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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Amazon parrots
Orange-winged Amazon (Amazona amazonica)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Psittaciformes
Family: Psittacidae
Subfamily: Psittacinae
Tribe: Arini
Genus: Amazona
Lesson, 1830

Many, see text.[1]

Amazon parrot is the common name for a parrot of the genus Amazona. These are medium-size parrots native to the New World ranging from South America to Mexico and the Caribbean.

Most Amazon parrots are predominantly green, with accenting colors that depend on the species and can be quite vivid. They feed primarily on seeds, nuts, and fruits, supplemented by leafy matter.

Many amazon parrots have a remarkable ability to mimic human speech and other sounds. Partly because of this they are popular as pets or companion parrots, and a small industry has developed in breeding parrots in captivity for this market. This popularity has led to many parrots being taken from the wild to the extent that some species have become threatened. CITES treaties have made trapping wild parrots for the pet trade illegal to protect wild populations.



The taxonomy of the Yellow-crowned Amazon (Amazona ochrocephala complex) is disputed, with some authorities only listing a single species (A. ochrocephala), while others split it into as many as three species (A. ochrocephala, A. auropalliata and A. oratrix). The split is primarily based on differences in extend of yellow to the plumage and the colour of bill and legs. Phylogenetic analysis of mtDNA do not support the traditional split.[2]

Re-classification of the Yellow-faced Parrot

The Yellow-faced Parrot (Alipiopsitta xanthops) was traditionally been placed within this genus of Amazon parrots, but recent research has shown that it is closer to the Short-tailed Parrot and the species from the genus Pionus, resulting in it being transferred to the monotypic genus Alipiopsitta.[3][4]

Hypothetically extinct species

Populations of Amazon parrots that lived on the Caribbean islands of Martinique and Guadeloupe are now extinct. It is not known if they were separate species, subspecies, or if they originated form parrots introduced to the islands by Humans, and so they are regarded as hypothetical extinct species. There are no surviving remains of them, and their taxonomy may never be established. Populations of several parrot species were described mainly in the unscientific writings of early travelers, and subsequently scientifically described by several naturalists (to have their names linked to the species that they were proposing) mainly in the twentieth century, with no more evidence than the earlier observations and without specimens.[5]


Orange-winged Amazons in a cage with toys

The Yellow-headed Amazon, Yellow-naped Amazon, Orange-winged Amazon, and Blue-fronted Amazon are some of the Amazon parrot species, which are commonly kept as pets. Amazon parrots, together with macaws, and the African Grey Parrot are all known for their exceptional vocal abilities, playfulness, and dexterity with their feet. Hand reared parrots are very loyal loving companions, and they can live for 50 years or more in captivity. However, some amazons—even well trained ones—can be aggressive during mating season. In order to maintain health and happiness, pet parrots require much more attention than domesticated animals (dogs, cats). They require communication, manipulative toys, supervised time out of the cage, and so forth, or they may develop self-destructive behaviors. They have a strong, innate need to chew, and thus require safe, destructable toys.



  1. ^ ITIS standard report page: Amazonarecord last updated 1998 (URL accessed May 22, 2006)
  2. ^ Eberhard, J., & E. Bermingham. 2004. Phylogeny and Biogeography of the Amazona ochrocephala (Aves: Psittacidae) Complex. Auk 121(2): 318-332
  3. ^ Duarte JMB and Caparroz R (1995) Cytotaxonomic analysis of Brazilian species of the genus Amazona (Psittacidae, Aves) and confirmation of the genus Salvatoria (Ribeiro, 1920). Braz J Genet 18:623-628.
  4. ^ Russello, M.A. & Amato, G (2004) A molecular phylogeny of Amazona: implications for Neotropical parrot biogeography, taxonomy, and conservation. Mol. Phylogenet. Evol. 30: 421-437.
  5. ^ a b c Fuller, Errol (1987). Extinct Birds. Penguin Books (England). pp. 131. ISBN 0670817972.  
  • Caparroz, R. and J.F. Pacheco, 2006: A homonymy in Psittacidae a new name for Salvatoria Miranda-Ribeiro. Ararajuba: Rev. Brasileira de Ornitologia. V. 14, n 2, pp. 91–93.

External links


Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary


Proper noun


  1. Amazon (river)


Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From Wikispecies

Amazona amazonica


Main Page
Cladus: Eukaryota
Supergroup: Unikonta
Cladus: Opisthokonta
Regnum: Animalia
Subregnum: Eumetazoa
Cladus: Bilateria
Cladus: Nephrozoa
Cladus: Deuterostomia
Phylum: Chordata
Subphylum: Vertebrata
Infraphylum: Gnathostomata
Superclassis: Tetrapoda
Classis: Aves
Subclassis: Carinatae
Infraclassis: Neornithes
Parvclassis: Neognathae
Ordo: Psittaciformes
Familia: Psittacidae
Subfamilia: Psittacinae
Tribus: Arini
Genus: Amazona
Species: A. aestiva - A. agilis - A. albifrons - A. amazonica - A. arausiaca - A. auropalliata - A. autumnalis - A. barbadensis - A. brasiliensis - A. collaria - A. dufresniana - A. farinosa - A. festiva - A. finschi - A. guildingii - A. imperialis - A. kawalli - A. leucocephala - A. mercenaria - A. ochrocephala - A. oratrix - A. pretrei - A. rhodocorytha - A. tucumana - A. ventralis - A. versicolor - A. vinacea - A. viridigenalis - A. vittata - A. xantholora - A. xanthops


Amazona Lesson, 1830

Vernacular names

Deutsch: Amazonenpapageien
English: Amazon parrot
Français: Amazone
Nederlands: Amazonepapegaai
Português: Papagaio
Русский: Амазоны
Svenska: Amazonpapegojor
Українська: Амазон

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