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Amazon River
Apurímac, Ene, Tambona, Ucayali, Amazonas, Solimões
River
Mouth of the Amazon River
Countries  Peru,  Colombia,  Brazil,  Bolivia,  Venezuela,  Ecuador,  Guyana
State 34
Region South America
Tributaries
 - left Marañón, Japurá, Rio Negro
 - right Ucayali, Purus, Madeira, Tapajós, Xingu, Tocantins
City Iquitos (Peru); Manaus (Brazil) and Belém do Pará (Brazil).
Source Apacheta cliff
 - location Nevado Mismi, Arequipa, Peru
 - elevation 5,170 m (16,962 ft)
 - coordinates 15°31′05″S 71°45′55″W / 15.51806°S 71.76528°W / -15.51806; -71.76528
Mouth
 - location Atlantic Ocean, Brazil
 - elevation m (0 ft)
Length 6,400 km (4,000 mi) approx.
Basin 7,050,000 km2 (2,720,000 sq mi) approx.
Discharge mouth
 - average 219,000 m3/s (7,734,000 cu ft/s)
Map showing the Amazon drainage basin with the Amazon River highlighted
.The Amazon River (Portuguese: Rio Amazonas; Spanish: Río Amazonas; pronounced /ˈæməzɒn/ (US); /ˈæməzən/ (UK)) of South America is the largest river in the world by volumetric discharge, with a total river flow greater than the next ten largest rivers combined.^ The Amazon carries more water than any other river in the world.
  • Amazon (river) Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Amazon (river) 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The flow of the Amazon exceeds the combined flow of the next eight largest rivers on earth and while it rivals the Nile in length, it is 60 times greater in its discharge at its mouth.
  • Amazon River Trip - October 1986 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The largest river in the world .
  • The Mighty Amazon: Records and Fragility - The largest river in the world - Softpedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC news.softpedia.com [Source type: General]

.The Amazon, which has the largest drainage basin in the world, accounts for approximately one-fifth of the world's total river flow.^ Nearly one fifth of all the river water in the world is flowing in the Amazon.
  • Amazon River Trip - October 1986 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amazon river basin.
  • Amazon (river) Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Amazon (river) 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Amazon River accounts for approximately 1/5 of the world's total river flow, and it has the largest drainage basin in the world.
  • Amazon River culture and attractions. Amazon River Hotels, youth hostels, lodging, nightlife. Amazon River travel and tours. 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.mundoandino.com [Source type: General]

[1]
.In its upper stretches the Amazon river is called Apurímac (in Peru) and Solimões (in Brazil).^ Amazon River Peru and Brazil - 85 results .
  • Amazon River Peru and Brazil: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ AMAZON , river , Peru and Brazil Port.
  • Amazon River Peru and Brazil: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Amazon River Peru and Brazil - 12 results .
  • Amazon River Peru and Brazil: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

.During the wet season, parts of the Amazon exceed 190 kilometres (120 mi) in width.^ Along the southern margin of the Amazon basin, the climate grades into that of west-central Brazil, with a distinct dry season during the Southern Hemispheric winter.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In an average dry season 110,000 square kilometres of land are water-covered, while in the wet season the flooded area of the Amazon Basin rises to 350,000 square kilometres .
  • Amazon River culture and attractions. Amazon River Hotels, youth hostels, lodging, nightlife. Amazon River travel and tours. 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.mundoandino.com [Source type: General]

^ The especially interesting part of this post about the Amazon swimmer is how he visualized and imagined making the swim… and then even visualized other interesting things during the swim.
  • Swimming the Amazon: 3,274 Miles on the World’s Deadliest River 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

.Because of its vast dimensions, it is sometimes called The River Sea.^ See howler and capuchin monkeys, the squirrel-sized monkeys called tamarins, pink and gray river dolphins, and a vast variety of birds.

^ On this excursion, you will also see howler and capuchin monkeys, the squirrelsized monkeys called tamarins, pink and gray river dolphins, and a vast variety of birds.

.At no point is the Amazon crossed by bridges.^ How many bridges cross the Amazon?
  • Jean-Michel Cousteau : Ocean Adventures . Viewing Guide to Return to Amazon | PBS 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Amazon River is the second longest river in the world, yet no bridges cross it as it flows through Bolivia, Venezuela, Columbia, Ecuador and Brazil, 4,000 miles from its headwaters high in the Andes Mountains of Peru to the Atlantic Ocean.

^ Because of its vast dimensions, it is sometimes called The River Sea ( o rio-mar in Portuguese), and at no point is it crossed by bridges.
  • Amazon River culture and attractions. Amazon River Hotels, youth hostels, lodging, nightlife. Amazon River travel and tours. 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.mundoandino.com [Source type: General]

[2] .This is not because of its huge dimensions; in fact, for most of its length, the Amazon's width is well within the capability of modern engineers to bridge.^ Because of its vast dimensions, it is sometimes called The River Sea ( o rio-mar in Portuguese), and at no point is it crossed by bridges.
  • Amazon River culture and attractions. Amazon River Hotels, youth hostels, lodging, nightlife. Amazon River travel and tours. 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.mundoandino.com [Source type: General]

^ In February 2007 Martin Strel began an insane attempt to be the first person to swim the entire length of the world's most dangerous river, the mighty Amazon.
  • Big River Man Movie Reviews, Pictures - Rotten Tomatoes 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.rottentomatoes.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, the bulk of the river flows through tropical rainforest, where there are few roads and even fewer cities, so there is no need for crossings.^ The Amazon River is the second longest river in the world, yet no bridges cross it as it flows through Bolivia, Venezuela, Columbia, Ecuador and Brazil, 4,000 miles from its headwaters high in the Andes Mountains of Peru to the Atlantic Ocean.

^ Because of its vast dimensions, it is sometimes called The River Sea ( o rio-mar in Portuguese), and at no point is it crossed by bridges.
  • Amazon River culture and attractions. Amazon River Hotels, youth hostels, lodging, nightlife. Amazon River travel and tours. 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.mundoandino.com [Source type: General]

^ We did, however, see the place and had dinner there but the tropical heat and flying insects made our visit there a short one.
  • Amazon River Trip - October 1986 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.While the Amazon is the largest river in the world by most measures, the current consensus within the geographic community holds that the Amazon is the second longest river, just slightly shorter than the Nile.^ Longest rivers in the Amazon system .
  • Amazon River culture and attractions. Amazon River Hotels, youth hostels, lodging, nightlife. Amazon River travel and tours. 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.mundoandino.com [Source type: General]

^ Amazon river 'longer than Nile' (BBC News) .
  • Amazon River culture and attractions. Amazon River Hotels, youth hostels, lodging, nightlife. Amazon River travel and tours. 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.mundoandino.com [Source type: General]

^ While debate as to whether the Amazon or the Nile is the world's longest river has gone on for many years, the historic consensus of geographic authorities has been to regard the Amazon as the second longest river in the world, with the Nile being the longest.
  • Amazon River culture and attractions. Amazon River Hotels, youth hostels, lodging, nightlife. Amazon River travel and tours. 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.mundoandino.com [Source type: General]

.However, some scientists, particularly from Brazil and Peru, dispute this (see section below).^ A visit to the Amazon rainforest of Peru, Brazil or Ecuador with Tucan Travel offers the opportunity to breathe in some of the purest air on the planet and see some of the world’s most amazing birds and animals in their natural habitat.
  • Amazon in Regions @ Tucan Travel 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.tucantravel.com [Source type: General]

^ Airfare via American Airlines from Miami to Lima, Peru (see add-ons from more than 100 USA cities below).

Contents

Drainage area

.The Amazon Basin, the largest drainage basin in the world, covers about 40 percent of South America, an area of approximately 7,050,000 square kilometres (2,720,000 sq mi).^ Amazon River basin comprises nearly 40% of the continent of South America.
  • Amazon (river) Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Amazon (river) 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Amazon River accounts for approximately 1/5 of the world's total river flow, and it has the largest drainage basin in the world.
  • Amazon River culture and attractions. Amazon River Hotels, youth hostels, lodging, nightlife. Amazon River travel and tours. 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.mundoandino.com [Source type: General]

^ The Amazon basin, the largest drainage basin in the world, covers an area of some 6,915,000 square kilometres , or some 40 percent of South America.
  • Amazon River culture and attractions. Amazon River Hotels, youth hostels, lodging, nightlife. Amazon River travel and tours. 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.mundoandino.com [Source type: General]

.It gathers its waters from 5 degrees north latitude to 20 degrees south latitude.^ It gathers its waters from 5 degrees north latitude to 20 degrees south latitude.
  • Amazon River culture and attractions. Amazon River Hotels, youth hostels, lodging, nightlife. Amazon River travel and tours. 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.mundoandino.com [Source type: General]

^ The extent of the gridded data ranges from latitudes of 20.0 degrees South to 5.2 degrees North and longitudes of 79.6 degrees West and 49.4 degrees West.
  • Amazon River Basin Precipitation, 1972-1992 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC daac.ornl.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ The precipitation grid extends from 20.2 degrees South to 5.6 degrees North and 79.8 degrees West to 45.6 degrees West.
  • Amazon River Basin Precipitation, 1972-1992 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC daac.ornl.gov [Source type: Reference]

.Its most remote sources are found on the inter-Andean plateau, just a short distance from the Pacific Ocean.^ Its most remote sources are found on the inter-Andean plateau, just a short distance from the Pacific Ocean.
  • Amazon River culture and attractions. Amazon River Hotels, youth hostels, lodging, nightlife. Amazon River travel and tours. 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.mundoandino.com [Source type: General]

.The Amazon River and its tributaries more than triples over the course of a year.^ The Amazon carries more water than any other river in the world.
  • Amazon (river) Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Amazon (river) 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The area covered by the water of the River and its tributaries more than triples over the course of a year.
  • Amazon River culture and attractions. Amazon River Hotels, youth hostels, lodging, nightlife. Amazon River travel and tours. 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.mundoandino.com [Source type: General]

^ The Amazon is, however, the largest river in terms of the size of its watershed, number of tributaries and volume of water discharged into the sea.

.In an average dry season, 110,000 square kilometres (42,000 sq mi) of land are water-covered, while in the wet season, the flooded area of the Amazon Basin rises to 350,000 square kilometres (140,000 sq mi).^ This area covers the Amazon River Basin region.
  • Amazon River Basin Precipitation, 1972-1992 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC daac.ornl.gov [Source type: Reference]

^ In an average dry season 110,000 square kilometres of land are water-covered, while in the wet season the flooded area of the Amazon Basin rises to 350,000 square kilometres .
  • Amazon River culture and attractions. Amazon River Hotels, youth hostels, lodging, nightlife. Amazon River travel and tours. 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.mundoandino.com [Source type: General]

^ The Amazon accounts for about 20% of the total water carried to the oceans by rivers and is fed by some 1,100 tributaries, 17 of which are thousands of kilometres long, with the entire network covering some 6 million square kilometres.
  • Amazon in Regions @ Tucan Travel 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.tucantravel.com [Source type: General]

[citation needed]
.The quantity of water released by the Amazon to the Atlantic Ocean is enormous: up to 300,000 cubic metres (11,000,000 cu ft) per second in the rainy season.^ The life force of the Amazon rainforest is the Amazon River, which trickles down from the Andes Mountains at the west of the Amazon basin, and covers a distance of about 6,400 km (4,000 miles) before draining into the Atlantic Ocean at Belem, Brazil.
  • Amazon in Regions @ Tucan Travel 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.tucantravel.com [Source type: General]

^ The Amazon River is the second longest river in the world, yet no bridges cross it as it flows through Bolivia, Venezuela, Columbia, Ecuador and Brazil, 4,000 miles from its headwaters high in the Andes Mountains of Peru to the Atlantic Ocean.

^ Rainfall in the Tambopata National Reserve is around 2,500 - 3,500 millimeters per year, with most rainfall occurring in the rainy season months from November to April.
  • Luxury Amazon Rainforest Tours & Lodges: Heath River Wildlife Center & Sandoval Lake Lodge 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.inkas.com [Source type: General]

.The Amazon is responsible for about 20% of the total volume of freshwater entering the ocean.^ The Amazon is responsible for a fifth of the total volume of fresh water entering the oceans worldwide.
  • Amazon River culture and attractions. Amazon River Hotels, youth hostels, lodging, nightlife. Amazon River travel and tours. 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.mundoandino.com [Source type: General]

^ The Amazon accounts for about 20% of the total water carried to the oceans by rivers and is fed by some 1,100 tributaries, 17 of which are thousands of kilometres long, with the entire network covering some 6 million square kilometres.
  • Amazon in Regions @ Tucan Travel 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.tucantravel.com [Source type: General]

^ The bore is the reason the Amazon does not have a delta; the ocean rapidly carries away the vast volume of silt carried by the Amazon, making it impossible for a delta to grow.
  • Amazon River culture and attractions. Amazon River Hotels, youth hostels, lodging, nightlife. Amazon River travel and tours. 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.mundoandino.com [Source type: General]

.Potable water can be drawn from the ocean while still out of sight of the coastline, and the salinity of the ocean is notably lower 500 kilometres (310 mi) out to sea.^ Offshore of the mouth of the Amazon, potable water can be drawn from the ocean while still out of sight of the coastline, and the salinity of the ocean is notably lower a hundred miles out to sea.
  • Amazon River culture and attractions. Amazon River Hotels, youth hostels, lodging, nightlife. Amazon River travel and tours. 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.mundoandino.com [Source type: General]

^ The lower Amazon seems to have once been a gulf of the Atlantic Ocean, the waters of which washed the cliffs near Obidos.
  • Amazon River culture and attractions. Amazon River Hotels, youth hostels, lodging, nightlife. Amazon River travel and tours. 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.mundoandino.com [Source type: General]

^ But this includes the ocean outlet, 60 km (40 mi) wide, of the Para river, which should be deducted, as this stream is only the lower reach of the Tocantins.
  • Amazon River culture and attractions. Amazon River Hotels, youth hostels, lodging, nightlife. Amazon River travel and tours. 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.mundoandino.com [Source type: General]

[citation needed]
.There is a natural water union between the Amazon and the Orinoco basins, the so-called Casiquiare canal.^ The Casiquiare River, a natural canal, links the Amazon basin (through the Rio Negro) with the Orinoco basin.
  • Amazon River Peru and Brazil: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ "There is a direct link between the climate and the Amazon ."
  • Jean-Michel Cousteau : Ocean Adventures . Viewing Guide to Return to Amazon | PBS 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Another of the Negro’s affluents, the Casiquiare , is a bifurcation of the Orinoco River ; it forms a link between the Amazon and the Orinoco’s drainage system.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Actually the Casiquiare is a river distributary of the upper Orinoco, which flows southward into the Rio Negro, which in turn flows into the Amazon.^ I try to get the energy from river flow and then turn it into my desire.
  • Swimming the Amazon: 3,274 Miles on the World’s Deadliest River 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ Ariau River, near the junction of Rio Negro and the Amazon, Brazil .
  • Amazon river Images and Stock Photos. 455 Amazon river photography and royalty free pictures available to download from over 100 stock photo companies. 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ The Casiquiare River, a natural canal, links the Amazon basin (through the Rio Negro) with the Orinoco basin.
  • Amazon (river) Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Amazon (river) 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Amazon River Peru and Brazil: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The Casiquiare is the largest river on the planet that links two major river systems, a so-called bifurcation..^ Another of the Negro’s affluents, the Casiquiare , is a bifurcation of the Orinoco River ; it forms a link between the Amazon and the Orinoco’s drainage system.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Casiquiare River, a natural canal, links the Amazon basin (through the Rio Negro) with the Orinoco basin.
  • Amazon (river) Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Amazon (river) 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Madeira River, the second largest affluent of the Amazon, has a discharge of perhaps two-thirds that of the Negro.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Origins

The Amazon originates from the Apacheta cliff in Arequipa at the Nevado Mismi, with a sole sign of a wooden cross.
Source of the Amazon
.The Amazon river has a series of major river systems in Peru and Ecuador, some of which flow into the Marañón and Ucayali, others directly into the Amazon proper.^ Together with the Maranon River , the Ucayali forms the Amazon River proper.
  • Amazon (river) Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Amazon (river) 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ AMAZON , river , Peru and Brazil Port.
  • Amazon River Peru and Brazil: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Amazon is, however, the largest river in terms of the size of its watershed, number of tributaries and volume of water discharged into the sea.

Among others, these include the following rivers: Morona, Pastaza, Nucuray, Urituyacu, Chambira, Tigre, Nanay, Napo, and Huallaga.
.The most distant source of the Amazon was firmly established in 1996,[3] 2001[4] and 2007[5] as a glacial stream on a snowcapped 5,597 m (18,363 ft) peak called Nevado Mismi in the Peruvian Andes, roughly 160 km (99 mi) west of Lake Titicaca and 700 km (430 mi) southeast of Lima.^ Galapagos - Machu Picchu Lake Titicaca (or Amazon) (18 days/17 nights) .
  • Luxury Amazon Rainforest Tours & Lodges: Heath River Wildlife Center & Sandoval Lake Lodge 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.inkas.com [Source type: General]
  • Luxury Amazon Rainforest Tours & Lodges: Heath River Wildlife Center & Sandoval Lake Lodge 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.inkas.com [Source type: General]

^ Colca Canyon - Amazon Machu Picchu - Lake Titicaca (22 days/21 nights) .
  • Luxury Amazon Rainforest Tours & Lodges: Heath River Wildlife Center & Sandoval Lake Lodge 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.inkas.com [Source type: General]
  • Luxury Amazon Rainforest Tours & Lodges: Heath River Wildlife Center & Sandoval Lake Lodge 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.inkas.com [Source type: General]

^ The headwaters of the deeply entrenched Apurímac and Urubamba , tributaries at the confluence of the Ucayali, reach to within 100 miles (160 km) of Lake Titicaca , the farthest of any stream in the system from the great river’s mouth.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The waters from Nevado Mismi flow into the Quebradas Carhuasanta and Apacheta, which flow into the Río Apurímac which is a tributary of the Ucayali which later joins the Marañón to form the Amazon proper.^ Together with the Maranon River , the Ucayali forms the Amazon River proper.
  • Amazon (river) Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Amazon (river) 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Here—where the union of two major tributaries, the Ucayali and the Marañon, form the world’s greatest waterway—nature is at its most dramatic.
  • Motor Yacht Aqua Expeditions Amazon Jungle Expeditions Ecuador Amazon Ecuador 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.surtrek.com [Source type: General]

^ This is where the rivers of the Rio Maranon, Huallago, and Ucayali merge to form the Amazon River.
  • Amazon Adventure 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.pactour.com [Source type: General]

.(While this is the point at which most geographers place the beginning of the Amazon proper, in Brazil the river is known at this point as the Solimões das Águas.^ AMAZON , river , Peru and Brazil Port.
  • Amazon River Peru and Brazil: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The city of Manaus, Brazil, at the confluence of the Negro and Amazon (Solimões) rivers.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Amazon River (river, South America) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ An aerial view of the Amazon river, Brazil.
  • Amazon river Images and Stock Photos. 455 Amazon river photography and royalty free pictures available to download from over 100 stock photo companies. 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

) .Soon thereafter the darkly colored waters of the Rio Negro meet the sandy colored Rio Solimões, and for over 6 km (4 mi) these waters run side by side without mixing.^ Why is the water of the Rio Negro "black"?
  • Jean-Michel Cousteau : Ocean Adventures . Viewing Guide to Return to Amazon | PBS 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They descend northward before turning east to join and form the Amazon (which is, however, occasionally called the Solimões from the Brazilian border to the junction with the Rio Negro).
  • Amazon (river) Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Amazon (river) 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ A river cruise takes us past a natural phenomenon, "The Meeting of the Waters," where the clear waters of the Rio Negro and the muddy yellow waters of the Solimoes flow side by side for several miles without merging and later, join the Amazon.

.After the confluence of Río Apurímac and Ucayali, the river leaves Andean terrain and is instead surrounded by floodplain.^ The headwaters of the deeply entrenched Apurímac and Urubamba , tributaries at the confluence of the Ucayali, reach to within 100 miles (160 km) of Lake Titicaca , the farthest of any stream in the system from the great river’s mouth.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.From this point to the Marañón, some 1,600 km (990 mi) , the forested banks are just out of water, and are inundated long before the river attains its maximum flood-line.^ My wife was ‘ooohing’ and ‘awwing’ just a little too much, and I thought it best to get out of there before we ended up with an extra passenger in the boat.
  • Peru's Manu National Park: A Family Adventure in the Amazon Jungle 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.gonomad.com [Source type: General]

^ During great floods, however, when the river completely fills the floodplain, it spreads out in a band some 35 miles (55 km) wide or more.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its more than 1,000 known tributaries rise in the Guiana Highlands, the Brazilian Highlands, and (principally) the Andes; 7 of these are longer than 1,000 mi (1,600 km), and the Madeira River exceeds 2,000 mi (3,200 km).
  • Amazon River (river, South America) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The low river banks are interrupted by only a few hills, and the river enters the enormous Amazon Rainforest.^ House on bank of the Amazon river .
  • Amazon river Images and Stock Photos. 455 Amazon river photography and royalty free pictures available to download from over 100 stock photo companies. 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Amazon World's second-longest river (after the Nile ), draining the vast rainforest basin of n South America.
  • Amazon (river) Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Amazon (river) 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ I found a lively, colourful market on the banks of the Nanay River, right at the point where it joins the Amazon.
  • Amazon Explorers Club — Exploring the Amazon River basin 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC amazonexplorersclub.com [Source type: General]

.The river systems and flood plains in Brazil, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia and Venezuela whose waters drain into the Solimões and its tributaries are called the "Upper Amazon". The Amazon River proper runs mostly through Brazil and Peru, and it has tributaries reaching into Venezuela, Colombia, Ecuador, and Bolivia.^ Amazon River Peru and Brazil - 1905 results .
  • Amazon River Peru and Brazil: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia have international shipping rights on the Amazon.
  • Amazon (river) Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Amazon (river) 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.encyclopedia.com [Source type: Academic]
  • Amazon River Peru and Brazil: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ Amazon River Peru and Brazil - 85 results .
  • Amazon River Peru and Brazil: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

Flooding

A NASA satellite image of a flooded portion of the river.
.Not all of the Amazon's tributaries flood at the same time of the year.^ The average velocity of the Amazon is about 1.5 miles per hour, a speed that increases considerably at flood time.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is ever changing in shape and design, and changes each year with each flood season, during which time, the river may rise and fall as much as 40 feet, depending upon the rain fall in the Andes and over the over 1,000 tributaries that flow into it.
  • Amazon River Trip - October 1986 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ But at the same time, I got the positive, bright answer: NO. I want to conquer all these obstacles and stay alive.
  • Swimming the Amazon: 3,274 Miles on the World’s Deadliest River 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

.Many branches begin flooding in November, and may continue to rise until June.^ The dry season (June-November) and the flooded season (December-May) feature particular differences in the plant and animal life as well as in the climate.
  • Motor Yacht Aqua Expeditions Amazon Jungle Expeditions Ecuador Amazon Ecuador 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.surtrek.com [Source type: General]

^ Thus, the rise of the river progresses slowly downstream in a gigantic wave from November to June, and then the waters recede until the end of October.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The rise of the Rio Negro starts in February or March, and it also begins to recede in June.^ Thus, the rise of the river progresses slowly downstream in a gigantic wave from November to June, and then the waters recede until the end of October.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Madeira rises and falls two months earlier than most of the rest of the Amazon.^ Living with the Matses for two months was one of the most amazing things I have ever done.
  • Amazon Explorers Club — Exploring the Amazon River basin 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC amazonexplorersclub.com [Source type: General]

^ Magic and Misery in the Amazon Jungle My Two Months Living With The Matses .
  • Amazon Explorers Club — Exploring the Amazon River basin 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC amazonexplorersclub.com [Source type: General]

.The average depth of the river in the height of the rainy season is 40 metres (130 ft) and the average width can be nearly 40 km (25 mi)[citation needed].^ For most of its course the river has an average depth of c.150 ft (50 m).
  • Amazon River Peru and Brazil: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It was the height of the rainy season and both river banks were flooded.
  • One River : Explorations and Discoveries in the Amazon Rain Forest 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.rimba.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During the rainy season, the entire landscape changes with the rising river; routes once tracked on foot can be traversed by boat; the temperatures also cool.
  • City steams, river teems on Amazon - The Denver Post 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.denverpost.com [Source type: General]

.The main river (which is between approximately one and six miles (10 km) wide) is navigable for large ocean steamers to Manaus, 1,500 kilometres (930 mi) upriver from the mouth.^ There the mouth of the river is 40 miles (64 km) wide.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ At the start of this adventure the river is narrow as we travel through one of the hundreds of estuaries in the delta but then it widens to in excess of 10 kilometres and it is still around 8 kilometres wide at our destination, the city of Manaus.
  • Amazon in Regions @ Tucan Travel 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.tucantravel.com [Source type: General]

^ The gradient of the river is very low: Manaus, c.1,000 mi (1,610 km) upstream, is only c.100 ft (30 m) higher than Belém and is an ocean port; ships with a draft of 14 ft (4 m) can reach Iquitos, Peru, c.2,300 mi (3,700 km) from the sea.
  • Amazon River Peru and Brazil: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

.Smaller ocean vessels of 3,000 tons or 9,000 tons[6] and 5.5 metres (18 ft) draft can reach as far as Iquitos, Peru, 3,600 kilometres (2,200 mi) from the sea.^ The gradient of the river is very low: Manaus, c.1,000 mi (1,610 km) upstream, is only c.100 ft (30 m) higher than Belém and is an ocean port; ships with a draft of 14 ft (4 m) can reach Iquitos, Peru, c.2,300 mi (3,700 km) from the sea.
  • Amazon River Peru and Brazil: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Amazon River , including more than 1,000 tributaries...source in the Andes Mountains in Peru to the Atlantic Ocean.
  • Amazon River Peru and Brazil: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The largest oceangoing ships can ascend the river 1,000 miles to the city of Manaus , Braz., while lesser freight and passenger vessels can reach Iquitos , Peru, 1,300 miles (2,090 km) farther upstream, at any time of year.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Smaller riverboats can reach 780 kilometres (480 mi) higher as far as Achual Point. Beyond that, small boats frequently ascend to the Pongo de Manseriche, just above Achual Point.

Geography

Meeting of Waters is the confluence of the Rio Negro (black) and the Rio Solimões (sandy) near Manaus, Brazil.
.At some points, for long distances, the river divides into two main streams with inland and lateral channels, all connected by a complicated system of natural canals, cutting the low, flat igapó lands, which are never more than 5 metres (16 ft) above low river, into many islands.^ Our boat would stop at more than twenty villages along the river.
  • Amazon Adventure 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.pactour.com [Source type: General]

^ Armed with poles and bait, you will be taken to a special place on this fish-rich river, where you will catch some of the more than 3,000 species of tropical fish that live in the Amazon Basin.
  • Motor Yacht Aqua Expeditions Amazon Jungle Expeditions Ecuador Amazon Ecuador 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.surtrek.com [Source type: General]

^ The northern stream is the principal outlet and threads its way around many islands.
  • Amazon River Peru and Brazil: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

.From the town of Canaria at the great bend of the Amazon to the Negro, only very low land is found, resembling that at the mouth of the river.^ On the return trip you will pass the town of Francisco de Orellana, where a statue is erected to the intrepid explorer who in 1542 at the mouth of the Napo River became the first European to see the Amazon River.

^ Amazon & Negro River Cruise - Premium (6 days) .
  • 4* & 5* Amazon Clipper River Cruise on the Amazon River 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.southamerica.travel [Source type: General]

^ Another of the Negro’s affluents, the Casiquiare , is a bifurcation of the Orinoco River ; it forms a link between the Amazon and the Orinoco’s drainage system.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.March 2008" style="white-space:nowrap;">[citation needed] Vast areas of land in this region are submerged at high water, above which only the upper part of the trees of the sombre forests appear.^ Land Brazils vast territory covers...rain forests of the Amazon River basin occupy all the...rain forests of the Amazon River basin; 12% of Brazils land has been set aside...
  • Amazon River Peru and Brazil: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It appears to be one of the high jumping, stringy tree frogs, and not the gigantic cane toad that produces the foam nests described previously.
  • Tropical Biodiversity - The Amazon - Santarém - Pará Brasil: January 2008 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC bosque-santa.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ The vast Amazonian forest vegetation appears extremely lush, leading to the erroneous conclusion that the underlying soil must be extremely fertile.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Near the mouth of the Rio Negro to Serpa, nearly opposite the river Madeira, the banks of the Amazon are low, until approaching Manaus, they rise to become rolling hills.^ The city of Manaus, Brazil, at the confluence of the Negro and Amazon (Solimões) rivers.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Amazon River (river, South America) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ A river cruise takes us past a natural phenomenon, "The Meeting of the Waters," where the clear waters of the Rio Negro and the muddy yellow waters of the Solimoes flow side by side for several miles without merging and later, join the Amazon.

^ Amazon & Negro River Cruise - Premium (6 days) .
  • 4* & 5* Amazon Clipper River Cruise on the Amazon River 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.southamerica.travel [Source type: General]

.At Óbidos, a bluff 17 m (56 ft) above the river is backed by low hills.^ At the city of Óbidos , Braz., where the river width is some 1.25 miles (2 km), a low range of relatively hard rock narrows the otherwise broad floodplain.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The lower Amazon seems to have once been a gulf of the Atlantic Ocean, the waters of which washed the cliffs near Óbidos.^ Silversea Cruises' small luxury liner, the Silver Cloud, is cruising 1,000 miles up Brazil's amazing Amazon River from the Atlantic Ocean to the port of Manaus.

^ Giant water lilies growing in lakes on the lower Amazon River ...
  • Amazon river Images and Stock Photos. 455 Amazon river photography and royalty free pictures available to download from over 100 stock photo companies. 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ How many more species of fish live in the Amazon compared with the Atlantic Ocean?
  • Jean-Michel Cousteau : Ocean Adventures . Viewing Guide to Return to Amazon | PBS 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Only about 10% of the water discharged by the Amazon enters the mighty stream downstream of Óbidos, very little of which is from the northern slope of the valley.^ The Amazon is, however, the largest river in terms of the size of its watershed, number of tributaries and volume of water discharged into the sea.

^ H. July 2nd, 2008 6:10 pm Awesome write-up about a man who swam the entire length of the Amazon river and lived to tell about it.
  • Swimming the Amazon: 3,274 Miles on the World’s Deadliest River 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ The volume of water discharges into the sea by the Amazon is 7,000,000 cubic feet per second which could fill the whole of Lake Ontario in about three hours.
  • Amazon River Trip - October 1986 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The drainage area of the Amazon Basin above Óbidos city is about 5 million square kilometres (2,000,000 sq mi), and, below, only about 1 million square kilometres (400,000 sq mi or around 20%), exclusive of the 1.4 million square kilometres (540,000 sq mi) of the Tocantins basin.^ It is the largest river in the world in volume and area of drainage basin; only the Nile River of eastern and northeastern Africa exceeds it in length.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The drainage basin is enormous (c.2,500,000 sq mi/6,475,000 sq km; c.35% of South America), gathering waters from both hemispheres and covering not only most of N Brazil but also parts of Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, and Venezuela.
  • Amazon River Peru and Brazil: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ It is said that while the temperate areas of the world suffered through the Glacial Period and all our forests were destroyed (11,000 years ago), the Amazon remained unchanged and undisturbed and thus has been in that state for over 100 million years.
  • Amazon River Trip - October 1986 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.In the lower reaches of the river, the north bank consists of a series of steep, table-topped hills extending for about 240 kilometres (150 mi) from opposite the mouth of the Xingu as far as Monte Alegre .^ Normally, the effect of the tide is felt as far upstream as Óbidos , Braz., 600 miles (970 km) from the river’s mouth.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The maximum free width (without islands) of the river’s permanent bed is 8.5 miles (14 km), upstream from the mouth of the Xingu.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the lower reaches of the river basin, cooling trade winds blow most of the year.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.These hills are cut down to a kind of terrace which lies between them and the river.^ No matter how large the hill, the river in time will bring it down.

.On the south bank, above the Xingu, an almost-unbroken line of low bluffs bordering the flood-plain extends nearly to Santarém, in a series of gentle curves before they bend to the south-west, and, abutting upon the lower Tapajós, merge into the bluffs which form the terrace margin of the Tapajós river valley.^ In the near future they will be mature and fall into the flooding waters of the Tapajós River.
  • Tropical Biodiversity - The Amazon - Santarém - Pará Brasil: January 2008 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC bosque-santa.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Posted by Steven Alexander at Tuesday, January 08, 2008 1 comments Links to this post Labels: Amazon River , Insects , Santarém , Tapajós River .
  • Tropical Biodiversity - The Amazon - Santarém - Pará Brasil: January 2008 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC bosque-santa.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ The flood levels can reach from 40 to 50 feet (12 to 15 metres) above low river.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Mouth

A satellite image of the mouth of the Amazon River, looking south
.The definition of what exactly and how wide is the mouth of the Amazon is a matter of dispute, because of the area's peculiar geography.^ How wide is the Amazon River at its entrance?
  • Jean-Michel Cousteau : Ocean Adventures . Viewing Guide to Return to Amazon | PBS 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is located 2,400 miles from the mouth of the Amazon and spreads across a narrow swampy peninsula 16 miles long and 3 miles wide.
  • Amazon River Trip - October 1986 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Most particularly, sometimes the Pará River is included, whereas sometimes it is just considered the independent lower reach of the Tocantins River.^ The southern channel, called the Pará River, receives the Tocantins River and has the important port of Belém.
  • Amazon River Peru and Brazil: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Pará is fed chiefly by the Tocantins River , which enters the Pará southwest of Belém.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In the lower reaches of the river basin, cooling trade winds blow most of the year.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Pará river estuary alone is 60 km (37 mi) wide.^ During great floods, however, when the river completely fills the floodplain, it spreads out in a band some 35 miles (55 km) wide or more.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The port city of Belém , Braz., is on the deep water of the Pará River estuary south of Marajó.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The floodplain of the main river is characteristically 12 to 30 miles (19 to 50 km) wide.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The Pará and the Amazon are connected by a series of river channels called furos near the town of Breves; between them lies Marajó, an island almost the size of Switzerland that is the world's largest combined river/sea island.^ River Amazon between Belem and Iquitos.
  • Amazon River Trip - October 1986 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As part of this process, they had to determine from which of the Amazon’s three main outlets to the sea to begin the measurement—the Northern or Southern channels, which flow north of Marajó Island , or Breves Channel, which flows southward around the western edge of the island to join the Pará River estuary along the southern coast of the island.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Amazon River (river, South America) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Amazon is, however, the largest river in terms of the size of its watershed, number of tributaries and volume of water discharged into the sea.

.If the Pará river and the Marajó island ocean frontage are included, the Amazon estuary is some 330 kilometres (210 mi) wide.^ As part of this process, they had to determine from which of the Amazon’s three main outlets to the sea to begin the measurement—the Northern or Southern channels, which flow north of Marajó Island , or Breves Channel, which flows southward around the western edge of the island to join the Pará River estuary along the southern coast of the island.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Amazon River (river, South America) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Amazon accounts for about 20% of the total water carried to the oceans by rivers and is fed by some 1,100 tributaries, 17 of which are thousands of kilometres long, with the entire network covering some 6 million square kilometres.
  • Amazon in Regions @ Tucan Travel 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.tucantravel.com [Source type: General]

^ At the start of this adventure the river is narrow as we travel through one of the hundreds of estuaries in the delta but then it widens to in excess of 10 kilometres and it is still around 8 kilometres wide at our destination, the city of Manaus.
  • Amazon in Regions @ Tucan Travel 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.tucantravel.com [Source type: General]

.In this case, the width of the mouth of the river is usually measured from Cabo Norte, in the Brazilian state of Amapá, to Ponta da Tijoca near the town of Curuçá, in the state of Pará.^ The maximum free width (without islands) of the river’s permanent bed is 8.5 miles (14 km), upstream from the mouth of the Xingu.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Its Peruvian length is called the Marañón River; the stretch of river from the Brazilian border to the mouth of the Negro River is the Solimões River.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [Credits : Goddard Space Flight Center/NASA] Boat traffic on the Amazon River near Gurupá, Pará state, Brazil.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Amazon River (river, South America) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.By this criterion, the Amazon is wider at its mouth than the entire length of the River Thames in England.^ H. July 2nd, 2008 6:10 pm Awesome write-up about a man who swam the entire length of the Amazon river and lived to tell about it.
  • Swimming the Amazon: 3,274 Miles on the World’s Deadliest River 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ Last year on April 8th, Slovenian marathon swimmer Martin Strel became the first man to swim the entire length of the Amazon River from headwaters in Peru to the Brazilian port city of Belém: 3,274 miles.
  • Swimming the Amazon: 3,274 Miles on the World’s Deadliest River 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ The mouth of the Amazon River in northern Brazil where it empties ...
  • Amazon river Images and Stock Photos. 455 Amazon river photography and royalty free pictures available to download from over 100 stock photo companies. 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

.A more conservative measurement excluding the Pará river estuary, from the mouth of the Araguari River to Ponta do Navio on the northern coast of Marajó, would still give the mouth of the Amazon a width of over 180 kilometres (110 mi).^ The mouth of the Amazon River in northern Brazil where it empties ...
  • Amazon river Images and Stock Photos. 455 Amazon river photography and royalty free pictures available to download from over 100 stock photo companies. 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ However, a river like the Amazon has a highly complex and variable streambed—made more so by seasonal climatic factors—which complicates the process of obtaining an accurate measurement.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Amazon River (river, South America) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ As part of this process, they had to determine from which of the Amazon’s three main outlets to the sea to begin the measurement—the Northern or Southern channels, which flow north of Marajó Island , or Breves Channel, which flows southward around the western edge of the island to join the Pará River estuary along the southern coast of the island.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Amazon River (river, South America) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.If only the river's main channel is considered, between the islands of Curuá (state of Amapá) and Jurupari (state of Pará), the width falls to just about 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) - but that is still impressive for any river.^ As part of this process, they had to determine from which of the Amazon’s three main outlets to the sea to begin the measurement—the Northern or Southern channels, which flow north of Marajó Island , or Breves Channel, which flows southward around the western edge of the island to join the Pará River estuary along the southern coast of the island.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
  • Amazon River (river, South America) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Latest Update: A metal barge, still empty, just arrived to pick up logs further up river.
  • River blockade to save Amazon forest | Greenpeace International 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.greenpeace.org [Source type: News]

^ The southern channel, called the Pará River, receives the Tocantins River and has the important port of Belém.
  • Amazon River Peru and Brazil: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

Tidal bore (pororoca)

.The tension between the river's strong push and the Atlantic tides causes a phenomenon called a tidal bore, a powerful tidal wave that flows rapidly inland from the sea up the Amazon mouth and nearby coastal rivers several times a year at high tide.^ A tidal bore called the pororoca occurs at times in the estuary, prior to spring tides.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ River Amazon between Belem and Iquitos.
  • Amazon River Trip - October 1986 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Amazon is, however, the largest river in terms of the size of its watershed, number of tributaries and volume of water discharged into the sea.

.Tidal bores also occur in other river mouths around the world, but the Amazon's are among the world's highest and fastest, probably second only to those of Qiantang River in China.^ The Amazon carries more water than any other river in the world.
  • Amazon River Peru and Brazil: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ The Amazon River is the second longest river in the world, yet no bridges cross it as it flows through Bolivia, Venezuela, Columbia, Ecuador and Brazil, 4,000 miles from its headwaters high in the Andes Mountains of Peru to the Atlantic Ocean.

^ Some people refer to Alter do Chão as the Caribbean of the Amazon because it attracts tourists around the world, especially the beach enthusiasts.
  • Tropical Biodiversity - The Amazon - Santarém - Pará Brasil: January 2008 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC bosque-santa.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

In the Amazon, the phenomenon is locally known as the pororoca.
The pororoca occurs especially where depths do not exceed 7 metres (23 ft). .It starts with a very loud roar, constantly increasing, and advances at the rate of 15–25 km/h (9–16 mph), with a breaking wall of water 1.5–4.0-metres (5–13 ft) high that may travel violently several kilometres up the Amazon and other rivers close to its mouth.^ The Amazon carries more water than any other river in the world.
  • Amazon River Peru and Brazil: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

^ With an increasing roar, it advances upstream at speeds of 10 to 15 miles (16 to 24 km) per hour, forming a breaking wall of water from 5 to 12 feet (1.5 to 4 metres) high.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Amazon is, however, the largest river in terms of the size of its watershed, number of tributaries and volume of water discharged into the sea.

.It is particularly intense in the rivers of the coast of the state of Amapá north of the mouth of the Amazon, such as the Araguari River, but can be observed in Pará rivers as well.^ As part of this process, they had to determine from which of the Amazon’s three main outlets to the sea to begin the measurement—the Northern or Southern channels, which flow north of Marajó Island , or Breves Channel, which flows southward around the western edge of the island to join the Pará River estuary along the southern coast of the island.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The following recommendations are for short-term trips originating in North America or Europe and limited to boat trips down the Amazon River.
  • MD Travel Health - Amazon River - vaccinations, malaria, safety, and other medical advice 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.mdtravelhealth.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Amazon river in 1616 was the...North region of Brazil .
  • Amazon River Peru and Brazil: Free Encyclopedia Articles at Questia.com Online Library 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.questia.com [Source type: Academic]

.The bore is the reason the Amazon does not have a protruding delta; the ocean rapidly carries away the vast volume of silt carried by the Amazon, making it impossible for a delta to grow past the shoreline.^ How far out to sea does the Amazon influence the Atlantic Ocean?
  • Jean-Michel Cousteau : Ocean Adventures . Viewing Guide to Return to Amazon | PBS 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ He was actually at that time at the very mouth of the Amazon River as it emptied into the Atlantic Ocean, and while moving upstream, began to see manifestations of its enormous delta.
  • Amazon River Trip - October 1986 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ It is really the silt from the west that has made the flood plains (shorelines) of the Amazon so fertile.
  • Amazon River Trip - October 1986 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The region also has very high tides, sometimes reaching 6 metres (20 ft) and has become a popular spot for river surfing.^ In its lower reaches the Negro becomes broad and island-filled, reaching widths of up to 20 miles (32 km) in certain locations.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The flood levels can reach from 40 to 50 feet (12 to 15 metres) above low river.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7]

Wildlife

Characins, such as the piranha species, are prey for the Giant Otter, but these aggressive fish may also pose a danger to humans.
.More than one-third of all species in the world live in the Amazon Rainforest,[8] a giant tropical forest and river basin with an area that stretches more than 5.4 million square kilometres (2.1 million sq mi), and is the richest tropical forest in the world.^ Nearly one fifth of all the river water in the world is flowing in the Amazon.
  • Amazon River Trip - October 1986 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC homepage.mac.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ River blockade to save Amazon forest .
  • River blockade to save Amazon forest | Greenpeace International 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.greenpeace.org [Source type: News]

^ Scientists estimate that more than half of all the world’s plant and animal species live in rainforest, with one in ten known species of the world live in the Amazon rainforest.
  • Amazon in Regions @ Tucan Travel 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.tucantravel.com [Source type: General]

.The Amazon River has over 3,000 recognized species of fish and that number is still growing.^ Out of a presumed ________ species of fish in the Amazon, 3,000 have been identified.
  • Jean-Michel Cousteau : Ocean Adventures . Viewing Guide to Return to Amazon | PBS 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Out of a presumed 5,000 species of fish in the Amazon, 3,000 have been identified.
  • Jean-Michel Cousteau : Ocean Adventures . Viewing Guide to Return to Amazon | PBS 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Amazon is, however, the largest river in terms of the size of its watershed, number of tributaries and volume of water discharged into the sea.

.Along with the Orinoco, the river is one of the main habitats of the boto, also known as the Amazon River Dolphin (Inia geoffrensis).^ Pink river dolphin or boto, Inia geoffrensis, leaps into the air ...
  • Amazon river Images and Stock Photos. 455 Amazon river photography and royalty free pictures available to download from over 100 stock photo companies. 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ Aquatic animals also include river dolphins ( Inia geoffrensis ); the semiaquatic capybara , the largest rodent in the world (weighing up to 170 pounds [80 kg]); and the nutria , or coypu, valued especially for its pelt.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Afternoon canoe trip along the Amazon in search of either of the two species of freshwater dolphin found in the river.

.It is the largest species of river dolphin, and it can grow to lengths of up to 2.6 metres (8.5 ft).^ Aquatic animals also include river dolphins ( Inia geoffrensis ); the semiaquatic capybara , the largest rodent in the world (weighing up to 170 pounds [80 kg]); and the nutria , or coypu, valued especially for its pelt.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ H. July 2nd, 2008 6:10 pm Awesome write-up about a man who swam the entire length of the Amazon river and lived to tell about it.
  • Swimming the Amazon: 3,274 Miles on the World’s Deadliest River 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ Afternoon canoe trip along the Amazon in search of either of the two species of freshwater dolphin found in the river.

.The boto is the subject of a very famous legend in Brazil about a dolphin that turns into a man and seduces maidens by the riverside.^ The people of the Amazon believe that these dolphins turn into humans to steal handsome men or pretty women from their villages during celebrations.
  • Motor Yacht Aqua Expeditions Amazon Jungle Expeditions Ecuador Amazon Ecuador 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.surtrek.com [Source type: General]

.The tucuxi (Sotalia fluviatilis), also a dolphin species, is found both in the rivers of the Amazon Basin and in the coastal waters of South America.^ The Amazon is, however, the largest river in terms of the size of its watershed, number of tributaries and volume of water discharged into the sea.

^ The tapir , the white-lipped peccary, and several species of deer are native to the Amazon basin and much sought for their meat.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Deforestation of the Amazon River basin has followed a pattern of cutting, burning, farming, and …[Credits : Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

The Amazonian Manatee is another conspicuous mammal living in the waters of the Amazonian basin.
.Also present in large numbers is the notorious piranha, a carnivorous fish which congregates in large schools, and may attack livestock and even humans.^ Piranha attacks on humans are the stuff of myth, and while bull sharks can and do attack people, they’re nowhere near as prevalent as crocs.
  • Swimming the Amazon: 3,274 Miles on the World’s Deadliest River 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ Large cats , such as the jaguar and ocelot, have become rare, though pumas may be found in larger numbers in the Andean fringe of the basin.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The small, flesh-eating piranha generally feeds on other fish but may attack any animal or human that enters the water; its razor-sharp teeth cut out chunks of flesh, stripping a carcass of its meat in a few minutes.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, only a few of its species are known to attack humans, most notably Pygocentrus nattereri, the Red-bellied Piranha.^ Most spectacular, however, are the hundreds of species of brilliantly coloured butterflies; sometimes thousands of butterflies gather in the afternoon on riverside sandbanks.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Piranha attacks on humans are the stuff of myth, and while bull sharks can and do attack people, they’re nowhere near as prevalent as crocs.
  • Swimming the Amazon: 3,274 Miles on the World’s Deadliest River 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ The first luxury vessel in the region, the M/V Aqua caters to the most adventurous of the world, providing an unforgettable journey into areas penetrated by only a privileged few.
  • Motor Yacht Aqua Expeditions Amazon Jungle Expeditions Ecuador Amazon Ecuador 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.surtrek.com [Source type: General]

.The bull shark (Carcharhinus leucas) has been reported 4,000 kilometres (2,500 mi) up the Amazon River at Iquitos in Peru.^ The Amazon River is the second longest river in the world, yet no bridges cross it as it flows through Bolivia, Venezuela, Columbia, Ecuador and Brazil, 4,000 miles from its headwaters high in the Andes Mountains of Peru to the Atlantic Ocean.

^ H. July 2nd, 2008 6:10 pm Awesome write-up about a man who swam the entire length of the Amazon river and lived to tell about it.
  • Swimming the Amazon: 3,274 Miles on the World’s Deadliest River 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ Location: Amazon River voyages depart from the port city of Iquitos, Peru.
  • Motor Yacht Aqua Expeditions Amazon Jungle Expeditions Ecuador Amazon Ecuador 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.surtrek.com [Source type: General]

.The arapaima, known in Brazil as the pirarucu (Arapaima gigas), is a South American tropical freshwater fish.^ Among the more important commercial species are the pirarucu ( Arapaima gigas ), one of the world’s largest freshwater fish, and various giant catfish.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.It is one of the largest freshwater fish in the world, reportedly with a maximum length in excess of 4.5 metres (15 ft) and weight up to 200 kilograms (440 lb).^ Among the more important commercial species are the pirarucu ( Arapaima gigas ), one of the world’s largest freshwater fish, and various giant catfish.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These forests may reach a maximum flood level of 40 feet (12 metres) for up to half the year, but they can be accessed by canoe.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Weighing up to 120 pounds (55 kilograms), this giant, three-toed relative of the guinea pig is the largest rodent in the world.

[9] .Another Amazonian freshwater fish is the arowana (or aruanã in Portuguese), such as the Silver arowana (Osteoglossum bicirrhosum), which is also a predator and very similar to the arapaima, but only reaches a length of maximum 120 centimetres (47 in).^ Among the more important commercial species are the pirarucu ( Arapaima gigas ), one of the world’s largest freshwater fish, and various giant catfish.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The candirú are a number of genera of parasitic, freshwater catfish in the family Trichomycteridae; all are native to the Amazon River.^ The Amazon is, however, the largest river in terms of the size of its watershed, number of tributaries and volume of water discharged into the sea.

^ You are likely to see all four of the most common species of freshwater dolphinsincluding the unusual pink onesfound in the Amazon.

^ Afternoon canoe trip along the Amazon in search of either of the two species of freshwater dolphin found in the river.

.They sometimes attack humans and have been known to enter the urethras of bathers.^ Where such blackwater tributaries enter the main river, they are sometimes blocked off to form funnel-shaped freshwater lakes or estuaries, as at the mouth of the Tapajós.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Piranha attacks on humans are the stuff of myth, and while bull sharks can and do attack people, they’re nowhere near as prevalent as crocs.
  • Swimming the Amazon: 3,274 Miles on the World’s Deadliest River 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

[10] The electric eel (Electrophorus electricus) is also found in the river.
.The anaconda snake is found in shallow waters in the Amazon Basin.^ How many species of snakes are found in the Amazon?
  • Jean-Michel Cousteau : Ocean Adventures . Viewing Guide to Return to Amazon | PBS 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.pbs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.One of the world's largest species of snake, the anaconda spends most of its time in the water, with just its nostrils above the surface.^ Among the more important commercial species are the pirarucu ( Arapaima gigas ), one of the world’s largest freshwater fish, and various giant catfish.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Early this afternoon, the ship leaves the modern world behind, and you begin your journey of discovery in one of the world's most remote regions.
  • Tulane University - Alumni Affairs - amazonriver2010 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC tulane.edu [Source type: General]

^ Be prepared to see one o the most fabulous sights in the world.

In addition to the thousands of species of fish, the river supports crabs, algae, and turtles.

Colonial encounters with the Amazon

During what many archaeologists call the formative period, Amazonian societies were deeply involved in the emergence of South America's highland agrarian systems, and possibly contributed directly to the social and religious fabric constitutive of the Andean civilizational orders.
.In 1515, Vicente Yáñez Pinzón was the first European to sail into the river.^ Bixia means bright red in Latin and the species, orellana is in honor of Francisco Orellana, the first European to come down the Amazon River.
  • Tropical Biodiversity - The Amazon - Santarém - Pará Brasil: January 2008 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC bosque-santa.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

.Pinzón called the river flow Río Santa María del Mar Dulce, later shortened to Mar Dulce (literally, sweet sea, because of its freshwater pushing out into the ocean).^ But he never forgets Tim, and in his memories they have merged, student and teacher, father and son, like two branches of a river flowing into one.
  • One River : Explorations and Discoveries in the Amazon Rain Forest 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.rimba.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I try to get the energy from river flow and then turn it into my desire.
  • Swimming the Amazon: 3,274 Miles on the World’s Deadliest River 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

.For 350 years after the first European encounter of the Amazon by Pinzón, the Portuguese portion of the basin remained an untended former food gathering and planned agricultural landscape occupied by the indigenous peoples who survived the arrival of European diseases.^ On the return trip you will pass the town of Francisco de Orellana, where a statue is erected to the intrepid explorer who in 1542 at the mouth of the Napo River became the first European to see the Amazon River.

^ Bixia means bright red in Latin and the species, orellana is in honor of Francisco Orellana, the first European to come down the Amazon River.
  • Tropical Biodiversity - The Amazon - Santarém - Pará Brasil: January 2008 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC bosque-santa.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ (The term caboclo refers to people of mixed European and Indian ancestry in Brazil who live off the rivers and forests).
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

There is ample evidence for complex large-scale, pre-Columbian social formations, including chiefdoms, in many areas of Amazonia (particularly the inter-fluvial regions) and even large towns and cities.[11] .For instance the pre-Columbian culture on the island of Marajó may have developed social stratification and supported a population of 100,000 people.^ Here your tour guide will explain about The Pre-Columbian Chachapoyas culture, conquered in the 15th century by the Inkas.

[12] .The Native Americans of the Amazon rain forest may have used Terra preta to make the land suitable for the large scale agriculture needed to support large populations and complex social formations such as chiefdoms.^ DAY 06 AMAZON RAIN FOREST .

^ DAY 07 AMAZON RAIN FOREST .

^ Visiting Lima "City of Kings" founded by Francisco Pizarro, Cuzco "Capital of the Inka Empire" and exploring the mighty Amazon Rain Forest.

[12]
.One of Gonzalo Pizarro's lieutenants, Francisco de Orellana, set off in 1541 to explore east of Quito into the South American interior in search of El Dorado and the "Country of Cinnamon".[13] He was ordered to follow the Coca River and return when the river reached its confluence.^ The following are some people associated with "Amazon River" Charles-Marie de La Condamine (French naturalist and mathematician) Francisco de Orellana (Spanish explorer and soldier) H.W. Bates (British naturalist and explorer) Rafael Reyes (president of Colombia) Vicente Yáñez Pinzón (Spanish shipowner and navigator) Places .
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the return trip you will pass the town of Francisco de Orellana, where a statue is erected to the intrepid explorer who in 1542 at the mouth of the Napo River became the first European to see the Amazon River.

^ First one was right at the beginning when our main escort boat got stuck into the mud and I was far away on the river alone with the small navigating boat.
  • Swimming the Amazon: 3,274 Miles on the World’s Deadliest River 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

.After 170 km, the Coca River joined the Napo River (at a point now known as Puerto Francisco de Orellana), and his men threatened to mutiny if he followed his orders and the expedition turned back.^ The following are some people associated with "Amazon River" Charles-Marie de La Condamine (French naturalist and mathematician) Francisco de Orellana (Spanish explorer and soldier) H.W. Bates (British naturalist and explorer) Rafael Reyes (president of Colombia) Vicente Yáñez Pinzón (Spanish shipowner and navigator) Places .
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [Credits : © Daniel Wiedemann/Shutterstock.com] Francisco de Orellana’s 1541 expedition down the Amazon River, American engraving, 1848.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Bixia means bright red in Latin and the species, orellana is in honor of Francisco Orellana, the first European to come down the Amazon River.
  • Tropical Biodiversity - The Amazon - Santarém - Pará Brasil: January 2008 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC bosque-santa.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

On 26 December 1541, he accepted to change the purpose of the expedition to the conquest of new lands in the name of the King of Spain, and the 49 men built a larger boat in which to navigate downstream. .After a journey of 600 km down the Napo River, constantly threatened by the Omaguas, they reached a further major confluence, at a point near modern Iquitos, and then followed what is now known as the Amazon River for a further 1200 km to its confluence with the Negro River (near modern Manaus), which they reached on 3 June 1542. This area around the Amazon was dominated by the Icamiaba natives, who were mistaken for fierce female warriors by the members of the expedition.^ The city of Manaus, Brazil, at the confluence of the Negro and Amazon (Solimões) rivers.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Ariau River, near the junction of Rio Negro and the Amazon, Brazil .
  • Amazon river Images and Stock Photos. 455 Amazon river photography and royalty free pictures available to download from over 100 stock photo companies. 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ On the return trip you will pass the town of Francisco de Orellana, where a statue is erected to the intrepid explorer who in 1542 at the mouth of the Napo River became the first European to see the Amazon River.

.Orellana later narrated the belligerent victory of the Icamiaba “women” over the Spanish invaders to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, who, recalling the Amazons of Greek mythology, baptized the river Amazonas, the name by which it is still known in both Spanish and Portuguese.^ The following are some people associated with "Amazon River" Charles-Marie de La Condamine (French naturalist and mathematician) Francisco de Orellana (Spanish explorer and soldier) H.W. Bates (British naturalist and explorer) Rafael Reyes (president of Colombia) Vicente Yáñez Pinzón (Spanish shipowner and navigator) Places .
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the return trip you will pass the town of Francisco de Orellana, where a statue is erected to the intrepid explorer who in 1542 at the mouth of the Napo River became the first European to see the Amazon River.

^ H. July 2nd, 2008 6:10 pm Awesome write-up about a man who swam the entire length of the Amazon river and lived to tell about it.
  • Swimming the Amazon: 3,274 Miles on the World’s Deadliest River 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

.At the time, however, the river was referred to by the expedition as Grande Río ("Great River"), Mar Dulce ("Freshwater Sea") or Río de la Canela ("Cinnamon River").^ During great floods, however, when the river completely fills the floodplain, it spreads out in a band some 35 miles (55 km) wide or more.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Amazon basin was occupied by a great freshwater sea during the Pliocene Epoch (5.3 to 2.6 million years ago).
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [Credits : © Daniel Wiedemann/Shutterstock.com] Francisco de Orellana’s 1541 expedition down the Amazon River, American engraving, 1848.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Orellana claimed that he had found great cinnamon trees there, in other words a source of one of the most important spices reaching Europe from the East.^ Morning sightseeing tour of modern and colonial Lima the "City of Kings" founded by Francisco Pizarro in 1,535 and the most important city in the Americas during the Spanish Viceroyship.

^ Afternoon sightseeing tour of modern and colonial Lima the "City of Kings" founded by Francisco Pizarro in 1,535 and the most important city in the Americas during the Spanish Viceroyship.

^ There the cinchona, or fever-bark tree, once exploited for its antimalarial agent quinine , can be found.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In fact, true cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) is not native to South America. .Other related cinnamon-containing plants (of the family Lauraceae) do occur and Orellana must have observed some of these.^ In the beginning these visits were more related to some volunteer maternal and child health services going on in the community around the Bosque Santa Lúcia area.
  • Tropical Biodiversity - The Amazon - Santarém - Pará Brasil: January 2008 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC bosque-santa.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

.The expedition continued a further 1200 km to the mouth of the Amazon, which it reached on 24 August 1542, demonstrating the practical navigability of the Great River.^ On the return trip you will pass the town of Francisco de Orellana, where a statue is erected to the intrepid explorer who in 1542 at the mouth of the Napo River became the first European to see the Amazon River.

^ During great floods, however, when the river completely fills the floodplain, it spreads out in a band some 35 miles (55 km) wide or more.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their final measurement for the length of the Amazon—from Apacheta Creek to the mouth of Marajó Bay—was about 4,345 miles (6,992 km).
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This was surely one of the most improbably successful voyages in known history.
In 1560 another Spanish conquistador, Lope de Aguirre, made the second descent of the Amazon.
.In 1637–47 the Portuguese explorer Pedro Teixeira was the first European to ascend the river from Belém (near the mouth of the Amazon) to Quito, part of the Spanish Viceroyalty of Peru, and then to return the same way.^ On the return trip you will pass the town of Francisco de Orellana, where a statue is erected to the intrepid explorer who in 1542 at the mouth of the Napo River became the first European to see the Amazon River.

^ Last year on April 8th, Slovenian marathon swimmer Martin Strel became the first man to swim the entire length of the Amazon River from headwaters in Peru to the Brazilian port city of Belém: 3,274 miles.
  • Swimming the Amazon: 3,274 Miles on the World’s Deadliest River 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ Bixia means bright red in Latin and the species, orellana is in honor of Francisco Orellana, the first European to come down the Amazon River.
  • Tropical Biodiversity - The Amazon - Santarém - Pará Brasil: January 2008 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC bosque-santa.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

Teixeira's expedition was massive - some 2000 people in 37 large canoes. .From 1648 to 1652, António Raposo Tavares lead one of the longest known expeditions from São Paulo to the mouth of the Amazon, investigating many of its tributaries, including the Rio Negro, and covering a distance of more than 10,000 km (6,214 mi).^ There are more than 1,000 tributaries of the Amazon that flow into it from the Guiana Highlands, the Brazilian Highlands, and the Andes.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their data revealed that Apacheta was 6 miles (10 km) longer than Carruhasanta and carries water year-round, and they concluded that Apacheta Creek was indeed the source of the Amazon River.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Pacaya Samiria Reserve, located on the headwaters of the Amazon basin, spans more than five million acres.
  • Motor Yacht Aqua Expeditions Amazon Jungle Expeditions Ecuador Amazon Ecuador 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.surtrek.com [Source type: General]

.In what is currently Brazil, Ecuador, Bolivia, Colombia, Peru, and Venezuela, a number of colonial and religious settlements were established along the banks of primary rivers and tributaries for the purpose of trade, slaving and evangelization among the indigenous peoples of the vast rain forest.^ I also do mental training in the forest around the fire or along the river banks.
  • Swimming the Amazon: 3,274 Miles on the World’s Deadliest River 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ Also a chance to visit some of the local river people called "ribereos" whose houses are seen along the river.

^ We then travel up this wild and intimate river, which forms the wilderness border between Peru and Bolivia, and arrive at the Heath River Wildlife Center.

Father Fritz, apostle of the Omaguas, established some forty mission villages. .Charles Marie de La Condamine accomplished the first scientific exploration of the Amazon River.^ The following are some people associated with "Amazon River" Charles-Marie de La Condamine (French naturalist and mathematician) Francisco de Orellana (Spanish explorer and soldier) H.W. Bates (British naturalist and explorer) Rafael Reyes (president of Colombia) Vicente Yáñez Pinzón (Spanish shipowner and navigator) Places .
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ On the return trip you will pass the town of Francisco de Orellana, where a statue is erected to the intrepid explorer who in 1542 at the mouth of the Napo River became the first European to see the Amazon River.

^ Bixia means bright red in Latin and the species, orellana is in honor of Francisco Orellana, the first European to come down the Amazon River.
  • Tropical Biodiversity - The Amazon - Santarém - Pará Brasil: January 2008 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC bosque-santa.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

The Cabanagem, one of the bloodiest regional wars ever in Brazil, which was chiefly directed against the white ruling class, reduced the population of Pará from about 100,000 to 60,000.[14]
.The total population of the Brazilian portion of the Amazon Basin in 1850 was perhaps 300,000, of whom about two-thirds comprised by Europeans and slaves, the slaves amounting to about 25,000. The Brazilian Amazon's principal commercial city, Pará (now Belém), had from 10,000 to 12,000 inhabitants, including slaves.^ There are more than 1,000 tributaries of the Amazon that flow into it from the Guiana Highlands, the Brazilian Highlands, and the Andes.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Madeira River, the second largest affluent of the Amazon, has a discharge of perhaps two-thirds that of the Negro.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ In addition to the rainforests of the terra firme , there are two types of inundated rainforests, várzea and igapó , which constitute about 3 percent of the total Amazon Rainforest.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.The town of Manáos, now Manaus, at the mouth of the Rio Negro, had a population between 1,000 to 1,500. All the remaining villages, as far up as Tabatinga, on the Brazilian frontier of Peru, were relatively small.^ Manaus is a frontier town in the Amazon basin with a booming population.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Rainfall in the lowlands typically ranges from 60 to 120 inches (1,500 to 3,000 mm) annually in the central Amazon basin (e.g., Manaus).
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

Post-colonial history

Henry Walter Bates was most famous for his expedition to the Amazon (1848–1859).
On 6 September 1850, the emperor, Pedro II, sanctioned a law authorizing steam navigation on the Amazon, and gave the Viscount of Mauá (Irineu Evangelista de Sousa) the task of putting it into effect. .He organized the "Companhia de Navegação e Comércio do Amazonas" in Rio de Janeiro in 1852; and in the following year it commenced operations with three small steamers, the Monarch, the Marajó and Rio Negro.^ Rio de Janeiro & Amazon Jungle Tour (8 days) .
  • 4* & 5* Amazon Clipper River Cruise on the Amazon River 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.southamerica.travel [Source type: General]

^ Rio Imperial - Rio de Janeiro & Beaches (8 days) .
  • 4* & 5* Amazon Clipper River Cruise on the Amazon River 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.southamerica.travel [Source type: General]

^ SouthAmerica.travel is based with offices in Washington & Stuttgart, Germany and with their own South America Incoming Tour Operator offices in Rio de Janeiro, Buenos Aires and Lima.
  • 4* & 5* Amazon Clipper River Cruise on the Amazon River 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.southamerica.travel [Source type: General]

.At first, navigation was principally confined to the main river; and even in 1857 a modification of the government contract only obliged the company to a monthly service between Pará and Manaus, with steamers of 200 tons cargo capacity, a second line to make six round voyages a year between Manaus and Tabatinga, and a third, two trips a month between Pará and Cametá.^ First one was right at the beginning when our main escort boat got stuck into the mud and I was far away on the river alone with the small navigating boat.
  • Swimming the Amazon: 3,274 Miles on the World’s Deadliest River 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ The Madeira River, the second largest affluent of the Amazon, has a discharge of perhaps two-thirds that of the Negro.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ MAIN AMAZON RIVER, the Lodge is deep in primary jungle and offers two days or longer excursions.

This was the first step in opening up the vast interior.
.The success of the venture called attention to the opportunities for economic exploitation of the Amazon, and a second company soon opened commerce on the Madeira, Purus and Negro; a third established a line between Pará and Manaus; and a fourth found it profitable to navigate some of the smaller streams.^ The Madeira River, the second largest affluent of the Amazon, has a discharge of perhaps two-thirds that of the Negro.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

In that same period, the Amazonas Company was increasing its fleet. .Meanwhile, private individuals were building and running small steam craft of their own on the main river as well as on many of its tributaries.^ Where such blackwater tributaries enter the main river, they are sometimes blocked off to form funnel-shaped freshwater lakes or estuaries, as at the mouth of the Tapajós.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ The Jaraucu river is the main transport route for illegal timber around the town of Porto de Moz, a region well known for land squatting and illegal logging.
  • River blockade to save Amazon forest | Greenpeace International 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.greenpeace.org [Source type: News]

.On 31 July 1867 the government of Brazil, constantly pressed by the maritime powers and by the countries encircling the upper Amazon basin, especially Peru, decreed the opening of the Amazon to all flags; but limited this to certain defined points: Tabatinga — on the Amazon; Cametá — on the Tocantins; Santarém — on the Tapajós; Borba — on the Madeira, and Manaus — on the Rio Negro.^ The city of Manaus, Brazil, at the confluence of the Negro and Amazon (Solimões) rivers.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Posted by Steven Alexander at Tuesday, January 08, 2008 1 comments Links to this post Labels: Amazon River , Insects , Santarém , Tapajós River .
  • Tropical Biodiversity - The Amazon - Santarém - Pará Brasil: January 2008 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC bosque-santa.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

^ Posted by Steven Alexander at Thursday, January 17, 2008 0 comments Links to this post Labels: Amazon River , Animals , Bosque Santa Lucia , Santarém , Tapajós River .
  • Tropical Biodiversity - The Amazon - Santarém - Pará Brasil: January 2008 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC bosque-santa.blogspot.com [Source type: General]

The Brazilian decree took effect on 7 September 1867.
Thanks in part to the mercantile development associated with steamboat navigation, coupled with the internationally driven demand for natural rubber (1880–1920), Manáos (now Manaus) and Pará (now Belém) in (Brazil), and Iquitos, Peru became thriving, cosmopolitan centers of commerce and spectacular — albeit illusory — "modern" "urban growth". This was particularly the case for Iquitos during its late 19th and early 20th century Rubber Bonanza zenith when this dynamic boomtown was known abroad as the St. Louis of the Amazon.
.The first direct foreign trade with Manaus was commenced around 1874. Local trade along the river was carried on by the English successors to the Amazonas Company — the Amazon Steam Navigation Company — as well as numerous small steamboats, belonging to companies and firms engaged in the rubber trade, navigating the Negro, Madeira, Purus and many other tributaries, such as the Marañón to ports as distant as Nauta, Peru.^ The following are some places associated with "Amazon River" Amazon Rainforest (region, South America) Andes Mountains (mountain system, South America) Atlantic Ocean Brazil Colombia Iquitos (Peru) Itacoatiara (Brazil) Jari River (river, Brazil) Juruá River (river, South America) Leticia (Colombia) Madeira River (river, South America) Madre de Dios River (river, South America) Marajó Island (island, Brazil) Marañón River (river, Peru) Napo River (river, South America) Negro River (river, South America) Óbidos (Brazil) Pará River (river, Brazil) Paru River (river, Brazil) Peru Putumayo River (river, South America) Solimões River (river, Brazil) Tapajós River (river, Brazil) Trombetas River (river, Brazil) Ucayali River (river, Peru) Xingu River (river, Brazil) Other .
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ They support a myriad of epiphytes (plants living on other plants)—such as orchids, bromeliads, and cacti—as well as ferns and mosses.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Last year on April 8th, Slovenian marathon swimmer Martin Strel became the first man to swim the entire length of the Amazon River from headwaters in Peru to the Brazilian port city of Belém: 3,274 miles.
  • Swimming the Amazon: 3,274 Miles on the World’s Deadliest River 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

The Amazon Steam Navigation Company had 38 vessels.
.By the turn of the 20th century, the principal exports of the Amazon Basin were India-rubber, cacao beans, Brazil nuts and a few other products of minor importance, such as pelts and exotic forest produce (resins, barks, woven hammocks, prized bird feathers, live animals, etc.^ You will experience the canoe trip in smaller creeks to see life on the flood plains: jute, market-garden produce, rubber trees, as well as flood plain forest and lakes with giant water lilies, watch the birds, visit to the inhabitants which live from all these natural goods and resources, you will also discover diverse fruit trees, Brazil-nut trees and walk in the forest with commentaries by the specialist.
  • 4* & 5* Amazon Clipper River Cruise on the Amazon River 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.southamerica.travel [Source type: General]

^ True, its bark is bitter, often a clue to medicinal properties, but it is no more so than 100 other forest vines.
  • One River : Explorations and Discoveries in the Amazon Rain Forest 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.rimba.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Along the southern margin of the Amazon basin, the climate grades into that of west-central Brazil, with a distinct dry season during the Southern Hemispheric winter.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

) and extracted goods (lumber, gold, etc.).

20th century concerns

Manaus, the largest city in Amazonas, as seen from a NASA satellite image, surrounded by the dark Rio Negro and the muddy Amazon River.
.Four centuries after the European discovery of the Amazon river, the total cultivated area in its basin was probably less than 65 square kilometres (25 sq mi), excluding the limited and crudely cultivated areas among the mountains at its extreme headwaters.^ Deforestation of the Amazon River basin has followed a pattern of cutting, burning, farming, and …[Credits : Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Gold and other mineral deposits in parts of the Amazon River basin have drawn both corporate and …[Credits : Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ VIDEO Streams of the Andes Mountains converge, eventually forming the Amazon River.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

This situation changed dramatically during the 20th century.
Wary of foreign exploitation of the nation's resources, Brazilian governments in the 1940s set out to develop the interior, away from the seaboard, where foreigners owned large tracts of land. .The original architect of this expansion was President Getúlio Vargas, with the demand for rubber from the Allied forces in World War II providing funding for the drive.^ When Japanese troops overran the world's rubber supply in Southeast Asia, Schultes, through his research on wild rubber trees in the Amazon, found himself central to the Allied war effort.
  • One River : Explorations and Discoveries in the Amazon Rain Forest 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.rimba.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1960, the construction of the new capital city of Brasília in the interior also contributed to the opening up of the Amazon Basin.^ Visiting Lima "City of Kings" founded by Francisco Pizarro, Cuzco "Capital of the Inka Empire" and exploring the mighty Amazon Rain Forest.

A large-scale colonization program saw families from Northeastern Brazil relocated to the forests, encouraged by promises of cheap land. Many settlements grew along the road from Brasilia to Belém, but rainforest soil proved difficult to cultivate.
Still, long-term development plans continued. .Roads were cut through the forests, and in 1970, the work on the Trans-Amazonian highway (Transamazônica) network began.^ The Royal Highway descends steeply through orchid-rich cloud forest.

The network's three pioneering highways were completed within ten years, but never fulfilled their promise. Large portions of the Trans-Amazonian and its accessory roads, such as BR-319 (Manaus-Porto Velho), are derelict and impassable in the rainy season.
With a current population of 1.8 million people, Manaus is the Amazon’s largest city. Manaus alone represents approximately 50% of the population of the Brazilian state of Amazonas, which is the largest state. The racial makeup of the city is 64% Pardo (Mulatto and mestizo) and 32% White.[15]

Dispute regarding length

.While debate as to whether the Amazon or the Nile is the world's longest river has gone on for many years, the historic consensus of geographic authorities has been to regard the Amazon as the second longest river in the world, with the Nile being the longest.^ The Madeira River, the second largest affluent of the Amazon, has a discharge of perhaps two-thirds that of the Negro.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ These measurements infer that the Amazon may be recognized as the world’s longest river, supplanting the Nile.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ [Credits : © Wigi Photography/Shutterstock.com] Hut along the Amazon River being used as a storage and processing place for felled trees.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.However, the Amazon has been measured by different geographers as being anywhere between 6,259 and 6,800 kilometres (3,889–4,225 mi) long.^ I understand the difference between being physically matured and mentally matured.
  • Swimming the Amazon: 3,274 Miles on the World’s Deadliest River 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

^ Long ago, however, the shamans of the Northwest Amazon discovered that the effects could be dramatically enhanced by the addition of a number of subsidiary plants.
  • One River : Explorations and Discoveries in the Amazon Rain Forest 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.rimba.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While I am swimming long distances I am rolling very interesting different films and stories in my head in order to forget about swimming and pains that I have in my body.
  • Swimming the Amazon: 3,274 Miles on the World’s Deadliest River 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.fourhourworkweek.com [Source type: General]

The Nile is reported to be anywhere from 5,499 to 6,690 kilometres (3,417–4,157 mi). The differences in these measurements often result from the use of different definitions.
.A study by Brazilian scientists claimed that the Amazon is actually longer than the Nile.^ There are more than 1,000 tributaries of the Amazon that flow into it from the Guiana Highlands, the Brazilian Highlands, and the Andes.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Using Nevado Mismi, which in 2001 was labeled by the National Geographic Society as the Amazon's source, these scientists have made new calculations of the Amazon's length.^ An expedition in 1971, sponsored by the National Geographic Society , pinpointed Carruhasanta Creek, which runs off the north slope of Mount Mismi in southern Peru, as the source of the river.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.They now estimate that the Amazon is 105 kilometres (65 mi) longer than the Nile,[16] and Guido Gelli, director of science at the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE), told the Brazilian TV network Globo in June 2007 that it could be considered as a fact that the Amazon was the longest river in the world.^ Brazilian boy on Amazon river .
  • Amazon river Images and Stock Photos. 455 Amazon river photography and royalty free pictures available to download from over 100 stock photo companies. 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.fotosearch.com [Source type: General]

^ This team of researchers, using the same technology and methodology, then measured the length of the Nile River , which they determined to be about 4,258 miles (6,853 km); that value was some 125 miles (200 km) longer than previous calculations for the Nile but nearly 90 miles (145 km) shorter than the length the group gave for the Amazon.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Their data revealed that Apacheta was 6 miles (10 km) longer than Carruhasanta and carries water year-round, and they concluded that Apacheta Creek was indeed the source of the Amazon River.
  • Amazon River (river, South America) :: Physical features -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:11 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

However, other geographers have had access to the same data since 2001, and a consensus has yet to emerge to support the claims of these Brazilian scientists.

Major tributaries

The Amazon has over 1,100 tributaries in total, 17 of which are over 1,500 kilometres (930 mi).[17] Some of the more notable ones are:

Longest rivers in the Amazon system

  1. 6,400 km (4,000 mi) - Amazon, South America
  2. 3,379 km (2,100 mi) - Purus, Peru / Brazil, (2,948 km) (3,210 km)[citation needed]
  3. 3,239 km (2,013 mi) - Madeira, Bolivia / Brazil
  4. 2,820 km (1,750 mi) - Yapura, Colombia / Brazil
  5. 2,750 km (1,710 mi) - Tocantins, Brazil, (2,416 km) (2,640 km)[citation needed]
  6. 2,575 km (1,600 mi) - Araguaia, Brazil (tributary of Tocantins)
  7. 2,410 km (1,500 mi) - Juruá, Peru / Brazil
  8. 2,250 km (1,400 mi) - Rio Negro, Brazil / Venezuela / Colombia
  9. 2,100 km (1,300 mi) - Xingu, Brazil
  10. 1,900 km (1,200 mi) - Tapajós, Brazil
  11. 1,749 km (1,087 mi) - Guaporé, Brazil / Bolivia (tributary of Madeira)
  12. 1,600 km (990 mi) - Ucayali River, Peru
  13. 1,575 km (979 mi) - Içá (Putumayo), South America
  14. 1,415 km (879 mi) - Marañón, Peru
  15. 1,370 km (850 mi) - Teles Pires, Brazil (tributary of Tapajós)
  16. 1,300 km (810 mi) - Iriri, Brazil (tributary of Xingu)
  17. 1,240 km (770 mi) - Juruena, Brazil (tributary of Tapajós)
  18. 1,130 km (700 mi) - Madre de Dios, Peru / Bolivia (tributary of Madeira)
  19. 1,100 km (680 mi) - Huallaga, Peru (tributary of Marañón)

References

  1. ^ Tom Sterling: Der Amazonas. Time-Life Bücher 1979, 8th German Printing, p. 19
  2. ^ "Amazon (river)". Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. http://www.webcitation.org/5kwDrOAQJ. Retrieved 2007-08-12. 
  3. ^ Source of the Amazon River Identificated (Jacek Palkiewicz)
  4. ^ Explorers Pinpoint Source of the Amazon (National Geographic News)
  5. ^ Amazon river 'longer than Nile' (BBC news) (2007-06-16)
  6. ^ Amazon uk.encarta.msn.com. Retrieved 1 October 2006. Archived 2009-10-31.
  7. ^ "Pororoca: surfing the Amazon". http://fogonazos.blogspot.com/2007/03/pororoca-surfing-amazon.html. Retrieved 2008-08-01. 
  8. ^ Amazon rainforest fact sheet
  9. ^ Megafishes Project to Size Up Real "Loch Ness Monsters". National Geographic.
  10. ^ Candiru (fish). Britannica Online Encyclopedia.
  11. ^ Mann, C, C., ed. (2005). 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus. University of Texas. pp. 296. ISBN 1400032059. 
  12. ^ a b Mann, C, C., ed. (2005). 1491: New Revelations of the Americas Before Columbus. University of Texas. ISBN 1400032059. 
  13. ^ Francisco de Orellana (Spanish explorer and soldier). Britannica Online Encyclopedia.
  14. ^ Renato Cancian. "Cabanagem (1835–1840): Uma das mais sangrentas rebeliões do período regencial" (in Portuguese). Universo Online Liçao de Casa. http://noticias.uol.com.br/licaodecasa/materias/fundamental/historia/brasil/ult1689u20.jhtm. Retrieved 2007-11-12. 
  15. ^ (in Portuguese) (PDF) Síntese de Indicadores Sociais 2000. Manaus, Brazil: IBGE. 2000. ISBN 85-240-3919-1. http://www.sidra.ibge.gov.br/bda/tabela/listabl.asp?z=cd&o=7&i=P&c=2094. Retrieved 2009-01-31. 
  16. ^ Amazon Longer Than Nile River, Scientists Say
  17. ^ Tom Sterling: Der Amazonas. Time-Life Bücher 1979, 8th German Printing, p. 20

External links


Simple English

File:Mouths of amazon geocover
Satellite image of the mouth of the Amazon river

The Amazon River (also named Rio Amazonas (Amazon River) in Portuguese and Spanish) is a river that flows in tropical forests of South America, mainly Brazil. It flows to the Atlantic Ocean. This river is the biggest by the amount of water it carries. It moves more water than the next eight rivers by amount put together. The Amazon, has the largest drainage basin in the world. It accounts for about one fifth of the world's total river flow. During the wet season parts of the Amazon exceed 120 miles (190 km) in width. Because of its size, it is sometimes called The River Sea. It is the world's largest river system, even though it is not the world's longest river system. The world's longest river is the Nile River. [1]

Contents

Size and Path

File:Amazon river
The basin of the Amazon, with the most important rivers. Please note the Tocantins is also part of that basin, even if it is not tributary to the Amazon

It is one of the longest rivers in the world. There are different studies, that tried to measure its length. It is therefore difficult to say which of these rivers are really the Amazon. Also note that during the rainy season, the length of the river changes. Several studies from Brazil, Spain and Chile say it is the longest river in the world, longer than the Nile. The Nile has a length of 6.571 km. The Amazon may have a length of 6.937,08 kilometres, about 140 km longer than the Nile.[2][3][4] The Spanish daily newspaper El País gives its length at 6.850 kilometres.[5] This would make it about 40 kilometres longer than the Nile. In 2007, scientists from Peru and Brazil calculated a length of 6.800 km.[6]

A study done in 1969 says that the Amazon has a length of 6448 km. This was measured from a part of the River Apurimac. Until the 1970s, it was thought that the Marañón River was the source of the Amazon. In 2001, an expedition found that Nevado Mismi was in fact the source of the Amazon.[7] Another document of the Geographic society of Lima gives the length of the Amazon at over 7.000 km.[8]

The source of the Amazon is in the Andes Mountains of western South America. It flows east from there to the Atlantic Ocean. Most of the huge river and its many tributaries are in the country of Brazil. There are many places on the Amazon where a person on one side of the river cannot see the other side. The Brazilians call the Amazon the "River Sea." The Amazon is navigable from the ocean to Peru. Ocean ships can travel on the Amazon all the way across Brazil, and most of South America, to the city of Iquitos in Peru.

Estuary

[[File:|thumb|right|A satellite image of the mouth of the Amazon River, looking south]] The estuary of the Amazon is about 330 kilometres (205 mi) wide. The width of the mouth of the river is usually measured from Cabo do Norte to Punto Patijoca. Generally, the outlet of the Para River is included. It is 60 km (37 mi) wide, and forms the estuary of the Tocantins . The estuary also includes the island of Marajó, which lies in the mouth of the Amazon. This means that the Amazon is wider at its mouth than the entire length of the Thames in England.

Along the coastline, near Cabo do Norte, there are many islands partially covered with water. There are also sandbanks. The tides of the Atlantic generate a wave that reaches into the Amazon river. This wave goes along the coast for about 160 kilometres (99 mi). The phenomenon of this wave generated by the tides is called tidal bore. Locally it is known as pororoca. The pororoca occurs where the water is less than 7 m (23 ft) deep. It starts with a loud noise, and advances at a speed of 15–25 km/h (9–16 mph). The bore is the reason the Amazon does not have a delta. The ocean rapidly carries away the large amount of silt brought by the Amazon. This makes it impossible for a delta to grow past the shoreline. It also has a very large tide, that can reach 6 metres (20 ft). The place has become popular for river surfing.[9]

A phenomenon that is very similar occurs at the mouth of the Orinoco.

Population

No bridges have been built over the Amazon.[10] This is not because the river would be too wide to bridge. For most of its length, engineers could build a bridge across the river easily. For most of its course, the river flows through tropical rainforest, there are very few roads and cities. Most of the time, the crossing can be done by a ferry, there is no need to build a bridge.

The river and its tributaries for the most part, flow through the Rainforest. Most cities lie on the banks of the river. The river is the main route of traffic in the region. The biggest city on the river is Manaus, which is also the capital of the Brazillian State of Amazonas. Many native peoples live in the Amazon, such as the Urarina[11] who live in Peru.

Trade route

Big ocean ships can get up the river until Manaus, which is almost 1500 kilometers from its mouth. Smaller ocean ships of 3,000 tons [12] and 7.9 m (26 ft) draft[13] can reach as far as Iquitos in Peru, 3,700 km (2,300 miles) from the sea. Smaller riverboats can reach 780 km (486 mi) higher as far as Actual Point. Beyond that, small boats frequently go up to the Pogo Ode Escherichia's, just above Actual Point.

References

  1. Geography, History &; Alan Christopherson, M.S., Annette M. Walker, B.S. (2009). LIFEPAC. 804N. 2nd Ave. E., Rock Rapids, IA 51246-1759: Alpha Omega publications. pp. 19 to 20. 
  2. Caderno Ciência, pág. 1, Folha de São Paulo, 3 July, 2008.
  3. Arce, Jean (1 May, 2007). "Amazonas supera o Nilo como rio mais longo, dizem cientistas" (in Portuguese). http://cienciaesaude.uol.com.br/ultnot/reuters/2007/06/01/ult4296u177.jhtm. Retrieved 2008-05-11. 
  4. Almeida, Maciel (16 May, 2007). "Amazonas é o rio mais extenso" (in Portuguese). http://www.opovo.com.br/opovo/brasil/704392.html. Retrieved 2008-11-05. 
  5. "El río más largo del mundo". June 16, 2007. http://www.elpais.com/articulo/internacional/rio/largo/mundo/elpepuint/20070616elpepuint_2/Tes. 
  6. "Amazon Longer Than Nile River, Scientists Say". National Geographic. 2007. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2007/06/070619-amazon-river.html. 
  7. "Explorers Pinpoint Source of the Amazon". National Geographic News. December 21, 2000. http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2000/12/1221amazon.html. 
  8. "The Amazon River without Secrets" (PDF). 2008. http://www.palkiewicz.com/pdf/amazonRiver.pdf. 
  9. "Pororoca: surfing the Amazon". http://fogonazos.blogspot.com/2007/03/pororoca-surfing-amazon.html. Retrieved 2008-08-01. 
  10. "Amazon (river)". Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761571466/Amazon_(river).html. Retrieved 2007-08-12. 
  11. http://www.upf.com/book.asp?id=DEANXS07
  12. Amazon - MSN Encarta
  13. Peru port information

Other websites

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