metric tons of carbon being released into the atmosphere every year.

^ Not only are environmentalists concerned about the loss of biodiversity which will result from the forest's destruction, they are also concerned about the release of the carbon contained within the trees, which increases global warming.

[36] Amazonian forests are estimated to have accumulated 0.62 ± 0.37 tons of carbon per hectare per year between 1975 and 1996.[36]
.One computer model of future climate change caused by greenhouse gas emissions shows that the Amazon rainforest could become unsustainable under conditions of severely reduced rainfall and increased temperatures, leading to an almost complete loss of rainforest cover in the basin by 2100.[37][38] However, simulations of Amazon basin climate change across many different models are not consistent in their estimation of any rainfall response, ranging from weak increases to strong decreases.^ The rainforest is supported by the extremely wet climate of the Amazon basin.

^ MORE ABOUT: Brazil • Norway • Amazon rainforest • greenhouse-gas emissions .
  • Amazon rainforest – News Stories About Amazon rainforest - Page 1 | Newser 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.newser.com [Source type: General]

^ The Amazon Rainforest has a warm and wet climate .
  • You Won’t Find George in This Jungle, Authors: Cyndy Pridell, Steve Zaluski, Matthew Zehr, April Percy , Grade Level: 2-6, Subject Area: Science/Social Studies, Students imagine taking a walk in the rainforest. Using a word processor, they write about sounds, smells, and sights that they encounter. Their writing will reflect their understanding of the unit. They need to include at least two illustrations, drawings, or pictures in their finished copy. These may come from an electronic source or be scanned into their document. 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.connected-learning.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[39] .The result indicates that the rainforest could be threatened though the 21st century by climate change in addition to deforestation.^ In June, Eduardo Braga, the governor of Brazil's Amazonas state, initiated the first climate change law to provide incentives to farmers not to deforest.
  • New York City Is One of the Biggest Destroyers of the Amazon Rainforest | Environment | AlterNet 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ The addition of transport routes has lead to increased settlement and deforestation, and at the current rate, scientists estimate that the Amazon rainforest will be reduced by 40% in two decades.
  • Amazon in Regions @ Tucan Travel 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.tucantravel.com [Source type: General]

^ Indigenous communities threatened by climate change (08/03/2009) Indigenous cultures around the world are facing increasing threats with the effects of climate change.
  • Deforestation in the Amazon 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.mongabay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In 1989, environmentalist C.M. Peters and two colleagues stated there is economic as well as biological incentive to protecting the rainforest.^ Amazon rainforest: Encyclopedia II - Amazon Rainforest - Conservation Some environmentalists commonly stress the fact that there is not only a biological incentive to protecting the rain forest, but also an economic one.

^ DR. PLOTKIN: I think ecotourism done the right way that puts money in the hands of the Indians and the peasants of the local governments, gives them an economic incentive to protect the rainforest so there’s a right way to do this.
  • Amazon Scientist Discusses Work With Indigenous Tribes, Saving Rainforest | KPBS.org 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.kpbs.org [Source type: General]

^ The last two are threaten species that is why the state has created parks and reserves with the purpose of protecting them.
  • Peru information:Travel Information,Amazon rainforest,Peru Culture - Tambopata 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.wasai.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One hectare in the Peruvian Amazon has been calculated to have a value of $6820 if intact forest is sustainably harvested for fruits, latex, and timber; $1000 if clear-cut for commercial timber (not sustainably harvested); or $148 if used as cattle pasture.^ One hectare in the Peruvian Amazon has been calculated to have a value of $6820 if intact forest is sustainable harvested for fruits, latex, and timber; $1000 if clear-cut for commercial timber (not sustainable harvested); or $148 if used as cattle pasture.

^ The gradual devastation of the Amazon--the felling of thousands of square miles of forest, the clear-cutting of the jungle--has produced, paradoxicall...

^ Experts agree that by leaving the rainforests intact and harvesting it's many nuts, fruits, oil-producing plants, and medicinal plants, the rainforest has more economic value than if they were cut down to make grazing land for cattle or for timber.
  • Rainforest Facts 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.rain-tree.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[40]
.As indigenous territories continue to be destroyed by deforestation and ecocide, such as in the Peruvian Amazon[41] indigenous peoples' rainforest communities continue to disappear, while others, like the Urarina continue to struggle to fight for their cultural survival and the fate of their forested territories.^ Amazon people Amazon destruction [ deforestation figures .
  • Amazon Destruction 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC rainforests.mongabay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Deforestation in the Amazon 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.mongabay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But when rainforests die, so do the indigenous peoples.
  • Rainforest Facts 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.rain-tree.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As their homelands continue to be destroyed by deforestation, rainforest peoples are also disappearing.
  • Rainforest Facts 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.rain-tree.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Meanwhile, the relationship between nonhuman primates in the subsistence and symbolism of indigenous lowland South American peoples has gained increased attention, as has ethno-biology and community-based conservation efforts.^ Like the people of most Amazonian tribes, the Tukuna have suffered terribly from the encroachment of modern South Americans.
  • The Wings of the Butterfly (Native South American Folktales) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.aaronshep.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Cultural mapping may also facilitate indigenous efforts to win recognition and compensation under a proposed scheme to mitigate climate change through forest conservation.
  • Deforestation in the Amazon 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.mongabay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In all the power outage darkened approximately half of the South American nation, affecting sixty million people.
  • Deforestation in the Amazon 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.mongabay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From 2002 to 2006, the conserved land in the Amazon Rainforest has almost tripled and deforestation rates have dropped up to 60%.^ For example, there have been significant reductions in deforestation rates in the Amazon rainforest.

^ Conservation of the Amazon Rainforest has been a major issue in recent years.

^ MORE ABOUT: agriculture • greenhouse gases • global warming • Brazil • deforestation • logging • cattle industry • Amazon rainforest .
  • Amazon rainforest – News Stories About Amazon rainforest - Page 1 | Newser 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.newser.com [Source type: General]

.About 1,000,000 square kilometres (250,000,000 acres) have been put onto some sort of conservation, which adds up to a current amount of 1,730,000 square kilometres (430,000,000 acres).^ Its first station now protects about 2,000 hectares (4,940 acres) of tropical wet forest, of which 70% is primary forest and the remainder is secondary growth.
  • Volunteer Abroad - Amazon rainforest preservation 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.i-to-i.com [Source type: General]

^ In 1987 during a four-month period (July-October), about 19,300 square miles (50,000 sq.
  • Amazon Destruction 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC rainforests.mongabay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Deforestation in the Amazon 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.mongabay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Or about how a $26,000 Aptera electric car might end up getting 300 miles per gallon?
  • Levi Novey: The Amazon Rainforest is More Important than Electric Cars 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

[42]

Remote sensing

This image reveals how the forest and the atmosphere interact to create a uniform layer of “popcorn” clouds.
.The use of remotely sensed data is dramatically improving conservationists' knowledge of the Amazon Basin.^ As listeners and readers, students will collect data, facts, and ideas; discover relationships, concepts, and generalizations; and use knowledge generated from oral, written, and electronically produced texts.
  • You Won’t Find George in This Jungle, Authors: Cyndy Pridell, Steve Zaluski, Matthew Zehr, April Percy , Grade Level: 2-6, Subject Area: Science/Social Studies, Students imagine taking a walk in the rainforest. Using a word processor, they write about sounds, smells, and sights that they encounter. Their writing will reflect their understanding of the unit. They need to include at least two illustrations, drawings, or pictures in their finished copy. These may come from an electronic source or be scanned into their document. 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.connected-learning.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amazon rainforest: Encyclopedia - Amazon Rainforest The Amazon Rainforest is a term widely used to describe the moist broadleaf forests of the Amazon Basin.

^ It is located on the Pastaza River, on the most remote area of the Ecuadorian Amazon basin.
  • Tha Amazon Rainforest of Ecuador | Ecuador Tours & Travel 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.southamerica.travel [Source type: General]

.Given the objectivity and lowered costs of satellite-based land cover analysis, it appears likely that remote sensing technology will be an integral part of assessing the extent and damage of deforestation in the basin.^ Google Earth to monitor deforestation (12/10/2009) It what could be a critical development in helping tropical countries monitor deforestation, Google has unveiled a partnership with scientists using advanced remote sensing technology to rapidly analyze and map forest cover in extremely high resolution.
  • Deforestation in the Amazon 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.mongabay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Due to deforestation, rainforests now cover less than 5% of the Earth’s land surface, and experts believe that this is a big contributor to global climate change.
  • Amazon in Regions @ Tucan Travel 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.tucantravel.com [Source type: General]

^ Lead by Brazil, which had the lowest extent of deforestation since at least the 1980s, global forest loss likely declined to its lowest level in more than a decade.
  • Deforestation in the Amazon 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.mongabay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[43] .Furthermore, remote sensing is the best and perhaps only possible way to study the Amazon on a large-scale.^ Several studies have predicted that decreased rainfall in the biodiversity-rich Amazon would cause massive dieback of the forest and its large-scale substitution by savannah.
  • SUNfiltered : Fresh culture daily. » amazon rainforest 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.sundancechannel.com [Source type: News]

^ I don't think we will ever see--we won't see complete destruction of the Amazon, but what we will very likely see is large-scale fragmentation of the forest on a basinwide scale.
  • Amazon Rainforest Update : NPR 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: General]

^ There were 15 nine and ten year olds jockeying for the best view with "cool" and "awesome" said only the way a child can.
  • Amazon.com: Rainforest (9780756619404): Ben Morgan, Thomas Marent, The Rainforest Foundation: Books 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

[44]
.The use of remote sensing for the conservation of the Amazon is also being used by the indigenous tribes of the basin to protect their tribal lands from commercial interests.^ Amazon Basin suffered a near drought, several sailings of the Grand Amazon being canceled due to low water.
  • Get Acquainted With the Amazon: Wildlife, the Rainforest and Culturally Rich Cities | Frommers.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.frommers.com [Source type: General]

^ Last survivor of Amazon tribe attacked Indigenous Capitalists, from BC to Peru Climate tipping point: Global Atmospheric Methane ...

^ Many secrets and untold treasures about the medicinal plants used by shamans, healers, and the indigenous people of the rainforest tribes await discovery.
  • Rainforest Facts 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.rain-tree.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Using handheld GPS devices and programs like Google Earth, members of the Trio Tribe, who live in the rainforests of southern Suriname, map out their ancestral lands to help strengthen their territorial claims.^ Use computer to locate map depicting rainforests of the earth.
  • You Won’t Find George in This Jungle, Authors: Cyndy Pridell, Steve Zaluski, Matthew Zehr, April Percy , Grade Level: 2-6, Subject Area: Science/Social Studies, Students imagine taking a walk in the rainforest. Using a word processor, they write about sounds, smells, and sights that they encounter. Their writing will reflect their understanding of the unit. They need to include at least two illustrations, drawings, or pictures in their finished copy. These may come from an electronic source or be scanned into their document. 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.connected-learning.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ And in the lecture series, I pointed out that we had this fellow we were working with who had a huge price on his head and he was using Google Earth at our suggestion and he wanted to come and address them himself.
  • Amazon Scientist Discusses Work With Indigenous Tribes, Saving Rainforest | KPBS.org 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.kpbs.org [Source type: General]

^ Oftentimes, soybean growers buy land from cattlemen, who have cleared the land and grazed it for a few years, pushing them ever deeper into the Amazon rainforest.
  • Soy destroying the Amazon rainforest // Current 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC current.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Soybeans threaten Amazon rainforest | Grist 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.grist.org [Source type: General]
  • Soybeans threaten Amazon rainforest | Grist 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC preview.beta.grist.org [Source type: General]

[45] .Currently, most tribes in the Amazon do not have clearly defined boundaries, which make their territories easy targets for commercial poaching of natural resources.^ The tale of Chimidyue itself is one of a genre of forest odyssey tales found in many parts of Amazoniaa genre that has been called the most sophisticated literary development of the Amazon tribes.
  • The Wings of the Butterfly (Native South American Folktales) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.aaronshep.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Guests can escape to the natural beauty and wild majesty of the Amazon Rainforest, this is one of the most famous destinations on the planet, nestled in a canopy of trees above the Amazon River.

^ Greenpeace claims records show that cattle from hundreds of farms across the Amazon are mixed and processed in this way, making it currently impossible to trace the origins of products.
  • Supermarket suppliers 'helping destroy Amazon rainforest' | Environment | The Guardian 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.guardian.co.uk [Source type: News]

.Through the use of cheap mapping technology, the Trio Tribe hopes to protect its ancestral land.^ So it’s not a question of, you know, Indians being Indians, not having access to the outside world like polio vaccine and things like that, that you can be an Indian, you can protect the forest and use technology to do it better.
  • Amazon Scientist Discusses Work With Indigenous Tribes, Saving Rainforest | KPBS.org 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.kpbs.org [Source type: General]

^ And he’s using that now, as you say, this incredible combination of people who are living on the land but are still using this remarkably advanced, high-tech technology.
  • Amazon Scientist Discusses Work With Indigenous Tribes, Saving Rainforest | KPBS.org 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.kpbs.org [Source type: General]

^ We also don't know beyond generalizations how the money would be used to create jobs, or to help protect indigenous groups from losing their lands and way of life.
  • Levi Novey: The Amazon Rainforest is More Important than Electric Cars 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.huffingtonpost.com [Source type: General]

.In order to accurately map the biomass of the Amazon and subsequent carbon related emissions, the classification of tree growth stages within different parts of the forest is crucial.^ CAVANAUGH: Now, Dr. Plotkin, you are spending so much of your time as part of the Amazon Conservation Team in trying to map and plot out the rainforest in efforts, public relations efforts, to try to get people involved in saving the rainforest.
  • Amazon Scientist Discusses Work With Indigenous Tribes, Saving Rainforest | KPBS.org 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.kpbs.org [Source type: General]

^ Slim Chances for Universal Regulation Rules related to protecting forests are theoretically supposed to come as part of a larger global pact on climate change.

^ Amazon forests therefore appear vulnerable to increasing moisture stress, with the potential for large carbon losses to exert feedback on climate change.
  • Phillips OL. Drought sensitivity of the Amazon rainforest. Science 323:1344 (2009) 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC pubget.com [Source type: Academic]

.In 2006 Tatiana Kuplich organized the trees of the Amazon into four categories: (1) mature forest, (2) regenerating forest [less than three years], (3) regenerating forest [between three and five years of regrowth], and (4) regenerating forest [eleven to eighteen years of continued development].^ In normal years the Amazon alone absorbs three billion tons of carbon....But during the 2005 drought, this process was reversed, and the Amazon gave off two billion tons of carbon instead, creating an additional five billion tons of heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere.
  • Positive Feedback in the Amazon | Mother Jones 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: General]

^ The government will use rubber from Amazon trees to make 100 million condoms a year, given out freely as part of the country's anti-AIDS program.
  • Amazon rainforest – News Stories About Amazon rainforest - Page 1 | Newser 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.newser.com [Source type: General]

^ The massive volume of wildlife taken from the Amazon each year — much of which is harvested to meet market demands rather than local consumption — has resulted in "empty forests" in some regions.
  • Future threats to the Amazon rainforest 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC news.mongabay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[46] .The researcher used a combination of Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and Thematic Mapper (TM) to accurately place the different portions of the Amazon into one of the four classifications.^ Overall, the subtle weather differences from one season to the next in the Amazon do not need to dictate your plans.
  • Amazon Rainforest Tours & Travel - Frequently Asked Questions 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.adventure-life.com [Source type: General]

^ Sadly, these numbers don't even represent an accurate picture in the Amazon because Brazil is one of the richer countries in South America.
  • Rainforest Facts 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.rain-tree.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Manaus is the central point from where you can take Manaus tours to four important places in the Amazon area.

Impact of Amazon drought

.In 2005, parts of the Amazon basin experienced the worst drought in 100 years,[47] and there were indications that 2006 could have been a second successive year of drought.^ In normal years the Amazon alone absorbs three billion tons of carbon....But during the 2005 drought, this process was reversed, and the Amazon gave off two billion tons of carbon instead, creating an additional five billion tons of heat-trapping gases in the atmosphere.
  • Positive Feedback in the Amazon | Mother Jones 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC motherjones.com [Source type: General]

^ Amazon Basin suffered a near drought, several sailings of the Grand Amazon being canceled due to low water.
  • Get Acquainted With the Amazon: Wildlife, the Rainforest and Culturally Rich Cities | Frommers.com 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.frommers.com [Source type: General]

^ CAVANAUGH: How has the Amazon changed in the 30 years that you’ve been going down there?
  • Amazon Scientist Discusses Work With Indigenous Tribes, Saving Rainforest | KPBS.org 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.kpbs.org [Source type: General]

[48] .A 23 July 2006 article in the UK newspaper The Independent reported Woods Hole Research Center results showing that the forest in its present form could survive only three years of drought.^ Not only are environmentalists concerned about the loss of biodiversity which will result from the forest's destruction, they are also concerned about the release of the carbon contained within the trees, which increases global warming.

^ As a result, rainfall tends to decrease, leading to droughts, forest desiccation and greater susceptibility to fire.
  • New York City Is One of the Biggest Destroyers of the Amazon Rainforest | Environment | AlterNet 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ UK's newspaper Telegraph has reported the IPCC did not even research the claim themselves, merely lifting the report from the World Wildlife Fund.

[49][50] .Scientists at the Brazilian National Institute of Amazonian Research argue in the article that this drought response, coupled with the effects of deforestation on regional climate, are pushing the rainforest towards a "tipping point" where it would irreversibly start to die.^ Comments (0) Article tags: amazon rainforest , bogor indonesia , changing climate , cifor , climate conference , Ecommunity News , forest ecosystems , forest goods , forest scientists , international forestry research , uncontrolled wildfires .
  • SUNfiltered : Fresh culture daily. » amazon rainforest 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.sundancechannel.com [Source type: News]

^ Comments (0) Article tags: alex robinson , amazon rainforest , amazon region , brasilia brazil , brazilian officials , carlos minc , criminal prosecution , deforestation rate , Ecommunity News , illegal loggers , renewable natural resources .
  • SUNfiltered : Fresh culture daily. » amazon rainforest 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.sundancechannel.com [Source type: News]

^ Social causes of deforestation in the Amazon rainforest (09/14/2009) Understanding the web of social groups involved in deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon is key to containing forest loss, argues a leading Amazon researcher writing in the journal Ecology and Society .
  • Amazon Destruction 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC rainforests.mongabay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Deforestation in the Amazon 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.mongabay.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It concludes that the forest is on the brink of being turned into savanna or desert, with catastrophic consequences for the world's climate.^ At the end of their two-day meeting, participants are expected to sign a declaration outlining their plans for turning climate goals into action.
  • SUNfiltered : Fresh culture daily. » amazon rainforest 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.sundancechannel.com [Source type: News]

^ The river and its tributaries flow through the second largest rain forest area in the world, only the Amazon Rainforest being (much) larger.

^ So it’s not a question of, you know, Indians being Indians, not having access to the outside world like polio vaccine and things like that, that you can be an Indian, you can protect the forest and use technology to do it better.
  • Amazon Scientist Discusses Work With Indigenous Tribes, Saving Rainforest | KPBS.org 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.kpbs.org [Source type: General]

.According to the World Wide Fund for Nature, the combination of climate change and deforestation increases the drying effect of dead trees that fuels forest fires.^ In June, Eduardo Braga, the governor of Brazil's Amazonas state, initiated the first climate change law to provide incentives to farmers not to deforest.
  • New York City Is One of the Biggest Destroyers of the Amazon Rainforest | Environment | AlterNet 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.alternet.org [Source type: General]

^ And that's water vapor that helps to maintain consistent cloud cover and rainfall, especially during the dry season when forests are most vulnerable to fires.
  • Amazon Rainforest Update : NPR 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.npr.org [Source type: General]

^ At Poznan, negotiators are seeking to advance plans to fund a mechanism called Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation, REDD, as part of the post-2012 climate deal that is the object of this UN conference.
  • SUNfiltered : Fresh culture daily. » amazon rainforest 1 February 2010 1:01 UTC www.sundancechannel.com [Source type: News]

[51]

See also

Notes

  1. ^ New 7 Wonders of the Word: Live Ranking
  2. ^ a b Taylor, Isaac (1898). Names and Their Histories: A Handbook of Historical Geography and Topographical Nomenclature. London: Rivingtons. http://books.google.com/books?id=vqgYAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA44. Retrieved 2008-10-12.  
  3. ^ Morley, Robert J. (2000). Origin and Evolution of Tropical Rain Forests. Wiley. ISBN 0471983268.  
  4. ^ Burnham, Robyn J.; Johnson, Kirk R. (2004). "South American palaeobotany and the origins of neotropical rainforests". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society 359 (1450): 1595–1610. doi:10.1098/rstb.2004.1531.  
  5. ^ Maslin, Mark; Malhi, Yadvinder; Phillips, Oliver; Cowling, Sharon (2005). "New views on an old forest: assessing the longevity, resilience and future of the Amazon rainforest" (PDF). Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers 30 (4): 477–499. doi:10.1111/j.1475-5661.2005.00181.x. http://earth.leeds.ac.uk/ebi/publications/Maslin_2005.pdf. Retrieved 2008-09-25.  
  6. ^ Malhi, Yadvinder; Phillips, Oliver (2005). Tropical Forests & Global Atmospheric Change. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198567065.  
  7. ^ Costa, João Batista Sena; Bemerguy, Ruth Léa; Hasui, Yociteru; Borges, Maurício da Silva (2001). "Tectonics and paleogeography along the Amazon river". Journal of South American Earth Sciences 14 (4): 335–347. doi:10.1016/S0895-9811(01)00025-6.  
  8. ^ Milani, Edison José; Zalán, Pedro Victor (1999). "An outline of the geology and petroleum systems of the Paleozoic interior basins of South America" (PDF). Episodes 22 (3): 199–205. http://www.episodes.org/backissues/223/199-205%20Milani.pdf. Retrieved 2008-09-25.  
  9. ^ Colinvaux, P.A., De Oliveira, P.E. 2000. Palaeoecology and climate of the Amazon basin during the last glacial cycle. Wiley InterScience. (abstract)
  10. ^ Van der Hammen, T., Hooghiemstra, H.. 2002. Neogene and Quaternary history of vegetation, climate, and plant diversity in Amazonia. Elsevier Science Ltd. (abstract)
  11. ^ Colinvaux, P. A.; De Oliveira, P. E.; Bush, M. B. (January 2000). "Amazonian and neotropical plant communities on glacial time-scales: The failure of the aridity and refuge hypotheses". Quaternary Science Reviews 19 (1-5): 141–169. doi:10.1016/S0277-3791(99)00059-1.  
  12. ^ Roosevelt, A. C.; da Costa, M. Lima; Machado, C. Lopes; Michab, M.; Mercier, N.; Valladas, H.; Feathers, J.; Barnett, W.; da Silveira, M. Imazio; Henderson, A.; Sliva, J.; Chernoff, B.; Reese, D. S.; Holman, J. A.; Toth, N.; Schick, K.; (1996-04-19). "Paleoindian Cave Dwellers in the Amazon: The Peopling of the Americas". Science 272 (5260): 373–384. doi:10.1126/science.272.5260.373.  
  13. ^ Heckenberger, Michael J.; Kuikuro, Afukaka; Kuikuro, Urissapá Tabata; Russell, J. Christian; Schmidt, Morgan; Fausto, Carlos; Franchetto, Bruna (2003-09-19). "Amazonia 1492: Pristine Forest or Cultural Parkland?". Science 301 (5640): 1710–1714. doi:10.1126/science.1086112. PMID 14500979.  
  14. ^ Meggers, Betty J. (2003-12-19). "Revisiting Amazonia Circa 1492". Science 302 (5653): 2067–2070. doi:10.1126/science.302.5653.2067b. PMID 14684803.  
  15. ^ Smith, A (1994). Explorers of the Amazon. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226763374.  
  16. ^ Turner, I.M. 2001. The ecology of trees in the tropical rain forest. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-80183-4
  17. ^ "Amazon Rainforest, Amazon Plants, Amazon River Animals". World Wide Fund for Nature. http://www.worldwildlife.org/wildplaces/amazon/index.cfm. Retrieved 2008-05-06.  
  18. ^ "Photos / Pictures of the Amazon Rainforest". Travel.mongabay.com. http://travel.mongabay.com/brazil/brazil_amazon_index.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-18.  
  19. ^ Da Silva, Jose Maria Cardoso et al. (2005). "The Fate of the Amazonian Areas of Endemism". Conservation Biology 19 (3): 689–694. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00705.x.  
  20. ^ Lewinsohn, Thomas M.; Paulo Inácio Prado (June 2005). "How Many Species Are There in Brazil?". Conservation Biology 19 (3): 619–624. doi:10.1111/j.1523-1739.2005.00680.x.  
  21. ^ Laurance, William F.; Fearnside, Philip M.; Laurance, Susan G.; Delamonica, Patricia; Lovejoy, Thomas E.; Rankin-de Merona, Judy M.; Chambers, Jeffrey Q.; Gascon, Claude (1999-06-14). "Relationship between soils and Amazon forest biomass: a landscape-scale study". Forest Ecology and Management 118 (1–3): 127–138. doi:10.1016/S0378-1127(98)00494-0.  
  22. ^ "Amazon Rainforest". South AmericaTravel Guide. http://www.travelsouth-america.com/amazon.html. Retrieved 2008-08-19.  
  23. ^ Mynenia, Ranga B. et al. (2007-03-13). "Large seasonal swings in leaf area of Amazon rainforests". Procedings of the National Academy of Science 104 (12): 4820–4823. doi:10.1073/pnas.0611338104.  
  24. ^ Staff (2007-07-02). "Piranha 'less deadly than feared'". BBC News Online. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/6259946.stm. Retrieved 2007-07-02.  
  25. ^ da Rosa, Elizabeth S. T. et al. (August 2006). "Bat-transmitted Human Rabies Outbreaks, Brazilian Amazon" (PDF). Emerging Infectious Diseases 12 (8): 1197–1202. PMID 16965697. http://origin.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/vol12no08/pdfs/05-0929.pdf. Retrieved 2008-10-11.  
  26. ^ Various (2001). Bierregaard, Richard; Gascon, Claude; Lovejoy, Thomas E.; Mesquita, Rita. ed. Lessons from Amazonia: The Ecology and Conservation of a Fragmented Forest. Yale University Press. ISBN 0300084838.  
  27. ^ Kirby, Kathryn R.; Laurance, William F.; Albernaz, Ana K.; Schroth, Götz; Fearnside, Philip M.; Bergen, Scott; M. Venticinque, Eduardo; Costa, Carlos da (2006). "The future of deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon". Futures 38 (4): 432–453. doi:10.1016/j.futures.2005.07.011.  
  28. ^ a b Watkins and Griffiths, J. (2000). Forest Destruction and Sustainable Agriculture in the Brazilian Amazon: a Literature Review (Doctoral dissertation, The University of Reading, 2000). Dissertation Abstracts International, 15–17
  29. ^ Williams, M. (2006). Deforesting the Earth: From Prehistory to Global Crisis (Abridged ed.). Chicago, IL: The University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226899470.  
  30. ^ Centre for International Forestry Research (CIFOR) (2004)
  31. ^ Steinfeld, Henning; Gerber, Pierre; Wassenaar, T. D.; Castel, Vincent (2006). Livestock's Long Shadow: Environmental Issues and Options. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. ISBN 9251055718. http://www.fao.org/docrep/010/a0701e/a0701e00.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-19.  
  32. ^ Margulis, Sergio (2004). "Causes of Deforestation of the Brazilian Amazon" (PDF). World Bank Working Paper No. 22. Washington D.C.: The World Bank. http://www-wds.worldbank.org/servlet/WDSContentServer/WDSP/IB/2004/02/02/000090341_20040202130625/Rendered/PDF/277150PAPER0wbwp0no1022.pdf. Retrieved 2008-09-04.  
  33. ^ Barreto, P.; Souza Jr. C.; Noguerón, R.; Anderson, A. & Salomão, R. 2006. Human Pressure on the Brazilian Amazon Forests. Imazon. Retrieved September 28, 2006. (The Imazon web site contains many resources relating to the Brazilian Amazonia.)
  34. ^ (National Geographic, January 2007)
  35. ^ Melillo, J. M.; McGuire, A. D.; Kicklighter, D. W.; Moore III, B.; Vörösmarty, C. J.; Schloss, A. L. (1993-05-20). "Global climate change and terrestrial net primary production". Nature 363: 234–240. doi:10.1038/363234a0.  
  36. ^ a b Tian, H.; Melillo, J.M.; Kicklighter, D.W.; McGuire, A.D.; Helfrich III, J.; Moore III, B.; Vörösmarty, C.J. (July 2000). "Climatic and biotic controls on annual carbon storage in Amazonian ecosystems". Global Ecology and Biogeography 9 (4): 315–335. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2699.2000.00198.x.  
  37. ^ Cox, Betts, Jones, Spall and Totterdell. 2000. Acceleration of global warming due to carbon-cycle feedbacks in a coupled climate model. Nature, November 9, 2000. (subscription required)
  38. ^ Radford, T. 2002. World may be warming up even faster. The Guardian.
  39. ^ Houghton, J.T. et al. 2001. Climate Change 2001: The Scientific Basis. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change.
  40. ^ Peters, C.M.; Gentry, A. H. & Mendelsohn, R. O. (1989). "Valuation of an Amazonian forest". Nature 339: 656–657. doi:10.1038/339655a0.  
  41. ^ Dean, Bartholomew. (2003) State Power and Indigenous Peoples in Peruvian Amazonia: A Lost Decade, 1990–2000. In The Politics of Ethnicity Indigenous Peoples in Latin American States David Maybury-Lewis, Ed. Harvard University Press
  42. ^ Cormier, L. (April 16, 2006). "A Preliminary Review of Neotropical Primates in the Subsistence and Symbolism of Indigenous Lowland South American Peoples". Ecological and Environmental Anthropology 2 (1): 14–32. http://eea.anthro.uga.edu/index.php/eea/article/view/10/11. Retrieved 2008-09-04.  
  43. ^ Wynne, R. H.; Joseph, K. A.; Browder, J. O.; Summers, P. M. (2007). "A Preliminary Review of Neotropical Primates in the Subsistence and Symbolism of Indigenous Lowland South American Peoples". International Journal of Remote Sensing 28: 1299–1315. doi:10.1080/01431160600928609. http://eea.anthro.uga.edu/index.php/eea/article/viewArticle/23. Retrieved 2008-09-04.  
  44. ^ Asner, Gregory P.; Knapp, David E.; Cooper, Amanda N.; Bustamante, Mercedes M.C.; Olander, Lydia P. (June 2005). "Ecosystem Structure throughout the Brazilian Amazon from Landsat Observations and Automated Spectral Unmixing". Earth Interactions 9 (1): 1–31. doi:10.1175/EI134.1.  
  45. ^ Isaacson, Andy. 2007. With the Help of GPS, Amazonian Tribes Reclaim the Rain Forest. Wired 15.11: http://www.wired.com/science/planetearth/magazine/15-11/ps_amazon
  46. ^ Kuplich, Tatiana M. (October 2006). "Classifying regenerating forest stages in Amazônia using remotely sensed images and a neural network". Forest Ecology and Management 234 (1–3): 1–9. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2006.05.066.  
  47. ^ Environmental News Service - Amazon Drought Worst in 100 Years
  48. ^ Drought Threatens Amazon Basin - Extreme conditions felt for second year running
  49. ^ Amazon rainforest 'could become a desert' , The Independent, July 23, 2006. Retrieved September 28, 2006.
  50. ^ Dying Forest: One year to save the Amazon, The Independent, July 23, 2006. Retrieved September 28, 2006.
  51. ^ Climate change a threat to Amazon rainforest, warns WWF, World Wide Fund for Nature, March 22, 2006. Retrieved September 28, 2006.

References

External links

.

Simple English

The Amazon Rainforest is the forest that grows in the tropical basin of the Amazon River.

The forest lies in a basin drained largely by the Amazon River, with 1100 tributaries. This basin was formed in the Paleozoic period, between 500 and 200 million years ago.

Contents

Biodiversity

File:Roots by
Aerial roots of red mangrove on an Amazonian River

Wet tropical forests are the most species-rich biome, and tropical forests in the Americas are consistently more species rich than are African and Asian wet forests[1]. As the largest tract of tropical rainforest in the Americas, Amazonian rainforests have unparalleled biodiversity.

The region is home to ~2.5 million insect species, tens of thousands of species of plants, and some 2000 species of birds and mammals. The diversity of plant species is the highest on earth with some experts estimating that one square kilometre may contain over 75,000 types of trees and 150,000 species of higher plants. One square kilometre of Amazon rainforest can contain about 90,000 tons of living plants. This constitutes the largest collection of living plants and animal species in the world. One in five of all the birds in the world live in the rainforests of the Amazon. To date, an estimated 438,000 species of plants of economic and social interest have been registered in the region with many more remaining to be discovered or cataloged. (Note: Brazil has one of the most advanced laws to avoid biopiracy, but enforcing it is a problem.)

Amazonian forests as a store of carbon dioxide

File:River in the Amazon
A river in the Amazon Rainforest

More than one fifth of the Amazon Rainforest has already been destroyed. The forest which remains is threatened. People who care for the environment warn about the loss of biodiversity. They also point out that releasing the carbon which is stored in the trees will increase global warming.

Conservation

Some people have calculated that it may even pay to save the forest. They said that one hectare of Amazonian forest in Peru is worth about US $ 6280, if it is used to harvest fruits, latex and timber (wood). If all the wood is cut down for timber, it has a value of about US $ 1000. Obviously, this can only be done once; it is not sustainable. When the forest has been cleared, the hectar of land can be used as a pasture, and is worth about US $ 148. Not all people agree on the study; some have questioned the assumptions behind it.

The Força Aérea Brasileira has been using EMBRAER R-99 surveillance aircraft to monitor the forest. This was done as part of the SIVAM program. At a conference in July 2004, scientists warned that the rainforest will no longer be able to absorb the millions of tons of greenhouse gases annually, as it usually does, because of the increased speed of rainforest destruction.

9,169 square miles of rain forest were cut down in 2003 alone. In Brazil alone, European colonists have destroyed more than 90 indigenous tribes since the 1900's. With them have gone centuries of knowledge of the medicinal value of rainforest species. As their homelands continue to be destroyed by deforestation, rainforest peoples are also disappearing.

The Rubber Boom

Once the process of vulcanization was invented, companies began to make many kinds of new rubber products, such as boots and seals for machines. American and European companies began buying large amounts of latex from Brazil. This boom in Brazilian rubber began around 1870, but it was the need for automobile tires that brought the greatest wealth to the new rubber producers.[1]

Other rain forest had rubber trees, but in Amazonia were by far the best. However, the trees could not be planted on farms or plantations because if they were next to each other, the insects would eat them. Therefore, people had to find the trees in the rain forest, cut slits in them, leave cups to collect the latex, and come back later to get it.[1] Thousands of people moved to the rain forest to work collecting rubber. Most of these people were hired by wealthy rubber merchants. The rubber merchants loaned them money to come down the river and buy tools. Each rubber merchant’s collectors were forced to sell the rubber only to their rubber merchant at low prices and buy supplies only from them at high prices. That meant the collectors were always in debt to their merchant and could not leave to do something else. The rubber merchants quickly became very rich. The center of the rubber trade was the city Manaus on the Rio Negro. [1]It became first a boom town and then a beautiful, wealthy city. It had electricity before most of the cities in the United States did. [1] The newly rich merchants built huge expensive homes and brought in new automobiles to travel on the city’s few roads. They built a magnificent opera house with crystal chandeliers and decorated tiles brought all the way from Europe.[1]

However, the rubber boom only lasted about forty years, ending by 1913. [1]Some men had taken the seeds of the Amazon rubber trees and began growing them in the Asian rain forests. The trees grew well there, and they could be grown on plantations. The insects that could destroy them were in South America. So the price of rubber began to fall, and the rubber boom stopped.[1]

Other pages

Notes

1. ^  Turner, I.M. 2001. The ecology of trees in the tropical rain forest. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. ISBN 0-521-80183-4

2. ^  Melillo, J.M., A.D. McGuire, D.W. Kicklighter, B. Moore III, C.J. Vörösmarty and A.L. Schloss. 1993. Global climate change and terrestrial net primary production. Nature 363:234–240.

3. ^ Tian, H., J.M. Melillo, D.W. Kicklighter, A.D. McGuire, J. Helfrich III, B. Moore III and C.J. Vörösmarty. 2000. Climatic and biotic controls on annual carbon storage in Amazonian ecosystems. Global Ecology and Biogeography 9:315–335.

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Other websites

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 History and Geography. LIFEPAC. Alpha Omega Publications. pp. 26. ISBN 978-1-58095-155-5. 


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