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American Civil War
American Civil War Montage 2.jpg
Top left: Rosecrans at Stones River, Tennessee; top right: Confederate prisoners at Gettysburg; bottom: Battle of Fort Hindman, Arkansas
Date April 12, 1861 – April 9, 1865 (last shot ended June, 1865)
Location Principally in the Southern United States
Result Union victory; Reconstruction; slavery abolished; national government strengthened; South impoverished
Belligerents
 United States of America (Union)  Confederate States of America (Confederacy)
Commanders
President: Abraham Lincoln
Union Leaders
President: Jefferson Davis
Confederate Leaders
Strength
2,100,000 1,064,000
Casualties and losses
110,000 killed in action
360,000 total dead
275,200 wounded
93,000 killed in action
260,000 total dead
137,000+ wounded
.The American Civil War (1861–1865), also known as the War Between the States as well as several other names, was a civil war in the United States of America.^ The American Civil War (1860-1865) The American Civil War (1860-1865) .
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Congress passes the Wade-Davis Bill, an unsuccessful attempt by Radical Republicans and others in the U.S. Congress to set Reconstruction policy before the end of the Civil War.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ April 17-May 22, 1862 - Grierson's Raid was a Union cavalry raid during the Vicksburg Campaign of the American Civil War.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Eleven Southern slave states declared their secession from the United States and formed the Confederate States of America (the Confederacy).^ Abraham Lincoln is sworn in as 16th President of the United States of America.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Congress of the Confederate States of America adjourns for the last time.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Missouri joins the Confederate States of America in November 1861.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

Led by Jefferson Davis, they fought against the United States (the Union), which was supported by all the free states and the five border slave states.
In the presidential election of 1860, the Republican Party, led by Abraham Lincoln, had campaigned against the expansion of slavery beyond the states in which it already existed. .The Republican victory in that election resulted in seven Southern states declaring their secession from the Union even before Lincoln took office on March 4, 1861. Both the outgoing and incoming US administrations rejected the legality of secession, considering it rebellion.^ March 4, 1861 - Inauguration of Lincoln.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although Lincoln had intended to do so earlier, he was advised by his Cabinet to make this announcement after a Union victory to avoid the perception that it was issued out of desperation.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Constitutional Union Party, a short-lived political group, was a haven in the election of 1860 for Whigs and Know-Nothings unwilling to join northern or southern Democrats or the Republicans.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Hostilities began on April 12, 1861, when Confederate forces attacked a US military installation at Fort Sumter in South Carolina.^ April 12, 1861 - Attack on Fort Sumter.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Confederate retreat began on April 1 southwestward as Robert E. Lee sought to use the still-operational Richmond & Danville Railroad.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The campaign began favorably as Confederate forces in East Tennessee, under the control of General Kirby Smith and in cooperation with Bragg, moved north into Kentucky with 12,000 troops.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Lincoln responded by calling for a volunteer army from each state, leading to declarations of secession by four more Southern slave states.^ Lincoln's call for 300,000 more young men to fight a seemingly endless war frightened even those who supported the Union cause.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Declaration of Secession for Mississippi states, "Our position is thoroughly identified with the institution of slavery-the greatest material interest of the world.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The state would also have to grant slaves their freedom, as required by Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation of January 1863.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Both sides raised armies as the Union assumed control of the border states early in the war and established a naval blockade.^ Union General Winfield Scott resigns as Commander of the United States Army, citing failing health.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But the attempt proved futile: both Union and Confederate recruiters operated in the state, with Kentuckians serving on both sides.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was one of the worst disasters of the war for the Confederate States Army.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.In September 1862, Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation made ending slavery in the South a war goal,[1] and dissuaded the British from intervening.^ July 22, 1862 - Lincoln Discloses Emancipation Proclamation to Cabinet.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ September 22, 1862 - Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Black Codes outraged public opinion in the North because it seemed the South was creating a form of quasi-slavery to evade the results of the war.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[2]
.Confederate commander Robert E. Lee won battles in the east, but in 1863 his northward advance was turned back after the Battle of Gettysburg and, in the west, the Union gained control of the Mississippi River at the Battle of Vicksburg, thereby splitting the Confederacy.^ Vicksburg, the last Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi River, surrenders to Gen.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Across the river to the east, Confederate cavalry commander Maj.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The battle fought on August 10, 1861, was the first major Civil War engagement west of the Mississippi River, involving about 5,400 Union troops and 12,000 Confederates.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

Long-term Union advantages in men and materiel were realized in 1864 when Ulysses S. Grant fought battles of attrition against Lee, while Union general William Sherman captured Atlanta, Georgia, and marched to the sea. Confederate resistance collapsed after Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865.
.The American Civil War was one of the earliest true industrial wars in human history.^ The American Civil War (1860-1865) The American Civil War (1860-1865) .
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ April 17-May 22, 1862 - Grierson's Raid was a Union cavalry raid during the Vicksburg Campaign of the American Civil War.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ulysses S. Grant 's 1864 Overland Campaign during the American Civil War, today lives in infamy as one of history's most lopsided battles.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

Railroads, steamships, mass-produced weapons, and various other military devices were employed extensively. .The practices of total war, developed by Sherman in Georgia, and of trench warfare around Petersburg foreshadowed World War I.^ He beat Grant to Petersburg, barely, but spent the remainder of the war (save its final week) defending Richmond behind a fortified trench line: see Siege of Petersburg.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.It remains the deadliest war in American history, resulting in the deaths of 620,000 soldiers and an undetermined number of civilian casualties.^ It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with over 23,000 casualties, but also has unique significance as the partial victory that gave President Abraham Lincoln the confidence to announce his Emancipation Proclamation.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The number of Native American dead is unknown, while estimates of settlers who died range between 300 and 800—one of the largest tolls on American civilians to ever occur.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This assault was conducted by the largest number of Confederate soldiers of any battle in the war.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Victory for the North meant the end of the Confederacy and of slavery in the United States, and strengthened the role of the federal government.^ Furthermore, the Court argued that the United States retained the powers of both a "belligerent and a sovereign, and had the rights of both" allowing the government to treat the rebels as if they were enemies.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Meanwhile, the Government of France declared its willingness to support Britain in a conflict against the United States.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The White House of the Confederacy, located a few blocks north of the State Capitol, was home to the family of Confederate President Jefferson Davis.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

The social, political, economic and racial issues of the war decisively shaped the reconstruction era that lasted to 1877.

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.The coexistence of a slave-owning South with an increasingly anti-slavery North made conflict likely, if not inevitable.^ McClellan believed that to keep resistance to a minimum, it should be made clear that the Union forces would not interfere with slavery and would help put down any slave insurrections.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Black Codes outraged public opinion in the North because it seemed the South was creating a form of quasi-slavery to evade the results of the war.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

Abraham Lincoln did not propose federal laws against slavery where it already existed, but he had, in his 1858 House Divided Speech, expressed a desire to "arrest the further spread of it, and place it where the public mind shall rest in the belief that it is in the course of ultimate extinction."[3] Much of the political battle in the 1850s focused on the expansion of slavery into the newly created territories.[4][5][6] .All of the organized territories were likely to become free-soil states, which increased the Southern movement toward secession.^ Secession of the Southern States - a history .
  • Kidinfo.com - Your Guide to the Civil War 12 September 2009 0:30 UTC www.kidinfo.com [Source type: Reference]

^ All of the organized territories were likely to become free-soil states, which increased the Southern movement toward secession.
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However he firmly opposed the expansion of slavery into territories of the USA, which were likely to become states in future.

.Both North and South assumed that if slavery could not expand it would wither and die.^ Both North and South assumed that if slavery could not expand it would wither and die.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

^ North and South over slavery in the territories."
  • Gary J. Kornblith | Rethinking the Coming of the Civil War: A Counterfactual Exercise | The Journal of American History, 90.1 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition, he provides sharp insights into the relationship between Christianity and both the abolition movement in the North and the institution of slavery in the South.
  • American Civil War 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.wordtrade.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[7][8][9]
.Southern fears of losing control of the federal government to antislavery forces, and Northern resentment of the influence that the Slave Power already wielded in government, brought the crisis to a head in the late 1850s.^ New Englanders now controlled the four powerful Senate committees that influenced war policy.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Resolutions encouraging Southern states to stop seceding, as well as denouncing coercion by the Federal Government were passed.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It would "entreat the Federal Government not employ force against the seceding States .
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Sectional disagreements over the morality of slavery, the scope of democracy and the economic merits of free labor versus slave plantations caused the Whig and "Know-Nothing" parties to collapse, and new ones to arise (the Free Soil Party in 1848, the Republicans in 1854, the Constitutional Union in 1860).^ The Constitutional Union party had its genesis in Democratic divisions over the Lecompton constitution, the collapse of the Whigs, and the problems of the American, or Know-Nothing party.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ May 9, 1860 - Constitutional Union Convention.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Constitutional Union Party, a short-lived political group, was a haven in the election of 1860 for Whigs and Know-Nothings unwilling to join northern or southern Democrats or the Republicans.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1860, the last remaining national political party, the Democratic Party, split along sectional lines.^ The Crittenden Compromise was one of several last-ditch efforts to resolve the secession crisis of 1860-61 by political negotiation.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Whigs' collapse had left anti-Democratic southerners adrift without a political party.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Republican Party leadership of 1860 liked Lincoln's politically pristine background and "rail-splitter from a log cabin" image.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Both North and South were influenced by the ideas of Thomas Jefferson.^ At the Thomas McKay House, one mile north of Cedarville, Kenly turned to make a stand, deploying on the heights on both sides of the pike.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The message was condemned in both the North and South—in the South, because the President condemned secession, and in the North, because he proposed no way to deal with it.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Southerners used the states' rights[10][11][12] ideas mentioned in Jefferson's Kentucky Resolutions to defend slavery.^ We of the South contend that slavery is right, and that this is a confederate Republic of sovereign States."
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Resolutions encouraging Southern states to stop seceding, as well as denouncing coercion by the Federal Government were passed.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ February 11, 1861 - The House of Representatives unanimously passes a resolution guaranteeing non-interference with slavery in any state.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Northerners ranging from the abolitionist William Lloyd Garrison to the moderate Republican leader Lincoln[13] emphasized Jefferson's declaration that all men are created equal.^ President Abraham Lincoln delivers a two minute Gettysburg Address at the military cemetery dedication ceremony in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania: "Four score and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent, a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

Lincoln mentioned this proposition in his Gettysburg Address.
Confederate Vice President Alexander Stephens said[14] that slavery was the chief cause of secession[15] in his Cornerstone Speech shortly before the war. .After Confederate defeat, Stephens became one of the most ardent defenders of the Lost Cause.^ This would be one of the most gallant and bloody charges in the war and would signal the beginning of a startling Confederate victory.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Confederate General Johnston would later rebut, "Had the enemy beaten us on the fifth, as he claims to have done, our army would have lost most of its baggage and artillery."
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For example, at the pivotal Shy's Hill, on the Confederate left, 40,000 Union soldiers attacked and routed 5,000 Confederates, one of the worst defeats of the war.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[16] .There was a striking contrast[15][17] between Stephens' post-war states' rights assertion that slavery did not cause secession[16] and his pre-war Cornerstone Speech.^ The Declaration of Secession for Mississippi states, "Our position is thoroughly identified with the institution of slavery-the greatest material interest of the world.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We of the South contend that slavery is right, and that this is a confederate Republic of sovereign States."
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The war was fought not for "overthrowing or interfering with the rights or established institutions of those States," but to "defend and maintain the supremacy of the Constitution and to preserve the Union."
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Similarly, Confederate President Jefferson Davis also reversed his original position, that the central cause of the war was the issue of slavery, arguing after the war that states' rights was its principal cause.^ We of the South contend that slavery is right, and that this is a confederate Republic of sovereign States."
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jefferson Davis is elected president of the Confederate States of America.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ President Jefferson Davis issues proclamation branding Union Maj.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.While Southerners often used states' rights arguments to defend slavery, sometimes roles were reversed, as when Southerners demanded national laws to defend their interests with the Gag Rule and the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850.^ Stephen Douglas was the clear favorite of Northen Democrats, while Southerners demanded that the Democratic party come out with a platform in clear defense of slavery.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He said slavery was on the way out, and he proposed a constitutional amendment protecting property rights in slaves.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We of the South contend that slavery is right, and that this is a confederate Republic of sovereign States."
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.On these issues, Northerners wanted to defend their states' rights.^ The war was fought not for "overthrowing or interfering with the rights or established institutions of those States," but to "defend and maintain the supremacy of the Constitution and to preserve the Union."
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ State banks were granted national charters and allowed to issue national bank notes (these notes were separate from Greenbacks).
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[18]
.Almost all the inter-regional crises involved slavery, starting with debates on the three-fifths clause and a twenty-year extension of the African slave trade in the Constitutional Convention of 1787. The 1793 invention of the cotton gin by Eli Whitney increased by fiftyfold the quantity of cotton that could be processed in a day and greatly increased the demand for slave labor in the South.^ The conference consciously modeled itself after the Constitutional Convention of 1787, but many of its delegates were, in striking contrast, elderly and past their political prime.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He said slavery was on the way out, and he proposed a constitutional amendment protecting property rights in slaves.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Georgia's Declaration of Secession is approved stating, "For the last ten years we have had numerous and serious causes of complaint against our non-slave-holding confederate States with reference to the subject of African slavery.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[19] .There was controversy over adding the slave state of Missouri to the Union that led to the Missouri Compromise of 1820, the Nullification Crisis over the Tariff of 1828 (although the tariff was low after 1846,[20] and even the tariff issue was related to slavery),[21][22][23] the gag rule that prevented discussion in Congress of petitions for ending slavery from 1835–1844, the acquisition of Texas as a slave state in 1845 and Manifest Destiny as an argument for gaining new territories where slavery would become an issue after the Mexican–American War (1846–1848), which resulted in the Compromise of 1850.^ Texas becomes the seventh state to secede.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Union will soon have 21 states and a population of over 20 million.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The compromise contained preamble, six proposed constitutional amendments, and four proposed Congressional resolutions by which the Missouri Compromise of 1820 was, in effect, to be reenacted and extended to the Pacific; the federal government was to indemnify owners of fugitive slaves whose return was prevented by antislavery elements in the North; "squatter sovereignty" (the right to decide if slavery should exist or not) in the territories was to be sanctioned; and slavery in the District of Columbia was to be protected from congressional action.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[24] .The Wilmot Proviso was an attempt by Northern politicians to exclude slavery from the territories conquered from Mexico.^ The Battle of Glorieta Pass, fought on March 26-28, 1862, in northern New Mexico Territory, was the decisive battle of the New Mexico Campaign during the American Civil War.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

The extremely popular antislavery novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin (1852) by Harriet Beecher Stowe greatly increased Northern opposition to the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850.[25][26]
John Brown being adored by an enslaved mother and child as he walks to his execution on December 2, 1859.
The 1854 Ostend Manifesto was an unsuccessful Southern attempt to annex Cuba as a slave state. .The Second Party System broke down after passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Act in 1854, which replaced the Missouri Compromise ban on slavery with popular sovereignty, allowing the people of a territory to vote for or against slavery.^ The Arkansas secession convention votes 39 to 35 against secession, but then votes unanimously to put the secession question before the people of the state in an August referendum.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He supports the Crittenden Compromise and the division of the territories by the old line of the Missouri Compromise.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It explicitly guaranteed slavery in both states and territories, but banned the international slave trade.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Bleeding Kansas controversy over the status of slavery in the Kansas Territory included massive vote fraud perpetrated by Missouri pro-slavery Border Ruffians.^ After years of confrontations, often violent, between pro- and anti-slavery squatters attempting to have their say in whether slavery would be legal in the state, "bleeding" Kansas is admitted to the Union as the 34th State, with an antislavery constitution.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Vote fraud led pro-South Presidents Franklin Pierce and James Buchanan to support the pro-slavery Lecompton Constitution and to attempt to admit Kansas as a slave state.^ After years of confrontations, often violent, between pro- and anti-slavery squatters attempting to have their say in whether slavery would be legal in the state, "bleeding" Kansas is admitted to the Union as the 34th State, with an antislavery constitution.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ New York Legislature passes anti-Southern resolution entitled Concurrent resolutions tendering aid to the President of the United States in support of the Constitution and the Union which starts "Whereas, treason, as defined by the Constitution of the United States, exists in one of more of the States of this confederacy; and whereas, the insurgent State of South Carolina, .
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Commanding the Union forces was Admiral David Farragut , while Admiral Franklin Buchanan led the Confederate fleet.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[27]
.Violence over the status of slavery in Kansas erupted with the Wakarusa War,[28] the Sacking of Lawrence,[29] the caning of Republican Charles Sumner by the Southerner Preston Brooks,[30][31] the Pottawatomie Massacre,[32] the Battle of Black Jack, the Battle of Osawatomie and the Marais des Cygnes massacre.^ October 25, 1864 - Battle of Marais de Cygnes.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The blue color on the Southern Cross in the battle flag was navy blue, as opposed to the much lighter blue of the Naval Jack.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ October 28-29, 1863 - Operations at Chattanooga (Battle of Wauhatchie).
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

The 1857 Supreme Court Dred Scott decision allowed slavery in the territories even where the majority opposed slavery, including Kansas.
US Postage Stamp, 1958 issue, commemorating the Lincoln and Douglas debates.
The Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858 included Northern Democratic leader Stephen A. Douglas' Freeport Doctrine. .This doctrine was an argument for thwarting the Dred Scott decision that, along with Douglas' defeat of the Lecompton Constitution, divided the Democratic Party between North and South.^ Stephen Douglas was the clear favorite of Northen Democrats, while Southerners demanded that the Democratic party come out with a platform in clear defense of slavery.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Constitutional Union party had its genesis in Democratic divisions over the Lecompton constitution, the collapse of the Whigs, and the problems of the American, or Know-Nothing party.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The hamlet of Port Republic lies on a neck of land between the North and South forks of the Shenandoah River (called the North and South Rivers locally) at the point where they conjoin.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Northern abolitionist John Brown's raid at Harpers Ferry Armory was an attempt to incite slave insurrections in 1859.[33] The North-South split in the Democratic Party in 1860 due to the Southern demand for a slave code for the territories completed polarization of the nation between North and South.^ Shortly after the convention began on April 23, the Southern Democratic delegations began to press their long-rumored plan to walk out unless a plank calling for passage of a federal slave code for the territories was included in the party platform.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Governor Harris delivers a long, passionate message outlining Northern aggressions against the South, from raising to martyrdom John Brown , to harboring one of his criminal fugitive sons.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Stephen Douglas was the clear favorite of Northen Democrats, while Southerners demanded that the Democratic party come out with a platform in clear defense of slavery.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Other factors include sectionalism, which was caused by the prosperity and growth of slavery in the cotton South while slavery was phased out of Northern states and steadily declined in the border states that lacked cotton.^ We of the South contend that slavery is right, and that this is a confederate Republic of sovereign States."
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The bill was proposed after the Panic of 1857, which northerners such as Henry Carey blamed on the country's free trade policy—a problem he claimed the bill would rectify with protectionism (economists now recognize that the Panic of 1857 was caused by other unrelated factors).
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The battle caused a rise in anti-war sentiment in the Northern States.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Historians have debated whether economic differences between the industrial Northeast and the agricultural South helped cause the war.^ For the duration of the war the blockade limits the ability of the rural South to stay well supplied in its war against the industrialized North.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A clash between pro-South civilians and Union troops in Maryland's largest city resulted in what is commonly accepted to be the first bloodshed of the Civil War.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Most historians now disagree with the economic determinism of historian Charles Beard and argue that Northern and Southern economies were largely complementary.^ The south viewed this as an act of war, and most southerners, even those who opposed secession, felt they were now forced to choose sides.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Most of the southern economy depended on the export of crops like cotton and tobacco, which were hurt on the world scene by policies that adversely impacted international trade.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[34] There was the polarizing effect of slavery that split the largest religious denominations (the Methodist, Baptist and Presbyterian churches)[35] and controversy caused by the worst cruelties of slavery (whippings, mutilations and families split apart). .The fact that seven immigrants out of eight settled in the North, plus movement of twice as many whites leaving the South for the North as vice versa, contributed to the South's defensive-aggressive political behavior.^ The Federals set out to capture the island with nineteen warships, forty-eight transports, and 13,000 troops, leaving the rest of the forces at Hatteras Inlet.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Curtis found an excellent defensive position on the north side of the creek and proceeded to fortify it and place artillery for an expected Confederate assault from the south.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Confederate position was skillfully laid out behind (south of) the steep bank of the North Anna and well fortified with earthworks.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[36]
.The election of Lincoln in 1860 was the final trigger for secession.^ November 20, 1860 - Georgia legislature approves bill for election of delegates to a secession convention to take place January 2, 1861, and convention January 16, 1861.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Even many slave owners felt that Lincoln's election alone was not sufficient cause for secession.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[37] .Efforts at compromise, including the "Corwin Amendment" and the "Crittenden Compromise", failed.^ The Crittenden Compromise was one of several last-ditch efforts to resolve the secession crisis of 1860-61 by political negotiation.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ January 16, 1861 - The Senate refuses to consider the Crittenden Compromise , one of several failed attempts to ease tension between the North and South.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Southern leaders feared that Lincoln would stop the expansion of slavery and put it on a course toward extinction.^ McClellan believed that to keep resistance to a minimum, it should be made clear that the Union forces would not interfere with slavery and would help put down any slave insurrections.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lincoln was furious when he heard the news as he feared that this action would force slave-owners in border states to help the Confederates.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Southern delegates were already opposed to Douglas, the party's leading candidate, over his Freeport Doctrine—a concept Douglas put forth during the Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858 that a territory's failure to pass laws enforcing slavery would, by default, outlaw slavery in that territory.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.The slave states, which had already become a minority in the House of Representatives, were now facing a future as a perpetual minority in the Senate and Electoral College against an increasingly powerful North.^ The slave states, which had already become a minority in the House of Representatives, were now facing a future as a perpetual minority in the Senate and Electoral College against an increasingly powerful North.
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The slave states had lost the balance of power in the Electoral College and the Senate, and were facing a future as a perpetual minority against an increasingly powerful North.
  • American Civil War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However he firmly opposed the expansion of slavery into territories of the USA, which were likely to become states in future.

Slavery

Support for secession was strongly correlated to the number of plantations in the region. .States of the Deep South, which had the greatest concentration of plantations, were the first to secede.^ The convention had invited delegates from all states, including those that had already seceded, but the seven seceding states of the deep South boycotted.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.The upper South slave states of Virginia, North Carolina, Arkansas, and Tennessee had fewer plantations and rejected secession until the Fort Sumter crisis forced them to choose sides.^ Virginia is the eighth state to secede, followed within five weeks by Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina, thus forming an eleven state Confederacy with a population of 9 million, including nearly 4 million slaves.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Benjamin F. Butler declared as contraband three slaves who escaped to his lines at Fort Monroe, Virginia, and refused to return them to their master.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ His leading regiments (in particular the 21st North Carolina) came under heavy fire from Union forces deployed behind stone fences and were repulsed.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Border states had fewer plantations still and never seceded.^ Border states had fewer plantations still and never seceded.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Border states had fewer plantations still and sided with the Union.
  • American Civil War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The following two states never seceded via any mechanism provided by a "regular" government: 12.
  • U.S. Civil War FAQ, Part 1/2 20 September 2009 5:47 UTC www.faqs.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[38][39][40] .As of 1850 the percentage of Southern whites living in families that owned slaves was 43 percent in the lower South, 36 percent in the upper South and 22 percent in the border states that fought mostly for the Union.^ Almost one-third of all Southern families owned slaves.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Total number of slaves in the Border States: 432,586 (13% of total population).
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The amendment was satisfactory only to the Union-loving Democrats of the Middle and Border States.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[40]
.85 percent of slaveowners who owned 100 or more slaves lived in the lower South, as opposed to one percent in the border states.^ Total number of slaves in the Border States: 432,586 (13% of total population).
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ One million dollars was appropriated to compensate owners of freed slaves, and $100,000 was set aside to pay District slaves who wished to emigrate to Haiti, Liberia or any other country outside the United States.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On October 11, the Confederate Congress amended the draft law to exempt anyone who owned 20 or more slaves.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[40] .Ninety-five percent of African-Americans lived in the South, comprising one third of the population there as opposed to one percent of the population of the North.^ Ulysses S. Grant 's 1864 Overland Campaign during the American Civil War, today lives in infamy as one of history's most lopsided battles.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ninety-two percent of all exemptions for state service came from Georgia and North Carolina.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The use of a north-south border rather than an east-west one had the effect of denying a de facto ratification of the Confederate Arizona Territory.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Consequently, fears of eventual emancipation were much greater in the South than in the North.^ Consequently, fears of eventual emancipation were much greater in the South than in the North.
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The North had a larger population than the South.
  • Starship Troopers, Civic Virtue, and the American Civil War 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC people.cohums.ohio-state.edu [Source type: Original source]

^ After the war, the North, never enjoying an Industrial Revolution suffers in poverty, while the prosperous Confederacy annexes Mexico, Central America, and eventually all of South America.
  • How the South Won the American Civil War - alternate history - io9 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC io9.com [Source type: General]

[41]
The US Supreme Court decision of 1857 in Dred Scott v. Sandford added to the controversy. .Chief Justice Roger B. Taney's decision said that slaves were "so far inferior that they had no rights which the white man was bound to respect".[42] Taney then overturned the Missouri Compromise, which banned slavery in territory north of the 36°30' parallel.^ The compromise contained preamble, six proposed constitutional amendments, and four proposed Congressional resolutions by which the Missouri Compromise of 1820 was, in effect, to be reenacted and extended to the Pacific; the federal government was to indemnify owners of fugitive slaves whose return was prevented by antislavery elements in the North; "squatter sovereignty" (the right to decide if slavery should exist or not) in the territories was to be sanctioned; and slavery in the District of Columbia was to be protected from congressional action.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He said slavery was on the way out, and he proposed a constitutional amendment protecting property rights in slaves.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In April 1861, Chief Justice Roger B. Taney, then sitting on the Circuit Court bench, found that Merryman was being held unlawfully and issued a writ of habeas corpus .
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.He stated, "[T]he Act of Congress which prohibited a citizen from holding and owning [enslaved persons] in the territory of the United States north of the line therein is not warranted by the Constitution and is therefore void."^ The District of Columbia Emancipation Act is the only example of compensated emancipation in the United States.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In March 1862, the U.S. House of Representatives, devoid of the southern delegates and controlled by Republicans, passed a bill to create the United States Arizona Territory using the north-south border of the 107th meridian.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was almost identical to the United States constitution, with a few differences: 1) In the preamble, it omitted the general welfare clause, and added that each ratifying state was acting "in its sovereign and independent character."
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[43] Democrats praised the Dred Scott decision, but Republicans branded it a "willful perversion" of the Constitution. .They argued that if Scott could not legally file suit, the Supreme Court had no right to consider the Missouri Compromise's constitutionality.^ The Supreme Court, in upholding the Act, argued that extraordinary conditions justified such a law as part of broad military powers.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Furthermore, the Court argued that the United States retained the powers of both a "belligerent and a sovereign, and had the rights of both" allowing the government to treat the rebels as if they were enemies.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When negroes could not pay the fines and costs after legal proceedings, they were to be hired at public outcry by the sheriff to the lowest bidder....
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Lincoln warned that "the next Dred Scott decision"[44] could threaten Northern states with slavery.^ At his inaugural address, Abraham Lincoln attempted to avoid conflict by announcing that he had no intention "to interfere with the institution of slavery in the states where it exists.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

Abraham Lincoln said, "This question of Slavery was more important than any other; indeed, so much more important has it become that no other national question can even get a hearing just at present."[45] The slavery issue was related to sectional competition for control of the territories,[46] and the Southern demand for a slave code for the territories was the issue used by Southern politicians to split the Democratic Party in two, which all but guaranteed the election of Lincoln and secession. .When secession was an issue, South Carolina planter and state Senator John Townsend said that, "our enemies are about to take possession of the Government, that they intend to rule us according to the caprices of their fanatical theories, and according to the declared purposes of abolishing slavery."^ In a speech to the House of Representatives, Lawrence M. Keitt , Congressman from South Carolina, declares: "African slavery is the corner-stone of the industrial, social, and political fabric of the South; and whatever wars against it, wars against her very existence.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Radical Republicans were furious and John Andrew , the governor of Massachusetts, said that "from the day our government turned its back on the proclamation of General Hunter, the blessing of God has been withdrawn from our arms."
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Declaration of Secession for Mississippi states, "Our position is thoroughly identified with the institution of slavery-the greatest material interest of the world.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[47] .Similar opinions were expressed throughout the South in editorials, political speeches and declarations of reasons for secession.^ Read South Carolina's declaration of the reasons for secession.

^ Similar opinions were expressed throughout the South in editorials, political speeches and declarations of reasons for secession.
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In a speech to the House of Representatives, Lawrence M. Keitt , Congressman from South Carolina, declares: "African slavery is the corner-stone of the industrial, social, and political fabric of the South; and whatever wars against it, wars against her very existence.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Even though Lincoln had no plans to outlaw slavery where it existed, whites throughout the South expressed fears for the future of slavery.^ At his inaugural address, Abraham Lincoln attempted to avoid conflict by announcing that he had no intention "to interfere with the institution of slavery in the states where it exists.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Some uncertainty exists about exactly what Lincoln meant in these discussions by "no receding .
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Though its three-way approach of immediate emancipation, compensation, and colonization did not serve as a model for the future, it was an early signal of slavery's death.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Southern concerns included not only economic loss but also fears of racial equality.^ Southern concerns included not only economic loss but also fears of racial equality.
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the 1840s and ’50s, Northern opposition to slavery in the Western territories caused the Southern states to fear that existing slaveholdings, which formed the economic base of the South, were also in danger.
  • American Civil War (United States history) -- Britannica Online Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.britannica.com [Source type: Reference]

[48][49][50][51] .The Texas Declaration of Causes for Secession[52][53] said that the non-slave-holding states were "proclaiming the debasing doctrine of equality of all men, irrespective of race or color", and that the African race "were rightfully held and regarded as an inferior and dependent race". Alabama secessionist E. S. Dargan warned that whites and free blacks could not live together; if slaves were emancipated and remained in the South, "we ourselves would become the executioners of our own slaves.^ In the Texas Declaration of Secession it states, "In all the non-slaveholding States, in violation of that good faith and comity which should exist between entirely distinct nations, the people have formed themselves into a great sectional party, now strong enough in numbers to control the affairs of each of those States, based upon an unnatural feeling of hostility to these Southern States and their beneficent and patriarchal system of African slavery, proclaiming the debasing doctrine of equality of all men, irrespective of race or color—a doctrine at war with nature, in opposition to the experience of mankind, and in violation of the plainest revelations of Divine Law.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Georgia's Declaration of Secession is approved stating, "For the last ten years we have had numerous and serious causes of complaint against our non-slave-holding confederate States with reference to the subject of African slavery.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Then, Burnside's two other divisions, made up of white troops, would move in, supporting Ferrero's flanks and race for Petersburg itself.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.To this extent would the policy of our Northern enemies drive us; and thus would we not only be reduced to poverty, but what is still worse, we should be driven to crime, to the commission of sin."^ As one line was repulsed another took its place and pressed forward as if determined by force of numbers and fury of assault to drive us from our positions."
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Confederate General Johnston would later rebut, "Had the enemy beaten us on the fifth, as he claims to have done, our army would have lost most of its baggage and artillery."
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[54]
Beginning in the 1830s, the US Postmaster General refused to allow mail which carried abolition pamphlets to the South.[55] Northern teachers suspected of any tinge of abolitionism were expelled from the South, and abolitionist literature was banned. .Southerners rejected the denials of Republicans that they were abolitionists.^ Southerners rejected the denials of Republicans that they were abolitionists.
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Southerners rejected the denials of Republicans that they were abolitionists, and pointed to John Brown 's attempt in 1859 to start a slave uprising as proof that multiple northern conspiracies were afoot to ignite bloody slave rebellions.
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The secessionists rejected the denials of Republicans that they were abolitionists, and pointed to John Brown 's attempt in 1859 to start a slave uprising as proof that multiple northern conspiracies were afoot to ignite bloody slave rebellions.
  • American Civil War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

[56] The North felt threatened as well, for as Eric Foner concludes, "Northerners came to view slavery as the very antithesis of the good society, as well as a threat to their own fundamental values and interests."[57]
.During the 1850s, slaves left the border states through sale, manumission and escape, and border states also had more free African-Americans and European immigrants than the lower South, which increased Southern fears that slavery was threatened with rapid extinction in this area.^ Total number of slaves in the Border States: 432,586 (13% of total population).
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In March 1862, the U.S. House of Representatives, devoid of the southern delegates and controlled by Republicans, passed a bill to create the United States Arizona Territory using the north-south border of the 107th meridian.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Their line extended through the town on the right, while their left rested on high ground above the South River.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Such fears greatly increased Southern efforts to make Kansas a slave state.^ Lincoln quickly ordered Hunter to retract his proclamation as he still feared that this action would force slave-owners in border states to join the Confederates.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lincoln was furious when he heard the news as he feared that this action would force slave-owners in border states to help the Confederates.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Moreover, the "fire-eaters" among the Southern Democrats actually wanted the Republican candidate to win the election, thus hastening the secession of the slave states.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.By 1860, the number of white border state families owning slaves plunged to only 16 percent of the total.^ Total number of slaves in the Border States: 432,586 (13% of total population).
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The White House of the Confederacy, located a few blocks north of the State Capitol, was home to the family of Confederate President Jefferson Davis.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lincoln was furious when he heard the news as he feared that this action would force slave-owners in border states to help the Confederates.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Slaves sold to lower South states were owned by a smaller number of wealthy slave owners as the price of slaves increased.^ Total number of slaves in the Border States: 432,586 (13% of total population).
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Total number of slaves in the Upper South: 1,208758 (29% of total population).
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Total number of slaves in the Lower South : 2,312,352 (47% of total population).
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[58]
.Even though Lincoln agreed to the Corwin Amendment, which would have protected slavery in existing states, secessionists claimed that such guarantees were meaningless.^ Thomas Corwin , Chairman of the House Committee of Thirty-three, proposed a constitutional amendment protecting slavery where it exists that could never be further amended without approval of slaveholding states.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If Southern states returned to the Union and voted against ratification, thereby defeating it, would such action be valid?
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Significantly, the proposed amendment did not address the burning issue of moment: the power of Congress to bar slavery from territories that were not yet states.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Besides the loss of Kansas to free soil Northerners, secessionists feared that the loss of slaves in the border states would lead to emancipation, and that upper South slave states might be the next dominoes to fall.^ Total number of slaves in the Border States: 432,586 (13% of total population).
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Total number of slaves in the Upper South: 1,208758 (29% of total population).
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The state would also have to grant slaves their freedom, as required by Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation of January 1863.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.They feared that Republicans would use patronage to incite slaves and antislavery Southern whites such as Hinton Rowan Helper.^ Although morale would revive in the next few days, many Southern soldiers would never again place as much confidence in Johnston's abilities as they once had.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lincoln quickly ordered Hunter to retract his proclamation as he still feared that this action would force slave-owners in border states to join the Confederates.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Seeing a large Confederate force—actually unarmed recruits—moving into the woods on his left, he feared that they would turn his flank.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

Then slavery in the lower South, like a "scorpion encircled by fire, would sting itself to death."[59] A few secessionists mentioned the tariff issue along with slavery, but these were rare. .Among other reasons, slavery represented much more money than the tariff.^ The immediate effect of the Morrill Tariff was to more than double the tax collected on most dutiable items entering the United States.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[59] However, a few libertarian economists place more importance on the tariff issue.[60] .There were non-slavery related causes of secession, but they had little to do with tariffs or states' rights.^ The Declaration of Secession for Mississippi states, "Our position is thoroughly identified with the institution of slavery-the greatest material interest of the world.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ We of the South contend that slavery is right, and that this is a confederate Republic of sovereign States."
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Anger over the new American tariff caused many British commentators and politicians to express sympathy for the new Confederate States of America over the north.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

Secession begins

Status of the states, 1861.
      States that seceded before April 15, 1861       States that seceded after April 15, 1861       Union states that permitted slavery       Union states that banned slavery       Territories
The Union: blue, yellow (slave);
The Confederacy: brown
*territories in light shades; control of Confederate territories disputed

Secession of South Carolina

.South Carolina did more to advance nullification and secession than any other Southern state.^ December 18-20, 1860 - South Carolina Secedes from the Union , On December 18, South Carolina Secession Convention reconvenes in Institute Hall in Charleston.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He received no electoral votes in 15 of the 33 states and his name did not even appear on the ballot in ten Southern states.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Georgia Governor Joseph E. Brown delivers his long Special Message on Federal Relations encouraging separate state action on secession rather than waiting for a convention of Southern states to jointly decide the issue.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.South Carolina adopted the "Declaration of the Immediate Causes Which Induce and Justify the Secession of South Carolina from the Federal Union" on December 24, 1860. It argued for states' rights for slave owners in the South, but contained a complaint about states' rights in the North in the form of opposition to the Fugitive Slave Act, claiming that Northern states were not fulfilling their federal obligations under the Constitution.^ The Federals, under immediate command of Brig.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ May 9, 1860 - Constitutional Union Convention.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ December 26, 1860 - South Carolina Calls for Southern Confederacy.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.All the alleged violations of the rights of Southern states were related to slavery.^ We of the South contend that slavery is right, and that this is a confederate Republic of sovereign States."
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

Secession winter

.Before Lincoln took office, seven states had declared their secession from the Union.^ Before Lincoln took office, seven states declared their secession from the Union, and established a Southern government, the Confederate States of America, on February 9, 1861.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

^ Lincoln stated: I do not expect the Union to be dissolved .
  • Was the American Civil War inevitable or could it have been avoided? 19 September 2009 14:34 UTC members.ozemail.com.au [Source type: Original source]

^ The Republican victory in that election resulted in seven Southern states declaring their secession from the Union even before Lincoln took office on March 4, 1861.
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

They established a Southern government, the Confederate States of America on February 4, 1861.[61] They took control of federal forts and other properties within their boundaries with little resistance from outgoing President James Buchanan, whose term ended on March 4, 1861. Buchanan said that the Dred Scott decision was proof that the South had no reason for secession, and that the Union "was intended to be perpetual", but that "the power by force of arms to compel a State to remain in the Union" was not among the "enumerated powers granted to Congress".[62] One quarter of the U.S. Army—the entire garrison in Texas—was surrendered to state forces by its commanding general, David E. Twiggs, who then joined the Confederacy.
.As Southerners resigned their seats in the Senate and the House, secession later enabled Republicans to pass bills for projects that had been blocked by Southern Senators before the war, including the Morrill Tariff, land grant colleges (the Morill Act), a Homestead Act, a trans-continental railroad (the Pacific Railway Acts), the National Banking Act and the authorization of United States Notes by the Legal Tender Act of 1862. The Revenue Act of 1861 introduced the income tax to help finance the war.^ The Morrill Tariff of 1861 was a major protectionist tariff bill instituted in the United States.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ February 25, 1862 - The Legal Tender Act.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Union Pacific Railroad was incorporated on July 1, 1862 in the wake of the Pacific Railroad Act of 1862.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

The Confederacy

.Seven Deep South cotton states seceded by February 1861, starting with South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas.^ Texas becomes the seventh state to secede.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ January 9, 1861 - Mississippi Secedes from the Union.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ February 1, 1861 - Texas Secedes from the Union.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.These seven states formed the Confederate States of America (February 4, 1861), with Jefferson Davis as president, and a governmental structure closely modeled on the U.S. Constitution.^ February 18, 1861 - Inaugaration of Jefferson Davis.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Missouri joins the Confederate States of America in November 1861.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ November 6, 1861 - Election of Jefferson Davis.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Following the attack on Fort Sumter, President Lincoln called for a volunteer army from each state.^ President Abraham Lincoln watched the action from Fort Stevens and came under fire from Confederate sharpshooters.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The debate continued until April 15, 1861, when, following the April 12 firing on Fort Sumter, Gov. John W. Ellis received a telegram from Simon Cameron , Lincoln's secretary of war.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Washington, President Abraham Lincoln issues a proclamation announcing an "insurrection," and calls for 75,000 troops to be raised from the militia of the several States of the Union to serve for three months.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Within two months, four more Southern slave states declared their secession and joined the Confederacy: Virginia, Arkansas, North Carolina and Tennessee.^ Virginia, North Carolina, Arkansas and Tennessee refuse to send troops and soon join the Confederacy.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Virginia is the eighth state to secede, followed within five weeks by Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina, thus forming an eleven state Confederacy with a population of 9 million, including nearly 4 million slaves.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ New York Legislature passes anti-Southern resolution entitled Concurrent resolutions tendering aid to the President of the United States in support of the Constitution and the Union which starts "Whereas, treason, as defined by the Constitution of the United States, exists in one of more of the States of this confederacy; and whereas, the insurgent State of South Carolina, .
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.The northwestern portion of Virginia subsequently seceded from Virginia, joining the Union as the new state of West Virginia on June 20, 1863. By the end of 1861, Missouri and Kentucky were effectively under Union control, with Confederate state governments in exile.^ Missouri joins the Confederate States of America in November 1861.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Union forces in Kentucky under Maj.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Missouri became a Confederate state in November 1861.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

The Union states

.Twenty-three states remained loyal to the Union: California, Connecticut, Delaware, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, Vermont, and Wisconsin.^ He served as clerk of the Rhode Island House of Representatives for three years and in 1857 became a member of the House and was unanimously chosen speaker.
  • Sullivan Ballou: The Macabre Fate of a American Civil War Major » HistoryNet 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.historynet.com [Source type: Original source]

^ New York City Mayor Fernando Wood, address to the City Council, recommending that, with the Southern states seceding from the United States, New York City should become an independent city-state (1861).
  • American Civil War - Wikiquote 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ Know-Nothing candidates swept the gubernatorial, state legislative, and congressional elections in Massachusetts in 1854, and they also made impressive showings that year in New York and Pennsylvania.
  • Gary J. Kornblith | Rethinking the Coming of the Civil War: A Counterfactual Exercise | The Journal of American History, 90.1 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.During the war, Nevada and West Virginia joined as new states of the Union.^ During the war, Nevada and West Virginia joined as new states of the Union.
  • American Civil War Page 2 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC vetshome.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ View from State Capitol during the War.

^ During the war, Nevada and West Virginia (slave) joined as new states of the Union.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

.Tennessee and Louisiana were returned to Union military control early in the war.^ All of the slaves in the Confederacy, or only those who had come under Union military control after the Proclamation was issued?
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The capture of Paducah gave the Union control the mouth of the Tennessee River.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.The territories of Colorado, Dakota, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, Utah, and Washington fought on the Union side.^ Congress creates Dakota and Nevada Territories out of the Nebraska and Utah territories.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Battle of Glorieta Pass, fought on March 26-28, 1862, in northern New Mexico Territory, was the decisive battle of the New Mexico Campaign during the American Civil War.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was originally created by areas from existing territories, Most of the area west of the continental divide was formerly part of the Washington Territory, whereas most of the area east of the continental divide had been part of the Dakota Territory.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Several slave-holding Native American tribes supported the Confederacy, giving the Indian Territory (now Oklahoma) a small bloody civil war.^ The American Civil War (1860-1865) The American Civil War (1860-1865) .
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ April 17-May 22, 1862 - Grierson's Raid was a Union cavalry raid during the Vicksburg Campaign of the American Civil War.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ulysses S. Grant 's 1864 Overland Campaign during the American Civil War, today lives in infamy as one of history's most lopsided battles.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

Border states

.The border states in the Union were West Virginia (which was separated from Virginia and became a new state), and four of the five northernmost slave states (Maryland, Delaware, Missouri, and Kentucky).^ Present on the first day were delegates from New Hampshire, Vermont, Rhode Island, Connecticut, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, North Carolina, Kentucky, Ohio, Indiana and Iowa, 14 states.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Total number of slaves in the Border States: 432,586 (13% of total population).
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Others, including John Carlile, insisted on immediate action to "show our loyalty to Virginia and the Union", and on May 14, he called for a resolution creating a state of New Virginia.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Maryland had numerous pro-Confederate officials who tolerated anti-Union rioting in Baltimore and the burning of bridges.^ The Confederates prevailed, burning the personal library of Francis H. Pierpont , governor of the Restored Government of Virginia, and exploding an iron railroad bridge across the Monongahela River.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As in Kentucky, pro-Union and pro-Confederate governments were established, the latter run in exile by Governor Claiborne F. Jackson .
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Threatened by the Confederate cavalry on his left flank and rear, Sigel ordered a general withdrawal burning the North Fork bridge behind him.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Lincoln responded with martial law and called for troops.^ July 2, 1862 - Lincoln Calls for Troops.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ August 4, 1862 - Lincoln Calls for Troops.
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^ When Fort Sumter was fired on and Lincoln called for troops from Arkansas the Secession Convention was recalled.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Militia units that had been drilling in the North rushed toward Washington, DC and Baltimore.^ Also, Lee's 75,000-man army could threaten Philadelphia, Baltimore, and Washington and give voice to the growing peace movement in the North.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During the night, veteran units from the Union VI Corps disembarked from troop transports and marched north through the streets of Washington to bolster the defenses.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[63] .Before the Confederate government realized what was happening, Lincoln had seized firm control of Maryland and the District of Columbia, by arresting all the Maryland government members and holding them without trial.^ The Federals fought fiercely to hold position, but it was only a matter of time before the superior force—nearly 15,000 Confederates—gained control.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Schofield correctly interpreted Hood's moves, but foul weather prevented him from crossing to the north bank before November 28, leaving Columbia to the Confederates.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ April 16, 1862 - Slavery Abolished in Washington, D.C. President Abraham Lincoln signs the congressional bill abolishing slavery in the District of Columbia.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.In Missouri, an elected convention on secession voted decisively to remain within the Union.^ Its convention votes for secession from the Union by a vote of 166-8, pending ratification by the people.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The convention voted to take Arkansas out of the Union with only Isaac Murphy and four other delegates opposed.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On March 9 the Committee on Federal Relations at the Convention in St. Louis issued its report that in a "military aspect secession and connection with a Southern Confederacy is annihilation for Missouri."
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.When pro-Confederate Governor Claiborne F. Jackson called out the state militia, it was attacked by federal forces under General Nathaniel Lyon.^ Confederate forces under Brig.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Federals fired into the Confederate cavalry and, in large force, came out to attack them.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nathaniel Lyon had chased Missouri Governor Claiborne F. Jackson and approximately 4,000 State Militia from the State Capital at Jefferson City and from Boonville, and pursued them.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.After the Camp Jackson Affair Lyon chased the governor and the rest of the State Guard to the southwestern corner of the state.^ Nathaniel Lyon had chased Missouri Governor Claiborne F. Jackson and approximately 4,000 State Militia from the State Capital at Jefferson City and from Boonville, and pursued them.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

(See also: Missouri secession). .In the resulting vacuum, the convention on secession reconvened and took power as the Unionist provisional government of Missouri.^ In the resulting vacuum the convention on secession reconvened and took power as the Unionist provisional government of Missouri.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the resulting vacuum, the convention on secession reconvened and took power as the Unionist provisional government of Missouri.
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On March 9 the Committee on Federal Relations at the Convention in St. Louis issued its report that in a "military aspect secession and connection with a Southern Confederacy is annihilation for Missouri."
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[64]
.Kentucky did not secede; for a time, it declared itself neutral.^ Kentucky did not secede; for a time it declared itself neutral.
  • American Civil War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Kentucky did not secede; for a time, it declared itself neutral.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

^ Kentucky declares neutrality.
  • American Civil War Timeline | Carter House 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.carter-house.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.When Confederate forces entered the state in September 1861, neutrality ended and the state reaffirmed its Union status, while trying to maintain slavery.^ Commanding the Union forces was Admiral David Farragut , while Admiral Franklin Buchanan led the Confederate fleet.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Missouri joins the Confederate States of America in November 1861.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hood's campaign ended when Union forces under Thomas defeated him decisively at Nashville, Tennessee, on December 15-16, 1864.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.During a brief invasion by Confederate forces, Confederate sympathizers organized a secession convention, inaugurated a governor, and gained recognition from the Confederacy.^ During a brief invasion by Confederate forces, Confederate sympathizers organized a secession convention, inaugurated a governor, and gained recognition from the Confederacy.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During a brief invasion by Confederate forces, Southern sympathizers organized a secession convention, inaugurated a Confederate Governor, and gained recognition from the Confederacy.
  • American Civil War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In his inaugural address , he argued that the Constitution was a more perfect union than the earlier Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union , that it was a binding contract, and called any secession "legally void".
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.The rebel government soon went into exile and never controlled Kentucky.^ As in Kentucky, pro-Union and pro-Confederate governments were established, the latter run in exile by Governor Claiborne F. Jackson .
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Felix K. Zollicoffer 's main responsibility was to guard Cumberland Gap, in November 1861 he advanced west into Kentucky to strengthen control in the area around Somerset.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ But even Charles I, said Hunter, had entered into agreements with rebels in arms against his government during the English Civil War.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[65]
.After Virginia's secession, a Unionist government in Wheeling asked 48 counties to vote on an ordinance to create a new state on October 24, 1861. Returns were received from 41 of the 48 counties,[66] and a minority turnout voted heavily in favor of the new state, at first called Kanawha but later renamed West Virginia, which was admitted to the Union on June 20, 1863. Jefferson and Berkeley counties were annexed to the new state in late 1863.[67] The western counties of Virginia had voted nearly 2 to 1[68] against secession, though 24 of the 50 counties had voted for secession.^ (West Virginia is formally admitted to the Union on June 20, 1863).
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ June 20, 1863 - West Virginia Admitted to the Union.
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^ March 18, 1861 - Arkansas Convention Votes Against Secession.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[69] .Soldier numbers from West Virginia were about evenly divided between the Confederacy and the Union.^ Nathaniel P. Banks , numbering about 9,000 men, was concentrated in the vicinity of Strasburg, Virginia, with two companies of infantry at Buckton Depot.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ West Virginia (formed from several pro-Union Virginia counties and calling for the abolition of slavery in its constitution) is admitted to the Union as the 35th state (counting the eleven that had seceded).
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ (West Virginia is formally admitted to the Union on June 20, 1863).
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[70]
A similar Unionist secession attempt occurred in East Tennessee, but was suppressed by the Confederacy. .Jefferson Davis arrested over 3000 men suspected of being loyal to the Union and held them without trial.^ Jefferson Davis arrested over 3000 men suspected of being loyal to the Union and held them without trial.
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jefferson Davis arrested over 3,000 men suspected of being loyal to the Union and held them without trial.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jefferson Davis , first and only President of the Confederate States of America At the beginning of 1864, Lincoln made Grant commander of all Union armies.
  • American Civil War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

[71]

Overview

A Roman Catholic Union army chaplain celebrating a Mass
.Over 10,000 military engagements took place during the war, 40% of them in Virginia and Tennessee.^ Some 10,000 military engagements took place during the war, 40% of them in Virginia and Tennessee.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
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  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Over 10,000 military engagements took place during the war, 40% of them in Virginia and Tennessee.
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ More than 10,000 military actions of one kind or another took place during the Civil War.
  • The Civil War at a Glance 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.pueblo.gsa.gov [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

[72] .Since separate articles deal with every major battle and many minor ones, this article only gives the broadest outline.^ War Comes Again (1995) p 247 Separate articles deal with every major battle and some minor ones.
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This article only gives the broad outline.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
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  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Since separate articles deal with every major battle and many minor ones, this article only gives the broadest outline.
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.For more information see List of American Civil War battles and Military leadership in the American Civil War.^ The American Civil War (1860-1865) The American Civil War (1860-1865) .
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ April 17-May 22, 1862 - Grierson's Raid was a Union cavalry raid during the Vicksburg Campaign of the American Civil War.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Red River Campaign was a series of battles fought along the Red River in Louisiana during the American Civil War from March 10 to May 22, 1864.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

The Beginning of the War, 1861

.Lincoln's victory in the presidential election of 1860 triggered South Carolina's declaration of secession from the Union.^ December 17-20, 1860 - South Carolina Secession Convention.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ December 18-20, 1860 - South Carolina Secedes from the Union , On December 18, South Carolina Secession Convention reconvenes in Institute Hall in Charleston.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ November 5, 1860 - South Carolina Governor William H. Gist asks the legislature for a state convention if the Republicans win the election.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.By February 1861, six more Southern states made similar declarations.^ By February 1861, six more Southern states made similar declarations.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
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  • American Civil War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By February 1 , 1861 , six more Southern states had seceded.
  • Bambooweb: U.S. Civil War 20 September 2009 5:47 UTC www.bambooweb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ New York City Mayor Fernando Wood, address to the City Council, recommending that, with the Southern states seceding from the United States, New York City should become an independent city-state (1861).
  • American Civil War - Wikiquote 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

.On February 7, the seven states adopted a provisional constitution for the Confederate States of America and established their temporary capital at Montgomery, Alabama.^ The Confederates failed to recapture the state capital.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ March 11, 1861 - The Constitution of the Confederate States of America is adopted.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Congress of the Confederate States of America adjourns for the last time.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.A pre-war February Peace Conference of 1861 met in Washington in a failed attempt at resolving the crisis.^ February 4-27, 1861 - Washington Peace Conference.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Washington Peace Conference met at Willard's Dancing Hall, adjoining Willard's Hotel in Washington, from February 4-27, 1861.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The provisional Confederate Congress, which had met for four sessions between February 4, 1861 and February 17, 1862, was replaced by a permanent legislature on February 18, 1862.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.The remaining eight slave states rejected pleas to join the Confederacy.^ The remaining eight slave states rejected pleas to join the Confederacy.
  • American Civil War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Eleven Southern slave states declared their secession from the U.S. and formed the Confederate States of America (the Confederacy).
  • American Civil War - Wikiquote 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ They demand the abolition of negro slavery throughout the confederacy, the recognition of political equality between the white and negro races, and avow their determination to press on their crusade against us, so long as a negro slave remains in these States.
  • Declaration of Causes of Secession 20 September 2009 3:36 UTC sunsite.utk.edu [Source type: Original source]

.Confederate forces seized most of the federal forts within their boundaries.^ At McDowell on May 8, while Jackson was looking for an opportunity to cross the river and envelop the Union force, Milroy seized the initiative and assaulted the Confederate position on Sitlington's Hill.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Robert S. Granger for most of the battle, numbered only about 5,000 men, but successfully prevented the much larger Confederate force from crossing the river.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When Confederate forces, numbering about 800 men, threatened to seize control of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad (B&O) at Grafton, W.Va., the South's troops were met by 3,000 federal troops under the general command of Maj.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.President Buchanan protested but made no military response apart from a failed attempt to resupply Fort Sumter using the ship Star of the West, which was fired upon by South Carolina forces and turned back before it reached the fort.^ A South Carolina delegation of U. S. House Representatives warns President Buchanan not to attempt reinforcement of Fort Sumter, which would be an act of coercion and war.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With Pope no longer a threat, Lee turned his army west and north to invade Maryland, initiating the Maryland Campaign and the battles of South Mountain and Antietam.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ An unarmed merchant ship, Star of the West , carrying Union recruits to reinforce Robert Anderson at Fort Sumter, was fired on.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[73] .However, governors in Massachusetts, New York, and Pennsylvania quietly began buying weapons and training militia units.^ However, governors in Massachusetts, New York, and Pennsylvania began buying weapons and training militia units to ready them for immediate action.
  • American Civil War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, governors in Massachusetts, New York, and Pennsylvania quietly began buying weapons and training militia units.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

^ New York City Mayor Fernando Wood, address to the City Council, recommending that, with the Southern states seceding from the United States, New York City should become an independent city-state (1861).
  • American Civil War - Wikiquote 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

.On March 4, 1861, Abraham Lincoln was sworn in as President.^ Abraham Lincoln is sworn in as 16th President of the United States of America.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ President Abraham Lincoln relieves Maj.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ March 4, 1861 - Inauguration of Lincoln.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.In his inaugural address, he argued that the Constitution was a more perfect union than the earlier Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union, that it was a binding contract, and called any secession "legally void".[74] He stated he had no intent to invade Southern states, nor did he intend to end slavery where it existed, but that he would use force to maintain possession of federal property.^ More than 700 Federals were captured.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The final phase ended triumphantly for the Confederate forces of General Lee, who forced the withdrawal of the Federal Army of the Potomac after the Seven Days' Battles (June 25-July 1).
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ New York Legislature passes anti-Southern resolution entitled Concurrent resolutions tendering aid to the President of the United States in support of the Constitution and the Union which starts "Whereas, treason, as defined by the Constitution of the United States, exists in one of more of the States of this confederacy; and whereas, the insurgent State of South Carolina, .
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.His speech closed with a plea for restoration of the bonds of union.^ His speech closed with a plea for restoration of the bonds of union.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is American Civil War? What is American Civil War? Where is American Civil War? Definition of American Civil War. Meaning of American Civil War. 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Bambooweb: U.S. Civil War 20 September 2009 5:47 UTC www.bambooweb.com [Source type: Original source]

[75]
.The South sent delegations to Washington and offered to pay for the federal properties and enter into a peace treaty with the United States.^ The South sent delegations to Washington and offered to pay for the federal properties and enter into a peace treaty with the United States.
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  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All proper facilities will be afforded for the removal of yourself and command, together with company arms and property, and all private property, to any post in the United States which you may select.

^ It is of the greatest importance to the workingmen of the United States to understand the true sentiments and objects of the leading traitors of the South ...
  • weblinks-American Civil War 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.historyteacher.net [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

.Lincoln rejected any negotiations with Confederate agents because the Confederacy was not a legitimate government, and that making any treaty with it would be tantamount to recognition of it as a sovereign government.^ Confederate President Jefferson Davis appoints three commissioners (Martin Crawford, John Forsyth, and A.B. Roman) to negotiate with the Federal government.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lincoln was furious when he heard the news as he feared that this action would force slave-owners in border states to help the Confederates.
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^ Lincoln quickly ordered Hunter to retract his proclamation as he still feared that this action would force slave-owners in border states to join the Confederates.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[76] .However, Secretary of State William Seward engaged in unauthorized and indirect negotiations that failed.^ Secretary of State William H. Seward was stabbed in his Washington home on April 14, 1865, the same night President Lincoln was shot in the Ford Theater.
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^ Seward recovered from his injuries and continued to serve as Secretary of State for President Andrew Johnson.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lyons presented it to Secretary of State William H. Seward on December 19.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[76]
.Fort Sumter in Charleston, South Carolina, Fort Pickens and Fort Taylor were the remaining Union-held forts in the Confederacy, and Lincoln was determined to hold Fort Sumter.^ Fort Pickens remained in Union hands throughout the Civil War.
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^ Lincoln even visited Libby Prison, where thousands of Union officers were held during the war.
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^ An unarmed merchant ship, Star of the West , carrying Union recruits to reinforce Robert Anderson at Fort Sumter, was fired on.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Under orders from Confederate President Jefferson Davis, troops controlled by the Confederate government under P. G. T. Beauregard bombarded the fort with artillery on April 12, forcing the fort's capitulation.^ Confederate forces under Brig.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ President Jefferson Davis appeared on the scene.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Union forces had sealed the breach and their artillery was heavily bombarding the fort.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Northerners rallied behind Lincoln's call for all the states to send troops to recapture the forts and to preserve the Union.^ July 2, 1862 - Lincoln Calls for Troops.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ August 4, 1862 - Lincoln Calls for Troops.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In Washington, President Abraham Lincoln issues a proclamation announcing an "insurrection," and calls for 75,000 troops to be raised from the militia of the several States of the Union to serve for three months.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.With the scale of the rebellion apparently small so far, Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers for 90 days.^ In Washington, President Abraham Lincoln issues a proclamation announcing an "insurrection," and calls for 75,000 troops to be raised from the militia of the several States of the Union to serve for three months.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lincoln's call for 300,000 more young men to fight a seemingly endless war frightened even those who supported the Union cause.
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^ With perfect irony, at that time Lincoln had to issue a call for 500,000 more soldiers.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[77] .For months before that, several Northern governors had discreetly readied their state militias; they began to move forces the next day.^ For months before that, several Northern governors had discreetly readied their state militias; they began to move forces the next day.
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ For months before that, several Northern governors had secretly readied their state militias, built up stocks of weapons, and drawn up emergency plans; they began to move forces to Washington the next day.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
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^ When pro-Confederate Governor Claiborne F. Jackson called out the state militia, it was attacked by federal forces under General Nathaniel Lyon, who chased the governor and the rest of the State Guard to the southwestern corner of the state.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
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[78] .Liberty Arsenal in Liberty, Missouri was seized eight days after Fort Sumter.^ By the end of the next day Alabama troops controlled Fort Gaines, Fort Morgan, and the U.S. Arsenal at Mount Vernon .
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

US Postage Stamp, 1894 issue, honoring William T. Sherman
.Four states in the upper South (Tennessee, Arkansas, North Carolina, and Virginia), which had repeatedly rejected Confederate overtures, now refused to send forces against their neighbors, declared their secession, and joined the Confederacy.^ Eleven Southern slave states declared their secession from the U.S. and formed the Confederate States of America (the Confederacy).
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The upper South slave states of Virginia , North Carolina , Arkansas , and Tennessee had fewer plantations and rejected secession until the Fort Sumter crisis forced them to choose sides.
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Read South Carolina's declaration of the reasons for secession.

.To reward Virginia, the Confederate capital was moved to Richmond.^ Once Virginia seceded, the Confederate capital was moved to Richmond, Virginia .
  • American Civil War - Discussion and Encyclopedia Article. Who is American Civil War? What is American Civil War? Where is American Civil War? Definition of American Civil War. Meaning of American Civil War. 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.knowledgerush.com [Source type: Original source]
  • Bambooweb: U.S. Civil War 20 September 2009 5:47 UTC www.bambooweb.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To reward Virginia the Confederate capital was moved to Richmond, Virginia , a highly vulnerable location at the end of the supply line.
  • American Civil War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To reward Virginia, the Confederate capital was moved to Richmond .
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[79] The city was the symbol of the Confederacy. .Richmond was in a highly vulnerable location at the end of a tortuous Confederate supply line.^ Richmond was in a highly vulnerable location at the end of a tortuous supply line.
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^ Strategically the location of the capital Richmond tied Lee to a highly exposed position at the end of supply lines.
  • American Civil War - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC uncyclopedia.wikia.com [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]
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^ To reward Virginia the Confederate capital was moved to Richmond, Virginia , a highly vulnerable location at the end of the supply line.
  • American Civil War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
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.Although Richmond was heavily fortified, supplies for the city would be reduced by Sherman's capture of Atlanta and cut off almost entirely when Grant besieged Petersburg and its railroads that supplied the Southern capital.^ Separated from its supply bases and completely isolated from other Union forces, Sherman's army cut a wide swath as it moved south through Georgia, living off the countryside, destroying railroads and supplies, reducing the war-making potential of the Confederacy, and bringing the war home to the Southern people.
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^ Sherman had at this point adopted a strategy of attacking the railroad lines into Atlanta, hoping to cut off his enemies' supplies.
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^ William T. Sherman pushed off toward Atlanta from Dalton, Georgia, on May 7, 1864, with 110,123 men against Joseph E. Johnston 's 55,000.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

Anaconda Plan and blockade, 1861

1861 cartoon of Scott's "Anaconda Plan"
.Winfield Scott, the commanding general of the U.S. Army, devised the Anaconda Plan[80] to win the war with as little bloodshed as possible.^ This strategy was based on the Anaconda Plan developed by General Winfield Scott , the commanding general of the Union Army.
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^ Union General Winfield Scott resigns as Commander of the United States Army, citing failing health.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On October 21, Hood's plan received the approval of General P.G.T. Beauregard , who was in command of all forces in the Western Theater.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.His idea was that a Union blockade of the main ports would weaken the Confederate economy; then the capture of the Mississippi River would split the South.^ Union Flag-Officer David G. Farragut , with his squadron, continued up the Mississippi River and demanded the surrender of the City of New Orleans the next day.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ While battle raged north of the Chickahominy River at Gaines' Mill on June 27, Confederate General John B. Magruder demonstrated against the Union line south of the river at Garnett's Farm.
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^ Winder's brigade was assigned the task of spearheading the assault against Union forces south of the river.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Lincoln adopted the plan, but overruled Scott's warnings against an immediate attack on Richmond.^ Lincoln adopted the plan but overruled Scott's warnings against an immediate attack on Richmond.
  • American Civil War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lincoln adopted the plan, but overruled Scott's warnings against an immediate attack on Richmond.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

^ Winfield Scott created the Anaconda Plan as the Union's main plan of attack during the war.
  • Bambooweb: U.S. Civil War 20 September 2009 5:47 UTC www.bambooweb.com [Source type: Original source]

In May 1861, Lincoln enacted the Union blockade of all Southern ports, ending regular international shipments to the Confederacy. .When violators' ships and cargoes were seized, they were sold and the proceeds given to Union sailors, but the British crews were released.^ Eluding the Union blockade, the Southerners reached Cuba, where they boarded a British mail steamer, the Trent , for passage across the Atlantic Ocean.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.By late 1861, the blockade stopped most local port-to-port traffic.^ By late 1861 the blockade shut down most local port-to-port traffic as well.
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By late 1861, the blockade shut down most local port-to-port traffic as well.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

^ By late 1861, the blockade stopped most local port-to-port traffic.
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.The blockade shut down King Cotton, ruining the Southern economy.^ Most of the southern economy depended on the export of crops like cotton and tobacco, which were hurt on the world scene by policies that adversely impacted international trade.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.British investors built small, fast "blockade runners" that traded arms and luxuries brought in from Bermuda, Cuba and the Bahamas in return for high-priced cotton and tobacco.^ Most of the southern economy depended on the export of crops like cotton and tobacco, which were hurt on the world scene by policies that adversely impacted international trade.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[81] .Shortages of food and other goods triggered by the blockade, foraging by Northern armies, and the impressment of crops by Confederate armies combined to cause hyperinflation and bread riots in the South.^ The papers were among a collection of important Confederate documents transferred to Washington after the surrender of Robert E. Lee 's Army of Northern Virginia.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The campaign begins as McClellan's Army of the Potomac advances from Washington down the Potomac River and the Chesapeake Bay to the peninsular south of the Confederate Capital of Richmond, Virginia then begins an advance toward Richmond.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Confederate commander divided his army: one part remained to guard Fredericksburg, while the other raced west to meet Hooker's advance.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[82]
.On March 8, 1862, the Confederate Navy waged a fight against the Union Navy when the ironclad CSS Virginia attacked the blockade.^ In 1862 Baylor was ousted as Governor of the territory by Jefferson Davis , and the Confederate loss at the battle of Glorietta Pass (March 26-28, 1862) forced their retreat from the territory.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Confederate General Robert E. Lee initiated an offensive against Union Maj.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On May 9, 1862, following the Confederate evacuation of Norfolk, the Virginia was destroyed by its crew.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

Against wooden ships, she seemed unstoppable. The next day, however, she had to fight the new Union warship USS Monitor in the Battle of the Ironclads.[83] .The battle ended in a draw, which was a strategic victory for the Union in that the blockade was sustained.^ The battle ended in a draw, which was a strategic victory for the Union in that the blockade was sustained.
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Memphis , Drewry's Bluff , Arkansas Post , and Mobile Bay .The Second Battle of Fort Fisher virtually ended blockade running.
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The second day the Battle at Hampton Roads took place between the ironclads USS Monitor and the CSS Virginia in March 1862, ending in a draw.
  • American Civil War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Confederacy lost the Virginia when the ship was scuttled to prevent capture, and the Union built many copies of Monitor.^ The relatively small battle that followed Morgan's surprise attack was an embarrassing Union defeat, resulting in many captured Union supplies and soldiers.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ With the fall of Yorktown, the Confederate ironclad CSS Virginia guarding Hampton Roads at Norfolk was scuttled on May 11, 1892 off Craney Island to prevent her capture.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Confederates took many Union prisoners and captured so many wagons and stores that they later nicknamed the Union general "Commissary Banks".
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Lacking the technology to build effective warships, the Confederacy attempted to obtain warships from Britain.^ Lacking the technology to build effective warships, the Confederacy attempted to obtain warships from Britain.
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Confederacy purchased several warships from commercial ship builders in Britain.
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Confederacy purchased several warships from commercial ship builders in Britain; the most famous, the Alabama , did considerable damage and led to serious postwar disputes .
  • American Civil War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Union victory at the Second Battle of Fort Fisher in January 1865 closed the last useful Southern port and virtually ended blockade running.^ In March 1865 the Confederates were driven back at the Battle of Fort Stedman, leaving Lee with 50,000 troops as opposed to Grant's 120,000.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition to shutting down one of the two remaining Confederate ports, the Union victory at the Battle of Mobile Bay (together with the Battle of Atlanta), was a significant boost for Abraham Lincoln's bid for reelection.
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^ After the incident, black soldiers going into battle used the cry "Remember Fort Pillow!"
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

Eastern Theater 1861–1863

A Union Regimental Fife and Drum Corps
.Because of the fierce resistance of a few initial Confederate forces at Manassas, Virginia, in July 1861, a march by Union troops under the command of Maj.^ The Union rearguard under Maj.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Forces under sector commander Brig.
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^ While Confederate cavalry commander Maj.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Gen. Irvin McDowell on the Confederate forces there was halted in the First Battle of Bull Run, or First Manassas,[84] McDowell's troops were forced back to Washington, D.C., by the Confederates under the command of Generals Joseph E. Johnston and P. G. T. Beauregard.^ Jackson's division had been retreating down the Valley to cover the flank of Joseph E. Johnston 's forces, falling back from Centerville.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the morning of the 16th, troops of the Union XX Corps under Alpheus S. Williams were driven back by a Confederate assault.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The final phase ended triumphantly for the Confederate forces of General Lee, who forced the withdrawal of the Federal Army of the Potomac after the Seven Days' Battles (June 25-July 1).
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.It was in this battle that Confederate General Thomas Jackson received the nickname of "Stonewall" because he stood like a stone wall against Union troops.^ Bee remarked, "There stands Jackson like a stone wall!
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Battle of Front Royal, also known as Guard Hill or Cedarville, was fought May 23, 1862, in Warren County, Virginia as part of Confederate Army General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson 's Campaign through the Shenandoah Valley.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The First Battle of Winchester, fought on May 25, 1862, in and around Frederick County, Virginia and Winchester, Virginia, was a major victory in Confederate Army General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson 's Campaign through the Shenandoah Valley.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[85]
US Postage Stamp, 1937 issue, honoring Robert E. Lee and Thomas 'Stonewall' Jackson
.Alarmed at the loss, and in an attempt to prevent more slave states from leaving the Union, the U.S. Congress passed the Crittenden-Johnson Resolution on July 25 of that year, which stated that the war was being fought to preserve the Union and not to end slavery.^ July 25, 1861 - Crittenden-Johnson Resolution.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ U.S. Congress passes the Crittenden-Johnson Resolution stating that the war is being fought to preserve the Union, not to destroy slavery.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Congress passes the Wade-Davis Bill, an unsuccessful attempt by Radical Republicans and others in the U.S. Congress to set Reconstruction policy before the end of the Civil War.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan took command of the Union Army of the Potomac on July 26 (he was briefly general-in-chief of all the Union armies, but was subsequently relieved of that post in favor of Maj. Gen. .Henry W. Halleck), and the war began in earnest in 1862. Upon the strong urging of President Lincoln to begin offensive operations, McClellan attacked Virginia in the spring of 1862 by way of the peninsula between the York River and James River, southeast of Richmond.^ President Lincoln realizes the war will be long.
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^ George B. McClellan to abandon his advance on Richmond and begin the retreat to the James River.
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^ Lincoln disagreed with McClellan's desire to attack Richmond from the east.
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.Although McClellan's army reached the gates of Richmond in the Peninsula Campaign,[86][87][88] Johnston halted his advance at the Battle of Seven Pines, then General Robert E. Lee and top subordinates James Longstreet and Stonewall Jackson[89] defeated McClellan in the Seven Days Battles and forced his retreat.^ While the Union forces were engaged with Jackson, Lee ordered Longstreet forward.
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^ General Robert E. Lee assumes command of the army around Richmond, replacing the wounded Joseph E. Johnston .
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^ The effects of the Seven Days Battles were widespread.
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.The Northern Virginia Campaign, which included the Second Battle of Bull Run, ended in yet another victory for the South.^ This was the decisive battle of the Northern Virginia Campaign.
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^ Prelude: Confederate General Robert E. Lee 's Army of Northern Virginia—40,000 men—had entered Maryland following their recent victory at Second Bull Run.
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^ With Pope no longer a threat, Lee turned his army west and north to invade Maryland, initiating the Maryland Campaign and the battles of South Mountain and Antietam.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[90] .McClellan resisted General-in-Chief Halleck's orders to send reinforcements to John Pope's Union Army of Virginia, which made it easier for Lee's Confederates to defeat twice the number of combined enemy troops.^ George B. McClellan 's 87,000-man Army of the Potomac was moving to intercept Lee, a Union soldier discovered a mislaid copy of the detailed battle plans of Lee's army—General Order number 191—wrapped around three cigars.
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^ The Union government, alarmed by the potential for defeat, sent reinforcements.
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^ General William T. Sherman 's Union armies had partially encircled the city of Atlanta, Georgia, which was being held by Confederate forces under the command of General John Bell Hood .
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Emboldened by Second Bull Run, the Confederacy made its first invasion of the North. General Lee led 45,000 men of the Army of Northern Virginia across the Potomac River into Maryland on September 5. .Lincoln then restored Pope's troops to McClellan.^ Lincoln then restored Pope's troops to McClellan.
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  • American Civil War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Eventually, Lincoln deployed combat troops from the Federal Army of the Potomac to restore order; they remained encamped around the city for several weeks.
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^ McClellan was stripped of many of his troops to reinforce John Pope 's Union Army of Virginia .
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.McClellan and Lee fought at the Battle of Antietam[89] near Sharpsburg, Maryland, on September 17, 1862, the bloodiest single day in United States military history.^ After invading Maryland in September 1862, Gen.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ September 2, 1862 - McClellan Restored to Command.
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^ The Battle of Antietam (known as the Battle of Sharpsburg in the South), fought on September 17, 1862, near Sharpsburg, Maryland, part of the Maryland Campaign, was the first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Northern soil.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[91] .Lee's army, checked at last, returned to Virginia before McClellan could destroy it.^ Lee's army, checked at last, returned to Virginia before McClellan could destroy it.
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  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ President Lincoln, regretting the failure of Union Army commanders to destroy the Confederate Army before it could recross the Potomac and retreat into the safety of northern Virginia (1863).
  • American Civil War - Wikiquote 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.wikiquote.org [Source type: Original source]

^ When Joseph E. Johnston was wounded that May, Davis asked Lee to assume command of what was coming to be known as the Army of Northern Virginia.

.Antietam is considered a Union victory because it halted Lee's invasion of the North and provided an opportunity for Lincoln to announce his Emancipation Proclamation.^ Although a tactical draw, the Battle of Antietam is considered a strategic Union victory and a turning point of the war because it forced the end of Lee's invasion of the North and it allowed President Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation, taking effect on January 1, 1863.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ July 22, 1862 - Lincoln Discloses Emancipation Proclamation to Cabinet.
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^ It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with over 23,000 casualties, but also has unique significance as the partial victory that gave President Abraham Lincoln the confidence to announce his Emancipation Proclamation.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[92]
Confederate dead behind the stone wall of Marye's Heights, Fredericksburg, Virginia, killed during the Battle of Chancellorsville, May 1863
.When the cautious McClellan failed to follow up on Antietam, he was replaced by Maj.^ When the cautious McClellan failed to follow up on Antietam, he was replaced by Maj.
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  • American Civil War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lincoln had grown impatient with McClellan's slowness to follow up on the success at Antietam, even telling him, "If you don't want to use the army, I should like to borrow it for a while."
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^ THE EASTERN THEATER: THE PENINSULA CAMPAIGN --Following the Federal fiasco at First Manassas, Major General George B. McClellan replaced McDowell as commander of the Federal forces.

Gen. Ambrose Burnside. .Burnside was soon defeated at the Battle of Fredericksburg[93] on December 13, 1862, when over twelve thousand Union soldiers were killed or wounded during repeated futile frontal assaults against Marye's Heights.^ December 7, 1862 - Battle of Prairie Grove.
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^ Burnside launched his second attack from Fredericksburg against the Confederate left on Marye's Heights.
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^ December 13, 1862 - Battle of Fredericksburg.
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.After the battle, Burnside was replaced by Maj.^ After the battle, Burnside was replaced by Maj.
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  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The 1863 campaigns open along the Rappahannock in the final days of April as Burnside's replacement, Maj.
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Gen. Joseph Hooker. .Hooker, too, proved unable to defeat Lee's army; despite outnumbering the Confederates by more than two to one, he was humiliated in the Battle of Chancellorsville[94] in May 1863. He was replaced by Maj.^ On May 14, 1863, Confederate Gen.
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^ The outnumbered Confederate cavalry was defeated, and Maj.
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^ April 29-May 6, 1863 - Battle of Chancellorsville.
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Gen. .George Meade during Lee's second invasion of the North, in June.^ June 3, 1863 - Lee's Second Invasion of the North.
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^ June 28, 1863 - President Abraham Lincoln appoints George G. Meade commander of the Army of the Potomac, replacing Joseph Hooker .
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^ Shortly after Confederate General Robert E. Lee 's Army of Northern Virginia won a smashing victory over the Federal Army of the Potomac at the Battle of Chancellorsville (May 1-3, 1863), Lee decided upon a second invasion of the North.
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.Meade defeated Lee at the Battle of Gettysburg[95] (July 1 to July 3, 1863), the bloodiest battle of the war, which is sometimes considered the war's turning point.^ The tide of war turns against the South as the Confederates are defeated at the Battle of Gettysburg in Pennsylvania, the largest battle ever conducted in the Western Hemisphere, and generally considered to be the turning point of the American Civil War.
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^ With Pope no longer a threat, Lee turned his army west and north to invade Maryland, initiating the Maryland Campaign and the battles of South Mountain and Antietam.
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^ The battle was tactically inconclusive, although Bragg would traditionally be considered defeated since he withdrew first from the battlefield.
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.Pickett's Charge on July 3 is often recalled as the high-water mark of the Confederacy, not just because it signaled the end of Lee's plan to pressure Washington from the north, but also because Vicksburg, Mississippi, the key stronghold to control of the Mississippi, fell the following day.^ The end of the Confederacy was just a matter of time.
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^ With the loss of Pemberton's army and this vital stronghold on the Mississippi, and with the Union now in control of the Mississippi, the Confederacy was effectively split in half.
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^ The final phase ended triumphantly for the Confederate forces of General Lee, who forced the withdrawal of the Federal Army of the Potomac after the Seven Days' Battles (June 25-July 1).
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.Lee's army suffered 28,000 casualties (versus Meade's 23,000).^ Lee's army suffered over 5,000 casualties in this wasted effort.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lee's army suffered 28,000 casualties (versus Meade's 23,000).
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lee's army suffered some 28,000 casualties (versus Meade's 23,000).
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[96] .However, Lincoln was angry that Meade failed to intercept Lee's retreat, and after Meade's inconclusive fall campaign, Lincoln decided to turn to the Western Theater for new leadership.^ With Pope no longer a threat, Lee turned his army west and north to invade Maryland, initiating the Maryland Campaign and the battles of South Mountain and Antietam.
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^ Johnston, however, was unwilling to risk an offensive battle and decided to fall back across the Etowah.
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^ Pope now decided to cross the river south of New Madrid and turn the defense of Island No.
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Western Theater 1861–1863

.While the Confederate forces had numerous successes in the Eastern Theater, they were defeated many times in the West.^ The stand of the Fourth Alabama stalled the Union advance and gave the Confederate forces more time to regroup.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Confederate General Richard Taylor , commanding all Confederate forces in Alabama, Mississippi, and eastern Louisiana, surrenders his forces to Union General Edward Canby at Citronelle, Alabama.
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^ They actually broke the Confederate line, and the Second Corps had a hard time driving them out.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.They were driven from Missouri early in the war as a result of the Battle of Pea Ridge.^ The battle led to greater federal military activity in Missouri, and set the stage for the Battle of Pea Ridge in March 1862.
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^ With the defeat at Pea Ridge the Confederates never again seriously threatened the state of Missouri.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Battle of Pea Ridge (also known as The Battle of Elkhorn Tavern) occurred on March 8-9, 1862 at Pea Ridge in northwest Arkansas, near Bentonville.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[97] .Leonidas Polk's invasion of Columbus, Kentucky ended Kentucky's policy of neutrality and turned that state against the Confederacy.^ With the fall of Nashville, the Confederate position at Columbus, Ohio, becomes untenable and Major Leonidas Polk abandones his fortifications and falls back.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On September 4 General Leonidas Polk and a large Confederate Army moved into Kentucky, occupied Columbus and began occupying high ground overlooking the Ohio River.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ulysses S. Grant leaves Cairo, Illinois, by steamers, in conjunction with two gunboats, to make a demonstration against Columbus, Kentucky.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

Nashville and central Tennessee fell to the Union early in 1862, leading to attrition of local food supplies and livestock and a breakdown in social organization.
Most of the Mississippi was opened to Union traffic with the taking of Island No. .10 and New Madrid, Missouri, and then Memphis, Tennessee.^ M. Jeff Thompson (Missouri State Guard), bested the Union ironclads at Plum Run Bend, Tennessee, on May 10, 1862, they retired to Memphis.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The battle was fought in and around Island Number Ten in the Mississippi River, near New Madrid, Missouri which was simultaneously attacked.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ During the conference delegates arrived from Maine, Massachusetts, New York, Tennessee, Missouri, Illinois and Kansas.
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.In May 1862, the Union Navy captured New Orleans[98] without a major fight, which allowed Union forces to begin moving up the Mississippi.^ The Union occupation of New Orleans was an event that had major international significance.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After the capture of Nashville by Union forces, Pres.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ May 1, 1862 - Capture of New Orleans.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Only the fortress city of Vicksburg, Mississippi, prevented Union control of the entire river.^ Union Flag-Officer David G. Farragut , with his squadron, continued up the Mississippi River and demanded the surrender of the City of New Orleans the next day.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Following the passage on April 24, 1862, of Fort Jackson and Fort St. Philip, near the mouth of the Mississippi River, the Union occupation of New Orleans was inevitable.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Vicksburg, the last Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi River, surrenders to Gen.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.General Braxton Bragg's second Confederate invasion of Kentucky ended with a meaningless victory over Maj.^ Braxton Bragg on Confederate left.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Prelude: Confederate General Robert E. Lee 's Army of Northern Virginia—40,000 men—had entered Maryland following their recent victory at Second Bull Run.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Second, Bragg wanted to rid himself of Lieutenant General James Longstreet .
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

Gen. .Don Carlos Buell at the Battle of Perryville,[99] although Bragg was forced to end his attempt at invading Kentucky and retreat due to lack of support for the Confederacy in that state.^ Don Carlos Buell, was equally passive and refused to attack Bragg.
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^ Braxton Bragg to head the state army and supports the formation of the Confederacy.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Union General Don Carlos Buell , still advancing cautiously, reaches the now undefended city of Nashville on February 23.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Bragg was narrowly defeated by Maj.^ Bragg was narrowly defeated by Maj.
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Bragg was narrowly defeated by Major General William Rosecrans at the Battle of Stones River in Tennessee.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
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^ After Confederate General Braxton Bragg 's Army of Mississippi was defeated at the Battle of Perryville on October 8, 1862, he retreated to Harrisburg, Kentucky, where he was joined by Maj.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

Gen. .William Rosecrans at the Battle of Stones River[100] in Tennessee.^ William S. Rosecrans , victor of the recent battles of Iuka and Corinth.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ December 31, 1862-January 1, 1863 - Battle of Stones River (Murfreesboro).
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Battle of Memphis was a naval battle fought on the Mississippi River on June 6, 1862, resulting in the Union fleet capturing the city of Memphis, Tennessee.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.The one clear Confederate victory in the West was the Battle of Chickamauga.^ Phase one of the battle of Mansfield was a Confederate victory.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Battle of Resaca was one of the largest engagements and is estimated to have cost the Federals some 4,000 causalities and the Confederates nearly 3,000 men.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In addition to shutting down one of the two remaining Confederate ports, the Union victory at the Battle of Mobile Bay (together with the Battle of Atlanta), was a significant boost for Abraham Lincoln's bid for reelection.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

Bragg, reinforced by Lt. Gen. James Longstreet's corps (from Lee's army in the east), defeated Rosecrans, despite the heroic defensive stand of Maj. Gen. .George Henry Thomas.^ George Henry Thomas , and the Confederate Army of Tennessee, commanded by Gen.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Rosecrans retreated to Chattanooga, which Bragg then besieged.^ William Rosecrans retreated to Chattanooga, Tennessee.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In early September, Rosecrans consolidated his forces scattered in Tennessee and Georgia and forced Braxton Bragg 's army out of Chattanooga, heading south.
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^ Bragg was determined to reoccupy Chattanooga and decided to meet a part of Rosecrans's army, defeat them, and then move back into the city.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Union's key strategist and tactician in the West was Ulysses S. Grant, who won victories at Forts Henry and Donelson (by which the Union seized control of the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers); the Battle of Shiloh;[101] and the Battle of Vicksburg,[102] which cemented Union control of the Mississippi River and is considered one of the turning points of the war.^ Ulysses S. Grant to advance his Union Army of West Tennessee on an invasion up the Tennessee River.
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^ The outcome of the battle essentially cemented Union control of Missouri.
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^ The capture of Paducah gave the Union control the mouth of the Tennessee River.
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.Grant marched to the relief of Rosecrans and defeated Bragg at the Third Battle of Chattanooga,[103] driving Confederate forces out of Tennessee and opening a route to Atlanta and the heart of the Confederacy.^ Devising a plan known as the "Cracker Line", Grant's chief engineer, General William F. "Baldy" Smith , launched the Battle of Wauhatchie (October 28-29, 1863) to open the Tennessee River, allowing supplies and reinforcements to flow into Chattanooga, greatly increasing the chances for Grant's forces.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In early September, Rosecrans consolidated his forces scattered in Tennessee and Georgia and forced Braxton Bragg 's army out of Chattanooga, heading south.
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^ Grant lands on the Missouri shore, out of the range of Confederate artillery at Columbus, and starts marching to Belmont.
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Trans-Mississippi Theater 1861–1865

Guerrilla activity turned much of Missouri into a battleground. .Missouri had, in total, the third-most battles of any state during the war.^ The 10,000-man raid advanced into the most pro-Confederate portion of the state, the western Missouri River valley.
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^ Ulysses S. Grant 's 1864 Overland Campaign during the American Civil War, today lives in infamy as one of history's most lopsided battles.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Red River Campaign was a series of battles fought along the Red River in Louisiana during the American Civil War from March 10 to May 22, 1864.
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[104] .The other states of the west, though geographically isolated from the battles to the east, saw numerous small-scale military actions.^ In South Carolina and other states Black settlers were given possessory titles pending final action on the confiscated and abandoned lands of Confederate rebels.
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^ The Confederate defense collapsed from west to east as Sheridan's other corps join in the assault.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Battles in the region served to secure Missouri, Indian Territory, and New Mexico Territory for the Union.^ November 19, 1861 - The Battle of Round Mountain (also known as Round Mountains) was fought November 19, 1861, in what is now Payne County, Oklahoma (then Indian Territory).
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Battle of Glorieta Pass, fought on March 26-28, 1862, in northern New Mexico Territory, was the decisive battle of the New Mexico Campaign during the American Civil War.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The battle had little meaning, but the pro-Southern elements in Missouri, anxious for any good news, championed their first victory.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Confederate incursions into New Mexico territory were repulsed in 1862 and a Union campaign to secure Indian Territory succeeded in 1863. Late in the war, the Union's Red River Campaign was a failure.^ The Red River Campaign would be the last major Confederate victory in the war.
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^ Glorieta Pass was the turning point of the war in the New Mexico Territory.
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^ Union Flag-Officer David G. Farragut , with his squadron, continued up the Mississippi River and demanded the surrender of the City of New Orleans the next day.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Texas remained in Confederate hands throughout the war, but was cut off from the rest of the Confederacy after the capture of Vicksburg in 1863 gave the Union control of the Mississippi River.^ Texas remained in Confederate hands throughout the war, but was cut off after the capture of Vicksburg in 1863 gave the Union control of the Mississippi River.
  • American Civil War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ Vicksburg, the last Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi River, surrenders to Gen.
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^ Union control of the Mississippi meant the Confederacy would be split in two.

Conquest of Virginia and End of War: 1864–1865

.At the beginning of 1864, Lincoln made Grant commander of all Union armies.^ At the beginning of 1864, Lincoln made Grant commander of all Union armies.
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^ Grant made commander of all the Union forces in the West.
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^ Jefferson Davis , first and only President of the Confederate States of America At the beginning of 1864, Lincoln made Grant commander of all Union armies.
  • American Civil War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

.Grant made his headquarters with the Army of the Potomac, and put Maj.^ Grant made his headquarters with the Army of the Potomac, and put Maj.
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The only way that Lee could escape from the trap that Grant had set was to destroy the Army of the Potomac while he still had sufficient force to do so, and Grant was too skilled to allow that to happen.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jefferson Davis , first and only President of the Confederate States of America At the beginning of 1864, Lincoln made Grant commander of all Union armies.
  • American Civil War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

Gen. William Tecumseh Sherman in command of most of the western armies. .Grant understood the concept of total war and believed, along with Lincoln and Sherman, that only the utter defeat of Confederate forces and their economic base would bring an end to the war.^ The Federals captured nine forts and 41 heavy guns and occupied a base which they would hold to the end of the war, in spite of several Confederate attempts to recover the town.
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^ McClellan believed that to keep resistance to a minimum, it should be made clear that the Union forces would not interfere with slavery and would help put down any slave insurrections.
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^ Union forces occupied Richmond on April 3, and Lincoln sailed up the James River to see the spoils of war.
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[105] .This was total war not in terms of killing civilians but rather in terms of destroying homes, farms, and railroads.^ Forrest had destroyed railroad track, blockhouses, and some homes and generally disrupted Union operations in the area, but he did not accomplish much else.
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Grant devised a coordinated strategy that would strike at the entire Confederacy from multiple directions. .Generals George Meade and Benjamin Butler were ordered to move against Lee near Richmond, General Franz Sigel (and later Philip Sheridan) were to attack the Shenandoah Valley, General Sherman was to capture Atlanta and march to the sea (the Atlantic Ocean), Generals George Crook and William W. Averell were to operate against railroad supply lines in West Virginia, and Maj.^ William T. Sherman 's supply line.
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^ This defensive line protected his supply line to Atlanta, the Western & Atlantic Railroad.
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^ Joseph Wheeler 's cavalry march near Sherman's supply line, and had Maj.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks was to capture Mobile, Alabama.
.Union forces in the East attempted to maneuver past Lee and fought several battles during that phase ("Grant's Overland Campaign") of the Eastern campaign.^ In the battle, Union forces led by Brig.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Battle of North Anna was fought May 23-26, 1864, as part of Union General Ulysses S. Grant 's Overland Campaign against Confederate Gen.
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^ April 17-May 22, 1862 - Grierson's Raid was a Union cavalry raid during the Vicksburg Campaign of the American Civil War.
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.Grant's battles of attrition at the Wilderness, Spotsylvania, and Cold Harbor[106] resulted in heavy Union losses, but forced Lee's Confederates to fall back repeatedly.^ Finally the Union was able to get enfilade fire into the Confederate line, forcing it to fall back.
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^ In the battle, Union forces led by Brig.
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^ On May 4, in Virginia, Ulysses S. Grant with an army of 120,000 begins advancing toward Richmond to engage Robert E. Lee 's Army of Northern Virginia, now numbering 64,000, beginning a war of attrition that will include major battles at the Wilderness (May 5-6), Spotsylvania (May 8-21), and Cold Harbor (June 1-3).
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.An attempt to outflank Lee from the south failed under Butler, who was trapped inside the Bermuda Hundred river bend.^ Stephen D. Lee on the southern bank of the Duck River at Columbia, facing a Union division under Brig.
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^ Due to a tired and lackluster performance by Thomas J. (Stonewall) Jackson , Lee's army failed in its last attempt to cut off the Union army before it reached the James.
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^ Lee's best chance to cut off the Union army from the James River had failed; that night, McClellan established a strong position on Malvern Hill.
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.Grant was tenacious and, despite astonishing losses (over 65,000 casualties in seven weeks),[107] kept pressing Lee's Army of Northern Virginia back to Richmond.^ Lee then renames his force the Army of Northern Virginia.
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^ Lee never did, because the Army of Northern Virginia was unable to do so.
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^ Lee's army suffered over 5,000 casualties in this wasted effort.
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.He pinned down the Confederate army in the Siege of Petersburg, where the two armies engaged in trench warfare for over nine months.^ The Battle of the Crater, part of the Siege of Petersburg, took place on July 30, 1864 between the Army of Northern Virginia commanded by Gen.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This was a devastating blow for Lee's army, setting up the Confederate defeat at Five Forks on April 1 and the fall of Petersburg on April 2-3.
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^ The campaign begins as McClellan's Army of the Potomac advances from Washington down the Potomac River and the Chesapeake Bay to the peninsular south of the Confederate Capital of Richmond, Virginia then begins an advance toward Richmond.
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.Grant finally found a commander, General Philip Sheridan, aggressive enough to prevail in the Valley Campaigns of 1864.^ He found a new commander aggressive enough to defeat Early: Philip H. Sheridan , the cavalry commander of the Army of the Potomac, who was given command of all forces in the area, calling them the Army of the Shenandoah.
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^ In August 1864 Union General Grant dispatched Sheridan to clear the Shenandoah once and for all, partly to rid the Federals of a continual menace and partly to deny the South the valley's rich agricultural produce.
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^ The Battle of Monocacy (or Battle of Monocacy Junction) was fought on July 9, 1864, just outside Frederick, Maryland, as part of the Valley Campaigns of 1864.
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.Sheridan defeated Maj.^ Sheridan defeated Maj.
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Gen. .Jubal A. Early in a series of battles, including a final decisive defeat at the Battle of Cedar Creek.^ Immediately following was the Appomattox Campaign, including the Battle of Five Forks and the final surrender of Lee's army on April 9, 1865.
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^ Exactly a month later, the Valley Campaigns came to a close after Early's defeat at the Battle of Cedar Creek.
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^ One blood-spattered diary from a Union soldier found after the battle included a final entry: "June 3, 1864.
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.Sheridan then proceeded to destroy the agricultural base of the Shenandoah Valley,[108] a strategy similar to the tactics Sherman later employed in Georgia.^ Sheridan's army was engaged in destroying the economic base of the Valley, meant to deprive Robert E. Lee 's army of the supplies they required.
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^ They were never again able to threaten Washington, D.C., through the Shenandoah Valley, nor protect the economic base in the Valley.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In August 1864 Union General Grant dispatched Sheridan to clear the Shenandoah once and for all, partly to rid the Federals of a continual menace and partly to deny the South the valley's rich agricultural produce.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Meanwhile, Sherman marched from Chattanooga to Atlanta, defeating Confederate Generals Joseph E. Johnston and John Bell Hood along the way.^ John Bell Hood drove north from Atlanta, threatening Maj.
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^ Joseph Wheeler 's Confederate cavalry along the way, delaying their movements.
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^ The Battle of Ezra Church, also known as the Battle of the Poor House, was fought on July 28, 1864, in Fulton County, Georgia, part of the Atlanta Campaign, which featured General William T. Sherman 's massive Union army against the Army of Tennessee, now commanded by General John Bell Hood , which was defending the Confederate stronghold of Atlanta, Georgia.
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.The fall of Atlanta on September 2, 1864, was a significant factor in the reelection of Lincoln as president.^ September 2, 1864 - Capture of Atlanta.
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^ November 8, 1864 - Reelection of Abraham Lincoln.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He held the post until 1864, when President Abraham Lincoln replaced him with General Ulysses S. Grant .
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[109] .Hood left the Atlanta area to menace Sherman's supply lines and invade Tennessee in the Franklin-Nashville Campaign.^ William T. Sherman 's supply line.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Hood's campaign ended when Union forces under Thomas defeated him decisively at Nashville, Tennessee, on December 15-16, 1864.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Sherman did cut Hood's supply line, but failed to destroy Hardee's command.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[110] Union Maj. Gen. .John Schofield defeated Hood at the Battle of Franklin, and George H. Thomas dealt Hood a massive defeat at the Battle of Nashville, effectively destroying Hood's army.^ The Army of Tennessee was all but destroyed at Franklin.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Battle of Nashville marked the effective end of the Confederate Army of Tennessee.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Schofield was to drive back Cheatham, and Wilson's cavalry was to swing to the rear to block the Franklin Pike, Hood's only remaining route of withdrawal.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

A dead soldier in Petersburg, Virginia 1865, photographed by Thomas C. Roche.
.Leaving Atlanta, and his base of supplies, Sherman's army marched with an unknown destination, laying waste to about 20% of the farms in Georgia in his "March to the Sea". He reached the Atlantic Ocean at Savannah, Georgia in December 1864. Sherman's army was followed by thousands of freed slaves; there were no major battles along the March.^ December 5-7, 1864 - Third Battle of Murfreesboro.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ November 12, 1864 - Sherman's March to the Sea.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ December 10-21, 1864 - Sherman Captures Savannah.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Sherman turned north through South Carolina and North Carolina to approach the Confederate Virginia lines from the south,[111] increasing the pressure on Lee's army.^ Joseph E. Johnston 's army, which was retiring up through North Carolina.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After resting and refitting his army, Sherman began his march north through the Carolinas toward Virginia in February 1865.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Prelude: Confederate General Robert E. Lee 's Army of Northern Virginia—40,000 men—had entered Maryland following their recent victory at Second Bull Run.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Lee's army, thinned by desertion and casualties, was now much smaller than Grant's.^ Lee's army, thinned by desertion and casualties, was now much smaller than Grant's.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

^ Lee's army, thinned by desertion, was now much smaller than Grant's.
  • American Civil War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lee inflicted heavy casualties on Grant, but they were a smaller percentage than the casualties his army suffered.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Union forces won a decisive victory at the Battle of Five Forks on April 1, forcing Lee to evacuate Petersburg and Richmond.^ Lee decides to evacuate Petersburg.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ April 1, 1865 - Battle of Five Forks.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In the battle, Union forces led by Brig.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Confederate capital fell[112] to the Union XXV Corps, composed of black troops.^ Horatio G. Wright 's Union VI Corps on the left flank halted when faced with well entrenched Confederates on a hilltop supported by artillery.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On the morning of the 16th, troops of the Union XX Corps under Alpheus S. Williams were driven back by a Confederate assault.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Grant was hoping that Lee would take the bait of an isolated Union corps and attack it, drawing the Confederates out into the open, where they could be attacked.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.The remaining Confederate units fled west and after a defeat at Sayler's Creek, it became clear to Robert E. Lee that continued fighting against the United States was both tactically and logistically impossible.^ These troops engaged the Confederates and fighting continued.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The papers were among a collection of important Confederate documents transferred to Washington after the surrender of Robert E. Lee 's Army of Northern Virginia.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Jubal Early's command was effectively ended and his surviving units returned to assist Robert E. Lee in Petersburg that December.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

Confederacy Surrenders

Map of Confederate territory losses
.Lee surrendered his Army of Northern Virginia on April 9, 1865, at the McLean House in the village of Appomattox Court House.^ After agreeing terms, Lee surrendered his army.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ April 9, 1865 - Surrender at Appomattox.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lee never did, because the Army of Northern Virginia was unable to do so.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[113] .In an untraditional gesture and as a sign of Grant's respect and anticipation of peacefully folding the Confederacy back into the Union, Lee was permitted to keep his officer's saber and his horse, Traveller.^ Grant allows Rebel officers to keep their sidearms and permits soldiers to keep horses and mules.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Grant was hoping that Lee would take the bait of an isolated Union corps and attack it, drawing the Confederates out into the open, where they could be attacked.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Union soldiers began streaming back into town.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.On April 14, 1865, President Lincoln was shot.^ April 14, 1865 - Assassination of Lincoln.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ April 4, 1865 - Lincoln Visits Richmond.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ President Lincoln justified his action in a message to Congress in July 1861.The limited suspension of habeas corpus was rescinded on February 14, 1862.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Lincoln died early the next morning, and Andrew Johnson became President.^ Vice President Andrew Johnson assumes the presidency.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Abraham Lincoln died the next morning (April 15) at 7:22 a.m.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the reviewing stand in front of the White House were President Andrew Johnson , General-in-Chief Ulysses S. Grant , and top government officials.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Events leading to Lee's surrender began with the capture of key Confederate officers Richard S. Ewell and Richard H. Anderson on April 6, following Confederate defeat at the battle of Sayler's Creek.^ On April 6 almost one-fourth of Lee's army was trapped and captured at Sayler's Creek.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Confederates had suffered a tactical defeat, taking 718 casualties while inflicting 590, yet events later showed them to have been the strategic victors.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ In March 1865 the Confederates were driven back at the Battle of Fort Stedman, leaving Lee with 50,000 troops as opposed to Grant's 120,000.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.On April 8, Union cavalry under Major General George Armstrong Custer destroyed three trains of Confederate supplies at Appomattox Station, leading to the surrender of General Lee the next day.^ April 9, 1865 - Surrender at Appomattox.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Union cavalry forces under Brig.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Confederate cavalry under Maj.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[114] General St. John Richardson Liddell's army surrendered after the loss of the Confederate fortifications at the Battle of Spanish Fort in Alabama, also on April 9.
.Unaware of the surrender of Lee, on April 16 the last major battles of the war were fought at the Battle of Columbus, Georgia and the Battle of West Point.^ It was the last major clash of arms in the war.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lincoln remained a few more days in hopes that Robert E. Lee's army would surrender, but on April 8 he headed back to Washington.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It is worth noting that private John J. Williams of the 34th Indiana Volunteer Infantry was the last man killed at the Battle at Palmito Ranch, and probably the last of the war.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

Both towns surrendered to Wilson's Raiders.
.On April 21, John S. Mosby’s raiders of the 43rd Battalion Virginia Cavalry was disbanded, and on April 26, General Joseph E. Johnston surrendered his troops to Sherman at Bennett Place in Durham, North Carolina.^ On April 18, Johnston signed an armistice with Sherman at the Bennett House, and on April 26, formally surrendered his army.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ April 18, 1865 - Surrender of Johnston.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Joseph E. Johnston 's army, which was retiring up through North Carolina.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Surrendering on May 4 and 5 were the Confederate departments of Alabama, Mississippi and East Louisiana regiments and the District of the Gulf.^ Confederate General Richard Taylor , commanding all Confederate forces in Alabama, Mississippi, and eastern Louisiana, surrenders his forces to Union General Edward Canby at Citronelle, Alabama.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On July 9, 1863, after hearing of the fall of Vicksburg, the Confederate garrison of Port Hudson surrendered, opening the Mississippi River to Union navigation from its source to New Orleans.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ South Carolina was followed out of the Union within two months by Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and Texas.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Confederate President was captured on May 10 and the surrender of the Department of Florida and South Georgia happened the same day.^ May 10, 1865 - Capture of Jefferson Davis.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Convention of representatives from South Carolina, Mississippi, Louisiana, Georgia, Florida and Alabama meet in Montgomery, Alabama, and become first session of provisional Confederate Congress.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The armies stared at one another across the bloody fields on July 4, the same day that the Vicksburg garrison surrendered to Gen.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Confederate Brigadier General "Jeff" Meriwether Thompson surrendered his brigade the next day and the day following saw the surrender of the Confederate forces of North Georgia.^ General William T. Sherman 's Union armies had partially encircled the city of Atlanta, Georgia, which was being held by Confederate forces under the command of General John Bell Hood .
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Next, the Confederates encountered U.S. Colonel George P. Webster's brigade of Jackson's division and pushed it back to the Russell house.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Confederate General Richard Taylor , commanding all Confederate forces in Alabama, Mississippi, and eastern Louisiana, surrenders his forces to Union General Edward Canby at Citronelle, Alabama.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.On June 23, 1865, at Fort Towson in the Choctaw Nations' area of the Oklahoma Territory, Stand Watie signed a cease-fire agreement with Union representatives, becoming the last Confederate general in the field to stand down.^ Stand Watie surrendered the last significant rebel army, becoming the last Confederate general in the field to surrender.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ June 23, 1865 - Surrender of Stand Watie.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The stand of the Fourth Alabama stalled the Union advance and gave the Confederate forces more time to regroup.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.The last Confederate ship to surrender was the CSS Shenandoah, whose officers did not know of the end of the war until August 2. Not wanting to surrender to Federal authorities, the ship's commander plotted a course for the country of his ship's birth, so that they surrendered on November 6, 1865, in Liverpool, England.^ August 2, 1865 - Surrender of the Shenandoah .
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Confederate General Richard Taylor , commanding all Confederate forces in Alabama, Mississippi, and eastern Louisiana, surrenders his forces to Union General Edward Canby at Citronelle, Alabama.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The surrender of Donelson destroys the entire Confederate line in the middle theatre of war.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[115] .These surrenders marked the conclusion of the American Civil War.^ The American Civil War (1860-1865) The American Civil War (1860-1865) .
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ April 17-May 22, 1862 - Grierson's Raid was a Union cavalry raid during the Vicksburg Campaign of the American Civil War.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Ulysses S. Grant 's 1864 Overland Campaign during the American Civil War, today lives in infamy as one of history's most lopsided battles.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

Slavery during the war

.At the beginning of the war, some Union commanders thought they were supposed to return escaped slaves to their masters.^ Benjamin F. Butler declared as contraband three slaves who escaped to his lines at Fort Monroe, Virginia, and refused to return them to their master.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They must be "especially civil and polite to their masters, their masters' families and guests," and they in return would receive "gentle and kind treatment."
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ John C. Frémont , commander of the Union Army in St. Louis, proclaimed that all slaves owned by Confederates in Missouri were "forever free."
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.By 1862, when it became clear that this would be a long war, the question of what to do about slavery became more general.^ By 1862, when it became clear that this would be a long war, the question of what to do about slavery became more general.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

^ By 1862, when it became clear that this would be a long war, the question became more general.
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Generally, the losers became prisoners of war.
  • The American Civil War 12 September 2009 0:30 UTC homepage.eircom.net [Source type: Original source]

.The Southern economy and military effort depended on slave labor.^ The Southern economy and military effort depended on slave labor; was it reasonable to protect slavery while blockading Southern commerce and destroying Southern production?
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Southern economy and military effort depended on slave labor.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

^ Both the Genoveses and Ashworth analyzed the Old South from a Marxist perspective, emphasizing the noncapitalist features of an economy based on slave rather than wage labor.
  • Gary J. Kornblith | Rethinking the Coming of the Civil War: A Counterfactual Exercise | The Journal of American History, 90.1 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

.It began to seem unreasonable to protect slavery while blockading Southern commerce and destroying Southern production.^ The Southern economy and military effort depended on slave labor; was it reasonable to protect slavery while blockading Southern commerce and destroying Southern production?
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It began to seem unreasonable to protect slavery while blockading Southern commerce and destroying Southern production.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

^ Their honor challenged, white Southerners believed they were defending their homes from the abolitionists, who threatened to destroy the heart of Southern society—the institution of slavery.
  • Questions and Answers About the American Civil War - Sidebar - MSN Encarta 19 September 2009 14:34 UTC encarta.msn.com [Source type: Original source]

As one Congressman put it, the slaves "...cannot be neutral. .As laborers, if not as soldiers, they will be allies of the rebels, or of the Union."^ As laborers, if not as soldiers, they will be allies of the rebels, or of the Union."
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As laborers, if not as soldiers, they will be allies of the rebels, or of the Union.
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Black Union soldiers were mostly used in garrison duty, but they fought in several battles, such as the Battle of the Crater (1864), and the Battle of Nashville (1865).
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

[116] .The same Congressman—and his fellow Radical Republicans—put pressure on Lincoln to rapidly emancipate the slaves, whereas moderate Republicans came to accept gradual, compensated emancipation and colonization.^ The same Congressman—and his fellow Radical Republicans—put pressure on Lincoln to rapidly emancipate the slaves, whereas moderate Republicans came to accept gradual, compensated emancipation and colonization.
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The same Congressman—and his fellow Radical Republicans—put pressure on Lincoln to rapidly emancipate the slaves, whereas Conservative Republicans came to accept gradual, compensated emancipation and colonization.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

^ On the sixth, Lincoln appoints Radical Republican and sometime Presidential candidate Salmon P. Chase as the fifth Chief Justice.

[117] .Copperheads, the border states and War Democrats opposed emancipation, although the border states and War Democrats eventually accepted it as part of total war needed to save the Union.^ Total number of slaves in the Border States: 432,586 (13% of total population).
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The war was fought not for "overthrowing or interfering with the rights or established institutions of those States," but to "defend and maintain the supremacy of the Constitution and to preserve the Union."
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ What saved the Union from total destruction that morning was the foresight of Maj.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1861, Lincoln expressed the fear that premature attempts at emancipation would mean the loss of the border states, and that "to lose Kentucky is nearly the same as to lose the whole game."^ In 1861 Lincoln expressed the fear that premature attempts at emancipation would mean the loss of the border states, and that "to lose Kentucky is nearly the same as to lose the whole game."
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1861, Lincoln expressed the fear that premature attempts at emancipation would mean the loss of the border states, and that "to lose Kentucky is nearly the same as to lose the whole game.
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At first, Lincoln reversed attempts at emancipation by Secretary of War Simon Cameron and Generals John C. Fremont (in Missouri) and David Hunter (in South Carolina, Georgia and Florida) in order to keep the loyalty of the border states and the War Democrats.
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

[118] .At first, Lincoln reversed attempts at emancipation by Secretary of War Simon Cameron and Generals John C. Frémont (in Missouri) and David Hunter (in South Carolina, Georgia and Florida) to keep the loyalty of the border states and the War Democrats.^ The debate continued until April 15, 1861, when, following the April 12 firing on Fort Sumter, Gov. John W. Ellis received a telegram from Simon Cameron , Lincoln's secretary of war.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The very first Medals of Honor were given to these men by Secretary of War Edwin M. Stanton .
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ As the war progressed and the number of captives increased, the demand for some general plan of exchange became insistent; and a cartel was arranged on July 22, 1862, by General John A. Dix for the United States and General D. H. Hill for the Confederacy.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Lincoln warned the border states that a more radical type of emancipation would happen if his gradual plan based on compensated emancipation and voluntary colonization was rejected.^ The District of Columbia Emancipation Act is the only example of compensated emancipation in the United States.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The state would also have to grant slaves their freedom, as required by Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation of January 1863.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lincoln was furious when he heard the news as he feared that this action would force slave-owners in border states to help the Confederates.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[119] .Only the District of Columbia accepted Lincoln's gradual plan, and Lincoln mentioned his Emancipation Proclamation to members of his cabinet on July 21, 1862. Secretary of State William H. Seward told Lincoln to wait for a victory before issuing the proclamation, as to do otherwise would seem like "our last shriek on the retreat".[120] In September 1862 the Battle of Antietam provided this opportunity, and the subsequent War Governors' Conference added support for the proclamation.^ The District of Columbia Emancipation Act is the only example of compensated emancipation in the United States.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ July 2, 1862 - Lincoln Calls for Troops.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ July 22, 1862 - Lincoln Discloses Emancipation Proclamation to Cabinet.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[121] .Lincoln had already published a letter[122] encouraging the border states especially to accept emancipation as necessary to save the Union.^ The state would also have to grant slaves their freedom, as required by Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation of January 1863.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lincoln was furious when he heard the news as he feared that this action would force slave-owners in border states to help the Confederates.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Chairman of the Senate Finance Committee, William P. Fessenden , described Lincoln's actions as "a weak and unjustifiable concession in the Union men of the border states."
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

Lincoln later said that slavery was "somehow the cause of the war".[123] Lincoln issued his preliminary Emancipation Proclamation on September 22, 1862, and his final Emancipation Proclamation on January 1, 1863. In his letter to Hodges, Lincoln explained his belief that "If slavery is not wrong, nothing is wrong ... And yet I have never understood that the Presidency conferred upon me an unrestricted right to act officially upon this judgment and feeling ... .I claim not to have controlled events, but confess plainly that events have controlled me."^ I claim not to have controlled events, but confess plainly that events have controlled me.
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I claim not to have controlled events, but confess plainly that events have controlled me."
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
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  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

[124]
.Since the Emancipation Proclamation was based on the President's war powers, it only included territory held by Confederates at the time.^ Since the Emancipation Proclamation was based on the President's war powers, it only included territory held by Confederates at the time.
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ President Lincoln issues a Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction, offering pardons to any Confederate willing to take an oath of allegiance.
  • American Civil War Timeline | Carter House 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.carter-house.org [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

^ Based on 1860 census figures, 8% of all white males aged 13 to 43 died in the war, including 6% in the North and an extraordinary 18% in the South.
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, the Proclamation became a symbol of the Union's growing commitment to add emancipation to the Union's definition of liberty.^ However, the Proclamation became a symbol of the Union's growing commitment to add emancipation to the Union's definition of liberty.
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Heidler, 564-72, 1185-90 * The Emancipation Proclamation enabled African Americans, both free blacks and escaped slaves, to join the Union army.
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The great majority of the 4 million slaves were freed by the Emancipation Proclamation, as Union armies moved South.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

[125] Lincoln also played a leading role in getting Congress to vote for the Thirteenth Amendment,[126] which made emancipation universal and permanent.
.Enslaved African Americans did not wait for Lincoln's action before escaping and seeking freedom behind Union lines.^ Grant did not accomplish much in this operation, but, at a time when little Union action occurred anywhere, many were heartened by any activity.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The attack on Fort Stedman turned out to be a four-hour action with no impact on the Union lines.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Chairman of the Senate Finance Committee, William P. Fessenden , described Lincoln's actions as "a weak and unjustifiable concession in the Union men of the border states."
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.From early years of the war, hundreds of thousands of African Americans escaped to Union lines, especially in occupied areas like Nashville, Norfolk and the Hampton Roads region in 1862, Tennessee from 1862 on, the line of Sherman's march, etc.^ Fortunately for Sheridan, Early's men were too occupied to take notice; they were hungry and exhausted and fell out of their ranks to pillage the Union camps.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Battle of Glorieta Pass, fought on March 26-28, 1862, in northern New Mexico Territory, was the decisive battle of the New Mexico Campaign during the American Civil War.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ April 17-May 22, 1862 - Grierson's Raid was a Union cavalry raid during the Vicksburg Campaign of the American Civil War.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.So many African Americans fled to Union lines that commanders created camps and schools for them, where both adults and children learned to read and write.^ Also, three separate Union commands were created in the Valley—one under Irvin McDowell , one under Banks, and one under newly arrived Maj.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This caused a weak spot in the Union line at the Carter House as an inexperienced regiment, just arrived from Nashville, broke and fled with Wagner's troops.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Federal land forces, in the meantime, fell back to a more defensible line, and the Union commander, Brig.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.The American Missionary Association entered the war effort by sending teachers south to such contraband camps, for instance establishing schools in Norfolk and on nearby plantations.^ Further south at Crampton's Gap, General William B. Franklin 's Union VI Corps moved into the area from its camp in nearby Jefferson.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

In addition, nearly 200,000 African-American men served as soldiers and sailors with Union troops. Most of those were escaped slaves.
.Confederates enslaved captured black Union soldiers, and black soldiers especially were shot when trying to surrender at the Fort Pillow Massacre.^ The relatively small battle that followed Morgan's surprise attack was an embarrassing Union defeat, resulting in many captured Union supplies and soldiers.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The heroics at Fort Griffin—44 men stopping a Union expedition—inspired other Confederate soldiers.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After the incident, black soldiers going into battle used the cry "Remember Fort Pillow!"
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[127] .This led to a breakdown of the prisoner exchange program[128] and the growth of prison camps such as Andersonville prison in Georgia,[129] where almost 13,000 Union prisoners of war died of starvation and disease.^ Most were Union survivors of the Andersonville Prison.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The first Northern prisoners arrive at the Confederate prison at Andersonville, Georgia, the largest Confederate military prison during the American Civil War.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lincoln even visited Libby Prison, where thousands of Union officers were held during the war.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[130]
.In spite of the South's shortage of soldiers, most Southern leaders — until 1865 — opposed enlisting slaves.^ The south viewed this as an act of war, and most southerners, even those who opposed secession, felt they were now forced to choose sides.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.They used them as laborers to support the war effort.^ It allowed the use by the Union army of runaway slaves as a labor force to support their war effort, and to undermine the war effort of their enemy.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

As Howell Cobb said, "If slaves will make good soldiers our whole theory of slavery is wrong." Confederate generals Patrick Cleburne and Robert E. Lee argued in favor of arming blacks late in the war, and Jefferson Davis was eventually persuaded to support plans for arming slaves to avoid military defeat. The Confederacy surrendered at Appomattox before this plan could be implemented.[131]
.The Emancipation Proclamation[132] greatly reduced the Confederacy's hope of getting aid from Britain or France.^ The winning of the Battle of Antietam also may have dissuaded the governments of France and Britain from recognizing the Confederacy; some suspected they were planning to do so in the aftermath of another Union defeat.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ September, also dashed Southern diplomatic hopes for recognition of the Confederacy as a separate nation by Great Britain.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Lincoln's moderate approach succeeded in getting border states, War Democrats and emancipated slaves fighting on the same side for the Union.^ To his nephew discussing Lincoln, state of the union, and position of border states.
  • WHMC-Columbia--American Civil War--COLLECTION DESCRIPTIONS 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC whmc.umsystem.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Border state slaves .
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lincoln's moderate approach succeeded in getting border states, War Democrats and emancipated slaves fighting on the same side for the Union.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.The Union-controlled border states (Kentucky, Missouri, Maryland, Delaware and West Virginia) were not covered by the Emancipation Proclamation.^ The Union-controlled border states (Kentucky, Missouri, Maryland, Delaware and West Virginia) were not covered by the Emancipation Proclamation.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
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  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

^ The Border states in the Union were West Virginia (which was separated from Virginia and became a new state), and four of the five northernmost slave states ( Maryland , Delaware , Missouri , and Kentucky ).
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Border states in the Union comprised West Virginia (which broke away from Virginia and became a separate state), and four of the five northernmost slave states ( Maryland , Delaware , Missouri , and Kentucky ).
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.All abolished slavery on their own, except Kentucky and Delaware.^ All abolished slavery on their own, except Kentucky.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
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  • American Civil War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All abolished slavery on their own, except Kentucky and Delaware.
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Before 1860, all presidents (except John Quincy Adams) were either Southern or pro-South on slavery questions.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
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[133] .The great majority of the 4 million slaves were freed by the Emancipation Proclamation, as Union armies moved South.^ The Union army had gained its first decisive victory during the siege of Petersburg and achieved a major objective.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Meanwhile, in a controversial move, Lee allowed J.E.B. Stuart to take a portion of the army's cavalry and ride around the Union army.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The state would also have to grant slaves their freedom, as required by Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation of January 1863.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

The 13th amendment,[134] ratified December 6, 1865, finally made slavery illegal everywhere in the United States, thus freeing the remaining slaves--65,000 in Kentucky (as of 1865),[135] 1,800 in Delaware, and 18 in New Jersey as of 1860.[136]
Historian Stephen Oates said that many myths surround Lincoln: "man of the people", "true Christian", "arch villain" and racist. .The belief that Lincoln was racist was caused by an incomplete picture of Lincoln, such as focusing on only selective quoting of statements Lincoln made to gain the support of the border states and Northern Democrats, and ignoring the many things he said against slavery, and the military and political context within which such statements were made.^ Lincoln's call for 300,000 more young men to fight a seemingly endless war frightened even those who supported the Union cause.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ A full week before Alabama secedes from the Union, Gov. A. B. Moore orders the seizure of federal military installations within the state.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Act authorized in rem procedures against the property of Southern rebels and their sympathizers, redirecting proceeds to law enforcement to wage the war on crime, the Act stated that the properties seized were to be used for supporting the Union cause in waging its war.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Oates said that Lincoln's letter to Horace Greeley has been "persistently misunderstood and misrepresented" for such reasons.^ The Old Jacksonian Francis Preston Blair , as quixotic in his own way as Horace Greeley , set up a meeting between Abraham Lincoln and Confederate commissioners.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[137]

Blocking international intervention

.The Confederacy's best hope was military intervention into the war by Britain and France against the Union.^ Grant was hoping that Lee would take the bait of an isolated Union corps and attack it, drawing the Confederates out into the open, where they could be attacked.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The political leadership of the Confederacy was unhappy with Johnston's lack of aggressiveness against the larger Union army and so they replaced him with Hood.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ To sell or enslave any captured person, on account of his color, and for no offence against the laws of war, is a relapse into barbarism and a crime against the civilization of the age.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[138] The Union, under Lincoln and Secretary of State William H. Seward worked to block this, and threatened war if any country officially recognized the existence of the Confederate States of America (none ever did). .In 1861, Southerners voluntarily embargoed cotton shipments, hoping to start an economic depression in Europe that would force Britain to enter the war in order to get cotton.^ In 1861, Southerners voluntarily embargoed cotton shipments, hoping to start an economic depression in Europe that would force Britain to enter the war in order to get cotton.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
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  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

^ In 1861 southerners voluntarily embargoed cotton shipments, hoping to start an economic depression in Europe that would force Britain to enter the war in order to get cotton.
  • American Civil War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When Confederate forces entered the state in September, 1861, neutrality ended and the state reaffirmed its loyal status, while trying to maintain slavery.
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.Cotton diplomacy proved a failure as Europe had a surplus of cotton, while the 1860–62 crop failures in Europe made the North's grain exports of critical importance.^ Most of the southern economy depended on the export of crops like cotton and tobacco, which were hurt on the world scene by policies that adversely impacted international trade.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.It was said that "King Corn was more powerful than King Cotton", as US grain went from a quarter of the British import trade to almost half.^ It was said that "King Corn was more powerful than King Cotton", as US grain went from a quarter of the British import trade to almost half.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
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  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

^ It was said that "King Corn was more powerful than King Cotton", as US grain went from a quarter of the British import trade, to almost half.
  • American Civil War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ British investors built small, fast " blockade runners " that traded arms and luxuries from Bermuda , Cuba and the Bahamas in return for high-priced cotton and tobacco.
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

[139]
When Britain did face a cotton shortage, it was temporary, being replaced by increased cultivation in Egypt and India. .Meanwhile, the war created employment for arms makers, iron workers, and British ships to transport weapons.^ The war created employment for arms makers, iron workers, and shipbuilders.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
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^ The war created employment for arms makers, iron workers, and British ships to transport weapons.
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ And the war created employment for arms makers, iron workers, and British ships to transport weapons.
  • American Civil War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

[140]
Charles Francis Adams proved particularly adept as minister to Britain for the U.S. and Britain was reluctant to boldly challenge the blockade. .The Confederacy purchased several warships from commercial ship builders in Britain.^ The Confederacy purchased several warships from commercial ship builders in Britain.
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Confederacy purchased several warships from commercial ship builders in Britain; the most famous, the CSS Alabama , did considerable damage and led to serious postwar disputes.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

^ The Confederacy purchased several warships from commercial ship builders in Britain; the most famous, the Alabama , did considerable damage and led to serious postwar disputes .
  • American Civil War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

The most famous, the CSS Alabama, did considerable damage and led to serious postwar disputes. .However, public opinion against slavery created a political liability for European politicians, especially in Britain.^ However, public opinion against slavery created a political liability for European politicians, especially in Britain.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
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  • American Civil War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Black Codes outraged public opinion in the North because it seemed the South was creating a form of quasi-slavery to evade the results of the war.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Emancipation Proclamation made direct support of the Confederacy and slavery politically impossible in Britain.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

.War loomed in late 1861 between the U.S. and Britain over the Trent Affair, involving the U.S. Navy's boarding of a British mail steamer to seize two Confederate diplomats.^ The fort guarded the entrance to Chesapeake Bay and the James River, overlooking Hampton Roads and the Gosport Navy Yard, which the Confederates had seized.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On November 8, 1861, Captain James of the U.S.S San Jacinto , halted the Trent 300 miles east of Havana with two shots across the bow.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The British Government composed an ultimatum that demanded an apology and the return of the Confederate diplomats.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.However, London and Washington were able to smooth over the problem after Lincoln released the two.^ However, London and Washington were able to smooth over the crisis after Lincoln released the two.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
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^ However, London and Washington were able to smooth over the problem after Lincoln released the two.
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, London and Washington were able to smooth over the problem after Lincoln released the two diplomats.
  • American Civil War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.In 1862, the British considered mediation—though even such an offer would have risked war with the U.S. Lord Palmerston reportedly read Uncle Tom’s Cabin three times when deciding on this.^ By the time Pemberton joined his 22,000-man army at Edward's Station, Miss., he had decided it would be "extremely hazardous" to implement his superior's instructions.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ After heated meetings with his cabinet, Lincoln decided upon a policy of "One war at a time".
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[141] .The Union victory in the Battle of Antietam caused them to delay this decision.^ The Union army had gained its first decisive victory during the siege of Petersburg and achieved a major objective.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Nothing was really gained on either side; like the war's first big battle (First Bull Run to the Union, First Manassas to the Confederates), it is recorded as a Confederate victory.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The winning of the Battle of Antietam also may have dissuaded the governments of France and Britain from recognizing the Confederacy; some suspected they were planning to do so in the aftermath of another Union defeat.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

The Emancipation Proclamation further reinforced the political liability of supporting the Confederacy. .Despite sympathy for the Confederacy, France's own seizure of Mexico ultimately deterred them from war with the Union.^ The winning of the Battle of Antietam also may have dissuaded the governments of France and Britain from recognizing the Confederacy; some suspected they were planning to do so in the aftermath of another Union defeat.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Union took hundreds of prisoners, 43 guns (18 of which were their own guns from the morning), and supplies that the Confederacy could not replace.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Confederate offers late in the war to end slavery in return for diplomatic recognition were not seriously considered by London or Paris.^ Confederate offers late in the war to end slavery in return for diplomatic recognition were not seriously considered by London or Paris.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
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  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

^ Confederate offers late in the war to end slavery in return for recognition were not seriously considered by London or Paris.
  • American Civil War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ War loomed in late 1861 between the U.S. and Britain over the Trent Affair , when the U.S., Navy violated international law by boarding a British mail steamer to seize two Confederate diplomats, James Mason and John Slidell.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
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Victory and aftermath

Comparison of Union and CSA[142]
Union CSA
Total population 22,100,000 (71%) 9,100,000 (29%)
Free population 21,700,000 5,600,000
1860 Border state slaves 400,000 NA
1860 Southern slaves NA 3,500,000
Soldiers 2,100,000 (67%) 1,064,000 (33%)
Railroad miles 21,788 (71%) 8,838 (29%)
Manufactured items 90% 10%
Firearm production 97% 3%
Bales of cotton in 1860 Negligible 4,500,000
Bales of cotton in 1864 Negligible 300,000
Pre-war U.S. exports 30% 70%
US Postage Stamps, 1938 issue, honoring Abraham Lincoln, Andrew Johnson and Ulysses S. Grant
Andersonville National Cemetery is the final resting place for the Union prisoners who perished while being held at Camp Sumter.
.Historians have debated whether the Confederacy could have won the war.^ Some historians note that this could be considered the first shots fired by United States forces in the Civil War.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

Most scholars emphasize that the Union held an insurmountable long-term advantage over the Confederacy in terms of industrial strength and population. .Confederate actions, they argue, only delayed defeat.^ Although the Battle of Atlanta was a severe defeat for Hood's Confederate Army, they still held the city.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Convinced that Lee would have to retreat, Hooker trusted that his troops could defeat the Confederates as they tried to escape his trap.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ When the Union forces finally went into action on December 15, they had 49,000 men, compared to the Confederates' 31,000.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

Southern historian Shelby Foote expressed this view succinctly: "I think that the North fought that war with one hand behind its back...If there had been more Southern victories, and a lot more, the North simply would have brought that other hand out from behind its back. .I don't think the South ever had a chance to win that War."^ I don't think the South ever had a chance to win that War.
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ I don't think the South ever had a chance to win that War."
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
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  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Robert E. Lee, before The American Civil War "You people of the South don't know what you are doing.
  • The American Civil War 12 September 2009 0:30 UTC homepage.eircom.net [Source type: Original source]

[143] .The Confederacy sought to win independence by out-lasting Lincoln; however, after Atlanta fell and Lincoln defeated McClellan in the election of 1864, all hope for a political victory for the South ended.^ Abraham Lincoln wins reelection, defeating Democrat George B. McClellan .
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although Lincoln had intended to do so earlier, he was advised by his Cabinet to make this announcement after a Union victory to avoid the perception that it was issued out of desperation.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ However, Longstreet did not have enough men to complete his victory, and the fighting soon petered out near the Brock Road.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.At that point, Lincoln had succeeded in getting the support of the border states, War Democrats, emancipated slaves and Britain and France.^ Border state slaves .
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lincoln's moderate approach succeeded in getting border states, War Democrats and emancipated slaves fighting on the same side for the Union.
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^ At that point, Lincoln had succeeded in getting the support of the border states and War Democrats, and kept Britain and France neutral.
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.By defeating the Democrats and McClellan, he also defeated the Copperheads and their peace platform.^ General George McClellan was running against President Lincoln on a peace platform.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Abraham Lincoln wins reelection, defeating Democrat George B. McClellan .
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[144] .Lincoln had found military leaders like Grant and Sherman who would press the Union's numerical advantage in battle over the Confederate Armies.^ Johnston formed his army on a ridge and hoped that Sherman would attack him there on May 20.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The final phase ended triumphantly for the Confederate forces of General Lee, who forced the withdrawal of the Federal Army of the Potomac after the Seven Days' Battles (June 25-July 1).
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On April 3, realizing that Buell would soon reinforce Grant, Johnston launched an offensive with his newly christened Army of the Mississippi.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Generals who did not shy from bloodshed won the war, and from the end of 1864 onward there was no hope for the South.^ Generals who did not shy from bloodshed won the war, and from the end of 1864 onward there was no hope for the South.
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If the South had been allowed to leave peacefully there would have been no war.

^ Generals who didn't shy from bloodshed won the war, and from the end of 1864 onward there was no hope for the South.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
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On the other hand, James McPherson has argued that the North’s advantage in population and resources made Northern victory likely, but not inevitable. .Confederates did not need to invade and hold enemy territory to win, but only needed to fight a defensive war to convince the North that the cost of winning was too high.^ The war had never been very popular in the North, and a part of McClellan's campaign was the promise of a truce with the Confederates.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Only strong counterattacks and desperate fighting south of the Goldsborough Road blunted the Confederate offensive.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thwarted in the attempt to take the capital, the Confederates turned back to Virginia, ending their last campaign to carry the war into the North.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.The North needed to conquer and hold vast stretches of enemy territory and defeat Confederate armies to win.^ This was a devastating blow for Lee's army, setting up the Confederate defeat at Five Forks on April 1 and the fall of Petersburg on April 2-3.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Beauregard could not hope to hold Corinth given the condition of his army and the size of the enemy.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Although the Battle of Atlanta was a severe defeat for Hood's Confederate Army, they still held the city.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[145]
.Also important were Lincoln's eloquence in rationalizing the national purpose and his skill in keeping the border states committed to the Union cause.^ To his nephew discussing Lincoln, state of the union, and position of border states.
  • WHMC-Columbia--American Civil War--COLLECTION DESCRIPTIONS 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC whmc.umsystem.edu [Source type: Academic]

^ Also important were Lincoln's eloquence in rationalizing the national purpose and his skill in keeping the border states committed to the Union cause.
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^ At first, Lincoln reversed attempts at emancipation by Secretary of War Simon Cameron and Generals John C. Fremont (in Missouri) and David Hunter (in South Carolina, Georgia and Florida) in order to keep the loyalty of the border states and the War Democrats.
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.Although Lincoln's approach to emancipation was slow, the Emancipation Proclamation was an effective use of the President's war powers.^ President Lincoln realizes the war will be long.

^ Although Lincoln's approach to emancipation was slow, the Emancipation Proclamation was an effective use of the President's war powers.
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^ Although a tactical draw, the Battle of Antietam is considered a strategic Union victory and a turning point of the war because it forced the end of Lee's invasion of the North and it allowed President Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation, taking effect on January 1, 1863.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[146]
.The Confederate government failed in its attempt to get Europe involved in the war militarily, particularly England and France.^ March 2, 1864 - The Dahlgren Affair was an incident involving a failed Union raid on the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia on March 2, 1864.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Thwarted in the attempt to take the capital, the Confederates turned back to Virginia, ending their last campaign to carry the war into the North.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Southern leaders needed to get European powers to help break up the blockade the Union had created around the Southern ports and cities.^ Union Flag-Officer David G. Farragut , with his squadron, continued up the Mississippi River and demanded the surrender of the City of New Orleans the next day.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ John Bell Hood arrived south of the city on December 2 and took up positions facing the Union forces within the city.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Oliver O. Howard , north and west around the rest of the Union lines to the far western side of Atlanta where the railroad entered the city.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

Lincoln's naval blockade was 95% effective at stopping trade goods, as a result, imports and exports to the South declined significantly. .The abundance of European cotton and England's hostility to the institution of slavery, along with Lincoln's Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico naval blockades, severely decreased any chance that either England or France would enter the war.^ A council of war determined that Pemberton would march southeast and attack Union supply trains and reinforcements en route from Grand Gulf to Raymond, Miss.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Abraham Lincoln addresses gathering at the Cooper Institute in New York, attacking slavery and insisting that the Federal government has "the power of restraining the extension of the institution."
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At his inaugural address, Abraham Lincoln attempted to avoid conflict by announcing that he had no intention "to interfere with the institution of slavery in the states where it exists.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.The more industrialized economy of the North aided in the production of arms, munitions and supplies, as well as finances, and transportation.^ The more industrialized economy of the North aided in the production of arms, munitions and supplies, as well as finances, and transportation.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
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^ The long-term advantages widely credited by historians to have contributed to the Union's success include: US economic advantages over CSA The more industrialized economy of the North aided in the production of arms, munitions and supplies, as well as finances, and transportation.
  • American Civil War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By 1864, long-term Union advantages in geography, manpower, industry, finance, political organization and transportation were overwhelming the Confederacy.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
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.The table shows the relative advantage of the Union over the Confederate States of America (CSA) at the start of the war.^ The table shows the relative advantage of the Union over the Confederate States of America (CSA) at the start of the war.
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The graph shows the relative advantage of the USA over the CSA at the start of the war.
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^ Eleven Southern slave states declared their secession from the U.S. and formed the Confederate States of America (the Confederacy).
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]

.The advantages widened rapidly during the war, as the Northern economy grew, and Confederate territory shrank and its economy weakened.^ These advantages widened rapidly during the war, as the Northern economy grew, and Confederate territory shrank and its economy weakened.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
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^ The advantages widened rapidly during the war, as the Northern economy grew, and Confederate territory shrank and its economy weakened.
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
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^ Currently unavailable Firearms from Europe: Being a history and description of firearms imported during the American Civil War by the United States of America and the Confederate States of America by James B Whisker ( 1 ) .
  • Lists & Guides tagged with american civil war 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

.The Union population was 22 million and the South 9 million in 1861. The Southern population included more than 3.5 million slaves and about 5.5 million whites, thus leaving the South's white population outnumbered by a ratio of more than four to one.^ New York Legislature passes anti-Southern resolution entitled Concurrent resolutions tendering aid to the President of the United States in support of the Constitution and the Union which starts "Whereas, treason, as defined by the Constitution of the United States, exists in one of more of the States of this confederacy; and whereas, the insurgent State of South Carolina, .
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^ The Union will soon have 21 states and a population of over 20 million.
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^ By the next morning (April 7), the combined Federal forces numbered about 40,000, outnumbering Beauregard's army of less than 30,000.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[147] .The disparity grew as the Union controlled an increasing amount of southern territory with garrisons, and cut off the trans-Mississippi part of the Confederacy.^ Union ironclads commenced shelling the fort and Porter's fleet passed it to cut off any retreat.
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^ At the corner of the L, Johnson Hagood's division managed to break through the Union lines, but then nearly became cut off before fighting its way back out.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Due to a tired and lackluster performance by Thomas J. (Stonewall) Jackson , Lee's army failed in its last attempt to cut off the Union army before it reached the James.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

The Union at the start controlled over 80% of the shipyards, steamships, riverboats, and the Navy. .It augmented these by a massive shipbuilding program.^ It augmented these by a massive shipbuilding program.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
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.This enabled the Union to control the river systems and to blockade the entire southern coastline.^ This enabled the Union to control the river systems and to blockade the entire southern coastline.
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^ The Union won a series of naval battles in the rivers and harbors, taking control of the excellent waterway system to move its forces at will, while Confederates had to march overland.
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^ They tended to overlook, for example, the stranglehold the Federal navy kept on the Confederate coastline or its increasing control of the river system beyond the Appalachians.
  • The American Civil War 12 September 2009 0:30 UTC homepage.eircom.net [Source type: Original source]

[148] .Excellent railroad links between Union cities allowed for the quick and cheap movement of troops and supplies.^ Excellent railroad links between Union cities allowed for the quick and cheap movement of troops and supplies.
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^ McPherson 313-16, 392-3 Excellent railroad links between Union cities allowed for the quick and cheap movement of troops and supplies.
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^ This was the first of three encounters between Opothleyahola's Union bands and Confederate troops.
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.Transportation was much slower and more difficult in the South which was unable to augment its much smaller rail system, repair damage, or even perform routine maintenance.^ Transportation was much slower and more difficult in the South which was unable to augment its much smaller system or repair damage, or even perform routine maintenance.
  • American Civil War - on Opentopia, a free Encyclopedia 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC encycl.opentopia.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Transportation was much slower and more difficult in the South which was unable to augment its much smaller rail system, repair damage, or even perform routine maintenance.
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^ Many old tools had broken through heavy use and could not be replaced; even repairs were difficult.
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[149] .The failure of Davis to maintain positive and productive relationships with state governors (especially governor Joseph E. Brown of Georgia and governor Zebulon Baird Vance of North Carolina) damaged his ability to draw on regional resources.^ Joseph Wheeler and his cavalry raided into North Georgia to destroy railroad tracks and supplies.
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^ He turned north in the direction of Resaca, Georgia, and joined with Joseph Wheeler 's cavalry, which had been previously raiding in Tennessee.
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^ The bill, sponsored by senators Benjamin F. Wade and Henry W. Davis , provided for the appointment of provisional military governors in the seceded states.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[150] .The Confederacy's "King Cotton" misperception of the world economy led to bad diplomacy, such as the refusal to ship cotton before the blockade started.^ Most of the southern economy depended on the export of crops like cotton and tobacco, which were hurt on the world scene by policies that adversely impacted international trade.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[151] .The Emancipation Proclamation enabled African-Americans, both free blacks and escaped slaves, to join the Union Army.^ Heidler, 564-72, 1185-90 * The Emancipation Proclamation enabled African Americans, both free blacks and escaped slaves, to join the Union army.
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Emancipation Proclamation enabled African-Americans, both free blacks and escaped slaves, to join the Union Army.
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^ 'Contrabands' were Negro slaves who had escaped or been brought across Union (northern) lines.
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.About 190,000 volunteered,[152] further enhancing the numerical advantage the Union armies enjoyed over the Confederates, who did not dare emulate the equivalent manpower source for fear of fundamentally undermining the legitimacy of slavery.^ At New Market on the 15th, Sigel was attacked by a makeshift Confederate army of about 4,100 men commanded by Maj.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By the next morning (April 7), the combined Federal forces numbered about 40,000, outnumbering Beauregard's army of less than 30,000.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ On July 27 the two armies met outside of town at Battle of Mesilla in which the Confederates forced the Union troops to surrender.
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.Emancipated slaves mostly handled garrison duties, and fought numerous battles in 1864–65.[153] European immigrants joined the Union Army in large numbers, including 177,000 born in Germany and 144,000 born in Ireland.^ The battle was fought May 5-7, 1864.
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^ The Battle: The battle began on May 31, 1864, when Union cavalry under Maj.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ By the next morning (April 7), the combined Federal forces numbered about 40,000, outnumbering Beauregard's army of less than 30,000.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[154]

Reconstruction

.Northern leaders agreed that victory would require more than the end of fighting.^ Northern leaders agreed that victory would require more than the end of fighting.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
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  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ If only half of them actually hit an attacker, that would still be more than enough to stop an attack by at least 100% more attackers than defenders.
  • The American Civil War 12 September 2009 0:30 UTC homepage.eircom.net [Source type: Original source]

^ If there had been more Southern victories, and a lot more, the North simply would have brought that other hand out from behind its back.
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

.It had to encompass the two war goals: secession had to be repudiated and all forms of slavery had to be eliminated.^ The Black Codes outraged public opinion in the North because it seemed the South was creating a form of quasi-slavery to evade the results of the war.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Each state's constitution was to be required to abolish slavery, repudiate secession, and disqualify Confederate officials from voting or holding office.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ At the beginning of the war, it was critical because the administration did not have the eradication of slavery as one of its goals.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.They disagreed sharply on the criteria for these goals.^ They disagreed sharply on the criteria for these goals.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
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^ If you disagree with these religious groups on a particular moral issue, they complain, they threaten you with a loss of money or votes or both.
  • A rant about stupidity... and the coming civil war... - David Brin - Open Salon 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC open.salon.com [Source type: Original source]

.They also disagreed on the degree of federal control that should be imposed on the South, and the process by which Southern states should be reintegrated into the Union.^ They also disagreed on the degree of federal control that should be imposed on the South, and the process by which Southern states should be reintegrated into the Union.
  • American civil war encyclopedia topics | Reference.com 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.reference.com [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ They also disagreed on how much federal control should be imposed on the South, and the process by which Southern states should be reintegrated into the Union.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

^ Southerners argued that States Rights meant the federal government was strictly limited and could not abridge the rights of states, and so had no power to prevent slaves from being carried into new territories.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.citizendium.org:8080 [Source type: Original source]

.Reconstruction, which began early in the war and ended in 1877, involved a complex and rapidly changing series of federal and state policies.^ Reconstruction, which began early in the war and ended in 1877, involved a complex and rapidly changing series of federal and state policies.
  • American Civil War - encyclopedia article - Citizendium 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Original source]
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  • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The " resumption " by the seceding states of the coast defenses (built on land ceded by the various states to the Federal government, and, it was argued, withdrawn therefore by the act of secession) brought on the war.

^ After a successful start on the Peninsula that foretold an early end to the war, Northern morale was crushed by McClellan's retreat.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.The long-term result came in the three Reconstruction Amendments to the Constitution: the Thirteenth Amendment, which abolished slavery; the Fourteenth Amendment, which extended federal legal protections equally to citizens regardless of race; and the Fifteenth Amendment, which abolished racial restrictions on voting.^ December 6, 1865 - The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, passed by the Senate on April 8, 1864, by the House on January 31, 1865, and ratified on December 6, 1865, abolished slavery as a legal institution.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ He said slavery was on the way out, and he proposed a constitutional amendment protecting property rights in slaves.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Each state's constitution was to be required to abolish slavery, repudiate secession, and disqualify Confederate officials from voting or holding office.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.Reconstruction ended in the different states at different times, the last three by the Compromise of 1877.^ The Congress of the Confederate States of America adjourns for the last time.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

For further details on how the protections of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments were subverted, see:

Results

Monument in honor of the Grand Army of the Republic, organized after the war.
.Slavery effectively ended in the U.S. in the spring of 1865 when the Confederate armies surrendered.^ The Battle of Nashville marked the effective end of the Confederate Army of Tennessee.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The papers were among a collection of important Confederate documents transferred to Washington after the surrender of Robert E. Lee 's Army of Northern Virginia.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Immediately following was the Appomattox Campaign, including the Battle of Five Forks and the final surrender of Lee's army on April 9, 1865.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.All slaves in the Confederacy were freed by the Emancipation Proclamation, which stipulated that slaves in Confederate-held areas were free.^ Hunter also issued a statement that all slaves owned by Confederates in the area were free.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The state would also have to grant slaves their freedom, as required by Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation of January 1863.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ All of the slaves in the Confederacy, or only those who had come under Union military control after the Proclamation was issued?
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

Slaves in the border states and Union-controlled parts of the South were freed by state action or (on December 6, 1865) by the Thirteenth Amendment. The full restoration of the Union was the work of a highly contentious postwar era known as Reconstruction. .The war produced about 1,030,000 casualties (3% of the population), including about 620,000 soldier deaths—two-thirds by disease.^ Nathaniel P. Banks , numbering about 9,000 men, was concentrated in the vicinity of Strasburg, Virginia, with two companies of infantry at Buckton Depot.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The morning phase ground to a halt with casualties over 12,000, including two Union corps commanders.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lee's army suffered heavy casualties during the battle of Fort Stedman—about 2,900, including 1,000 captured in the Union counterattack.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[156] The war accounted for roughly as many American deaths as all American deaths in other U.S. wars combined.[157] .The causes of the war, the reasons for its outcome, and even the name of the war itself are subjects of lingering contention today.^ Lincoln's call for 300,000 more young men to fight a seemingly endless war frightened even those who supported the Union cause.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.About 4 million black slaves were freed in 1861–65. Based on 1860 census figures, 8% of all white males aged 13 to 43 died in the war, including 6% in the North and an extraordinary 18% in the South.^ The victory was important to the North, for it now had a base on the flank of the South.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ December 18-20, 1860 - South Carolina Secedes from the Union , On December 18, South Carolina Secession Convention reconvenes in Institute Hall in Charleston.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The assault force was Gordon's Second Corps of 7,500 men, backed by Robert Ransom's North Carolina brigade and William Wallace's South Carolina brigade, in all about 10,000 men, with 5,000 in reserve.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[158][159] .About 56,000 soldiers died in prisons during the Civil War.^ The Battle of Glorieta Pass, fought on March 26-28, 1862, in northern New Mexico Territory, was the decisive battle of the New Mexico Campaign during the American Civil War.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Lee's army suffered heavy casualties during the battle of Fort Stedman—about 2,900, including 1,000 captured in the Union counterattack.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ April 17-May 22, 1862 - Grierson's Raid was a Union cavalry raid during the Vicksburg Campaign of the American Civil War.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

[160] .One reason for the high number of battle deaths during the war was the use of Napoleonic tactics such as charges.^ The Red River Campaign was a series of battles fought along the Red River in Louisiana during the American Civil War from March 10 to May 22, 1864.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ This assault was conducted by the largest number of Confederate soldiers of any battle in the war.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ The Battle of Philippi became the first land battle of the Civil War involving organized troops and the Union's use of the railroad to deploy troops to the area, to rapidly engage enemy troops, was likely the first such use in the world history of warfare.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.With the advent of more accurate rifled barrels, Minié balls and (near the end of the war for the Union army) repeating firearms such as the Spencer repeating rifle and a few experimental Gatling guns, soldiers were devastated when standing in lines in the open.^ Lincoln's call for 300,000 more young men to fight a seemingly endless war frightened even those who supported the Union cause.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ It was recaptured by a Union force under Q. A. Gillmore on April 11, 1862, after a two-day bombardment in which the Federals used rifled cannon for the first time in the war.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

^ Union households had paid some form of income tax by war's end; residents of the northeast comprised 15 percent of that total.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

.This gave birth to trench warfare, a tactic heavily used during World War I.^ The Battle of Philippi became the first land battle of the Civil War involving organized troops and the Union's use of the railroad to deploy troops to the area, to rapidly engage enemy troops, was likely the first such use in the world history of warfare.
  • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

Notes

  1. ^ Frank J. Williams, "Doing Less and Doing More: The President and the Proclamation—Legally, Militarily and Politically," in Harold Holzer, ed. The Emancipation Proclamation (2006) pp. 74–5.
  2. ^ Howard Jones, Abraham Lincoln and a New Birth of Freedom: The Union and Slavery in the Diplomacy of the Civil War (1999) p. 154.
  3. ^ Abraham Lincoln, House Divided Speech, Springfield, Illinois, June 16, 1858.
  4. ^ Shelby Foote, The Civil War: Fort Sumter to Perryville, p. 34.
  5. ^ Glenn M. Linden (2001). Voices from the Gathering Storm: The Coming of the American Civil War. United States: Rowman & Littlefield. p. 236. ISBN 0842029990. http://books.google.com/books?id=F20ZsA5ZeeEC&pg=PA184&lpg=PA184&dq=Prevent+%22any+of+our+friends+from+demoralizing+themselves%22&source=web&ots=-Gel_R70_T&sig=6dQstqsFPcVDPiWeImsbzp_8Gbg&hl=en&sa=X&oi=book_result&resnum=1&ct=result#PPA183,M1. "Prevent, as far as possible, any of our friends from demoralizing themselves, and our cause, by entertaining propositions for compromise of any sort, on slavery extension. There is no possible compromise upon it, but which puts us under again, and leaves all our work to do over again. Whether it be a Mo. Line, or Eli Thayer's Pop. Sov. It is all the same. Let either be done, & immediately filibustering and extending slavery recommences. On that point hold firm, as with a chain of steel. – Abraham Lincoln to Elihu B. Washburne, December 13, 1860" 
  6. ^ Let there be no compromise on the question of extending slavery. If there be, all our labor is lost, and, ere long, must be done again. The dangerous ground—that into which some of our friends have a hankering to run—is Pop. Sov. Have none of it. Stand firm. The tug has to come, & better now, than any time hereafter. – Abraham Lincoln to Lyman Trumbull, December 10, 1860.
  7. ^ James McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom, pp. 241, 253.
  8. ^ Declarations of Causes for: Georgia, Adopted in January 29, 1861; Mississippi, Adopted in 1861 (no exact date found); South Carolina, Adopted in December 24, 1860; Texas, Adopted in February 2, 1861.
  9. ^ The New Heresy, Southern Punch, editor John Wilford Overall, September 19, 1864 is one of many references that indicate that the Republican hope of gradually ending slavery was the Southern fear. It said in part, "Our doctrine is this: WE ARE FIGHTING FOR INDEPENDENCE THAT OUR GREAT AND NECESSARY DOMESTIC INSTITUTION OF SLAVERY SHALL BE PRESERVED."
  10. ^ David Potter, The Impending Crisis, pp. 33–50. Potter argued that the states rights theory of causes (p. 33) and various cultural and economic "causes" can't be separated from the slavery issue.
  11. ^ Jefferson Davis' Resolutions on the Relations of States, Senate Chamber, U.S. Capitol, February 2, 1860, From The Papers of Jefferson Davis, Volume 6, pp. 273–76. – Davis states' rights argument for slavery in the territories is as follows: Resolved, That the union of these States rests on the equality of rights and privileges among its members, and that it is especially the duty of the Senate, which represents the States in their sovereign capacity, to resist all attempts to discriminate either in relation to person or property, so as, in the Territories – which are the common possession of the United States – to give advantages to the citizens of one State which are not equally secured to those of every other State."
  12. ^ J.L.M. Curry: The Perils and Duty of the South – Speech Delivered in Talladega, Alabama, November 26, 1860 – This was one of many Southern states' rights arguments for defending slavery.
  13. ^ Lincoln's Speech in Chicago, December 10, 1856 in which he said, "We shall again be able not to declare, that 'all States as States, are equal,' nor yet that 'all citizens as citizens are equal,' but to renew the broader, better declaration, including both these and much more, that 'all men are created equal.'"; Also, Lincoln's Letter to Henry L. Pierce, April 6, 1859.
  14. ^ From Alexander Stephens' Cornerstone Speech, March 21, 1861, The Athenaeum, Savannah Georgia – 'The new constitution has put at rest, forever, all the agitating questions relating to our peculiar institution – African slavery as it exists amongst us – the proper status of the negro in our form of civilization. This was the immediate cause of the late rupture and present revolution. Jefferson in his forecast, had anticipated this, as the "rock upon which the old Union would split." He was right. What was conjecture with him, is now a realized fact. But whether he fully comprehended the great truth upon which that rock stood and stands, may be doubted. The prevailing ideas entertained by him and most of the leading statesmen at the time of the formation of the old constitution, were that the enslavement of the African was in violation of the laws of nature; that it was wrong in principle, socially, morally, and politically. It was an evil they knew not well how to deal with, but the general opinion of the men of that day was that, somehow or other in the order of Providence, the institution would be evanescent and pass away. This idea, though not incorporated in the constitution, was the prevailing idea at that time. The constitution, it is true, secured every essential guarantee to the institution while it should last, and hence no argument can be justly urged against the constitutional guarantees thus secured, because of the common sentiment of the day. Those ideas, however, were fundamentally wrong. They rested upon the assumption of the equality of races. This was an error. It was a sandy foundation, and the government built upon it fell when the "storm came and the wind blew." Our new government is founded upon exactly the opposite idea; its foundations are laid, its cornerstone rests upon the great truth, that the negro is not equal to the white man; that slavery – subordination to the superior race – is his natural and normal condition. [Applause.] '
  15. ^ a b Stampp, The Causes of the Civil War, pp. 152–153 (Cornerstone Speech). Stampp said Stephens' Cornerstone Speech "was in striking contrast to his postwar constitutional interpretation."
  16. ^ a b Stampp, The Causes of the Civil War, p. 32 (A Constitutional View of the Late War Between the States) Stampp used the following quote to illustrate the fact that, after Confederate defeat, Stephens argued that the war was caused not by slavery but by states' rights controversies: "It is a postulate, with many writers of this day, that the late War was the result of two opposing ideas, or principles, upon the subject of African Slavery. Between these, according to their theory, sprung the 'irrepressible conflict,' in principle, which ended in the terrible conflict in arms. Those who assume this postulate, and so theorize upon it, are but superficial observers. That the war had its origin in opposing principles, which in their action upon the conduct of men, produced the ultimate conflict of arms, may be assumed as an unquestionable fact. But the opposing principles which produced these results in physical action were of a very different character from those assumed in the postulate. They lay in the organic Structure of the Government of the States ... between the supporters of a strictly Federative Government, on the one side, and a thoroughly National one, on the other."
  17. ^ James McPherson, This Mighty Scourge p. 4. McPherson writes, "After the war, however, Davis and Stephens changed their tune. By the time they wrote their histories of the Confederacy, slavery was gone with the wind – a dead and discredited institution. To concede that the Confederacy had broken up the United States and launched a war that killed 620,000 Americans in a vain attempt to keep four million people in bondage would not confer honor on their lost cause.
  18. ^ James McPherson, This Mighty Scourge, pp. 3–9. Speaking of alternative explanations for secession, McPherson writes (p.7), "While one or more of these interpretations remain popular among the Sons of Confederate Veterans and other Southern heritage groups, few professional historians now subscribe to them. Of all these interpretations, the state's-rights argument is perhaps the weakest. It fails to ask the question, state's rights for what purpose? State's rights, or sovereignty, was always more a means than an end, an instrument to achieve a certain goal more than a principle.
  19. ^ The People's Chronology, 1994 by James Trager.
  20. ^ Allan Nevins, Ordeal of the Union: A House Dividing – 1852–1857, pp. 267–269.
  21. ^ Freehling, Prelude to Civil War, p. 297; Willentz p. 388 – On March 13, 1833, Rhett said, "A people, owning slaves, are mad, or worse than mad, who do not hold their destinies in their own hands... Every stride of this Government, over your rights, brings it nearer and nearer to your peculiar policy. ... The whole world are in arms against your institutions … Let Gentlemen not be deceived. It is not the Tariff – not Internal Improvement – nor yet the Force bill, which constitutes the great evil against which we are contending... These are but the forms in which the despotic nature of the government is evinced – but it is the despotism which constitutes the evil: and until this Government is made a limited Government... there is no liberty – no security for the South."
  22. ^ As early as 1830, in the midst of the Nullification Crisis, Calhoun identified the right to own slaves as the chief southern minority right being threatened: "I consider the tariff act as the occasion, rather than the real cause of the present unhappy state of things. The truth can no longer be disguised, that the peculiar domestick [sic] institution of the Southern States and the consequent direction which that and her soil have given to her industry, has placed them in regard to taxation and appropriations in opposite relation to the majority of the Union, against the danger of which, if there be no protective power in the reserved rights of the states they must in the end be forced to rebel, or, submit to have their paramount interests sacrificed, their domestic institutions subordinated by Colonization and other schemes, and themselves and children reduced to wretchedness." – Ellis, Richard E. The Union at Risk: Jacksonian Democracy, States' Rights, and the Nullification Crisis (1987), p. 193; Freehling, William W. Prelude to Civil War: The Nullification Crisis in South Carolina 1816–1836. (1965), p. 257; Ellis p. 193. Ellis further notes that "Calhoun and the nullifiers were not the first southerners to link slavery with states’ rights. At various points in their careers, John Taylor, John Randolph, and Nathaniel Macon had warned that giving too much power to the federal government, especially on such an open-ended issue as internal improvement, could ultimately provide it with the power to emancipate slaves against their owners’ wishes."
  23. ^ John Niven, John C. Calhoun and the Price of Union, p. 197 – The author said the following about Calhoun's description of the tariff issue: "Finally, the root of the nullification crisis was exposed. What had begun as a reaction to a depression in the cotton states, a slump that had been particularly severe in South Carolina, had rapidly resolved itself into an all-encompassing fear on the part of a majority of the planter elite class that the growing industrialization of the North, expressing itself politically through the majority will, would eventually demand emancipation, heedless of the social consequences."
  24. ^ William E. Gienapp, "The Crisis of American Democracy: The Political System and the Coming of the Civil War." in Boritt ed. Why the Civil War Came 79–123.
  25. ^ McPherson, Battle Cry pp. 88–91.
  26. ^ Most of her slave owners are "decent, honorable people, themselves victims" of that institution. Much of her description was based on personal observation, and the descriptions of Southerners; she herself calls them and Legree representatives of different types of masters.;Gerson, Harriet Beecher Stowe, p. 68; Stowe, Key to Uncle Tom's Cabin (1953) p. 39.
  27. ^ David Potter, The Impending Crisis, pp. 201–204, 299–327.
  28. ^ David Potter, The Impending Crisis, p. 208.
  29. ^ David Potter, The Impending Crisis, pp. 208–209.
  30. ^ Fox Butterfield; All God's Children p. 17.
  31. ^ David Potter, The Impending Crisis, pp. 210–211.
  32. ^ David Potter, The Impending Crisis, pp. 212–213.
  33. ^ David Potter, The Impending Crisis, pp. 356–384.
  34. ^ Kenneth M. Stampp, The Imperiled Union: Essays on the Background of the Civil War (1981) p 198; Woodworth, ed. The American Civil War: A Handbook of Literature and Research (1996), 145 151 505 512 554 557 684; Richard Hofstadter, The Progressive Historians: Turner, Beard, Parrington (1969).
  35. ^ James McPherson, Drawn With the Sword, p. 11.
  36. ^ James McPherson, "Antebellum Southern Exceptionalism: A New Look at an Old Question," Civil War History 29 (September 1983).
  37. ^ David Potter, The Impending Crisis, p. 485.
  38. ^ James M. McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom 1988 p 242, 255, 282–83. Maps on p. 101 (The Southern Economy) and p. 236 (The Progress of Secession) are also relevant.
  39. ^ David Potter, The Impending Crisis, pp. 503–505.
  40. ^ a b c William W. Freehling, The Road to Disunion: Secessionists at Bay 1776–1854, pp. 17-19. Freehling also said that as of 1850, 21 percent of border state blacks were free, as opposed to two percent in the lower South, and that over half of the South's manufactured goods were made in the border states, while less than a fifth of the total was produced in the lower South.
  41. ^ James McPherson, Drawn with the Sword, p. 15.
  42. ^ David Potter, The Impending Crisis, p. 275.
  43. ^ Roger B. Taney: Dred Scott v. Sandford (1857).
  44. ^ First Lincoln Douglas Debate at Ottawa, Illinois August 21, 1858.
  45. ^ Abraham Lincoln, Speech at New Haven, Conn., March 6, 1860.
  46. ^ McPherson, Battle Cry, p. 195.
  47. ^ John Townsend, The Doom of Slavery in the Union, its Safety out of it, October 29, 1860.
  48. ^ McPherson, Battle Cry, p. 243.
  49. ^ David Potter, The Impending Crisis, p. 461.
  50. ^ William C. Davis, Look Away, pp. 130–140.
  51. ^ William W. Freehling, The Road to Disunion, p. 42.
  52. ^ A Declaration of the Causes which Impel the State of Texas to Secede from the Federal Union, February 2, 1861 – A declaration of the causes which impel the State of Texas to secede from the Federal Union.
  53. ^ Winkler, E. "A Declaration of the Causes which Impel the State of Texas to Secede from the Federal Union.". Journal of the Secession Convention of Texas. http://avalon.law.yale.edu/19th_century/csa_texsec.asp. Retrieved 2007-10-16. 
  54. ^ Speech of E. S. Dargan to the Secession Convention of Alabama, January 11, 1861, in Wikisource.
  55. ^ Schlesinger Age of Jackson, p. 190.
  56. ^ David Brion Davis, Inhuman Bondage (2006) p 197, 409; Stanley Harrold, The Abolitionists and the South, 1831–1861 (1995) p. 62; Jane H. and William H. Pease, "Confrontation and Abolition in the 1850s" Journal of American History (1972) 58(4): 923–937.
  57. ^ Eric Foner. Free Soil, Free Labor, Free Men: The Ideology of the Republican Party Before the Civil War (1970), p. 9.
  58. ^ William W. Freehling, The Road to Disunion: Secessionists Triumphant 1854–1861, pp. 9–24.
  59. ^ a b William W. Freehling, The Road to Disunion, Secessionists Triumphant, pp. 269–462, p. 274 (The quote about slave states "encircled by fire" is from the New Orleans Delta, May 13, 1860).
  60. ^ Mark Thornton and Robert B. Ekelund, Jr., Tariffs, Blockades, and Inflation: The Economics of the Civil War.
  61. ^ James McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom, p. 254.
  62. ^ President James Buchanan, Message of December 8, 1860 online.
  63. ^ McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 284–287.
  64. ^ McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 290–293.
  65. ^ McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 293–297.
  66. ^ Curry, Richard O. "A House Divided", pp. 149-50.
  67. ^ Lewis, Virgil "History and Government of West Virginia", 1973 ed., p. 191.
  68. ^ West Virginia – a History, Otis K. Rice and Stephen W. Brown, p. 116 – The authors state that of the 47 members of the Virginia Convention of 1861 that were from West Virginia, 32 opposed secession, 11 were in favor of secession, and four did not vote. The four that did not vote later signed the ordinance of secession.
  69. ^ Curry, ibid., pp. 142-47.
  70. ^ Linger, James Carter, "Confederate Military Units of West Virginia", Tulsa, OK, 2002 ed., pp. 59–81; Ambler, Charles "Disfranchisement in West Virginia", Yale Review, 1905, p. 38, "About twenty thousand men, coming chiefly from the "loyal" region, joined the Federal armies. The number accredited the State is about thirty-two thousand, but many of these came from Ohio and Pennsylvania. There were also many re-enlistments.";Reid, Whitelaw "Ohio in the War", Vol. 2, p. 3, "In the course of the war she furnished...large parts of five regiments credited to the West Virginia contingent...
  71. ^ Mark Neely, Confederate Bastille: Jefferson Davis and Civil Liberties 1993 pp. 10–11.
  72. ^ Gabor Boritt, ed. War Comes Again (1995) p. 247.
  73. ^ McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 234–266.
  74. ^ Abraham Lincoln, First Inaugural Address, Monday, March 4, 1861.
  75. ^ Lincoln, First Inaugural Address, March 4, 1861.
  76. ^ a b David Potter, The Impending Crisis, pp. 572–573.
  77. ^ James McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom, p. 274.
  78. ^ Massachusetts in the Civil War, William Schouler, 1868 book republished by Digital Scanning Inc, 2003 – See the account at [1].
  79. ^ McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 276–307.
  80. ^ McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 333–335.
  81. ^ McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 378–380.
  82. ^ Heidler, 1651–53.
  83. ^ McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 373–377.
  84. ^ McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 339–345.
  85. ^ James McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom, p. 342.
  86. ^ Shelby Foote, The Civil War: Fort Sumter to Perryville, pp. 464–519.
  87. ^ Bruce Catton, Terrible Swift Sword, pp. 263–296.
  88. ^ McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 424–427.
  89. ^ a b McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 538–544.
  90. ^ McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 528–533.
  91. ^ McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 543–545.
  92. ^ McPherson, Battle Cry, p. 557–558.
  93. ^ McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 571–574.
  94. ^ McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 639–645.
  95. ^ McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 653–663.
  96. ^ James McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom, p. 664.
  97. ^ McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 404–405.
  98. ^ McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 418–420.
  99. ^ McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 419–420.
  100. ^ McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 480–483.
  101. ^ McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 405–413.
  102. ^ McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 637–638.
  103. ^ McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 677–680.
  104. ^ "Civil War in Missouri Facts". 1998. http://home.usmo.com/~momollus/MOFACTS.HTM. Retrieved 2007-10-16. 
  105. ^ Mark E. Neely Jr.; "Was the Civil War a Total War?" Civil War History, Vol. 50, 2004 pp 434+
  106. ^ McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 724–735.
  107. ^ James McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom, pp. 741–742.
  108. ^ McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 778–779.
  109. ^ James McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom, pp. 773–776.
  110. ^ McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 812–815.
  111. ^ McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 825–830.
  112. ^ McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 846–847.
  113. ^ McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 848–850.
  114. ^ Davis, To Appomattox – Nine April Days, 1865, pp. 298, 322, 331–333, 359
  115. ^ Katcher, History of the American Civil War 1861-1865, p. 195
  116. ^ McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom p. 495.
  117. ^ McPherson, Battle Cry pp. 355, 494–6, quote from George Washington Julian on 495.
  118. ^ Lincoln's letter to O. H. Browning, September 22, 1861
  119. ^ Lincoln, the War President: The Gettysburg Lectures (Gettysburg Civil War Institute Books) by Gabor S. Boritt (Editor), pp. 52–54. The article is by James McPherson.
  120. ^ Stephen B. Oates, Abraham Lincoln: The Man Behind the Myths, p. 106.
  121. ^ Images of America: Altoona, by Sr. Anne Francis Pulling, 2001, 10.
  122. ^ Letter to Greeley, August 22, 1862
  123. ^ Abraham Lincoln, Second Inaugural Address, March 4, 1865 – Here Lincoln states, "One-eighth of the whole population were colored slaves, not distributed generally over the Union, but localized in the southern part of it. These slaves constituted a peculiar and powerful interest. All knew that this interest was somehow the cause of the war. To strengthen, perpetuate, and extend this interest was the object for which the insurgents would rend the Union even by war, while the Government claimed no right to do more than to restrict the territorial enlargement of it."
  124. ^ Lincoln's Letter to A. G. Hodges, April 4, 1864
  125. ^ James McPherson, The War that Never Goes Away
  126. ^ James McPherson, Drawn With the Sword, from the article Who Freed the Slaves?
  127. ^ Bruce Catton, Never Call Retreat, p. 335.
  128. ^ Civil War Topics
  129. ^ "Blacks labored in Andersonville". Washington Times. November 12, 2009.
  130. ^ James McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom, pp. 791–798.
  131. ^ James McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom, pp. 831–837.
  132. ^ McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 557–558, 563.
  133. ^ Harper, Douglas (2003). "SLAVERY in DELAWARE". http://www.slavenorth.com/delaware.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-16. 
  134. ^ McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 840–842.
  135. ^ Lowell Hayes Harrison and James C. Klotter, A New History of Kentucky (1997) p 235, the number in late 1865.
  136. ^ U. S. Census of 1860.
  137. ^ Stephen B. Oates, Abraham Lincoln: The Man Behind the Myths, 1984, Harper & Row.
  138. ^ James McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom, pp. 546–557.
  139. ^ McPherson, Battle Cry p. 386.
  140. ^ Allen Nevins, War for the Union 1862–1863, pp. 263–264.
  141. ^ Stephen B. Oates, The Approaching Fury: Voices of the Storm 1820–1861, p. 125.
  142. ^ Railroad mileage is from: Chauncey Depew (ed.), One Hundred Years of American Commerce 1795–1895, p. 111; For other data see: 1860 US census and Carter, Susan B., ed. The Historical Statistics of the United States: Millennial Edition (5 vols), 2006.
  143. ^ Ward 1990 p 272
  144. ^ McPherson, Battle Cry, pp. 771–772.
  145. ^ James McPherson, Why did the Confederacy Lose?
  146. ^ Fehrenbacher, Don (2004). "Lincoln's Wartime Leadership: The First Hundred Days". University of Illinois. http://www.historycooperative.org/journals/jala/9/fehrenbacher.html. Retrieved 2007-10-16. 
  147. ^ Crocker III, H. W. (2006). Don't Tread on Me. New York: Crown Forum. p. 162. ISBN 9781400053636. 
  148. ^ McPherson 313–16, 392–3
  149. ^ Heidler, David Stephen, ed. Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History (2002), 1591–98
  150. ^ McPherson 432–44
  151. ^ Heidler, David Stephen, ed. Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History (2002), 598–603
  152. ^ "Black Regiments". http://www.spartacus.schoolnet.co.uk/USACWcolored.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-16. 
  153. ^ Ira Berlin et al., eds. Freedom's Soldiers: The Black Military Experience in the Civil War (1998)
  154. ^ Albert Bernhardt Faust, The German Element in the United States (1909) p. 523 online
  155. ^ Eric Foner, Reconstruction – America's Unfinished Revolution – 1863–1877, Harper & Row, 1988
  156. ^ Nofi, Al (2001-06-13). "Statistics on the War's Costs". Louisiana State University. http://web.archive.org/web/20070711050249/http://www.cwc.lsu.edu/other/stats/warcost.htm. Retrieved 2007-10-14. 
  157. ^ James McPherson, Battle Cry of Freedom, p. xix (from the introduction by C. Vann Woodward as of 1988).
  158. ^ Lambert, Craig (May–June 2001). "The Deadliest War". Harvard Magazine. http://www.harvardmagazine.com/on-line/050155.html. Retrieved 2007-10-14. 
  159. ^ Richard Wightman Fox (2008)."National Life After Death". Slate.com.
  160. ^ "U.S. Civil War Prison Camps Claimed Thousands". National Geographic News. July 1, 2003.

References

Overviews
.
  • Beringer, Richard E., Archer Jones, and Herman Hattaway, Why the South Lost the Civil War (1986) influential analysis of factors; The Elements of Confederate Defeat: Nationalism, War Aims, and Religion (1988), abridged version
  • Catton, Bruce, The Civil War, American Heritage, 1960, ISBN 0-8281-0305-4, illustrated narrative
  • Davis, William C. The Imperiled Union, 1861–1865 3v (1983)
  • Donald, David et al.^ The American Civil War (1860-1865) The American Civil War (1860-1865) .
    • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ On the morning of the 16th, troops of the Union XX Corps under Alpheus S. Williams were driven back by a Confederate assault.
    • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Battle of Glorieta Pass, fought on March 26-28, 1862, in northern New Mexico Territory, was the decisive battle of the New Mexico Campaign during the American Civil War.
    • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The Civil War and Reconstruction
    (latest edition 2001); 700 page survey
  • Eicher, David J., The Longest Night: A Military History of the Civil War, (2001), ISBN 0-684-84944-5.
  • Fellman, Michael et al.^ Centennial History of the Civil War , 3 vols.
    • American Civil War - Bibliography - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The Civil War and Reconstruction (2001); textbook Fellman, Michael et al.
    • American Civil War - Bibliography - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Civil War History 15 (June 1969): 116-32 Eicher, David J., The Longest Night: A Military History of the Civil War , (2001), ISBN 0-684-84944-5 .
    • American Civil War - Bibliography - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

    This Terrible War: The Civil War and its Aftermath
    (2nd ed. 2007), 544 page survey
  • Foote, Shelby. .The Civil War: A Narrative (3 volumes), (1974), ISBN 0-394-74913-8. Highly detailed military narrative covering all fronts
  • Katcher, Philip.^ The first Northern prisoners arrive at the Confederate prison at Andersonville, Georgia, the largest Confederate military prison during the American Civil War.
    • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Morgan's Raid was a highly publicized incursion by Confederate cavalry into the Northern states of Indiana and Ohio during the American Civil War.
    • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The History of the American Civil War 1861-5, (2000), ISBN 0 600 60778 X. Detailed analysis of each battle with introduction and background
  • McPherson, James M. Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era (1988), 900 page survey of all aspects of the war; Pulitzer prize
  • James M. McPherson.^ The American Civil War (1860-1865) The American Civil War (1860-1865) .
    • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ April 17-May 22, 1862 - Grierson's Raid was a Union cavalry raid during the Vicksburg Campaign of the American Civil War.
    • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Red River Campaign was a series of battles fought along the Red River in Louisiana during the American Civil War from March 10 to May 22, 1864.
    • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Ordeal By Fire: The Civil War and Reconstruction (2nd ed 1992), textbook
  • Nevins, Allan.^ Congress passes the Wade-Davis Bill, an unsuccessful attempt by Radical Republicans and others in the U.S. Congress to set Reconstruction policy before the end of the Civil War.
    • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Some historians note that this could be considered the first shots fired by United States forces in the Civil War.
    • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Rebel Charles Haynesworth, a Citadel cadet, fired a handgun at the ship, shooting the first shot of the Civil War.
    • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

    Ordeal of the Union, an 8-volume set (1947–1971). the most detailed political, economic and military narrative; by .Pulitzer Prize winner
    • 1. Fruits of Manifest Destiny, 1847–1852; 2. A House Dividing, 1852–1857; 3. Douglas, Buchanan, and Party Chaos, 1857–1859; 4. Prologue to Civil War, 1859–1861; 5. The Improvised War, 1861–1862; 6. War Becomes Revolution, 1862–1863; 7. The Organized War, 1863–1864; 8. The Organized War to Victory, 1864–1865
  • Rhodes, James Ford.^ The American Civil War (1860-1865) The American Civil War (1860-1865) .
    • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ April 17-May 22, 1862 - Grierson's Raid was a Union cavalry raid during the Vicksburg Campaign of the American Civil War.
    • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Ulysses S. Grant 's 1864 Overland Campaign during the American Civil War, today lives in infamy as one of history's most lopsided battles.
    • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

    .History of the Civil War, 1861–1865 (1918), Pulitzer Prize; a short version of his 5-volume history
  • Savage, Kirk, Standing Soldiers, Kneeling Slaves: Race, War, and Monument in Nineteenth-Century America.^ The American Civil War (1860-1865) The American Civil War (1860-1865) .
    • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Ulysses S. Grant 's 1864 Overland Campaign during the American Civil War, today lives in infamy as one of history's most lopsided battles.
    • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Major Henry Wirz , commandant, was the only Civil War soldier executed (on November 10, 1865) for war crimes.
    • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

    Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1997. (The definitive book on Civil War monuments.)
  • .
  • Ward, Geoffrey C. The Civil War (1990), based on PBS series by Ken Burns; visual emphasis
  • Weigley, Russell Frank.^ The Red River Campaign was a series of battles fought along the Red River in Louisiana during the American Civil War from March 10 to May 22, 1864.
    • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

    A Great Civil War: A Military and Political History, 1861–1865 (2004); primarily military
Reference books and bibliographies
.
  • Blair, Jayne E. The Essential Civil War: A Handbook to the Battles, Armies, Navies And Commanders (2006)
  • Carter, Alice E. and Richard Jensen.^ The Red River Campaign was a series of battles fought along the Red River in Louisiana during the American Civil War from March 10 to May 22, 1864.
    • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ This was the highest percentage of casualties of any battle in the Civil War.
    • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In the meantime, North Anna had proved to be a relatively minor affair when compared to other Civil War battles.
    • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

    .The Civil War on the Web: A Guide to the Very Best Sites- 2nd ed.^ The site is a combination of LC, Library of Virginia, and Virginia Historical Society map holdings from the Civil War era.
    • Subject Guide: History 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.lib.jmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ This book is a guide to understanding how to locate Civil War draft records through the National Archives.
    • Subject Guide: History 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.lib.jmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Tredegar Iron Works in Richmond, Virginia being the planned site of a Civil War museum, including the historical role the American slave played in this development.
    • African American Freedom Fighters: Soldiers for Liberty 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.liu.edu [Source type: FILTERED WITH BAYES]

    .(2003)
  • Current, Richard N., et al. eds.^ Current, Richard N., et al eds.
    • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Current, Richard N., ed.
    • Subject Guide: History 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.lib.jmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Hopkins et al., IX, 778; Don E. Fehrenbacher, The Slaveholding Republic: An Account of the United States Government's Relations to Slavery , ed.
    • Gary J. Kornblith | Rethinking the Coming of the Civil War: A Counterfactual Exercise | The Journal of American History, 90.1 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    .Encyclopedia of the Confederacy (1993) (4 Volume set; also 1 vol abridged version) (ISBN 0-13-275991-8)
  • Faust, Patricia L. (ed.^ Faust, Patricia L., ed.
    • Subject Guide: History 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.lib.jmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Encyclopedia of the Confederacy (1993) (4 Volume set; also 1 vol abridged version) (ISBN 0132759918) * Faust, Patricia L. (ed.
    • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ Encyclopedia of the Confederacy (1993) (4 Volume set; also 1 vol abridged version) Eicher, John H. and Eicher, David J. Civil War High Commands.
    • American Civil War - Bibliography - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

    ) .Historical Times Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Civil War (1986) (ISBN 0-06-181261-7) 2000 short entries
  • Esposito, Vincent J., West Point Atlas of American Wars online edition 1995
  • Heidler, David Stephen, ed.^ Best Civil War historical fiction of all time .
    • Lists & Guides tagged with american civil war 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

    ^ The standard American Civil War encyclopedia.
    • Subject Guide: History 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.lib.jmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The American Civil War (1860-1865) The American Civil War (1860-1865) .
    • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

    .Encyclopedia of the American Civil War: A Political, Social, and Military History (2002), 1600 entries in 2700 pages in 5 vol or 1-vol editions
  • Resch, John P. et al., Americans at War: Society, Culture and the Homefront vol 2: 1816–1900 (2005)
  • Tulloch, Hugh.^ Civil War History 2005 51(3): 269-287.
    • American Civil War - Bibliography - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The standard American Civil War encyclopedia.
    • Subject Guide: History 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.lib.jmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ Centennial History of the Civil War , 3 vols.
    • American Civil War - Bibliography - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

    .The Debate on the American Civil War Era (1999), historiography
  • Wagner, Margaret E. Gary W. Gallagher, and Paul Finkelman, eds.^ Ron Paul's opinion on whether or not the Civil War was necessary is pretty meaningless and there is obviously a TON of confusion over the cause and justifications for the war.

    ^ April 17-May 22, 1862 - Grierson's Raid was a Union cavalry raid during the Vicksburg Campaign of the American Civil War.
    • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ In their classic work, The Rise of American Civilization , Charles A. Beard and Mary R. Beard famously termed the Civil War "a Second American Revolution and in a strict sense, the First."
    • Gary J. Kornblith | Rethinking the Coming of the Civil War: A Counterfactual Exercise | The Journal of American History, 90.1 | The History Cooperative 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.historycooperative.org [Source type: Original source]

    .The Library of Congress Civil War Desk Reference (2002)
  • Woodworth, Steven E. ed.^ Congress passes the Wade-Davis Bill, an unsuccessful attempt by Radical Republicans and others in the U.S. Congress to set Reconstruction policy before the end of the Civil War.
    • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The Official Military Atlas of the Civil War (2003) large format copies of the maps the U.S. generals used at the time Woodworth, Steven E., Kenneth J. Winkle, and James McPherson.
    • American Civil War - Bibliography - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The Debate on the American Civil War Era (1999), historiography Woodworth, Steven E. ed.
    • American Civil War - Bibliography - Citizendium 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.citizendium.org [Source type: Academic]

    American Civil War: A Handbook of Literature and Research (1996) (ISBN 0-313-29019-9), 750 pages of historiography and bibliography online edition
Biographies
  • American National Biography 24 vol (1999), essays by scholars on all major figures; online and hardcover editions at many libraries
  • McHenry, Robert ed. Webster's American Military Biographies (1978)
  • Warner, Ezra J., Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders, (1964), ISBN 0-8071-0822-7
  • Warner, Ezra J., Generals in Gray: Lives of the Confederate Commanders, (1959), ISBN 0-8071-0823-5
Soldiers
  • Berlin, Ira, et al., eds. .Freedom's Soldiers: The Black Military Experience in the Civil War (1998)
  • Hess, Earl J. The Union Soldier in Battle: Enduring the Ordeal of Combat (1997)
  • McPherson, James.^ April 17-May 22, 1862 - Grierson's Raid was a Union cavalry raid during the Vicksburg Campaign of the American Civil War.
    • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ The relatively small battle that followed Morgan's surprise attack was an embarrassing Union defeat, resulting in many captured Union supplies and soldiers.
    • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ After the incident, black soldiers going into battle used the cry "Remember Fort Pillow!"
    • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

    .For Cause and Comrades: Why Men Fought in the Civil War (1998)
  • Wiley, Bell Irvin.^ Ron Paul's opinion on whether or not the Civil War was necessary is pretty meaningless and there is obviously a TON of confusion over the cause and justifications for the war.

    ^ Lincoln's call for 300,000 more young men to fight a seemingly endless war frightened even those who supported the Union cause.
    • The American Civil War (1860-1865) 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.thelatinlibrary.com [Source type: Original source]

    ^ December 24, 2007 4:06 PM: the civil war was fought for economic reasons.

    .The Life of Johnny Reb: The Common Soldier of the Confederacy (1962) (ISBN 0-8071-0475-2)
  • Wiley, Bell Irvin.^ Dyer, Frederick H. A Compendium of the War of the Rebellion: with a New Introduction by Bell Irvin Wiley .
    • Subject Guide: History 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC www.lib.jmu.edu [Source type: Academic]

    ^ The Life of Billy Yank: The Common Soldier of the Union by Bell Irvin Wiley ( 8 ) 8 used & new from $14.27 .
    • Lists & Guides tagged with american civil war 10 February 2010 11:14 UTC www.amazon.com [Source type: General]

    ^ For Cause and Comrades: Why Men Fought in the Civil War (1998) * Wiley, Bell Irvin.
    • American Civil War at AllExperts 19 January 2010 8:47 UTC en.allexperts.com [Source type: Original source]

    Life of Billy Yank: The Common Soldier of the Union (1952) (ISBN 0-8071-0476-0)
Primary sources
  • Commager, Henry Steele (ed.). The Blue and the Gray. The Story of the Civil War as Told by Participants. (1950), excerpts from primary sources
  • Hesseltine, William B. ed.; The Tragic Conflict: The Civil War and Reconstruction (1962), excerpts from primary sources

External links