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Amber pendants. The oval pendant is 52 by 32 mm (2 by 1.3 inches).
Worry beads (masbaha) made of Dominican blue amber.
An ant inside Baltic amber
A mosquito and a fly in this Baltic amber necklace are between 40 and 60 million years old
A spider trapped in amber
The Amber Room was reconstructed from the Kaliningrad amber.
Unpolished amber stones
Wood resin, the source of amber

Amber (or, technically, resinite) is fossilized tree resin (not sap), which has been appreciated for its color and natural beauty since Neolithic times. Good quality amber is used for the manufacture of ornamental objects and jewelry. There are five classes of amber, defined on the basis of their chemical constituents.

Because it originates as a soft, sticky tree resin, amber sometimes includes animal and plant material as inclusions.

Contents

Appearance

Amber occurs in a range of different colors. As well as the usual yellow-orange-brown that is associated with the color "amber", amber itself can range from a whitish color through a pale lemon yellow, to brown and almost black. Other more uncommon colors include red amber (sometimes known as "cherry amber"), green amber, and even blue amber, which is rare and highly sought after.

Much of the most highly-prized amber is transparent, in contrast to the very common cloudy amber and opaque amber. Opaque amber contains numerous minute bubbles. This kind of amber is known as "bony amber".

Although all Dominican amber is fluorescent, the rarest Dominican amber is blue amber. It turns blue in natural sunlight and any other partially or wholly ultraviolet light source. In long-wave UV light it has a very strong reflection, almost white. Only about 100 kg is found per year, which makes it valuable and expensive.[1]

Sometimes amber retains the form of drops and stalactites, just as it exuded from the ducts and receptacles of the injured trees. It is thought that, in addition to exuding onto the surface of the tree, amber resin also originally flowed into hollow cavities or cracks within trees, thereby leading to the development of large lumps of amber of irregular form.[2]

Formation

Molecular polymerization, resulting from high pressures and temperatures produced by overlying sediment, transforms the resin first into copal. Sustained heat and pressure drives off turpenes and results in the formation of amber.[3]

Chemistry

Amber is heterogeneous in composition, but consists of several resinous bodies more or less soluble in alcohol, ether and chloroform, associated with an insoluble bituminous substance. Amber is a macromolecule by free radical polymerization of several precursors in the labdane family, communic acid, cummunol and biformene.[4] These labdanes are diterpenes (C20H32) and trienes which means that the organic skeleton has three alkene groups available for polymerization. As amber matures over the years, more polymerization will take place as well as isomerization reactions, crosslinking and cyclization. The average composition of amber leads to the general formula C10H16O.

Classification

Amber can be classified into several forms. Most fundamentally, there are two types of plant resin with the potential for fossilization. Terpenoids, produced by conifers and angiosperms, consist of ring structures formed of isoprene (C5H8) units.[5] Phenolic resins are today only produced by angiosperms, and tend to serve functional uses. The extinct medullosans produced a third type of resin, which is often found as amber within their veins.[5] The composition of resins is highly variable; each species produces a unique blend of chemicals which can be identified by the use of pyrolysis–gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy.[5] The overall chemical and structural composition is used to divide ambers into five classes.[6][7]

Class I

This class is by far the most abundant. It comprises labdatriene carboxylic acids such as communic or ozic acids.[6] It is further split into three sub-classes. Classes Ia and Ib utilise regular labdanoid diterpenes (e.g. communic acid, communol, biformenes), whilst Ic uses enantio labdanoids (ozic acid, ozol, enantio biformenes).[8]

Ia

Includes Succinite (= 'normal' Baltic amber) and Glessite.[7] Have a communic acid base. They also include much succinic acid.[6]

Baltic amber yields on dry distillation succinic acid, the proportion varying from about 3% to 8%, and being greatest in the pale opaque or bony varieties. The aromatic and irritating fumes emitted by burning amber are mainly due to this acid. Baltic amber is distinguished by its yield of succinic acid, hence the name succinite. Succinite has a hardness between 2 and 3, which is rather greater than that of many other fossil resins. Its specific gravity varies from 1.05 to 1.10. It can be distinguished from other ambers via IR spectroscopy due to a specific carbonyl absorption peak. IR spectroscopy can detect the relative age of an amber sample. Succinic acid may not be an original component of amber, but rather a degradation product of abietic acid.[9]

Ib

Like class Ia ambers, these are based on communic acid; however, they lack succinic acid.[6]

Ic

This class is mainly based on enantio-labdatrienonic acids, such as ozic and zanzibaric acids.[6] Its most familiar representative is Dominican amber.[5]

Dominican amber differentiates itself from Baltic amber by being mostly transparent and often containing a higher number of fossil inclusions. This has enabled the detailed reconstruction of the ecosystem of a long-vanished tropical forest.[10] Resin from the extinct species Hymenaea protera is the source of Dominican amber and probably of most amber found in the tropics. It is not "succinite" but "retinite".[11]

Class II

These ambers are formed from resins with a sesquiterpenoid base, such as cadinene.[6]

Class III

These ambers are polystyrenes.[6]

Class IV

This class is something of a wastebasket; its ambers are not polymerized, but mainly consist of cedarane-based sesquiterpenoids.[6]

Class V

Class V resins are considered to be produced by a pine or pine relative. They comprise a mixture of diterpinoid resins and n-alkyl compounds. Their type mineral is Highgate Copalite.[7]

Geological record

The oldest amber recovered dates to the Upper Carboniferous period (320 million years ago).[5][12] Its chemical composition makes it difficult to match the amber to its producers - it is most similar to the resins produced by flowering plants, which did not evolve until the Jurassic, around 180 million years ago. Amber becomes abundant soon afterwards, in the Early Cretaceous, 150 million years ago,[5] when it is found in association with insects.

Commercially most important are the deposits of Baltic and Dominican amber.[13]

Baltic amber or succinite (historically documented as Prussian amber) is found as irregular nodules in a marine glauconitic sand, known as blue earth, occurring in the Lower Oligocene strata of Samland in Prussia (Latin: Sambia), in historical sources also referred to as Glaesaria. After 1945 this territory around Königsberg was turned into Kaliningrad Oblast, Russia, where it is now systematically mined.[14] It appears, however, to have been partly derived from yet earlier Tertiary deposits (Eocene); and it occurs also as a derivative mineral in later formations, such as the drift. Relics of an abundant flora occur as inclusions trapped within the amber while the resin was yet fresh, suggesting relations with the flora of Eastern Asia and the southern part of North America. Heinrich Göppert named the common amber-yielding pine of the Baltic forests Pinites succiniter, but as the wood, according to some authorities, does not seem to differ from that of the existing genus it has been also called Pinus succinifera. It is improbable, however, that the production of amber was limited to a single species; and indeed a large number of conifers belonging to different genera are represented in the amber-flora.

Paleontological significance

Amber is a unique preservational mode, preserving otherwise unfossilizable parts of organisms; as such it is helpful in the reconstruction of ecosystems and organisms.[15]

The chemical composition of the resin is, unfortunately, of limited utility in reconstructing the phylogenetic affinity of the resin producer.[5]

Amber sometimes contains animals or plant matter that became caught in the resin as it was secreted. Insects, spiders and their webs, annelids, frogs,[16] crustaceans, bacteria and amoebae,[17] marine microfossils,[18] wood, flowers and fruit, hair, feathers and other small organisms have been recovered in ambers dating to 130 million years ago.[5] In most cases the original organic material has decayed, leaving only a cavity, and sometimes remnants of resistant materials such as chitin.[citation needed]

Inclusions

The abnormal development of resin has been called succinosis. Impurities are quite often present, especially when the resin dropped on to the ground, so that the material may be useless except for varnish-making, whence the impure amber is called firniss. Enclosures of pyrites may give a bluish color to amber. The so-called black amber is only a kind of jet. Bony amber owes its cloudy opacity to minute bubbles in the interior of the resin.

Inclusions in darkly clouded and even opaque amber inclusions can be imaged using high-energy, high-contrast, high-resolution x-rays.[19]

Use

Amber has been used since antiquity in the manufacture of jewelry and ornaments, and also forms the flavoring for akvavit liquor.

Amber has been used since the Neolithic, from 13,000 years ago.[5] Amber ornaments have been found in Mycenaean tombs and elsewhere across Europe. Folklore attributed it medicinal properties. Turkish fable has it that mouthpieces made from it prevents infection when pipes are shared. To this day it is used in the manufacture of smoking and glassblowing mouthpieces.[20][21] Amber's place in culture and tradition lends it a tourism value; one museum is even dedicated to the mineral.

Collection

Amber is globally distributed, mainly in rocks of Cretaceous age or younger. Historically, the coast around Königsberg in Prussia was the world's leading source of amber; about 90% of the world's extractable amber is still located in the Kaliningrad Oblast of Russia on the Baltic Sea.[22] Pieces of amber torn from the seafloor are cast up by the waves, and collected by hand, dredging or diving. Elsewhere, amber is mined, both in open works and underground galleries. The nodules from the blue earth have to be freed from matrix and divested of their opaque crust, which can be done in revolving barrels containing sand and water. Erosion removes this crust from sea-worn amber.

Dominican amber, especially Dominican blue amber, is mined through bell pitting, which is dangerous due to the risk of the tunnel collapse.[23]

Treatment

The Vienna amber factories, which use pale amber to manufacture pipes and other smoking tools, turn it on a lathe and polish it with whitening and water or with rotten stone and oil. The final lustre is given by friction with flannel.

When gradually heated in an oil-bath, amber becomes soft and flexible. Two pieces of amber may be united by smearing the surfaces with linseed oil, heating them, and then pressing them together while hot. Cloudy amber may be clarified in an oil-bath, as the oil fills the numerous pores to which the turbidity is due. Small fragments, formerly thrown away or used only for varnish, are now used on a large scale in the formation of "amberoid" or "pressed amber". The pieces are carefully heated with exclusion of air and then compressed into a uniform mass by intense hydraulic pressure; the softened amber being forced through holes in a metal plate. The product is extensively used for the production of cheap jewelry and articles for smoking. This pressed amber yields brilliant interference colors in polarized light. Amber has often been imitated by other resins like copal and kauri, as well as by celluloid and even glass. Baltic amber is sometimes colored artificially, but also called "true amber".

Counterfeit amber

Often amber (particularly with insect inclusions) is counterfeited using a plastic resin. A simple test consists of touching the object with a heated pin and determining if the resultant odor is of wood resin. If not, the object is counterfeit, although a positive test may not be conclusive owing to a thin coat of real resin. Often counterfeits will have a too-perfect pose and position of the trapped insect.

Etymology

The English word amber stems from the old Arabic word anbargris or ambergris and refers to an oily, perfumed substance secreted by the sperm whale. Arabic a'mbar > Middle English ambre > Old French ambre > Medieval Latin ambra (or ambar). It floats on water and is washed up on the beaches. Due to a confusion of terms (see: Abu Zaid al Hassan from Siraf & Sulaiman the Merchant (851), Silsilat-al-Tawarikh (travels in Asia)[24], it came to be the name for fossil resin, which is also found on beaches, and which is lighter than stone, but not light enough to float.

The presence of insects in amber was noticed by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis Historia and led him to the (correct) theory that at some point, amber had to be in a liquid state to cover the bodies of insects. Hence he gave it the expressive name of succinum or gum-stone, a name that is still in use today to describe succinic acid as well as succinite, a term given to a particular type of amber by James Dwight Dana (see below under Baltic Amber).

The Greek name for amber was ηλεκτρον (electron) and was connected to the Sun God, one of whose titles was Elector or the Awakener.[25] It is discussed by Theophrastus, possibly the first ever mention of the material, and in the 4th century BC.

The modern term "electron" comes from the Greek word for amber (which was then translated as electrum), and was chosen because of the material's electrostatic properties. It was coined in 1891 by the Irish physicist George Stoney whilst analyzing elementary charges for the first time.[26][27]

Heating amber will soften it and eventually it will burn, which is why in Germanic languages the word for amber is a literal translation of burn-Stone (In German it is Bernstein, in Dutch it is barnsteen etc.). Heated above 200°C, amber suffers decomposition, yielding an "oil of amber", and leaving a black residue which is known as "amber colophony", or "amber pitch"; when dissolved in oil of turpentine or in linseed oil this forms "amber varnish" or "amber lac".

Amber from the Baltic Sea has been extensively traded since antiquity and in the main land, from where amber was traded 2000 years ago, the natives called it glaes (referring to its see-through similarity to glass).

The Baltic Lithuanian term for amber is Gintaras and Latvian Dzintars. They and the Slavic jantar are thought to originate from Phoenician jainitar (sea-resin). However, while most Slavic languages, such as Russian and Czech, retain the old Slavic word, in the Polish language, despite still correct, it is used very rarely (even considered archaic) and was replaced by the word bursztyn deriving from the German analogue.

See also

References

  1. ^ Manuel A. Iturralde-Vennet 2001. Geology of the Amber-Bearing Deposits of the Greater Antilles. Caribbean Journal of Science, Vol. 37, No. 3, 141-167, 2001 http://academic.uprm.edu/publications/cjs/Vol37b/37_141-167.pdf
  2. ^ What is amber?
  3. ^ Rice, Patty C. (2006). Amber: Golden Gem of the Ages. 4th Ed.. AuthorHouse. ISBN 1-4259-3849-3. 
  4. ^ Assignment of vibrational spectra of labdatriene derivatives and ambers: A combined experimental and density functional theoretical study Manuel Villanueva-García, Antonio Martínez-Richa, and Juvencio Robles Arkivoc (EJ-1567C) pp 449-458 Online Article
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i Grimaldi, D.. doi:10.1126/science.1179328.  edit
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h doi:0.1016/0146-6380(92)90051-X
    This citation will be automatically completed in the next few minutes. You can jump the queue or expand by hand
  7. ^ a b c Anderson, K.; Botto, R. (1993). "The nature and fate of natural resins in the geosphere—III. Re-evaluation of the structure and composition of Highgate Copalite and Glessite☆". Organic Geochemistry 20: 1027. doi:10.1016/0146-6380(93)90111-N.  edit
  8. ^ Anderson, K. B. (19962009). New Evidence Concerning the Structure, Composition, and Maturation of Class I (Polylabdanoid) Resinites. pp. 105–129. doi:10.1021/bk-1995-0617.ch006.  edit
  9. ^ (Rottlaender, 1970)
  10. ^ George Poinar, Jr. and Roberta Poinar, 1999. The Amber Forest: A Reconstruction of a Vanished World, (Princeton University Press) ISBN 0691028885
  11. ^ Grimaldi, D. A.: Amber - Window to the Past. - American Museum of Natural History, New York 1996
  12. ^ Bray, P. S.; Anderson, K. B. (2009). "Identification of Carboniferous (320 million years old) class Ic amber". Science (New York, N.Y.) 326 (5949): 132–134. doi:10.1126/science.1177539. PMID 19797659.  edit
  13. ^ Lecture at the university of cologne http://www.fortunecity.com/campus/geography/243/ambdepos.html
  14. ^ Langenheim, Jean (2003). Plant Resins: Chemistry, Evolution, Ecology, and Ethnobotany. Timber Press Inc.. ISBN 0-88192-574-8. 
  15. ^ Howard Stableford, BBC, Radio 4: amber http://db.bbc.co.uk/radio4/science/amber.shtml
  16. ^ Scientist: Frog could be 25 million years old
  17. ^ Benjamin M. Waggoner (July 13, 1996). "Bacteria and protists from Middle Cretaceous amber of Ellsworth County, Kansas". PaleoBios 17 (1): 20–26. http://www.ucmp.berkeley.edu/museum/171online/PB171BMWPG1.html. 
  18. ^ Girard, V.; Schmidt, A.; Saint Martin, S.; Struwe, S.; Perrichot, V.; Saint Martin, J.; Grosheny, D.; Breton, G. et al. (2008). "Evidence for marine microfossils from amber". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105 (45): 17426–17429. doi:10.1073/pnas.0804980105. PMID 18981417.  edit
  19. ^ BBC News, " Secret 'dino bugs' revealed", 1 April 2008
  20. ^ Interview with expert pipe maker, Baldo Baldi . Accessed 10-12-09.
  21. ^ Maker of amber mouthpiece for glass blowing pipes. Accessed 10-12-09.
  22. ^ How Products Are Made: Amber
  23. ^ Wilfred Wichard und Wolfgang Weitschat: Im Bernsteinwald. - Gerstenberg Verlag, Hildesheim, 2004, ISBN 3-8067-2551-9
  24. ^ "abu_zaid". Archived from the original on 2009-10-25. http://www.webcitation.org/5knHG1q1E. 
  25. ^ King, Rev. C.W. (1867). The Natural History of Gems or Decorative Stones. Cambridge (UK).  Amber Chapter, Online version
  26. ^ Susie Ward Aber. "Welcome to the World of Amber". Emporia State University. http://www.emporia.edu/earthsci/amber/amber.htm. Retrieved 2007-05-11. 
  27. ^ Origin of word Electron

External links


Quotes

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Amber (pop star) article)

From Wikiquote

Amber, aka Marie-Claire Cremers, is a Dutch/German pop and dance music singer/songwriter who is best known for her debut 1996 single "This Is Your Night".

Sourced

  • And then I asked him with my eyes to ask again (yes),
    And then he asked me would I (yes, yes).
    I put my arms around him (yes),
    And drew him down to me so he could feel my breasts,
    And his heart was going like mad.
    Yes, I said yes, I will, yes.
  • I feel the need to be naked with you.
    Take off my pants, my shirt, my socks and my shoes.
    I need to be naked with you.
    • "The Need to Be Naked", from Naked (2002).
  • Your hair shines like gold, says my child.
    You are pretty old, says my child.
    And I think to myself how I used to be.
    There's another wrinkle that I see.
    Then he takes my hand and smiles at me.
    • "The Smile of My Child", Naked (2002).
  • You entered my aura and fell into my arms.
    I just wrapped around you like a snake that's been charmed.
    • "You Move Me", My Kind of World (2004).
  • It's the way that you kiss, the way that you give back,
    The way you love me like this -- look at the beauty of that.
    These are the tangled words of our love, that we both do untie --
    Same old ways, same old spice, same old paradise.
    • "Same Old Paradise", My Kind of World (2004).
  • Ooh, little boy, in between changing fathers.
    Little girl has to live without Mother.
    They don't understand why they seem not to need them,
    Although all they need is a loving hand.
    • "More Time for a Child" (written by Amber's sister, Anne-Fleur Cremers), My Kind of World (2004).

Travel guide

Up to date as of January 14, 2010
(Redirected to Jaipur article)

From Wikitravel

Rajasthan's Legislative Assembly situated at Jaipur during festival season
Rajasthan's Legislative Assembly situated at Jaipur during festival season

Jaipur [1], also known as 'the Pink City,' is the capital of Rajasthan in India.

Understand

Jaipur is the largest city in Rajasthan and was built in the eighteenth century by Sawai Jai Singh as India's first planned city. Although Jaipur serves mainly as a stepping stone for travelers heading to the desert cities of Jodhpur and Jaisalmer, it is not without its own attractions, such as several massive Rajput forts. So, despite the chaos and dust, it is definitely worth pausing here for several days. Now Jaipur is growing fast and various development projects are being done by the government and private enterprises.

Jaipur is often called the Pink City in reference to its distinctly colored buildings, which were originally painted this color to imitate the red sandstone architecture of Mughal cities. The present earthy red color originates from repainting of the buildings undertaken for a visit by the Prince of Wales in 1876.

Get in

By plane

Jaipur Airport (JAI/VIJP) is situated in the satellite town of Sanganer and offers sporadic (chartered) service to London and Dublin. Flights to Singapore and Bangkok are available via Delhi. Direct flights to Sharjah, Muscat and Dubai are also available.

Jaipur also has daily domestic air links with many Indian cities such as Jodhpur, Udaipur, Aurangabad, Delhi, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Goa, Chennai, Ahmedabad, Bangalore, Mumbai and Indore.

One plus point for those flying out of Delhi is that the Delhi airport is close to the highway, so you could reach the airport without entering the city.

By train

Indian Railways[2] connects Jaipur from all over the country and is one of the cheapest options. A number of daily trains connect Jaipur to Delhi, Ahmedabad, Agra,Mumbai, Jodhpur, Kota, Alwar and Ajmer. Daily connections are also available for Udaipur, Chittaurgarh, Bikaner, Jaisalmer, Barmer, Kolkata, Jammu, Pathankot, Ludhiana, Kanpur, Roorkee, Haridwar, Gwalior, Indore, Jabalpur and Bhopal.

budgetary requirements. Long-distance trains arrive from many other major cities including Lucknow, Allahabad, Benaras, Vadodara, Surat, Nagpur, Bilaspur, Raipur, Patna, Ranchi, Bhubaneswar, Puri, Chennai, Bangalore, Mysore, Hyderabad, Goa, Mangalore, Kozhikode and Kochi.

However the most popular option from Delhi is the Shatabdi express which departs New Delhi station at 6:05AM and reaches Jaipur at 10:50AM.

There are three major railway stations Jaipur Junction (main station),Durgapura and Gandhinagar (Jaipur), which is not to be confused with Gandhinagar in Gujarat state. All trains stop at Jaipur Junction and a few trains stop at Durgapura and Gandhinagar stations also.

By bus

There is an excellent bus service between Jaipur to Delhi by Rajasthan State Road Transport Corporation with buses approximately every half an hour both sides. There are several types of buses including Deluxe, AC and the superior AC Volvo buses. From Delhi you can board the bus from Bikaner House on Pandara Road next to India Gate. From Jaipur you can board the bus from Narayan Singh Circle or the main Sindhi Camp bus stand. You can also book tickets up to 6 days in advance from both these places.These buses typically take 6 hours (by Volvo) or 6-7 hours by other deluxe buses. There are also some private bus operators active in the city but you should avoid them as most of them do not have permits and drive rashly. Also note that if you plan to leave from Delhi airport, you can get off the bus at Dhaula Kuan and get an autorickshaw or perhaps a taxi from there. You do not need to enter congested Delhi.

Express buses to Ahmedabad and several cities and towns within Rajasthan (such as Kota and Bundi) are also available.

By car

This is the most popular way of reaching from Delhi. The journey by car from Delhi to Jaipur takes less than 4hrs. National Highway no. 8 connects Delhi to Jaipur via the industrial township of Gurgaon. The road is excellent.

Get around

By RTDC BUS

It is the best and cheaper way to visit the Jaipur Local Sights by RTDC(Rajasthan Tourism Dept. Corp.) There are three type of tours : (1)Full day Tour, (2) Half Day Tour and (3)Pink city by night Tour. For Details : http://www.rtdc.in/ctt.htm

There will be one guide with each bus to give you brief info about all sights.

By autorickshaw

By and large, autorickshaw is the best way around the city. In order to hire an autorickshaw for a whole day (with a trip to Amber Fort) costs 350 INR (August 2009). Prepaid autos are available at the Jaipur railway station and the Sindhi Camp bus stand.

The rates have been revised to around Rs. 350-400, and the autorikshaw walas will tell you to take the Slip from the Police Booths, but you can also go directly without the Slip but don't forget to Bargain over the price in that case, it could be much cheaper. It'll be best if you start your Sight seeing by 10 in the morning as all the major spots get closed by 4:30 and each spot takes a lot of time especially the Forts.

In some cases, the AutoRickshaw drivers try to bring up with some excuses that this happened or that happened so pay more, or any lame story or excuse to get some more from you after the trip is over. But strict to the original amount decided, Police in Jaipur is very friendly, in case you feel the AutoRickshaw driver is trying to misguide you or forcing you for some extra money then just refer the police persons located at various spots. The cops are really friendly and caring there. Also some autorickshaw drivers will tell you to buy artifacts and gifts from some shops especially some located on way to amber fort. Firmly refuse to stop there as these shops operate on commission to the auto driver and fleece you. If you've got to buy some souvenirs buy them in city's main shopping areas like bapu bazzar. Also take some first hand information about the eating and Shopping places as the drivers have their fixed commissions at shops and eating outlets, so you might end up paying more for and item or eating at an undesirable place.

By cycle-rickshaw

Cycle-rickshaws are cheaper, but the amount of time it takes quickly makes the extra few rupees worth it. Walking in the bazaar is a treat, although side streets are a bit less welcoming and offer a sharper glimpse of poverty.

By taxi

The taxis in Jaipur are very convenient and comfortable. Most of the vehicles are Maruti Omni Vans or Tata Indica cars, which are much safer than Auto rickshaws, and the drivers are polite. If you are alone or going to an unknown destination, you are strongly advised to choose this option, even though the rates will be double that of an autorickshaw. you must call for a taxi, as it is nearly impossible to hail one unless you are at a major point like the airport. When you call, you should negotiate a fare (or agree on using the meter) and get the taxi's 'number'. The taxi will come pick you up, and call you when they are close. Taxis generally have yellow license plates with black letters. Some taxis are painted with yellow & black color scheme on their body which helps to uniquely identify from the private cars.

  • Pinkcity Radio Taxi, +91 141 220-5000
  • Shree Shyam Radio Taxi, +91 141 237-2222
  • Jain Taxi Service, +91 141 229-2064

By car

Most travel agencies will provide cars for local hire. There are many tour operators available which are approved by Tourism deptt. and one can hire for a leisure tours.

Amber Fort
Amber Fort
Birla Temple
Birla Temple
Hawa Mahal
Hawa Mahal
The View of Jal Mahal from Amber Fort
The View of Jal Mahal from Amber Fort
The entrance of Chokhi Dhani. You can experince the real Urban Rajasthan here.
The entrance of Chokhi Dhani. You can experince the real Urban Rajasthan here.
  • Statue circle
  • Ramgarh
  • B.M. Birla Auditorium and Convention Centre

B.M. Birla Auditorium and Convention Centre is located at the heart of Jaipur. This auditorium is spread over 9.8 acre, that includes a computer centre, interactive science museum, an information processing centre, library, a processing planetarium, eight research division, a dissemination cell and an auditorium. Auditorium has the capacity of 1350 people to seat and it is among the largest auditoriums of India. This auditorium is built up to international conference standards.

  • Amber Fort, (11 km from central Jaipur). This massive fort-palace complex built in hybrid Hindu-Muslim style dates back to Raja Man Singh and was the royal palace of the Kachwahas from c. 1600 to 1727. The name has nothing to do with the rather pretty pastel yellow colour; instead, the fort is named after the town of Amber, in turn named after the goddess Amba. The main sights within the fort include the Sheesh Mahal, adorned with thousands on thousands of mirror tiles on the walls and ceiling. The fort/palace grounds are sprawling and have no signage whatsoever in any language, so it's worth getting an audio guide or a real guide. It's a bit of a hike up from the town, and the touristy thing to do is to hitch an elephant ride to the top (in order to get an elephant it is better to to arrive there in the morning, otherwise at midday the elephants are over. But the road that elephans pass is not so long). Rs. 10/50 Indians/foreigners, plus optional Rs.25/100 for still/video camera, Rs.100 for audioguide.  edit
  • Jaigarh Fort. Never conquered in battle, this was considered the strongest of the three forts in the area. It is best known as the site of the world's largest cannon, the Jaivana, which was test-fired only once — according to legend, despite using only the half the design amount of gunpowder, the cannonball flew 35 km! A better reason to visit the fort, though, are the scenic gardens at the other end and the spectacular views over the Amber Fort and the hills around. The remains of the foundry where the Jaivana (and many more) were cast are also in the fort grounds. Rs.50 plus Rs.40 for camera.  edit
  • Nahargarh Fort. The smallest of the three forts, notable primarily for excellent views over Man Sagar lake and the vast sprawl of Jaipur. The fort also houses the (relatively) compact Madhavendra Bhawan palace, although its former splendour is fading fast under a new layer of graffiti and pigeon droppings. Portions of the movie Rang De Basanti were shot at this fort. To go the area where the "Pathshala" song was shot, take a left turn as soon as you enter the fort. Rs.10 entry, Rs.35 for Madhavendra Bhawan.  edit
  • City Palace. The City Palace is an imposing blend of traditional Rajput and Mughal architecture. It is a vast palace complex occupying nearly one-seventh of the Pink City. It was originally built by Maharaja Jai Singh II. The complex is divided into a series of courtyards, sprawling gardens and buildings. It is home to several palatial structures like the Chandra Mahal (home to present Maharajah of Jaipur), Mubarak Mahal (housing a textile museum), Diwan-e-Khas (or Hall of Private audience housing the two largest silver vessels in the world, which are duly mentioned in the Guinness book), the Diwan-e-Aam ( or Hall of Public Audience) and the gateway Ridhi Sidhi Pol (with four small doorways decorated with motifs depicting the four seasons). Another integral part of the palace complex is the Hawa Mahal, standing away from the main complex.
  • Jal Mahal. Jal Mahal (or the Water Palace) is on the way to Sisodia Rani Garden. A Rajput style architectured palace sits in the center of the Maan-sarovar lake. The lake is often dry in the summer but winter monsoons frequently turn it into a beautiful lake filled with water hyacinths.
  • Govind Devji Temple
  • Moti Doongari: Moti Dungri temple is located in the canter of Jaipur city. This Temple is the main canter of religion for Jaipur people. Moti Dungri is basically a small hill, which means Pearl Hill. There is a Temple and a Palace on this hill. Moti Dungri temple is dedicated to Lord Ganesha and it is said that at the time of building this city, this temple was constructed first to protect the city.
  • Lakshmi Narayan Temple

Also called Birla temple, this is a relatively new temple made of white marble with beautiful carvings.This temple is situated below the well known Moti Dungri fort in Jaipur. It covers the vast area in jaipur city and is built in a contemporary manner. Birla Temple is completely constructed with finest high quality white marbles.

  • Akshardham Temple (at Vaishali Nagar)
  • Jain Mandir (Shivdas Pura) 15-16 Km from Jaipur

Jain temple in Shivdaspura is well known as “Bara Padampura”. This temple comes under district Jaipur. Temple is a unique place of miracles and is famous in north India for its very beautiful statue of God Padamprabhu (The 6th Teerthankar for Jain’s). God is sitting in a crossed leg seating posture. Height of the statue is 2 feet & 4 inch and statue is made of pure white stone. Statue was appeared while digging for foundation of a house.

  • Galtaji

Galtaji is an ancient Hindu pilgrimage site situated 10 km from Jaipur on Jaipur-Agra highway near Sisodia Rani Garden. The main temple here is temple of Galtaji in constructed in pink stone. The temple has a number of pavilions with rounded roofs, exquisitely carved pillars and painted walls. The temple is surrounded by natural springs and reservoirs that are considered holy .There are also seven tanks or kunds here.

  • Jantar Mantar

Jantar Mantar is the biggest of five astronomical observatory build by Maharaja Jai Singh during the period 1727-1734 in north India. It is located very close to the City Palace. The observatory consists of fourteen major geometric devices (or yantra in Hindi) for measuring time, predicting eclipses, tracking stars in their orbits, ascertaining the declinations of planets, and determining the celestial altitudes etc. Unfortunately no text is made available to tourists regarding the various yantras nor are there any plaques/boards in front of them. In most of the cases local guides are not of any help either.

  • Hawa Mahal

Hawa Mahal (or Palace of breeze) was built in 1799 by Maharaja Sawai Singh as part of City Palace. It was an extension of the Zenana (women) chamber. It's purpose was to allow royal ladies to observe everyday life in the street below without being seen. It is a five storey high red sandstone structure complete with over 950 windows. The breeze (or hawa in Hindi) circulates through these windows giving the palace its name.

Gaitore:

This pale is located at a distance of around 15km from Jaipur, on the Jaipur-Amber road. This is a royal cremation site of the royal rulers of jaipur.

  • Ram Niwas Garden
  • Central Museum (or Albert Hall Museum)
  • Zoological Garden
  • Sisodia Rani Palace and Garden
  • Vidyadhar Garden
  • Central Park (Entrance near Statue Circle)
  • Anokhi Museum of Hand Printing, Kheri Gate, Amber +91-141-2530226/2531267 [3] A beautiful clean museum dedicated to the traditional art of hand block printing textiles, this museum is housed in a recently restored heritage haveli tucked into the back streets of old Amber. Small cafe, clean toilets, small shop, friendly staff & a printer & block carver demonstrating their crafts every day.
  • Visit the bazaar in the city centre. An evening visit is a complete assault on the senses - the colours, the sights, the sounds and the smells. There are different specialist zones, whether it's food, flowers, textiles, carved statues or plumbing.
  • Amber Fort. A fantastic hill-top location and simply a wonderful place to visit. It could be the elephants arriving and departing in the courtyard, or it could be the buildings and the whole setting that feel like they have come straight from a Star Wars set.
  • Amber Sound and Light Show, Kesar Kyari, Amber Fort, +91 141 2709162, [4]. Evening. Experience the history, culture, life of AMBER through this spectacular show. Wonderful music and lighting bring the fort alive. A must for everyone visiting Jaipur.  edit
    The Amber son-et-lumiere
    The Amber son-et-lumiere
  • Raj Mandir Theatre. An experience in itself, and another "don't miss". Once known as the best movie theater in India, and still the best in Rajasthan, it offers an overwhelming experience. From the pushing, shoving, and general chaos in the ticket line, to an audience that laughs, cries, cheers, claps, and consistently talks through the entire film, the Raj Mandir provides an insight into Rajasthani culture. The movies themselves are always interesting; Masala movies are action, drama, mystery, suspense, and epics all wrapped into one single movie, teeming with dances and obligatory wet sari scenes, and unabashedly lifting generous amounts of plot devices from Western movies. The theater-goers are very friendly and genuinely curious about overseas visitors who come to the Raj. Expect to answer many questions about country of origin and movie likes and dislikes, as well as take photos of theater-goers themselves with their mobile phones. Don't be put off by "House Full" notices at the entrance. The box office opens again a nominal 45 minutes before the next performance, and there are usually tickets available. Box seats at Rs.120 go first, so its worth going early to avoid disappointment. Shows at 6:30pm and 9:30pm as at 6/2009.
  • Nad Sadhna [nadsadhna.com]. Provides a platform to learn Indian Music (Vocal, Instrumental and Dance) from an experienced musician & recipient of several prestigious awards like SUR-MANI and NAD-SADHAK, Dr. Ashwin Dalvi.
Snake charmers in Jaipur's Bazaars
Snake charmers in Jaipur's Bazaars

Just remember that nothing comes 'fixed price' in Jaipur, even in the self advertised Govt. (RTDC) approved shops & emporiums. Almost everything, from food to to transportation to handicrafts, even accomodation can be bargained down upto a 60% discount on the quoted price. The lowest rates will be found in the bazaars - Bapu & Johari. Even here, keep inquiring in several shops - each one will have a different price for the same item.

  • Bazaar. A brilliant colorful explosion of flowers, elephants, ox carts, and wares! The traveller will smell the deep aroma of spices in canvas bags, the fetid smell of animals and open sewers, the sweet waft of tea, and the crusty acrid burn of dust and exhaust. The noise is chaotic, the people constantly will stare if you are a Westerner and anybody who has something to sell will try to sell it to you, repeatedly. Watch cobras dance out of their wicker baskets, and don't be too surprised if the snake charmer slaps his cobra for having a wayward eye. Be prepared to be asked for money if you plan to take photographs of snake-charmers, beggars etc.
  • Teamoods An exotic Tea Boutique located right as one enters the Pink City. The Boutique offers a myriad range of Indian Teas (Darjeeling, Assam & Niligiri) and Flavoured teas.
  • Rajais Jaipur is famous for its `Rajais' (A type of light quilt stuffed with cotton). You can get colourful & soft `Shaneel ki Rajai' in velvet finish. These are quiet warm, soft and long lasting. You can shop in the main market area. But remember to bargain.
    If you want to be sure of quality and are willing you shell few extra bucks, visit govt. stored for rajais. Along with rajais, there are other awesome stuff as well which you can buy.
  • Jayshree Internationals (Handicrafts), C - 18 New Grain Mandi, S.C.Road Jaipur (Near Chandpole), 2364744, [5]. 10 A:M to 8 P:M. Jayshree Internationals is the house of all kind of ethnic indian handicrafts including wooden handicrafts, marble handicrafts, bone handicrafts, paintings etc. Here you can find some fine quality handicrafts and artworks.  edit
  • Chokhi Dhani & Apno Gaon - Two excellent places to enjoy Rajasthani food served in the traditional mode. Chokhi Dhani a.k.a lalten restaurant is a more popular place because of being on the main road near the airport and excellent to do things like horse riding, camel riding, maze, boating, kathputli (puppet) show etc. Apno gaon however serves mouth watering delicious food as all vegetables and fruits are plucked minutes before from the field before being served to you. Slightly away from the main city one has to go in for a bumpy ride to reach here.
  • Natraj - On MI Road is an excellent Vegetarian place serving local fare. Their specialty is the Rajasthani Thali. The main courses are 90-175rs and some thalis a bit more. Credit cards are accepted and they do not serve alcohol.
  • Loharu House - this is the house of a Royal Family in Civil Lines, where you can call in advance and request them to put together a special dinner. Tel 0141 - 222 5251/0141 - 222 5945
  • Four Seasons - If you are looking for vegetarian food this is the place. Location -C-Scheme
  • Pyaz ki Kachori- Do not miss the famous Pyaz ki Kachori (a spicy onion dish) of Rawat Mishthan Bhandar. Situated at Polo Victory cinema and very close to both railway station and the bus stand this is a famous age old kachori hangout
  • Rasmalai - Another very popular sweet dish all round the country is Rasmalai of Laxmi mishtan Bhandar (LMB). The hotel LMB is situated in the walled city
  • Shakes and Icecreams - Yankee Doodle, Jal Mahal at MI Road and Milky Way near St. Xavier School are popular ice cream parlours.
  • Chitra Cafeteria, Behind Amber Towers, Sansar Chandra Road, Jaipur - 302001, ''+91 141'' 237 2456, ''+91 141'' 237 1773, ''+91 141'' 510 6010'' (, fax: ''+91 141'' 236 1871), [6]. Good, wholesome vegetarian food. Their lunch buffet is excellent. Rs 150 for a three course meal.  edit
  • Anokhi cafe. excellent organic home-baked cakes (the carrot cake is a winner!) & freshly prepared sandwiches, pastries, savoury snacks plus organic cafetieres of coffee, a selection of good teas etc. Quiet, relaxing, good value for money & situated outside the Anokhi shop, 2 Tilak Marg, C-Scheme, jaipur. The shop is great for truly ethical hand printed contemporary & wearable clothes & textiles.  edit
  • Gangaur sweets, bagadiya bhavan market. sweets for chamcham.it also sells best baked sweets crispy smosas  edit
  • Niros - Located on MI Road, Niros is a 60 year old restaurant serving mostly Indian and Indo-Chinese dishes. Expect to spend Rs. 500+ on a meal for two.
  • Jal Mahal - A popular ice-cream parlor located on MI road (near Paanch Batti), Jal Mahal has an assortment of ice cream shakes, and some very indigenous ice cream flavors. Excellent after a hearty meal at one of the MI road restaurants.
  • Chit Chat Guest house [7], D - 160 Kabir Marg, Bani Park, Jaipur. Phone : 0091-141-2201899, 2202843, 2204195, 9414238211 email : chitchat7@hotmail.com -- Fine air-cooled rooms available at affordable 23/12/09 to 2/1/2010 rates 300 Rs per persion single room and double room 500 per day (hot/cold shower). Airport/rail station/bus station pick up available. Also a nice restaurant is there.
  • Krishna Palace,[8], tel: 91-141-2201395, 91-9414311252, info@krishnapalace.com . Krishna Palace is a heritage property which looks like a palace. Nice beautiful garden, quiet and very clean spacious rooms with hot shower. 24 hour service. Comfortable beds, each room comes with colour TV with all channels. Roof Top Restaurant facility available. Walking distance to the train station. Managed by the friendly family. Very quiet and relaxing neighbourhood surround by the greenery. Pick up service from the train and central bus station is free of charge.
  • Bhim Vilas, [9]. A fantastic family run guesthouse located in the heart of the city, with 8 air conditioned rooms, which has a home like feeling in the design. The service is friendly and it is also excellent value for money.
  • Youth Hostel, [10]. A great low budget hostel run by the Government of Rajasthan part of the Youth Hostel Association of India which is affiliated to Hostelling International. Located on Janpath which is the approach road of the Raj Assembly it offers best accommodation for backpackers.
  • The Pearl Palace [11] is a wonderful place to spend a week! The place is uniquely designed, and just walking around the hallways has a feel of being in an art museum. The roof top patio restaurant is wonderful and very inexpensive. The owners are so nice! Mr Singh will invite you into his home and make you feel very welcome. This place is a great budget hotel which feels like a 4 star hotel. The front desk clerk is very moody, however it is still well worth it.
  • Pink Petals Inn [12] Comfortable accommodation in the poshest, hippest neighborhood of Jaipur. tel: +91-141-4016727
  • Sunder Palace Guest House [13], tel: 091-2360178, sunderpalace@hotmail.com. Fantastic clean rooms, great service, convenient location, a rooftop restaurant, a lovely garden area and a terrace. We had a huge tiled double room with cable TV, big bathroom with hot water and even a Persian carpet area with a small table where you can sip tea and read for Rs 550. Internet was also available at Rs 40 and the computers were the fastest we have encountered in India so far.
  • The Karan's Guesthouse [14], tel: 91-141-2363262, karans@bsnl.in. A Budget House Hotel with spacious neat and clean air conditioned rooms
  • Explorer's Nest [15], tel: 91-9928517801, 91-141-2376173, 91-141-4002580, [16]. A Bed & Breakfast accommodation provided by a couple who are fond of meeting travellers and guiding them about their city. The house has ethnic decor and is situated at a quiet place 5min walk from the center. The whole atmosphere is that of personal care and warmth. Owner Arvind is always there to help, the rooms have AC and you can use WiFi. Rooms are Rs 600-800 a night.
  • Arya Niwas [17] out of the noisy central roads, but 100 yards to the city wall. Spacious lawns and a wonderful organic food restaurant serving quality food.
  • Atithi Guest House, 1 Park House Scheme, Opp. All India Radio, Jaipur, 302 001, +91-141-2378679, +91-141-2379496 (). checkout: 12:00. A nice, modern and very clean hotel a few minutes from the Pink City. Has a nice, simple restaurant, laundry service, internet (Rs30 per hour) and wi-fi(Rs100 per day). Full of foreign travelers. Be careful of rickshaw/taxi drivers - they don't get a commission here so may try to bring you somewhere else.  edit
  • Hotel Umaid Lake Palace, Jaipur, [18],- Kalakho, Post Office kalakho, District Dausa (Jaipur); Phone : +91-9829546226; Fax : 91-141-2611871; The Hotel Umaid Lake Palace is located on the picturesque Kalakho Lake about 13 kilometers from Dausa on the Jaipur - Agra national highway. The Hotel Umaid Lake Palace is designed in the traditional Rajasthani style. The resort provides the perfect gateway to spend a weekend away from the city amidst the natural surroundings.
  • Jaipur Inn, B-17, Shiv Marg, Bani Park, Jaipur - 302016 (http://www.jaipurinn.com/map.html), +91-0141-2201121, [19]. checkout: 10 AM. Boiling hot water available in rooms but possibly only from hand washing tap (a bucket is provided for mixing). Nice roof top bar with great view over the city. They will also serve your dinner there if you ask. Computers with internet access can be used for 20rs / 30mins or 30rs /hour. Rs 1250.  edit
  • Sumati Villa, 7, Shubham Enclave, Jamnalal Bajaj Marg, Near Civil Line Crossing, Jaipur. official website Ph: +91-141-5140965, 5125176, 9829055772, [20]. A budget guest house located in the heart of the city. situated near bus station, railway station, airport, shopping complexes and cinema hall.
  • Hotel Mandakini Nirmal, Subhash Nagar Shopping Center, Jaipur 302016, Rajasthan, India, +91 1412280211, [21]. Hotel Mandakini Nirmal is located in Jaipur, India. It boasts a convenient location in Subhash Nagar Commercial Complex. It is close to the city center and major tourist spots namely City Palace, Hawa Mahal, and Amber Fort. It offers 29 guestrooms, all of which have cable TV, direct-dial phone, refrigerator, and broadband Internet access. Their facilities include a conference room that can hold up to 200 people, and a complimentary pick-up service from the nearest airport and railway station. Reserve from the official website and get instant confirmation online.  edit
  • Hotel Mandakini Castle, Sansar Chandra Road, Jaipur 302001, Rajasthan, India, +91 1412371779, [22]. Hotel Mandakini Castle is a three star hotel only 12 km from the domestic airport. The hotel is in close proximity to some of Jaipur’s celebrated landmarks. It has 12 Superior Rooms and 26 Suites. All are fitted with a private bath with hot & cold water, cable/ satellite TV, and broadband Internet connection. The travel desk, 50-capacity conference area, complimentary transfer services, and pampering assistance define worry-free vacationing at Jaipur’s Hotel Mandakini Castle. Reserve rooms at this affordable Jaipur hotel online and get instant confirmation. Rates start at 1,790 INR.  edit
  • Arya Niwas Hotel, Sansar Chandra Road (behind Amber Towers), +91 141 237 2456, +91 141 237 1773, +91 141 510 6010 (, fax: +91 141'' 236 1871), [23]. A feudal lord's mansion converted into a hotel with the ambience of a stately home. Centrally located, family managed, cafeteria serving decent vegetarian food and a garden to relax in during the evenings.  edit
  • Hotel Classic Holidays, A-79, Shyam Nagar, Sodala, Ajmer Road, Jaipur-302019. Telefax: 0141-2293999, 2293890 hotelclassicholidays@gmail.com, [24]. 10 year old hotel in a residential area with peaceful, clean, and green surroundings.
  • Loharu House, Civil Lines, Jaipur 302001, Tel:+91-141 222 5251, +91-141-222 5945 - This property belongs to the Royal Family of Loharu and they rent out a few rooms. The place is quaint and beautiful and the rooms are well appointed. The service also has the touch of personal care and warmth. A plus side is the cooks are excellent and put together some fine dinners. Around US$30-40/night including breakfast.
  • Umaid Bhawan, [25], D1-2A, Behari Marg, Bani Park, +91 141 2206426 (reservation@umaidbhawan.com, fax +91 141 2207445), [26]. A nicely restored heritage hotel with clean, comfortable rooms, many with balconies. Beautifully decorated, it looks like a mini-palace. It has a roof-top restaurant with views of the rising sun in the morning and the setting sun in the evening. The swimming pool is on the ground floor, and it's cold in the off-season. The friendly and helpful staff will arrange airport/train station pickup. Rs 1100-1600/1200-2800. (singles/doubles). Great value, a great place.
  • Umaid Mahal, tel. +91 141 2201952, [27].A very Nice heritage house hotel with all 3 star facilities and also offers free pick up from train and bus station From Rs. 1800.
  • Sarang Palace, tel. +91 141 2281199, [28] A - 40, Subhash Nagar, Jaipur .([29], A very Nice heritage hotel with all 3 star facilities and also offers free pick up from train and bus station From Rs. 1800
  • Colonel's Homestead Jaipur, 10 & 11 Cosmo Colony, Ram Marg, Amrapali Road, Vaishali Nagar, Jaipur 302 021 (Near Vaibav Inox Multiplex), +91-9983796656, colonelshomesteadjaipur@gmail.com, [30]. checkin: 1200; checkout: 1200. Run by a retired army colonel and his wife, who hails from a royal family of Rajasthan, a peaceful place to stay adjoining 50 acres of bird-filled nature. Home cooked meals available, and good advice on attractions and shopping. From Rs 1800. (26deg50'40 N,75deg44'50E) edit
  • Deogarh Mahal, 9314420016, [31]. checkin: 5:00; checkout: 10:30. A large heritage hotel. From Rs 3000.  edit

Splurge

Jaipur has an excellent selection of expensive places to be treated like a maharaja for a day or two, most of which are many times booked a year in advance. Though the list is endless, a few of them are:

  • Fort Madhogarh (Village Madhogarh), Tehsil Bassi, Jaipur, +91-1429-281141 (), [32]. This beautiful fort is situated in the middle of the village. It is an old fort on top of the hill.  edit
  • Oberoi Rajvilas Palace Hotel, Goner Road, Jaipur 303 012, ''+91 141'' 268 0101 (, fax: ''+91 141'' 268 0202), [33]. If you have money to blow and you want to stay in the lap of luxury, this is the place for you. The only problem is that it is nearly impossible to get a booking here. Rs 22,500 to Rs 127,000.  edit
  • The Trident Jaipur, Amber Fort Rd (opp Jal Mahal), +91-141-2670101, [34]. Surprisingly intimate low-rise hotel built like a gilttering white Mughal palace, recently renovated and well maintained. Small pool. It's worth it to pay the few bucks extra for a lake view room. US$89.  edit
  • Taj Rambagh Palace Hotel, [35]. A former Palace and a excellent place to stay in. Rs 22,500 to Rs 127,000.  edit

Stay safe

Beyond the standard dangers of travelling in India (thieves, hustlers, touts, questionable drinking water), Jaipur has developed its own set of unique scams.

The Gem Scam

You may be accosted by youths on motorbikes who claim that Westerners are unwilling to engage with the Indian people. "Why don't tourists want to talk to me",or "I am a student, I want to learn about your culture" is the normal opener The scam artist then changes their tune and invites the traveller to drink tea. Often the tourist will only be told of the gem stones the next day or after dinner. Usually it is some sort of tax problem. The unwitting mark is then sold fake stones for resale in his/her home country. Even if stones are posted in front of your eyes,you are more likely to see Elvis than the gems again. As a general rule, do not accept tea from strangers, but in addition be wary of any who invite you to talk in secluded areas.

There have been reports of smugglers trying to entice travellers to assist in smuggling items. Under no circumstances accept - smuggling is a major criminal act.

Learn

Dhammathali Vipassana Meditation Center 10 day meditation courses run for a donation. PH: 2680220

Madhavanand Girls College Free hatha yoga courses from 6am to 7am PH: 2200317

Mr Kripal Singh Renounced artist offers Indian painting and ceramic classes for free, however you must supply materials. Advance bookings are required. PH: 2201127

Maharaja Sawai Mansingh Sangeet Mahavidyalaya (music school) Music lessons 8am-11am Dance lessons 4-8pm Tuition starts from Rs500/month

Get out

Continue into Rajasthan, to the beautiful city of lakes Udaipur, the stunning, powerful fort of Jodhpur, and onto the dreamy, enchanted desert city of Jaisalmer or for a more untouristic desert city go for the charm of Bikaner as an alternative to Jaisalmer.

To Udaipur train #2965, Jaipur Udaipur Superfast Express, is the best option has it has recently entered service after work was finished on converting the gauge enroute although many will try to tell you that it is still not operational at Railway Reservation Offices outside of Jaipur.

There are frequent busses to the small village of Amber from the Hawa Mahal in Jaipur (Rs 8, 25 mins). You can also arrange transport to the village of Abhaneri

  • Chokhi Dhani. Chokhi Dhani (Fine Hamlet in Rajasthani dialect) is a 5 star ethnic resort. It is located on Jaipur-Tonk highway, around 18 km from city center. There are lodging facilities available but the real attraction is the evening fun-fares. One can watch live folk dances, listen to live folk music, enjoy elephant, camel, bullock cart rides and eat a traditional eat-as-much-as-you-can meal on a single ticket. It gives you a glimpse of culture from different parts of Rajasthan, and could be nice if you will not have time to see much of Rajasthan yourself. They open at 6PM with entrance fee Rs 350 (including dinner). You can go there by bus, auto-rikshaw (Rs 400 for a return trip) or taxi, but best is probably to make sure you have a ride back.
  • Bhandarej Is a little known town 62 km from Jaipur off Jaipur-Agra Highway.From the times of Mahabharat,it is said,has seen a lot of history made. Around 11th century A. D. Dula Rai defeated Badgujjars at both Dausa and Bhandarej and ushered in the rein of Kachhawaha princes and established the kingdom of Dhundar. The Bhandarej Fort was built around then. It has been renovated extensively since. In 1994 it was made in to Bhadrawati Palace Hotel(P)91-141-2363262.In the ancient times the fort was connected to the step well in the village.The Step Well has five stories,is known as the Bari Bawari and was made in 1732A.D.by the Kumbhani rulers Deep Singh and Daulat Singh.It was renovated by Kuber Singh.Every year a Mela is held here at the Ancient Temple of Balaji.It is attended in large numbers by the local villagers.Other ancient temples in the village are of Bhadreshwar Mahadev,Bhandana Mata,Gopalji's Temple and Masthala balaji.Abhaneri,an ancient step well,built on a much larger scale than the bhandarej step well and the ancient haunted towns of Ajabgarh-Bhangarh are 30km from bhandarej.

In 1767 A.D. then aged Rao Dalip Singh was commander of Jaipur forces against Bharatpur ruler Jawahar Singh at Maonda-Mandholi, near Neem Ka Thana, for Jaipur ruler Sawai Madho Singh I. In a fierce battle Rao Dalel Singh his son Kunwar Laxman Singh and grand son Bhanwar Raj Singh (11yr) all lost their lives. Such was the bravery of Bhandarej chieftains.

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1911 encyclopedia

Up to date as of January 14, 2010

From LoveToKnow 1911

AMBER, a fossil resin much used for the manufacture of ornamental objects. The name comes from the Arab. anbar, probably through the Spanish, but this word referred originally to ambergris, which is an animal substance quite distinct from yellow amber. True amber has sometimes been called karabe, a word of oriental derivation signifying "that which attracts straw," in allusion to the power which amber possesses of acquiring an electric charge by friction. This property, first recorded by Thales of Miletus, suggested the word "electricity," from the Greek, i X�KTpov, a name applied, however, not only to amber but also to an alloy of gold and silver. By Latin writers amber is variously called electrum, sucinum (succinum), and glaesum or glesum. The Hebrew lhashmal seems to have been amber.

Amber is not homogeneous in composition, but consists of several resinous bodies more or less soluble in alcohol, ether and chloroform, associated with an insoluble bituminous substance. The average composition of amber leads to the general formula C10H160. Heated rather below 300° C. amber suffers decomposition, yielding an "oil of amber," and leaving a black residue which is known as "amber colophony," or "amber pitch"; this forms, when dissolved in oil of turpentine or in linseed oil, "amber varnish" or "amber lac." True amber yields on dry distillation succinic acid, the proportion varying from about 3 to 8%, and being greatest in the pale opaque or "bony" varieties. The aromatic and irritating fumes emitted by burning amber are mainly due to this acid. True Baltic amber is distinguished by its yield of succinic acid, for many of the other fossil resins which are often termed amber contain either none of it, or only a very small proportion; hence the name "succinite" proposed by Professor. J. D. Dana, and now commonly used in scientific writings as a specific term for the real Prussian amber. Succinite has a hardness between 2 and 3,. which is rather greater than that of many other fossil resins. Its specific gravity varies from r�05 to 1�10.

The Baltic amber or succinite is found as irregular nodules in a marine glauconitic sand, known as "blue earth," occurring in the Lower Oligocene strata of Samland in East Prussia, where it is now systematically mined. It appears, however, to have been partly derived from yet earlier Tertiary deposits (Eocene); and it occurs also as a derivative mineral in later formations, such as the drift. Relics of an abundant flora occur in association with the amber, suggesting relations with the flora of Eastern Asia and the southern part of North America. H. R. GOppert named the common amber-yielding pine of the Baltic forests Finites succinifer, but as the wood, according to some authorities, does not seem to differ from that of the existing genus it has been also called Pinus succinifera. It is improbable, however, that the production of amber was limited to a single species; and indeed a large number of conifers belonging to different genera are represented in the amber-flora. The resin contains, in addition to the beautifully preserved plant-structures, numerous remains of insects, spiders, annelids, crustaceans and other small organisms which became enveloped while the exudation was fluid. In most cases the organic structure has disappeared, le i tving only a cavity, with perhaps a trace of chitin. Even hair and feathers have occasionally been represented among the enclosures. Fragments of wood not infrequently occur, with the tissues well-preserved by impregnation with the resin; while leaves, flowers and fruits are occasionally found in marvellous perfection. Sometimes the amber retains the form of drops and stalactites, just as it exuded from the ducts and receptacles of the injured trees. The abnormal development of resin has been called "succinosis." Impurities are often present, especially when the resin dropped on to the ground, so that the material may be useless except for varnish-making, whence the impure amber is called firniss. Enclosures of pyrites may give a bluish colour to amber. The so-called "black amber" is only a kind of jet. "Bony amber" owes its cloudy opacity to minute bubbles in the interior of the resin.

Although amber is found along the shores of a large part of the Baltic and the North Sea, the great amber-producing country is the promontory of Samland. Pieces of amber torn from the sea-floor are cast up by the waves, and collected at ebb-tide. Sometimes the searchers wade into the sea, furnished with nets at the end of long poles, by means of which they drag in the sea-weed containing entangled masses of amber; or they dredge from boats in shallow water and rake up amber from between the boulders. Divers have been employed to collect amber from the deeper waters. Systematic dredging on a large scale was at one time carried on in the Kurisches Haff by Messrs Stantien and Becker, the great amber merchants of Konigsberg. At the present time extensive mining operations are conducted in quest of amber. The "pit amber" was formerly dug in open works, but is now also worked by underground galleries. The nodules from the "blue earth" have to be freed from matrix and divested of their opaque crust, which can be done in revolving barrels containing sand and water. The sea-worn amber has lost its crust, but has often acquired a dull rough surface by rolling in sand.

Amber is extensively used for beads and other trivial ornaments, and for cigar-holders and the mouth-pieces of pipes. It is regarded by the Turks as specially valuable, inasmuch as it is said to be incapable of transmitting infection as the pipe passes from mouth to mouth. The variety most valued in the East is the pale straw-coloured, slightly cloudy amber. Some of the best qualities are sent to Vienna for the manufacture of smoking appliances. In working amber, it is turned on the lathe and polished with whitening and water or with rotten stone and oil, the final lustre being given by friction with flannel. During the working much electricity is developed.

By gradually heating amber in an oil-bath it becomes soft and flexible. Two pieces of amber may be united by smearing the surfaces with linseed oil, heating them, and then pressing them together while hot. Cloudy amber maybe clarified in an oil-bath, as the oil fills the numerous pores to which the turbidity is due. Small fragments, formerly thrown away or used only for varnish, are now utilized on a large scale in the formation of "ambroid" or "pressed amber." The pieces are carefully heated with exclusion of air and then compressed into a uniform mass by intense hydraulic pressure; the softened amber being forced through holes in a metal plate. The product is extensively used for the production of cheap jewellery and articles for smoking. This pressed amber yields brilliant interference colours in polarized light. Amber has often been imitated by other resins like copal and kauri, as well as by celluloid and even glass. True amber is sometimes coloured artificially.

Amber was much valued as an ornamental material in very early times. It has been found in Mycenaean tombs; it is known from lake-dwellings in Switzerland, and it occurs with neolithic remains in Denmark, whilst in England it is found with interments of the bronze age. A remarkably fine cup turned in amber from a bronze-age barrow at Hove is now in the Brighton Museum. Beads of'amber occur with Anglo-Saxon relics in the south of England; and up to a comparatively recent period the material was valued as an amulet. It is still believed to possess certain medicinal virtue.

Rolled pieces of amber, usually small but occasionally of very large size, may be picked up on the east coast of England, having probably been washed up from deposits under the North Sea. Cromer is the best-known locality, but it occurs also on other parts of the Norfolk coast, as well as at Yarmouth, Southwold, Aldeburgh and Felixstowe in Suffolk, and as far south as Walton-on-the-Naze in Essex, whilst northwards it is not unknown in Yorkshire. On the other side of the North Sea, amber is found at various localities on the coast of Holland and Denmark. On the shores of the Baltic it occurs not only on the Prussian and Pomeranian coast but in the south of Sweden, in Bornholm and other islands, and in S. Finland. Amber has indeed a very wide distribution, extending over a large part of northern Europe and occurring as far east as the Urals. Some of the amber districts of the Baltic and North Sea were known in prehistoric times, and led to early trade with the south of Europe. Amber was carried to Olbia on the Black Sea, Massilia on the Mediterranean, and Hatria at the head of the Adriatic; and from these centres it was distributed over the Hellenic world.

Whilst succinite is the common variety of European amber, the following varieties also occur: Gedanite, or "brittle amber," closely resembling succinite, but much more brittle, not quite so hard, with a lower meltingpoint and containing no succinic acid. It is often covered with a white powder easily removed by wiping. The name comes from Gedanum, the Latin name of Danzig.

Stantienite, a brittle, deep brownish-black resin, destitute of succinic acid.

Beckerite, a rare amber in earthy-brown nodules, almost opaque, said to be related in properties to gutta-percha.

Glessite, a nearly opaque brown resin, with numerous microscopic cavities and dusty enclosures, named from glesum, an old name for amber.

Krantzite, a soft amber-like resin, found in the lignites of Saxony.

Allingite, a fossil resin allied to succinite, from Switzerland.

Roumanite, or Rumanian amber, a dark reddish resin, occurring with lignite in Tertiary deposits. The nodules are penetrated by cracks,;but the material can be worked on the lathe. Sulphur is present to the extent of more than i %, whence the smell of suiphuretted hydrogen when the resin is heated. According to G. Murgoci the Rumanian amber is true succinite.

Simetite, or Sicilian amber, takes its name from the river Simeto or Giaretta. It occurs in Miocene deposits and is also found washed up by the sea near Catania. This beautiful material presents a great diversity of tints, but a rich hyacinth red is common. It is remarkable for its fluorescence, which in the opinion of some authorities adds to its beauty. Amber is also found in many localities in Emilia, especially near the sulphur-mines of Cesena. It has been conjectured that the ancient Etruscan ornaments in amber were wrought in the Italian material, but it seems that amber from the Baltic reached the Etruscans at Hatria. It has even been supposed that amber passed from Sicily to northern Europe in early times - a supposition said to receive some support from the fact that much of the amber dug up in Denmark is red; but it must not be forgotten that reddish amber is found also on the Baltic, though not being fashionable it is used rather for varnish-making than for ornaments. Moreover, yellow amber after long burial is apt to acquire a reddish colour. The amber of Sicily seems not to have been recognized in ancient times, for it is not mentioned by local authorities like Diodorus Siculus.

Burmite is the name under which the Burmese amber is now described. Until the British occupation of Burma but little was known as to its occurrence, though it had been worked for centuries and was highly valued by the natives and by the Chinese. It is found in flat rolled pieces, irregularly distributed through a blue clay probably of Miocene age. It occurs in the Hukawng valley, in the Nangotaimaw hills, where it is irregularly worked in shallow pits. The mines were visited some years ago by Dr Fritz Noetling, and the mineral has been described by Dr Otto Helm. The Burmese amber is yellow or reddish, some being of ruby tint, and like the Sicilian amber it is fluorescent. Burmite and simetite agree also in being destitute of succinic acid. Most of the Burmese amber is worked at Mandalay into rosary-beads and ear-cylinders.

Many other fossil resins more or less allied to amber have been described. Schraufite is a reddish resin from the Carpathian sandstone, and it occurs with jet in the cretaceous rocks of the Lebanon; ambrite is a resin found in many of the coals of New Zealand; retinite occurs in the lignite of Bovey Tracey in Devonshire and elsewhere; whilst copaline has been found in the London clay of Highgate in North London. Chemawinite or cedarite is an amber-like resin from the Saskatchewan river in Canada.

Amber and certain similar substances are found to a limited extent at several localities in the United States, as in the greensand of New Jersey, but they have little or no economic value.

A fluorescent amber is said, however, to occur in some abundance in Southern Mexico. Amber is recorded also from the Dominican Republic.

REFERENCES. - See, for Baltic amber, P. Dahms, "Ueber die Vorkommen and die Verwendung des Bernsteins," Zeitsch. fur praktische Geologie, 1901, p. 201; H. Conwentz, Monographie der baltischen Bernsteinbeiume (Danzig, 1890); R. Klebs, Guide to Exhibit of the German Amber Industry at World's Fair (St Louis, 1904); and abstract by G. F. Kunz in Mineral Resources of the U. S. (1904). For Sicilian amber, W. Arnold Buffum, The Tears of the Heliades, or Amber as a Gem (London, 1896). For Burmese amber, papers by Fritz Noetling and Otto Helm in Records of Geol. Surv. of India, vol. xxvi. (1893), pp. 31, 61. For British amber, Clement Reid in Trans. Norfolk Nat. Soc., vol. iii. (1884) p. 601; vol. iv. (1886) p. 247; and H. Conwentz in Natural Science, vol. ix. (1896) pp. 99, 161. (F. W. R.*)


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Wiktionary

Up to date as of January 15, 2010

Definition from Wiktionary, a free dictionary

See also amber, and ämber

Contents

English

Etymology 1

From the beautiful orange fossil resin amber; from Middle English ambre, from Old French ambre, from Latin ambar, from the Arabic عنبر (‘anbar, meaning amber).

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Amber

Plural
-

Amber

  1. A female given name, popular in the 1980s and the 1990s.
    • 1854 Harper's Magazine, Volume IX, June to November 1854, page 667 ("Lady Amber Mayne")
      The youngest daughter of the Marchioness of Summerdown had one of these quaint, pretty names - Amber! - and what a pretty creature she was!
    • 1944 Kathleen Winsor, Forever Amber, Chicago Review Press, 2000, ISBN 1556524048, page 14
      And then she said softly, "Sarah - I think I'll name her Amber - for the colour of her father's eyes - "
  2. A surname of uncertain origin.
    • 1901 Frederick Swainson, Acton's Feud: A Public School Story, BiblioBazaar, LLC, 2007, ISBN 1426481713, page 14
      Amber, the half, generally waltzed round our forwards, and when he secured he passed the ball on to Aspinall.
Translations

Etymology 2

From a form of the Hindi आसमान (āsmān, meaning the heavens).

Alternative spellings

  • Ambar

Pronunciation

Proper noun

Singular
Amber

Plural
-

Amber

  1. A female given name
  2. A ruined city in Rajasthan, India.
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Related terms

Anagrams

  • Anagrams of abemr
  • bream

Dutch

Pronunciation

  • /'ambər/, /"amb@r/

Proper noun

Amber

  1. A female given name, Amber

Bible wiki

Up to date as of January 23, 2010

From BibleWiki


(Ezek 1:4, 27; 8:2. Heb., hashmal, rendered by the LXX. elektron, and by the Vulgate electrum), a metal compounded of silver and gold. Some translate the word by "polished brass," others "fine brass," as in Rev 1:15; 2:18. It was probably the mixture now called electrum. The word has no connection, however, with what is now called amber, which is a gummy substance, reckoned as belonging to the mineral kingdom though of vegetable origin, a fossil resin.

This entry includes text from Easton's Bible Dictionary, 1897.

what mentions this? (please help by turning references to this page into wiki links)

This article needs to be merged with AMBER (Jewish Encyclopedia).

Simple English

File:Blue amber
Worry beads (masbaha) made of Dominican blue amber.
File:Spider in amber (1).jpg
A spider trapped in amber

[[File:|thumb|250px|The Amber Room was reconstructed from the Kaliningrad amber.]]

Amber is the common name for fossil resin which is appreciated for its inherent and interesting mixture of colours and it is widely used for the manufacture of ornamental objects.

Although not mineralized, it is sometimes considered and used as a gemstone. Neopagans often use the stone for healing. This stone was called Freya's tears by the ancient Norse. Most of the world's amber is in the range of 30–90 million years old. Semi-fossilized resin or sub-fossil amber is called copal.

Amber consists of several resinous bodies more or less soluble in alcohol, ether and chloroform, associated with an insoluble bituminous substance.

Contents

Amber in geology

Baltic amber (historically documented as Prussian amber) is found as irregular nodules in a marine sand, known as blue earth, in the Lower Oligocene strata of Sambia in Kaliningrad Oblast, where it is now systematically mined.[1]

Amber inclusions

The resin can contain, in addition to the beautifully preserved plant-structures, remains of insects, spiders, annelids, frogs,[2] crustaceans and other small organisms which became enveloped while it was fluid. In most cases the organic structure has disappeared, leaving only a cavity, with perhaps a trace of chitin.

Locations and utilization

Although amber is found along the shores of a large part of the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, the great amber-producing country is the promontory of Sambia, now part of Russia. About 90% of the world's extractable amber is located in the Kaliningrad region of Russia on the Baltic Sea.[3] Amber is extensively used for beads and other ornaments, and for cigar-holders and the mouth-pieces of pipes.

When gradually heated in an oil-bath, amber becomes soft and flexible. Two pieces of amber may be united by smearing the surfaces with linseed oil, heating them, and then pressing them together while hot. Cloudy amber may be clarified in an oil-bath, as the oil fills the numerous pores to which the turbidity is due. Small fragments, formerly thrown away or used only for varnish, are now utilized on a large scale in the formation of "ambroid" or "pressed amber". The pieces are carefully heated with exclusion of air and then compressed into a uniform mass by intense hydraulic pressure; the softened amber being forced through holes in a metal plate. The product is extensively used for the production of cheap jewellery and articles for smoking.

Amber was much valued as an ornamental material in very early times.

Other pages

References

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  1. Langenheim, Jean (2003). Plant Resins: Chemistry, Evolution, Ecology, and Ethnobotany. Timber Press Inc.. ISBN 0-88192-574-8. 
  2. Scientist: Frog could be 25 million years old
  3. How Products Are Made: Amber

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